Psychopathia Sexualis (Rebman translation)  

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Psychopathia Sexualis , with especial reference to the antipathic sexual instinct, a medico-forensic study is the full title of the 1901 translation of Psychopathia Sexualis, translated by F. J. Rebman. It is based on the 10th German edition.


See also

Psychopathia Sexualis and original German edition at wikisource.


FEW people are conscious of the deep influence exerted by sexual life upon the sentiment, thought and action of man in his social relations to others. Schiller, in his essay "Die Weltweisen," touches upon this subject in these memorable words: "So long as philosophy keeps together the structure of the Universe so long does it maintain the world's machinery by hunger and love".

From the standpoint of the philosopher sexual life takes a subordinate position.

Schopenhauer ("Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung," third edition, vol. ii., p. 586, etc.) considers it peculiar that love has hitherto offered material to the poet only and not also to the philosopher, the scant researches by Plato, Rousseau and Kant always excepted.

Whatever Schopenhauer, and after him E. von Hartmann, the philosopher of the unknown, discuss about sexual relationship, is so thoroughly incorrect and illogical that, so far as science is concerned, empirical psychology and the metaphysics of man's sexual existence are simply virgin soil. Michelet's "L'amour" and Mantegazza's "Physiology of Love" are merely clever causeries, and cannot be considered in the light of scientific research.

The poet is the better psychologist, for he is swayed rather by sentiment than by reason, and always treats his subject in a partial fashion. He cannot discern deep shadows, because he is dazed by the blazing light and overcome by the benign heat of the subject. Although the "Physiology of Love" provides inexhaustible material for the poetry of all ages and of all peoples, nevertheless the poet will not discharge his arduous task adequately without the active co-operation of natural philosophy and, above all, that of medicine, a science which ever seeks to trace all psychological manifestations to their anatomical and physiological sources.

In these efforts medicine succeeds, perhaps, in forming a connection between the pessimistic reflections of the philosopher of the stamp of Schopenhauer and Hartmann1, and the gay and naïve creations of the poet.

It is not intended to build up in this book a system of the psychology of sexual life, still from the close study of psychopathology there arise most important psychological facts which it behoves the scientist to notice.

The object of this treatise is merely to record the various psychopathological manifestations of sexual life in man and to reduce them to their lawful conditions. This task is by no means an easy one, and the author is well aware of the fact that, despite his (varied) far-reaching experience in psychiatry and criminal medicine, he is yet unable to offer anything but an imperfected system.

The importance of the subject, however, demands scientific research on account of its forensic bearing and its deep influence upon the common weal. The medical barrister only then finds out how sad the lack of our knowledge is in the domain of sexuality when he is called upon to express an opinion as to the responsibility of the accused whose life, liberty and honour are at stake. He then begins to appreciate the efforts that have been made to bring light into darkness.

1 Hartmann's philosophical conception of love ("Philosophy of the Unknown," Berlin, 18 (59, p. 583) is: " Love causes more pain than pleasure. Pleasure is only an illusion. Reason would demand the avoidance of love were it not for that fatal sexual instinct. Hence it would be better to be castrated." Schopenhauer expresses the same view in his work: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung," third edition, vol. ii. p. 586, etc.


Certain it is that so fur as sexual crimes are concerned ( -IT- -iieuus ideas prevail, unjust decisions arc given, ;in<l the luw as well as public opinion are prima facie prejudiced againM the <llen<ler.

The scientific study of the psychopathology of sexual life necessarily deals with the miseries of man and the dark sides of his existence, the shadow of which contorts the sublime image of the deity into horrid caricatures, and leads astray a?stheticism and morality.

It is the sad privilege of medicine, and especially that of psychiatry, to ever witness the weaknesses of human nature and the reverse side of life.

The physician finds, perhaps, a (satisfaction) solace in the fact that he may at times refer those manifestations which offend against our ethical or aesthetical principles to a diseased condition of the mind or the body. He can save the honour of humanity in the forum of morality, and the honour of the individual before the judge and his fellow-men. It is from the search of truth that the exalted duties and rights of medical science emanate.

The author adopts the saying of Tardieu ("Dcs at- tentats aux moeurs") : "Aucune misere physique oil morale, aucune plaie, quelque corrompue qu'clle soit, ne doit effrayer celui qui s'est voue a la science de Thomme, et le ministere sacre du medecin, en 1'obligeant a tout voir, lui ]>ermet aussi de tout dire".

lie appeals to men engaged in serious study in the domains of natural philosophy and medical jurisprudence.

A scientific title has been chosen, and technical terms are used throughout the book in order to exclude the lay reader. For the same reason certain portions are written in Latin.



THIS edition is entirely rewritten and considerably enlarged. The (exceptionally) favourable criticisms which have been accorded in professional circles to former edi- tions are a guarantee that the book* exercises a beneficent influence upon legislation and jurisprudence, and will as- sist in removing erroneous ideas and superannuated laws.

Its commercial success is the best proof that large numbers of unfortunate people find in its pages instruction and relief in the frequently enigmatical manifestations of sexual life. The hosts of letters that have reached the author from all parts of the world substantiate this as- sumption. Compassion and sympathy are strongly elicited by the perusal of these letters, which are written chiefly by men of refined thought and of high social and scientific standing. They reveal sufferings of the soul in compari- son to which all the other afflictions dealt out by Fate appear as trifles.

May it continue to convey solace and social elevation to its readers.

The number of technical terms has been increased, and the Latin language is more frequently made use of than in former editions.

May the same kind reception be accorded to this edition which was enjoyed by its predecessors. That it may prove of utility in the service of science, justice and humanity is the wish of the



THE publishers sincerely trust that this translation from the Twelfth German Edition of Psychopathia Sexualis by Dr. R. v. Krafft-Ebing will be received with favour by those for whom the book is written, and that ita readers will derive that benefit which the author had in view.

Preparing and sifting the material for the Twelfth Edition of this work was the final task of the late author. When he was attacked by the fatal illness which carried him off, the manuscript was all ready for the printer.

Dr. Gugl and Dr. Stichl, pupils and for many years collaborators of the author, were entrusted by the family of the deceased with the revision of the proofs.

The sale of the book is rigidly restricted to the mem- bers of the medical and legal professions.

Any communications intended for the translator should be addressed to "Translator" (Krafft-Ebing), care of Rebman Company, 1123 Broadway, New York.



Force of sexual instinct, 1 Sexual instinct the basis of ethical sentiments, 2 Love as a passion, 2 Historical development of sexual life, 3 Chastity, 3 Christianity, 3 Monogamy, 4 Position of woman in Islam, 5 Sen- suality and morality, 5 Cultural demoralisation of sexual life, 5 Episodes of the moral decay of nations, 6 Development of sexual desire; puberty, 7 Sensuality and religious fanaticism, 7 Relation between religious and sexual domains, 8 Sensuality and art, 11 Ideal- isation of first love, 12 True love, 12 Sentimentality, 12 Platonic love, 13 Love and Friendship, 13 Differ- ence between the love of the mnn and that of the woman, 14 Celibacy, 15 Adultery, 16 Matrimony, 16 Fond- ness of dress, 16 Facts of physiological fetichism, 17 Religious and erotic fetich ism, 18 Hair, hand, foot of the female as fetiches, 21 Eye, smell, voice, psychical qualities as fetich, 22. Puberty, 25 Time limit of sexual life, 26 Sexual instinct, 26 Localisation, 27 Physiological development of sexual life, 28 Erections : Centre of erection, 28 Sphere of sexuality and olfaction, 32 Flagellation as a stimu- lant for sexual life, 34 Sect of flagellants, 35 " Flagel- lum Salutis" of Paulini, 36 " Erogenous " (hypersss- thctic) zones, 38 Control of sexual instinct, 40 Coitus, 40 Ejaculation, 41.Primary and secondary sexual characteristics, 42 Psychical characterintics, 42 Differentiation of sexes, 42 rOyne- comasty, 43 Development of sexual type, 44 Eunuchs, 46. Frequency and importance of pathological manifestations, 48 iScliedule ot Literature, 48 Sexual neuroses, 49 In- fluences stimulating the erectile tissues, 49 Paralysis of the erectile tissues, 50 Temporary impotence, 50 Neurosis of the nerve centres of ejaculation, 51 . Neuroses produced by cerebral causes, 62 I'aradoxia, i.e., sexual instinct outside the period of anatomical- phyaiological processes, 65 Sexual instinct in early childhood, 55 Sexual instinct reappearing in old age, 57 Sexual perversions in seniles due to impotence or dementia, 57 Ana's thtivw acxualis, i.e., absence of sexual instinct, 61 congenital, 61 acquired, 68 Hyper- assthesia, i.e., pathologically exaggerated sexual instinct, 69 Conditions and manifestations of this anomaly, 70 Partfsthesia or perversion of the sexual instinct, 79 Perversion and perversity, 79 Madism, an attempted ex- planation of sadism, 80 Sadistic lust murder, 88 An- thropophagy, 95 Mutilation of corpses, 99 Maltreat- ment of women by cutting or flogging, etc., 105 Defile- ment of female persons, 113 Symbolic sadism, i.e., brutal force employed against female persons, 118 Ideal sadism, 118 Sadism practised on any other object, 121--Flogging of boys, 121 Sadistic acts on animals, 125 Sadism in woman, 129 Kleist's " Penthesilea/' 130 Masochism, 131 Essence and clinical manifestations of masochism, 132 Maltreatment and humiliation invited for the purpose of sexual gratification, 134 Passive flagellation and its relations to masochism, 140 Fre- quency and practices of masochism, 149 Symbolic maso- chism, 159 Ideal masochism, 161 Jean Jacques Rous- seau, 166 Masochism in scientific and belletristical literature, 169 Latent masochism, 171 Shoe and foot fetichism, 171 Koprolagnia, ISO-Masochism in woman, 195 An attempted explanation of masochism, 200 Sexual bondage, 202 Masochism and sadism, 213 Fetichism, definition of, 218 Cases in which the fetich is a part of the female body, 224 Hand fetichism, 226 Bodily defects as fetiches, 234 Hair fetichism, 239 Hair despoilers. 241 The fetich is a part of female attire, 247 Mania for (theft of) female handkerchiefs, 255 Shoe fetichism, 260 The fetich consists of some special fabric, 268 Fur, silk, velvet, gloves, roses, 274 /Beast fetichism, 281 Antipathic sexual instinct, 282 Acquired sexual inversion in either sex, 286 Neurotic taint a condition of antipathic sexual instinct, 289 Grades of acquired perversion, 289 Simple inversion of sexual instinct, 289 Eviration and dcfemination, 297 Insanity among the Scythians, 302 Mujerados, 303 Transition to metamorphosis sevualis, 304 Metamor- phosis sexualis paranoica, 328 Congenital antipathic sexuality, 335 Various clinical forms thcroof, 336 -Gen- eral symptoms, 339 Attempted explanation of this anomaly, 340 Congenital antipathic sexuality in the male, 350 Psychical hernnnhroditism, 352 Homo- sexuality. 304 Urmngs, ZMEffeminatirm, 382 Androgyny, 389 Congenital antipathic c*ual\ty in tke female. 395 Complications of antipathic sexual instinct, 439 Diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of sexual inver- sion, 443. The manifestations of pathological sexual life in the various forms and conditions of mental disturbance, 462 In- hibition of psychical development, 462 Acquired mental debility, 466 Dementia following psychosis or apoplexy, 466 Or injuries to the head, 466 Or lues cerebralit, 467 Dementia paralytica, 468 Epilepsy, 469 Periodi- cal dementia, 478 Ptychopathia seantali* prriodica, 479 Mania, 481 Symptoms of sexual excitement in maniacs, 481 -Satyriasis and nymphomania, 482 Chronic satyriaaia and nymphomania, 486 Melancholia, 492 Hysteria, 492 Paranoia, 494. Sexual crimes endanger the common weal, 498 On the in- crease, 499 Probable causes, 500 Clinical researches, 501 Sexual crimes not properly understood by the law profession, 502 Points for the proper judgment of sexual crimes, 502 Conditions for the cessation of responsi- bility, 502 Points for the paychopathological importance of sexual crimes, 503 tiexual crime* classified, 503 Exhibitionists, 604 Frotteurt, 522 Defilers of statues, 525 Rape and lust-murder, 526 Bodily injury, viola- tion of things, cruelty to animals caused by sadism, 633 Masochism and sexual bondage, 539 Bodily injury, robbery, theft emanating from fetichism, 543 Notes on the question of responsibility in sexual offences caused by delusions, 549 Immorality with persons under the age of fourteen, 552 Non-psychopathological cases, 552 Psychopathological cases, 554 Unnatural abuse, 561 Violation of animals, sodomy, bestiality, 561 Zooerasty, 663 Unnatural sexual relations with persons of the same sex, pederasty, 571 In relation to sexual inversion, 672 Necessity to distinguish between pathological and normal conditions of pederasty, 572 Forensic opinion on congenital sexual inversion nnd when pathologically acquired, 573 Letter from an timing, 574 Reasons why legal proceedings against homosexual acts should be topped, 578 Cultivated pederasty (not pathological), 685 Causes of the vice, 585 Social life of pederasts, 687 A woman-hater's ball in Berlin, 590 Various cate- gories of unle loving men, 593 Pcrdicatio mulierum, S94 Amor Irtbini*. 007 Necrophilia, 611 Incest, 612 Violation of wards, C14.

Begin text

THE propagation of the human race is not left to mere accident or the caprices of the individual, but is guaranteed by the hidden laws of nature which are enforced by a mighty, irresistible impulse. Sensual enjoyment and physical fitness are not the only conditions for the enforcement of these laws, but higher motives and aims, such as the desire to continue the species or Ihe individuality of mental and physical qualities beyond time and space, exert a considerale influence. Man puts himself at once on a level with the beast if he seeks to gratify lust alone, but he elevates his superior position when by curbing the animal desire he combines with the sexual functions ideas of morality, of the sublime, and the beautiful.

Placed upon this lofty pedestal he stands far above nature and draws from inexhaustible sources material for nobler enjoyments, for serious work and for the realisation of ideal aims. Maudsley ("Deutsche Klinik," 1873, 2, 3) justly claims that sexual feeling is the basis upon which social advancement is developed.

If man were deprived of sexual distinction and the nobler enjoyments arising therefrom, all poetry and probably all moral tendency would be eliminated from his life.

Sexual life no doubt is the one mighty factor in the individual and social relations of man which disclose his powers of activity, of acquiring property, of establishing a homo, of awakening altruistic sentiments towards a person of the opposite sex, and towards his own issue as well as towards the whole human race.

Sexual feeling is really the root of all ethics, and no doubt of cestheticism and religion.

The sublimest virtues, even the sacrifice of self, may pring from sexual life, which, however, on account of its sensual power, may easily degenerate into the lowest passion and basest vice.

Love unbridled is a volcano that burns down and lays waste all around it; it is an abyss that devours all honour, substance and health.

It is of great psychological interest to follow up the gradual development of civilisation and the influence exerted by sexual life upon habits and morality. 1 The gratification of the sexual instinct seems to be the primary motive in man as well as in beast. Sexual intercourse is done openly, and man and woman are not ashamed of their nakedness. The savage races, e.g., Australasians, Polynesians, Malays of the Philippines are still in this stage (vide Ploss}. Woman is the common property of man, the spoil of the strongest and mightiest, who chooses the most winsome for his own, a sort of instinctive sexual selection of the fittest.

Woman is a "chattel," an article of commerce, exchange or gift, a vessel for sensual gratification, an implement for toil. The presence of shame in the manifestations and exercise of the sexual functions, and of modesty in the mutual relations between the sexes are the foundations of morality. Thence arises the desire to cover the nakedness ("and they saw that they were naked") and to perform the act in private.

The development of this grade of civilisation is furthered by the conditions of frigid climes which necessitate the protection of the whole body against the cold. It is an anthropological fact that modesty can be traced to much earlier periods among northern races. 1

Another element which tends to promote the refined development of sexual life is the fact that woman ceases to be a "chattel". She becomes an individual being, and, although socially still far below man, she gradually acquires rights, independence of action, and the privilege to bestow her favours where she inclines. She is wooed by man. Traces of ethical sentiments pervade the rude sensual appetite, idealisation begins and community of woman ceases. The sexes are drawn to each other by mental and physical merits and exchange favours of preference. In his stage woman is conscious of the fact that her charms belong only to the man of her choice. She seeks to hide them from others. This forms the foundation of modesty, chastity and sexual fidelity so long as love endures.

This development is hastened wherever nomadic habits yield to the spirit of colonisation, where man establishes a household. He feels the necessity for a companion in life, a housewife in a settled home.

The Egyptians, the Israelites, and the Greeks reached this level at early periods, so did the Teutonic races. Its principal characteristics are high appreciation of virginity, chastity, modesty and sexual fidelity in strong contrast to the habits of other peoples where the host places the personal charms of the wife at the disposal of the guest

The history of Japan furnishes a striking proof that this high grade of civilisation is often the last stage of moral development, for in that country to within twenty years ago prostitution was not considered to impair in any way the social status of the future wife.

Christianity raised the union of the sexes to a sublime position by making woman socially the equal of man and by elevating the bond of love to a moral and religious

'According to Westermarck, op. cit., it wag "not the feeling of shame which suggested the garment, but the garment engendered shame. The desire to make themselves more attractive originated the habit among men and women to cover their nakedness."

institution. 1 Thence emanates the fact that the love of man, if considered from the standpoint of advanced civilisation, can only be of a monogamic nature and must rest upon a staple basis. Even though nature should claim

This assertion may be modified in so far that the symbolical and sacramental character of matrimony was clearly defined only by the Council of Trent, although the spirit of Christianity always tended to raise woman from the inferior position which she occupied in previous centuries and in the Old Testament.

The tradition that woman was created from the rib of the sleeping man (see Genesis) is one of the causes of delay in this direction, for after the fall she is told " thy will shall be subject to man." According to the Old Testament, woman in responsible for the fall of man, and this became the corner-stone of Christian teaching. Thus the social position of woman had to be neglected, as it were, until the spirit of Christianity had conquered tradition and scholastic tenets.

It is a remarkable fact that the gospels (barring divorce, Matt, xix. 9) contain not a word in favour of woman. The clemency shown towards the adulteress and the penitent Magdalen do not affect the position of woman in general. The epistles of St. Paul definitely in- sist that no change can be permitted in the position of woman (2 Cor. xi. 3-12; Eph. v. 22, "woman shall be subject to man," and 23, " woman shall fear man ").

How much the fathers of the Church are prejudiced against woman on account of Eve's part in the temptation may be easily learned from Tertulllan, " Woman, thou shouldst ever go in mounting and sackcloth, thy eyes filled with tears. Thou has brought about the ruin of mankind." St. Jerome has aught but good to say about woman. " Woman is the gate of the devil, the road of evil, the sting of the scorpion" ("De Cultu Feminarum," i. 1).

Canon law declares: "Man only is created to the image of God, not woman ; therefore woman shall serve him and be his handmaid ".

The Provincial Council of Macon (sixth century) seriously dis- cussed the question whether woman had a soul at all.

These opinions of the Church had a sympathetic influence upon the peoples who embraced Christianity. Among the converted Ger- manic races the doicer value of woman fell considerably (J. FaU-~e, " Die rittcrliche Gesellschaft," Berlin, 18G2, p. 49. Re the valuation of the two sexes among the Jews, cf. 3 Moses, xxvii. 3-4).

Even polygamy, which is distinctly recognised in the Old Testa- ment, (Dcut. xxi. l."j) is nowhere in the New Testament definitely prohibited. In fact many Christian princes (e.g. the Merovingian kings: Chlotar I., Charihort I., Pippin I. and other Prankish nobles) indulged in polygamy without a protest being raised by the Church at the time (Weinhold, "Die deutschen Fraucn itn Mittelalter," ii., p. 15 ; cf. Unger, " Marriage," etc., and Louis Bridel, " La Femme et le Droit," Paris, 1884).

merely the law of propagation, a community (family or state) cannot subsist without the guarantee that the off- spring thrive physically, morally and intellectually. From the moment when woman was recognised the peer of man, nli. -a monogamy became a law and was consolidated by legal, religious and moral conditions, the Christian nations obtained a mental and material superiority over the poly-

.;c races, and especially over Islam.

Mohammed strove to raise woman from the position of the slave and mere handmaid of enjoyment, to a higher x.cial and matrimonial grade; yet she remained still far below man, who alone could obtain divorce, and that on the easiest terms.

Above all things Islamism excludes woman from public life and enterprise, and stifles her intellectual and moral advancement. The Mohammedan woman is simply a moans for sensual gratification and the propagation of the species ; whilst in the sunny balm of Christian doctrine, blossom forth her divine virtues and her qualities of house- \\ifi-, companion and mother. What a contrast!

Compare the two religions and their standard of future happiness. The Christian expects a heaven of spiritual bliss absolutely free from carnal pleasure; the Mohamme- < an eternal harem, a paradise among lovely houris. in spite of the aid which religion, law, education and tlio moral code offer him, the Christian (to subdue- his sensual inclination) often drags pure and chaste love from its sublime pedestal and wallows in the quagmire of sen- sual enjoyment and lust.

Life is a never-ceasing duel between the animal instinct and morality. Only will-power and a strong character can emancipate man from the meanness of his corrupt nature, and teach him how to enjoy the pure pleasures of , love and pluck the noble fruits of earthly existence.

1 It is an open question whether the moral status of mankind has undergone an improvement in our times. No doubt society at large shows a greater veneer of modesty and virtue, and vice is not as flagrantly practised as of yore.

The reader of Scherr ("Deutsche Culturgeschichte") will gain the impression that our moral code is not so gross as was that of the middle ages, even if only more re- fined manners have taken the place of former coarseness.

In comparing the various stages of civilisation it be- comes evident that, despite periodical relapses, public morality has made steady progress, and that Christianity is the chief factor in this advance.

We arc certainly far beyond sodomitic idolatry, the public life, legislation and religious exercises of ancient Greece, not to speak of the worship of Phallus and Priapus in vogue among the Athenians and Babylonians, or the Bacchanalian feasts of the Romans and the privileged posi- tion held by the cburtesans of those days.

There are stagnant and fluctuating periods in this slow progress, but they are only like the ebb- and flood-tide of sexual life in the individual.

The episodes of moral decay always coincide with the progression of effeminacy, lewdness and luxuriance of the nations. These phenomena can only be ascribed to the higher and more stringent demands which circumstances make upon the nervous system. Exaggerated tension of the nervous system stimulates sensuality, leads the indi- vidual as well as the masses to excesses, and undermines the very foundations of society, and the morality and pur- ity of family life. The material and moral ruin of the com- munity is readily brought about by debauchery, adultery and luxury. Greece, the Roman Empire, and France under Louis XIV. and XV., are striking examples of this assertion. In such periods of civic and moral decline the most monstrous excesses of sexual life may be observed, which, however, can always be traced to psycho-patho- logical or neuro-pathological conditions of the nation in- volved. 1

  • Cf. Friedlander, " Sittengeschichte Rom8 " ; Wiedemeister, " Der

Casarenwahnsinn " ; Suetonius, MoreOAi, " Des aberrations du sens gn6sique ".

Largo cities are hotbeds in which neuroses and low morality are bred, vide the history of Babylon, Nineveh, Rome and the mysteries of modern metropolitan life. It is a remarkable fact that among savages and half-civi races sexual intemperance is not observed (except among the Aleutians and the Oriental and Nama-IIottentot women who practise masturbation). 1

The study of sexual life in the individual naturally deals with its various phases, beginning with the stage of puberty to the extinction of sexual feeling.

Mantegazza ("Physiology of Love") draws a beautiful picture of the bodings and yearnings of awakening love, of the mysterious sensations, foretastes and impulses that iill the heart, long before the period of puberty has arrived. Psychologically speaking, this is, perhaps, the most mo- mentous epoch of life, for the wealth of ideas and senti- ments engendered through it, forms the standard by which psychic activity may be measured.

The advance of puberty develops the impulses of youth, hftherto vague and undefined, into conscious realisation of the sexual power. The psychological reactions of animal passion manifest themselves in the irresistible desires of intimacy, and the longing to bestow the strange affections of nature upon others.

Religion and poetry frequently become the temporary haven of rest, even after the period of storm and stress is passed. Religious enthusiasm is more commonly met with in the young than the old. The lives of the saints*

1 Friedreich (" Hdb. dei gerichtlichilrztlich, Praxis," 1843, i. p. 271) is of a different opinion, for according to him the Red Indians of America are addicted to the practice of pederasty. Cf. also Lorn- broso, p. 42, and Block, Beitriige zur Etiologie der Psychopathia Sexualis, 2. Theil, 1903.

'Cf. Fncdreich (" Gerichtl. Psychologic," p. 389) who quotes nu- merous examples. For instance, lilankebin, the nun, was constantly tormented by the thought of what could have become of that part of Christ which was removed in circumcision.

Veronica Jiiliani, beatified by Pope Pius II., in memory of the divino lamb, took a real lamb to bed with her, kissed it and suckled it on her breasts.

are replete with remarkable records of temptations. The religious feasts of the ancients often degenerated into orgies, or into mystic cults of a voluptuous character. Even the meetings of certain modern sects dissolve them- selves simply into obscene practices.

On the contrary we find that the sexual instinct, when disappointed and unappeased, frequently seeks and finds a substitute in religion.

Even where psycho-pathological conditions are diag- nosed beyond dispute, this relation between religious and sexual feelings can easily be established. The cause of re- ligious insanity is often to be found in sexual aberration. In psychosis a motley mixture of religious and sexual delu- sions is observable, viz., in female lunatics who imagine that they are or will be the mother of God, and especially in persons slaves to masturbation. The cruel, sensual acts of chastisement, violation, emasculation and even crucifix- ion perpetrated upon self by religious maniacs, bear out this assertion. 1

Any attempt to explain the psychological relations be- tween religion and love must needs meet with difficulties, for analogous instances are met with in great numbers.

Sexual inclinations and religious leanings (if consid- ered as psychological factors), are composed of two ele- ments.

Schleier mocker recognised the primary feeling of de-

St. Catharine of Genoa often burned with such intense inward fire that in order to cool herself she would throw herself upon the ground crying, " Love, love, I can endure it no longer ". At the same time she felt a peculiar inclination to her confessor. One day lifting his hand to her nose she noticed a peculiar odour which penetrated to her heart " a heavenly perfume that would awaken the dead ".

St. Armelle and St. Elizabeth were troubled with a similar long- ing for the Infant Jesus. The temptations of St. Anthony, of Padua, nre known to the world. Of significance is an old Protestant prayer: " Oh ! that I had found thee, bless'd Emanuel ; that thou wert with me in my bed, to bring delight to body and soul. Come and be mine. My heart shall be thy resting place."

1 Cf. Friedreich, " Diagnostik der psych. Krankheiten," p. 247 etc. ; Neumann, Lehrb. d. " Psychiatric," p. 80.

  • the paramount clfini-nt in religion, long before

modern anthropological and ethnographic research in the domain of primitive causes, arrived at the same conclu- sions.

The secondary and truly ethical element, i.e., the love of God, enters the religious sentiment only when a higher stage of culture is attained. At first, the double-faced, now benevolent, now angry, chimeras of complicated mythologies, take the place of the evil spirits, until they in turn are dislodged by the benign form of the deity, the giver of perpetual happiness, whether it be in the shape of Jehovah as the author of all earthly blessings, or Allah who bestows physical delight in Paradise, or Christ who is gone before to prepare mansions of eternal light and bliss, or Nirvana who reigns in the heaven of the Buddhist

The primary element of sexual preference is love, i.e. f the expectation of unsurpassed pleasure. The secondary element is the feeling of dependence, although it is in reality the root from which spring alike, as the former may be entirely absent. It certainly exists in a stronger measure in woman, on account of her social position, and the passive part which she takes in the act of procreation ; but at times it is also found in men who are of a feminine type.

Religion as well as sexual love is mystical and trans- cendental. In sexual love the real object of the instinct, i.e., propagation of the species, is not always present to the mind during the act, and the impulse is much stronger than could be justified by the gratification that can possibly be derived from it. Religious love strives for the possession of an object that is absolutely ideal, and cannot be defined by experimental knowledge. Both/ are metaphysical processes which give unlimited scope to| imagination.

They converge, however, in a similar indefinite focus ; for the gratification of the sensual appetite promises a boon which far surpasses all other conceivable pleasures, and faith has in store a bliss that endures for ever. In either condition the mind is conscious of the enor- mous importance of the object to be obtained; thus im- pulses often become irresistible and overcome all opposing motives. But because neither of them can at times grasp the real object of their existence they easily degenerate into fanaticism, in which intensity of emotion overbalances clearness and stability of reason. Expectation of un- fathomed bliss is now coupled with reckless resignation and unconditional submission.

Owing to this conformity it happens that under high tension one dislodges the other, or that both make their appearance together; for every violent upheaval in the soul must necessarily sweep along its surroundings. Nature, always the same, draws alike upon these two spheres of conception, now forcing one then the other into stronger activity, which degenerates even into acts of cruelty either actively exercised, or passively endured.

In religious life this may assume the shape of self- sacrifice or self-destruction, prompted by the idea that the victim is necessary for the material sustenance of the deity. The sacrifice is brought as a sign of reverence or submission, as a tribute, as an atonement for sins com- mitted, or as a price wherewith to purchase happiness.

If, however, the offering consists in self-punishment and that occurs in all religions! it serves not only as a symbol of submission, or an equivalent in the exchange of present pain for future bliss, but everything that is thought to come from the deity, all that is done in obedience to divine mandates or to the honour of the Godhead, is felt directly as pleasure. Thus religious exuberance leads to ecstasy, a condition in which con- sciousness is so preoccupied with feelings of mental pleasure, that distress is stripped of its painful quality.

Exaggerated religious enthusiasm also finds pleasure in the sacrifice of another person, when rapture combines with sympathy.

Similar manifestations may be observed in sexual life, as will be shown later on under the headings of Sadism and Masochism.

Thus the relations existing between religion, lust, and cruelty, 1 may be condensed into the formula: Religious ' and sexual hyperaesthesia at the acme of development show the same volume of intensity and the same quality of excitement, and may therefore under given circum- stances interchange. Both will in certain pathological * states degenerate into cruelty.

Sexual influence is just as potent in the awakening of a3sthetic sentiments. What other foundation is there for the plastic art or poetry? From (sensual) love arises that warmth of fancy which alone can inspire the creative mind, and the fire of sensual feeling kindles and preserves the glow and fervour of art.

This explains the sensual natures of great poets and artists.

The world of fancy keeps pace with the development

  • of sexual power. Whoever during that period cannot be

animated by the ideals of all that is great, noble and

beautiful remains a "Philistine" all his life. Even the

dolt tries his hand at poetry when in love.

On the borders of physiological reaction may be observed those mysterious processes of maturing puberty, which give origin to obscure yearnings and moods of despondency and Weltschmerz, rendering life tedious, and coupled with the impulse to inflict pain and sorrow upon others (weak analogies of a psychological connection be- tween lust and minify).

First love for ever trends in a romantic idealising direct ion. Tt wraps the beloved object in the halo of perfection. In its incipient stages it is of a platonic character, and turns rather to forms of poetry and history.

'This may be observed in the actual life as well as in the fiction and the plastic arts of degenerate eras. For instance, Bernini't carv- ing, which represents St. Teresa " sinking in an hysterical faint upon a marble cloud, whilst an amorous angel plunges the arrow (of divine love) into her heart." Liibke.

With the approach of puberty it runs the risk of trans- ferring the idealising powers upon persons of the opposite sex, even though mentally, physically and socially they be of an inferior station. To this may easily be traced many cases of misalliance, abduction, elopement and errors of early youth, and those sad tragedies of passionate love that are in conflict with the principles of morality or social standing, and often terminate in murder, self-destruction, and double suicide.

Purely sensual loye_is_never true and lasting, for which reason first love is, as a rule, 6ut a passing infatuation L a iting passion.

rue love is rooted in the recognition of the moral /and mental qualities of the beloved person, and is equally ready to share pleasures and sorrows and even to make sacrifices. True love shrinks from no dangers or obstacles in the struggle for the undisputed possession of the beloved.

Deeds of daring and heroism lie in its wake. But un- less the moral foundation be solid it will lead to crime, and jealousy often mars its beauty.

The love of the feeble-minded is based upon sentimen- tality, and when unrequited results in suicide.

Sentimental love is likely to degenerate into a bur- lesque, especially when the sensual element lacks force (e.g. the Knight of Joggenburg, Don Quixote, and many of the minstrels and troubadours of the middle ages).

This kind of love is nauseating and has a repulsive or ludicrous effect on others, whilst true love and its mani- festations command sympathy, respect, and even fear.

Love when weak is frequently turned away from its real object into different channels, such as voluptuous poetry, bizarre aesthetics, or religion. In the latter case it readily falls a prey to mysticism, fanaticism, sectarian- ism or religious mania. A smattering of all this can al- ways be found in the immature love of early puberty. The poetical effusions of that period of life are only then worthy of perusal when emanating from the pen of the truly endowed genius.

Ethical surroundings are necessary in order to clevato love to its true and pure form, hut, notwithstanding. sensuality will ever remain its principal basis.

Platonic love is a platitude, a misnomer for "kindred spirits".

Since love implies the presence of sexual desire it can only exist between persons of different sex capable of sexual intercourse. When these conditions are wanting or destroyed it is replaced by friendship.

The sexual functions of man exercise a very marked influence upon the development and preservation of char- acter. Manliness and self-reliance are not the qualities which adorn the impotent onanist

GyurkoveMy ("Mannl. Impotenz," Wien, 1889) is correct in his observation that virility establishes the ratio of difference between old men and young, and that im- potence impairs health, mental freshness, activity, self- confidence and imagination. The damage stands in proportion to the age of the subject and the extent of his debauchery.

The sudden loss of the virile powers often produces melancholia, or is the cause of suicide when life without love is a mere blank.

In cases where the reaction is less pronounced, the victim is morose, peevish, egotistical, jealous, narrow-minded, cowardly, devoid of energy, self-respect and honour.

The Skopzes for instance after castration rapidly de- generate.

This matter will be further elucidated under the head- ing of "Effeminatio" (v. .).

In the sedate matron this condition is of minor psy- chological importance, though it is noticeable. The biological change affects her but little if her sexual career has been successful, and loving children gladden the ma- ternal heart The situation is different, however, where

sterility has denied that happiness, or where enforced celibacy prevented the performance of the natural func- tions.

These facts characterise strongly the differences that prevail in the psychology of sexual life in man and woman, and the dissimilarity of sexual feeling and desire in both.

Man has beyond doubt the stronger sexual appetite of the two. From the period of pubescence he is instinc- tively drawn towards woman. His love is sensual, and his choice is strongly prejudiced in favour of physical attractions. A mighty impulse of nature makes him aggressive and impetuous in his courtship. Yet the law of nature does not wholly fill his psychic being. Having won the prize, his love is temporarily eclipsed by other vital and social interests.

Woman, however, if physically and mentally normal, and properly educated, has but little sensual desire. If it were otherwise, marriage and family life would be empty words. As* yet the man who avoids women, and the woman who seeks men are sheer anomalies.

Woman is wooed for her favour. She remains passive. Her sexual organisation demands it, and the dictates of good breeding come to her aid.

Nevertheless, sexual consciousness is stronger in woman than in man. Her need of love is greater, it is continual not periodical, but her love is more spiritual than sensual. Man primarily loves woman as his wife, and then as the mother of his children; the first place in woman's heart belongs to the father of her child, the second to him as husband. Woman is influenced in her choice more by mental than by physical qualities. As mother she divides her love between offspring and husband. Sensuality is merged in the mother's love. Thereafter the wife accepts marital intercourse not so much as a sensual gratification than as a proof of her hus- band's affection.

Woman loves with her whole soul. To woman love is life, to man it is the joy of lift-. Misfortune in love bruises the heart of man; but it ruins the life of woman and wrecks her happiness. It is really a psychological J question worthy of consideration whether woman can truly/ love twice in her life. Woman's mind certainly inclines j more to monogamy than that of man.

In t lie sexual demands of man's nature will be found the motives of his weakness towards woman. He is enslaved by her, and becomes more and more dependent upon her as he grows weaker, and the more he yields to sensuality. This accounts for the fact that in the periods of decline and luxury sensuousness was the predominant factor. Whence arises the social danger when courtesans and their dependants rule the State and finally encompass its ruin.

History shows that great (states) men have often been the slaves of women in consequence of the neuropathic conditions of their constitution.

It shows a masterly psychological knowledge of human' nature that the Roman Catholic Church enjoins celibacy -. upon its priests in order to emancipate them from sensu- ality, and to concentrate their entire activity in the pursuit of their calling. Nevertheless it is a pity that the celibate state deprives the priest of the ennobling influence exer- cised by love and marital life upon the character.

From the fact that by nature man plays the aggressive role in sexual life, he is exposed to the danger of over- stepping the limits set by law and morality.

The unfaithfulness of the wife, as compared with that of the husband, is morally of much wider bearing, and should always meet with severer punishment at the hands of the law. The unfaithful wife not only dishon- ours herself, but also her husband and her family, not to speak of the possible uncertainty of paternity.

Natural instincts and social position are frequent causes of disloyalty in man (the husband), whilst the wife is surrounded by many protecting influences.

Sexual intercourse is of different import to the spinster

and to the bachelor. Society claims of the latter modesty, but exacts of the former chastity as well. Modern civil- isation concedes only to the wife that exalted position, in which woman sexually furthers the moral interests of society.

The ultimate aim, the ideal, of woman, even when she is dragged in the mire of vice, ever is and will be marriage. Woman, as Mantegazza properly observes, seeks not only gratification of sensual desires, but also protection and -,support for herself and her offspring. No matter how sensual man may be, unless also thoroughly depraved, he seeks for a consort only that woman whose chastity he cannot doubt.

The emblem and ornament of woman aspiring to this state, truly worthy of herself, is modesty, so beautifully defined by Mantegazza as "one of the forms of physical self-esteem."

To discuss here the evolution of this, the most graceful of virtues in woman, is out of place, but most likely it is an outgrowth of the gradual rise of civilisation.

A remarkable contrast may be found in the occasional exposure of physical charms, conventionally sanctioned by the world of fashion, in which even the most discreet maiden will indulge when robed for the ball-room, theatre, or similar social function. Although the reasons for such a display are obvious, the modest woman is fortunately no more conscious of them, than of the motives which underlie periodical fashions that bring certain forms of the body into undue prominence, to say nothing of corsets, etc.

In all times, and among all races, the women are fond of toilet and finery. In the animal kingdom nature has distinguished the male with the greater beauty. Men designate women as the beautiful sex, a gallantry which clearly "arises from their sensual requirements. So long as woman seeks only self-gratification in personal adorn- ment, and so long as she remains unconscious of the psy- chological reasons for thus making herself attractive, no

can be raised against it, but, \\ljcn done with the fixed purpose to please men it degenerates into co- quetry.

Under analogous circumstances man would make him- self ridiculous.

Woman far surpasses man in the natural psychology of love, partly because evolution and training have made love her proper element, and partly because she is ani- mated by more refined feelings (Mantegazza).

Even the best of breeding concedes to man that he looks upon woman mainly as a means by which to satisfy the cravings of his natural instinct, though it confines him only to the woman of his choice. Thus civilisation establishes a binding social contract which is called mar- riage, and grants by legal statutes protection and support to the wife and her issue.

It is important, and on account of certain pathological manifestations (to be referred to later on) indispensable, to examine into those psychological events which draw man and woman into that close union which concentrates the fulness of affection upon the beloved one only to the ex- clusion of all other persons of the same sex.

If one could demonstrate design in the processes of nature adaptation cannot be denied them then the fact of fascination by one person of the opposite sex with in- difference towards all others, as it occurs between true \ and happy lovers, would appear as a wonderful provision to ensure monogamy for the promotion of its object.

The scientific observer finds in this loving bond of hearts by no means simply a mystery of souls, but he can refer it nearly always to certain physical or mental pecu- liarities by which the attracting power is qualified.

Hence the words FETICH and FETICHISM. The word fetich signifies an object, or parts or attributes of objects, which by virtue of association to sentiment, personality, or absorbing ideas, exert a charm (the Portuguese "fetisao") or at least produce a peculiar individual impression which is in no wise connected with the external appearance of the sign, symbol or fetich. 1 ^

The individual valuation of the fetich extending even to unreasoning enthusiasm is dalled fetichism. This in- teresting psychological phenomenon may be explained by an empirical law of association, i.e., the relation existing / between the notion itself and the parts thereof which are ' essentially active in the production of pleasurable emotions. It is most commonly found in religious and erotic spheres. Religious fetichism finds its original motive in the delusion that its object, i.e., the idol, is hot a mere symbol, but possesses divine attributes, and ascribes to it peculiar wonder-working (relics) or protective (amulets) virtues.

Erotic fetichism makes an idol of physical or mental qualities of a person or even merely of objects used by that person, etc., because they awaken mighty associations with the beloved person, thus originating strong emotions of sexual pleasure. Analogies with religious fetichism are always discernible; for, in the latter, the most in- significant objects (hair, nails, bones, etc.) become at times fetiches which produce feelings of delight and even ecstasy.

The germ of sexual love is probably to be found in the individual charm (fetich) with which persons of opposite sex sway each other.

The case is simple enough when the sight of a person of the opposite sex occurs simultaneously with sexual excitement, whereby the latter is intensified.

Emotional and optical impressions combine and are so deeply embedded in the mind that a recurring sensation awakens the visual memory and causes renewed sexual excitement, even orgasm and pollution (often only in dreams), in which case the physical appearance acts as a fetich.

Binet, inter alia, contends that mere peculiarities,

l Cf. Maa M tiller who derives the word fetich etymologically from factitius, i. e., artificial, insignificant.

whether physical or mental, may have the effect of the fetich, if their perception coincides with sexual emotion.

Experience shows that chance controls in a large measure this mental association, that the nature of the fetich varies with the personality of the individual, thus arousing the oddest sympathies or antipathies.

These physiological facts of fetichism often account for the affections that suddenly arise between man and woman, the preference of a certain person to all others of the same sex. Since, the fetich assumes the form of a distinctive mark it is clear that its effect can only be of an individual character. Being accentuated by the strongest feelings of pleasure, it follows, that existing faults in the beloved are overlooked ("Love is blind") and an infatuation is produced which appears incomprehensible or silly to others. Thus it happens that the devoted lover who worships and invests his lave with qualities which in reality do not exist, is looked upon by others simply as mad. Thus love exhibits itself now as a mere passion, now as a pronounced psychical anomaly which attains what seemed impossible, renders the ugly beautiful, the profane sublime, and obliterates all consciousness of existing duties towards others.

Tarde ("Archives de 1'Anthropologie Criminelle," vol. v., No. 30) argues that the type of this fetich (ism) varies with persons as well as with nations, but that the ideal of beauty remains the same among civilised peoples of the same era.

Binet has more thoroughly analysed and studied this fetichism of love.

From it springs the particular choice for slender or plump forms, for blondes or brunettes, for particular form or colour of the eyes, tone of the voice, odour of the hair or body (even artificial perfume), shape of the hand, foot or ear, etc., which constitute the individual charm, the first link in a complicated chairt of mental processes, all f<>n verging in that one focus, love, i.e., the physical and mental possession of the beloved.

This fact establishes the existence of physiological fetichism.

Without showing a pathological condition the fetich may exercise its power so long as its leading qualities represent the integral parts, and so long as the love en- gendered by it comprises the entire mental and physical personality.

"Normal love appears to us as a symphony of tones Max Dessoir (pseudonym Ludwig Brunn) 1 in an article "The Fetichism of Love," cleverly says :

"Normal love appears to us as a symphony of tones of all kinds. It is roused by the most varied agencies. It is, so to speak, polytheistic. Fetichism recognises only the tone-colour of a single instrument; it issues forth from a single motive ; it is monotheistic."

Even moderate thought will carry the conviction that the term real love (so often misused) can only apply where the entire person of the beloved becomes the phy- sical and mental object of veneration.

Of course, there is always a sensual element in love, i.e., the desire to enjoy the full possession of the beloved object, and, in union with it, to fulfil the laws of nature.

But where the body of the beloved person is made the sole object of love, or if sexual pleasure only is sought without regard to the communion of soul and mind, true love does not exist. Neither is it found among the disciples of Plato, who love the soul only and despise sexual en- joyment. In the one case the body is the fetich, in the other the soul, and love is fetichism.

Instances such as these represent simply transitions to pathological fetichism.

This assumption is enhanced by another criterion of true love, viz., the mental satisfaction derived from the sexual act. 2

'"Deutsches Montagsblatt," Berlin, 20, 8, 80.

  • Magnan's " spinal ce"re"bral postgrieur " who finds gratification

with any sort of woman, is only animated by lust. Meretricious love

that is purchased cannot be genuine ( Mantegaaea). Whoever coined

the adage : " Sublata lucerna nullum discrimen inter feminas," was

A striking pin-it. -UK-MOM in fetiehism is that among (lie many thiM^s which may serve as fetiches there are some which gain that significance more commonly than I others; for instance, the HAIR, the HAND, the FOOT of \\onian, or the expression of the KYE. This is important in the pathology of fetichism.

Woman certainly seems to be more or less conscious of these facts. For she devotes great attention to her hair and often spends an unreasonable amount of time and money upon its cultivation. How carefully the mother looks after her little daughter's hair! What an ( important part the hairdresser plays 1 The falling out of the hair causes despair to many a young lady. The author remembers the case of a vain woman who fell into melancholia on account of this trouble, and finally committed suicide. A favourite subject of conversation among ladies is coiffures. They are envious of each other's luxuriant tresses.

Beautiful hair is a mighty fetich with many men. In the legend of the Lorelef, wno lured men to destruction, the "golden hair" which she combs with a golden comb appears as a fetich. Frequently the hand or the foot possesses an attractiveness no less powerful; but in these instances masochistic and sadistic feelings often though

a cynic, indeed. The power to perform love's act is by no means a guarantee of the noblest enjoyment of love.

There are urnings who are potent for women men who do not love their wives, but are nevertheless able to perform the marital " duty ". In the majority of these cases even lustful pleasure is ab- M-nt ; for it is simply an onanistic act rendered possible by the aid of imagination which substitutes another beloved being. This decep- tion may, indeed, superinduce sexual pleasure, but, rudimentary gratification as it is, it can only arise from a psychic trick, just as ' in solitary onaniam voluptuous satisfaction is obtained chiefly with the assistance of fancy. As a matter of fact that degree of orgasm which completes the lustful act is entirely dependent upon the inter- vention of fancy.

Wlirre psychic impediments exist (such as indifference, disgust, ion, fear of contagion or impregnation, etc.) the feeling of sexual gratification seems to be wanting altogether.

not always assist in determining the peculiar kind of fetich.

By a transference through association of ideas, gloves or shoes obtain the significance of a fetich.

Max Dcssolr^op. c#.7~p6ints out that among the cus- toms of the middle ages drinking from the shoe of a beautiful woman (still to be found in Poland) played a remarkable part in gallantry and homage. The shoe also plays an important role in the legend of Aschenbrodel.

The expression of the eye is particularly important as a means of kindling the spark of love. A neuropathic eye frequently affects persons of either sex as a fetich. "Madame, vos beaux yeux me font mourir d'amour." (Moliere).

There are many examples showing that odours of the body become fetiches.

This fact is taken advantage of in the "Ars amandi" by woman either consciously or unconsciously. Ruth sought to attract Boaz by perfuming herself. The demi- monde of ancient and modern times is noted for its lavish use of strong scents. Jager, in his "Discovery of the Soul," calls attention to many olfactory sympathies.

Cases are known where men have married ugly women solely because their personal odours were exceedingly pleasing.

Binet makes it probable that the voice also may act an a fetich.

Belot in his novel "Les baigneuses de Trouville" makes the same assertion. Binet thinks that many marriages with singers are due to the fetich of their voices. He also observes that among the singing bird3 the voice has the same sexual significance as odours among the quadrupeds. The birds allure by their song, and the male that sings most beautifully is joined at night by the charmed mate.

The pathological facts of masochism and sadism show that mental peculiarities may also act as fetiches but in a wider sense.

Thus the fact of idiosyncrasies is explained, and the old proverb "De gustibus non est disputandum" retains its force.

Witli regard to fetichism in woman, science must at least for the present time be content with mere con- jectures. This much seems to be certain, that being a physiological factor, its effects are analogous to those in men, i.e., producing sexual sympathies towards persons of the same sex.

Details will come to our knowledge only when medical women enter into the study of this subject.

We may take it for granted that the physical as well us the mental qualities of man assume the form of the female fetich. In most cases, no doubt, physical attributes in the male exercise this power without regard to the existence of conscious sensuality. On the other hand it will be found that the mental superiority of man con- stitutes the attractive power where physical beauty is wanting. In the upper "strata" of society this is more apparent, even if we disregard the enormous influence exercised by "blue blood" and high breeding. The possibility that superior intellectual development favours advancement in social position, and opens the way to a brilliant career, does not seem to weigh heavily in the balance of judgment.

The fetichism of body and mind is of importance in progeneration ; it favours the selection of the fittest and the transmission of physical and mental virtues.

Generally speaking the following masculine qualities impose on woman, viz., physical strength, courage, nubility of mind, chivalry, self-conrufence, even self-assertion, inso- Icncc, }>ravail<>, and a c.> .-how .f ma- r the

weaker sex.

A "Don Juan" impresses many women and elicits admiration, for he establishes the proof of his virile powers, although the inexperienced maiden can in no wise suspect the many risks of lues and chronic urethritis she runs from a marital union with this otherwise interesting rake.

The successful actor, musician, or vocal artiste, the circus rider, the athlete, and even the criminal, often fasci- nate the bread and butter miss as well as the maturer woman. At any rate women rave over them, and inun- date them with love letters.

It is a well-known fact that the female heart has pre- dominant weakness for military uniforms, that of the cavalry-man ever having the preference.

The hair of man, especially the beard, the emblem of virility, the secondary symbol of generative power is g predominant feticli with woman. In the measure in which women bestow special care upon the cultivation of their hair, men who seek to attract and please women, cultivate the elegant growth of the beard, and especially that of the moustache.

A The eye as well as the voice exert the same charm. Singers of renown easily touch woman's heart. They are overwhelmed with love letters and offers of marriage. Tenors have a decided advantage.

Binet (op. cit.) refers to an observation of this charac- ter made by Dumas in his novel "La maison du vent". A woman who falls in love with a tenor-voice loses her virtue.

The author has thus far not succeeded in obtaining facts with regard to pathological fetichism in woman.


DURING the time of the physiological processes in the reproductive glands, desires arise in the consciousness of the individual, which have for their purpose the perpetua- tion of the species (sexual instinct).

Sexual desire during the years of sexual maturity is a physiological law. The duration of the physiological pro- cesses in the sexual organs, as well as the strength of the sexual desire manifested, vary, both in individuals and in races. Race, climate, heredity and social circumstances have a very decided influence upon it. The greater sensu- ality of southern races as compared with the sexual needs of those of the north is well known. Sexual development in the inhabitants of tropical climes takes place much earlier than in those of more northern regions. In women of northern countries oyulation, recognisable in the de- velopment of the body and the occurrence of a periodical flow of blood from the genitals (menstruation), usually begins about the thirteenth to the fifteenth year; in men puberty, recognisable in the deepening of the voice, the appearance of hair on the face and mons veneris, and the occasional occurrence of pollutions, etc., takes place about the fifteenth year. In the inhabitants of tropical countries,

ver, sexual development obtains several years earlier in women sometimes as early as the eighth year.

It is worthy of remark that girla who live in citiea develop about a year earlier than girls living in (lie country, anil that (he larger the town the earlier, ccteris paribus, the development takes place.

Heredity, however, has no small influence on libido and sexual power. Thus there are families in which,



with great physical strength and longevity, great libido and virility are preserved until a great age, while in other families the vita sexualis develops late and is early ex- tinguished.

In woman the period of activity of the reproductive glands is shorter than in man, in whom sexual power may last until a great age; ovulation ceases about thirty years after puberty. The^geriodjof^waning activity of the ovaries is called the change of life (climacteriumj meno- pause ) . This biological phase does not represent merely a cessation of functional potency and final atrophy of the reproductive organs, but a transformation of the whole organism.

In Middle Europe the sexual maturity of man begins about the eighteenth year, and virility reaches its acme at forty. After that age it slowly declines. The potentia generandi ceases usually at the age of sixty-two, but po- tentia cceundi may be present much longer.

The existence of the sexual instinct is continuous during the time of sexual life, but it varies in intensity. Under physiological conditions it is never periodical in the human male, as it is in animals; it manifests an organic variation of intensity in consonance with the collection and expenditure of semen. In women the degree of sexual desire coincides with the process of ovulation in such a way that libido sexualis is intensified after the menstrual period.

Sexual instinct as emotion, idea and impulse is a function of the cerebral cortex. Thus far no definite region of the cortex has been proved to be exclusively the seat of sexual sensations and impulses. This psycho- sexual centre is nothing more than a junction and crossing of principal paths which lead on the one hand to the sensi- tive motor apparatus of the sexual organs, and on the other hand to those nerve centres of the visual and olfactory organs which are the carriers of that consciousness which distinguishes between the "male" and the "female".

Owing to the close relations which exist between thc>


sexual instinct and the olfactory sense, 1 it is to be i> re- sumed that the sexual and olfactory centres lie close together in the cerebral co: The development of

M-xiial life has its lv 'ginning in the organic sensations which arise from the maturing reproductive glands. These excite the attention of the individual. Reading and the experiences of every-day life (which, unfortunately, are now-a-days too early and too frequently suggestive), con- vert these notions into clear ideas, which are accent' by organic sensations of a pleasurable character. With this accentuation of erotic ideas through lustful feelings, an impulse to induce them is developed (sexual desire).

Thus there is established a mutual dependence between the cerebral cortex (as the place of origin of sensations and ideas), and the reproductive organs. The latter, by reason of physiological processes (hypenrmia, secretion of semen, ovulation), give rise to sexual ideas, images, and impulses.

The cerebral cortex, by means of preconceived or re- produced sensual ideas, reacts on the reproductive organs, including hypersemia, production of semen, erection, ejacu- lation. This is effected by means of centres for vasomotor i nervation and ejaculation, which are situated in the lum'nar regions of the cord, and lie close together. Both are reflex centres.

The centre .,f erection (Goliz, I'rh-hard} is an inter- mediate station placed between the brain and the genital apparatus. The nervous paths which connect it with the brain probably run through the pcdnnruli crrrhri and the ports. This centre may be excited by central (psychical and organic) stimuli, by direct irritation of the nerve-tract in the pedunculis cerebri, pons, or cervical portion of the cord, as well as by peripheral irritation of the sensory

'The olfactory centre is presumed by Ferrier (" Function! of the Brain") to be in the n-jjion of the gyrus uncinntus. Zuckcrkandl (" UelT dm IJiorliciTilrnin," 1887), from researches in comparative

m:iti.iny, mnrludri that the olfactory centre haa ita seat in the Hip-

I>ocaiiipu8 nmjor.


nerves (penis, clitoris and annexa). It ia not directly sub- ordinated to the will.

The excitation of this centre is conveyed to the corpora cavernosa by means of nerves (nervi erigentes Eckhard) running into the first three sacral nerves.

The action of the nervi erigentes, which renders erec- tion possible, is inhibitory in so far as it inhibits the ganglionic nervous mechanism in the corpora cavernosa, upon the action of which the smooth muscle-fibres of the corpora cavernosa are dependent (Kolliker and Kohl- rausch). Under the influence of the action of the nervi erigentes, these fibres of the corpora cavernosa become re- laxed, and their spaces fill with blood. Simultaneously, as a result of the dilatation of the capillary net-work of the corpora cavernosa, pressure is exerted upon the veins of the penis and the return of blood is impeded. This effect is aided by the contraction of the bulbo cavemosus and erector penis muscles, which extend by means of an aponeurosis over the dorsal surface of the penis.

The erection-centre is under the influence of both \ exciting and inhibitory innervation arising from the cere- brum. Ideas and sense-perceptions of sexual content , have an exciting effect. According to observations made on men that have been hung, it is evident that the erection-centre may also be aroused by excitation of the 1 tract of the spinal cord. Observations on the insane and those suffering with cerebral disease show that this is also possible as a result of organic irritation in the cerebral cortex (psycho-sexual centre'?). Spinal diseases (tain's, especially myelitis) affecting the lumbar portion 1 of the cord, in their earlier stages, may directly excite the erection-centre.

Reflex excitation of the centre is possible and frequent in the following ways: by irritation of the (peripheral)

1 Later researches by MUller (Klin. u. experiment. Studien, etc., Deutsche Zeitschr. f. N. heilkunde xxi.) seem to render it more prob- able that the centre of erection does not lie in the conus medullrxns of the spinal cord,, but rather in the sacral ganglia, thus constituting a sympathetic reflex.


sensory nerves of the genitals and surrounding parta by fricti.n ; by irritation of the un-tlia ( g< niOTrtHHO , of the rectum (hemorrhoids, oxyuris), of the bladder (distension with urine, especially in the morning; irritation of cal- culi) ; by distension of the vesieulffi seminales with semen; by hypersemia of the genitals, occasioned by lying on the back and thus inducing pressure of the intestines upon the blood-vessels of the pelvis.

The erection-centre may also be exerted by irritation of the nervous ganglia which are so abundant in th prostatic tissue (prostatitis, introduction of catheter, etc.).

The experiment of Goltz, according to whom, when (in dogs) the lumbar portion of the cord is severed, erection is more easily induced, shows that the erection- centre is also subject to inhibitory inllunir.^ from the brain.

In men the fact that will power anl emotions, (fear of unsuccessful coitus, surprise inter actum sex- ualem, etc.) may inhibit the occurrence of erection, and cause it, when present, to disappear, also indicates this.

The duration of erection is dependent upon the dura- tion of its exciting causes (sensory stimuli), the absence of inhibitory influences, the nervous energy of the centre, and the early or late occurrence of ejaculation (v. infra).

The central point of the sexual mechanism is the cere- bral cortex. It is justifiable to presume that there is a definite region of the cortex (cerebral centre), which gives rise to sexual feelings, ideas and impulses, and is the place of origin of the psycho-somatic processes which we <1 nate as sexual life, sexual instinct, and sexual desire. This centre is susceptible to both central and peripheral stimuli.

Central stimuli, in the form of organic excitation, may be due to diseases of the cerebral cortex. Physiologically they are dominated by psychical impressions (memory and sensory perceptions, lascivious stories, touch, pressure of the hand, kiss, etc.). Auditory and olfactory perceptions certainly play but a very subordinate role. Under patho-


logical conditions (v. infra}, the latter have a very decided influence in inducing sexual excitement. 1

In beasts the influence of olfactory perception on the sexual sense is unmistakable. Al/lmus ("Beitrage zur Physiol. und Pathol. des Olfactorius," "Archiv fiir Psych." xii., II. 1) declares that the sensa of smell is important with reference to the reproduction of the species. He shows that animals of opposite sexes are drawn to each other by means of olfactory perception, and that almost all animals, at the time of rutting, emit a specially distinct odour from their genitals. An experiment by Schiff is confirmatory of this. He extirpated the olfactory nerves in puppies, and found that, as the animals grew up. the male was unable to distinguish the female. Again, an experiment by Mantegazza ("Hygiene of Love"), who re- moved the eyes of rabbits and found that the defect con- stituted no obstacle to procreation, shows how important in animals the olfactory sense is for the vita sexualis.

It is also remarkable that many animals (musk-ox, civet-cat, beaver), possess on their sexual organs, glands which secrete substances having a very strong odour.

Althaus also shows that in man there are certain re- lations existing between the olfactory and sexual senses. He mentions Cloquct ("Osphresiologie," Paris, 1826), who calls attention to the sensual pleasure excited by the odour of flowers, and tells how Eichelieu lived in an atmosphere laden with the heaviest perfumes, in order to excite his sexual functions.

Zippe ("Wien. Med. Wochenschrift," 1879, No. 24), in connection with a case of kleptomania in an onanist, likewise establishes such relations, and cites Hildebrand as authority, who in his popular physiology says: It can- not be doubted that the olfactory sense stands in remote

l Cf. Albert Hagen, "Die sexuelle Osphresiologie," Charlotten- burg, 1901 (Verlag H. Basdorf), a most interesting monograph on the relations between the olfactory senses and odours and the sexual acts in man. Albert Moll, " Untersuchungen liber libido sexualis," p. 377. (Literature and studies on the olfactory sense as a stimu- lating cause of the sexual instinct.)


with the sexual apparatus. Odours of flov. often occasion pleasurable sensual feelings, and when

infers the passage in the 'Song of Solomon,' 'And my hands dropped with myrrh, and my lingers with R\\ smelling myrrh, upon the handles of the lock,' one finds that it did not escape Solomon tti<>n. In the Orient

the pleasant perfume* an- esteemed for their relatioi the sexual organ-, and the women's apartments of the Sul- tan are redolent with the fragrance of flo\\

Most, professor in Rostock (cf. ///>/*), relates: "I learned from a sensual young peasant that ho had excited many a chaste girl sexually, and easily gained his end, by carrying his handkerchief in his axilla for a time, while dancing, and then wiping his partner's perspiring face with it."

The case of Henry III. shows that contact with a person's perspiration may he the exciting cause of passion- ate love. Ar the betrothal feast of the King of Navarre and Margaret of Valois, he accidentally* dried his face with a garment of Maria of Cleves, which was moist with her perspiration. Although she was the bride of the Prince of Conde,- Henry conceived immediately such a passionate love for her that he could not resist it, and made her, as history shows, very unhappy. An analogous instance is related of Henry IV., whose passion for the beautiful Gabriel is said to have originated at the instant when, at u ball, he wiped his brow with her handkerchief.

Professor Jdger, the "discoverer of the soul," refers to the same thing in his well-known book (2nd. ed., 1880, chap, xv., p. 173) ; for he regards the sweat as important in the production of sexual effects, and as being especially seductive. 1

One learns from reading the work of Ploss ("Da Weih"), that attempts to attract a person of the opposite ex by means of the perspiration, may be discerned in many forms in popular psychology.

'See also further interesting observations on the aphrodiaic ef- fect* of sweat on both sexes. Ftrt, 1'instinct sexuel, p. 127. (Paris, 1899).


In reference to this, a custom which holds among the natives of the Philippine Islands when they become en- gaged, as reported by Jagor, is remarkable. When it be- comes necessary for an engaged pair to separate, they ex- change articles of wearing-apparel, by means of which each becomes assured of faithfulness. These objects are care- fully preserved, covered with kisses, and smelled.

The love of certain libertines and sensual women for perfumes 1 indicates a relation between the olfactory and the sexual senses.

A case mentioned by Heschl ("Wiener Zeitschrift f. pract. Heilkunde," 22d March, 1861) is remarkable, where the absence of both olfactory lobes was accompanied by imperfectly developed genitals. It was the case of a man aged forty-five, in all respects well developed, with the exception of the testicles, which were not larger than beans and contained no seminal canals, and the larynx, which seemed to be of feminine dimensions. Every trace of olfactory nerves was wanting, and the trigona olfactoria and the furrow on the under surface of the anterior lobes were absent. The perforations of the ethmoid plate were sparingly present, and occupied by nerveless processes of the dura instead of by nerves. In the mucous membrane of the nose there was also an absence of nerves.

Finally, the clearly defined relation of the olfactory and sexual senses in mental diseases is worthy of notice, for in the psychoses of both sexes superinduced by mas- turbation, as well as in insanity due to disease of the female organs, or during the climacterium, olfactory hal- lucinations are especially frequent, while in cases where a sexual cause is wanting they are very infrequent.

II am inclined to doubt 2 that, under normal conditions, olfactory impressions in man, as in animals, p? an im- portant role in the excitation of the sexual centre. On

  • Cf. Laycock, who ("Nervous Diseases of Women," 1840) found

that in women the love for musk and similar perfumes was related to sexual excitement.

The following case, reported by Binet, seems to be in opposition to this idea. Unfortunately nothing is said concerning the mental


account of the importance of this consensus for the under- rtamling of pathological cases, it is necessary here to thor- oughly consioVr tin- relations existing between the olfactory and srxtial senses.

With n (" rence to these physiological relations it may he mentioned as an interesting fact that there exists a cer- tain histologieal conformity Intwctn the nose and the genitals, f<r both have KJJKCTILE tissue (likewise the nipple,).

Interesting physiological and clinical obeervatiens by J. N. Mackenzie may be found in the "Journal of Medical Science," April, 1884. He finds: (1) that in certain women with normal olfactory organs regularly with men- struation a swelling of the erectile tissue of the nose oc- curs which disappears again with the flooding; (2) that menstruation is at times replaced by epistaxis, which dis- appears when the uterine flow begins, but in some cases always recurs with the menstrual functions; (3) irrita- tions of the nasal organs such as violent sneezing, etc., oc- cur at the_time of sexual excitement; (4) Stimulation of the genital' tracts is occasioned by affections of the nasal organs

He, also observe.- that nasal affections in women grovr worse during tho time of menstruation; that venereal ex- cesses produce inflammation of the Schneiderian mem- brane, or intensify it where it already exists.

He also points out that masturbators very frequently suffer from nasal disease, are troubled with abnormal sen- sations of olfaction, and are subject to epistaxis. Accord- ing to his experience there are affections of the nose which stubbornly resist all treatment until the concomitant (and causal) genital disease is removed.

ehara. <>f the person. In any event, it is certainly confirma-

tory of tne relations existing between the olfactory and sexual MOMS:

D., a medical student, was seated on a bench in a public park, rending a book (on pathology). Suddenly a violent erection dis- turbed him. He looked up and noticed that a lady, redolent with perfume, had taken a seat upon the other end of the bench. D. could attribute the erection to nothing but the unconscious olfactory im- pression made upon him. 3


Other interesting observations and elucidations about the consensus narium et gcnitalium may be found in a book by Fliess recently published r "Die Beziehungen zwisoiim N&se und weiblichen Geschlechtsorganen," Vienna (Deut- icke), 1897. Cerviset, contribut. a 1'etude du tisses erec- tile des fosses nasales. These de Lyon 1887. Joal, rcvuc mensuelle de laryngologie 1888 Fevr. Peyer, Miinch. med. Wochenschr, 1889. 4; Eudriss, Dissertat, Wurz- burg 1892.

The sexual sphere of the cerebral cortex may be ex- cited, in the sense of an excitation of sexual concepts and impulses, by processes in the generative organs. This is possible as a result of all conditions which excite the erec- tion-centre by means of centripetal influence (stimulus resulting from distension of the seminal vesicles ; enlarged Graafian follicles ; any sensory stimulus, however produced, about the genitals; hyperaemia and turgescence of the genitals, especially of the erectile tissue of the corpus cavernosum of the penis and clitoris, as a result of lux- urious, sedentary life ; plethora abdominalis, high external temperature, warm beds, clothing; taking ;of cantharides, pepper and other spices).

Libido sexualis may also be induced by stimulation of the gluteal region (castigation, whipping). 1

This fact is important for the proper understanding of certain pathological manifestations. It sometimes happens that in boys the first excitation of the sexual instinct is caused by a spanking, and they are thus incited to mas- turbation. This should be remembered by those who have, the care of children.

On account of the dangers to which this form of pun- ishment of children gives rise, it would be better if parents, teachers and nurses were to avoid it entirely.

Passive -flagellation may excite sensuality, as is shown

Mfeibowutw, " De flagiorum usu in re medica," London, 1765: Boileau, "The History of the Flagellants," London, 1783; Doppct, " Aphrodisiaque externe," Paris, 1788; Cooper, " Der Flagellantismus u. d. Flagellanten; Hunscn, Stock u. Peitache in xix. Jahrhundert (Dohrn, Dresden), 2 vola.


by the sects of flagellants, 1 so widespread in the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. They were accustomed to whip themselves, partly as an atonement and partly to mortify the flesh (in accordance with the principle of chastity pro- mulgated by the Church i. e., the emancipation of the soul from sensuality).

These sects were at first favoured by the Church ; but, since sensuality was only the more excited by flagellation, and this fact became apparent in unpleasant occurrences, the Church was finally compelled to oppose it The fol- lowing facts from the lives of the two heroines of flagella- tion, Maria Magdalena of Pazzi and Elizabeth of Genton, clearly show the significance of flagellation as a sexual ex- citant. The former, the daughter of distinguished parents, was a Carmelite nun in Florence (about 1580), and, by her flagellations, and still more through the results obtained by them, she became quite celebrated, and is mentioned in the "Annals". It was her greatest delight to have her hands bound by the prioress behind her back, and her naked loins whipped in the presence of the assembled sisters.

But the whippings, continued from her earliest youth, quite destroyed her nervous system, and, perhaps, no other heroine of flagellation had so many hallucinations ("Ent- ziickungen"). While being whipped her thoughts were of love. The inner fire threatened to consume her, and she frequently cried, "Enough ! Fan no longer the flame that consumes me. This is not the death I long for; it comes with all too much pleasure and delight." Thus it con- tinned. But the spirit of impurity wove the most sensual lascivious fancies, and she was several times near losing her chastity.

It was the same with Elizabeth of Genton. As a result <>f whipping she actually passed into a state of bacchanalian madness. As a rule, she raved when, excited by unusual

l Corvin, Hist. Denkmale des ohrist lichen Fanatismus, II., L?ip- tig, 1847; Fofrittmann, Die chriatlicheo Geiaalergoaellachaften, Halle, 1828.


flagellation, she believed herself united with her "ideal". This condition was so exquisitely pleasant to her that sho would frequently cry out, "O love, O eternal love, O love, you creatures! cry out with me: 'Love, Love!' '

It is known, on the authority of Taxil (op. cit., p. 175), that rakes sometimes have themselves flagellated, or pricked until blood flows, just before the sexual act, in order to stimulate their diminished sexual power.

These facts find an interesting confirmation in the following experiences, taken from Paullini's "Flagellum Salutis" (1st ed., 1698; reprint, Stuttgart, 1847) :

"There are some nations, viz., the Persians and Rus- sians, where the women regard blows as a peculiar sign of love and favour. Strangely enough, the Russian women are never more pleased and delimited iliaii when they re- ceive hard Mows from their husbands, as John Barclarus relates in a remarkable narrative. A German, named Jordan, went to Russia, and, pleased with the country, settled there and took a Russian wife, whom he loved dearly, and to whom he was always kind in everything. But she always wore an expression of dissatisfaction, and went about with sighs and downcast eyes. The husband asked the reason, for he could not understand what was wrong. 'Aye/ she said, 'though you love me, you do not show me any sign of it.' He embraced her, and begged to be told what he had carelessly and unconsciously done to hurt her feelings, and to be forgiven, for he would never do it again. 'I want nothing/ was the answer, 'but what is customary in our country the whip, the real sign of love.' When Jordan adopted the custom his wife began to love him dearly.

Similar stories are told by Peter Pcireus, of Erlesund, who adds that husbands, immediately after the wedding, among other indispensable household articles, provide themselves with a whip."

On page 73 of this remarkable book, the author says further: "The celebrated Count of Mirandula, John Picus, relates of one of his intimate acquaintances that he was


an insatiable fellow, but so lazy and incapable of love that he was practically impotent until he had been roughly I handled. The more he tried to satisfy his desire, the heavier the blows he needed, and he could not attain his ', unless he had boon whipped till the blood came. For this purpose ho had a suitable whip made, which was placed in vinegar the day before using it. He would give this to his companion, and on bended knees beg her not to spare him, but to strike blows with it, the heavier the better. The good count thought this singular man found the pleasure of love in this punishment. Not being a bad man in other respects he understood and hated his weak- ness."

Coelius Rhodigin relates a similar story, as does also the celebrated jurist, Andreas Tiraquell. In the time of the skilful physician, Otten Brunfelsen, there lived in Munich, then the capital of the Bavarian electorate, a de- bauchee who could never perform his (sexual) duties with- out a severe preparatory beating. Thomas Barthelin knew a Venetian, who had to be beaten and driven before he could have intercourse, just as reluctant Cupid was driven by his followers with sprays of hyacinths. & few years ago there was in Liibeck a cheesemonger, living on Mill Street, who, on a complaint to the authorities of unfaith- fulness, was ordered to leave the city. The prostitute with whom he had been, went to the judges and begged on his behalf, telling how difficult all intercourse had become for him. He could do nothing until he had been mercilessly beaten. At first the fellow, from shame and to avoid dis- grace, would not confess, but after earnest questioning he could not deny it There is said to have been a man in the Netherlands who was similarly incapable, and could do nothing without blows. On the decree of the authori- ties, however, he was not only removed from his position, but also severely punished. A reliable friend, a physician in an important city of the kingdom, related to me how a woman of bad character had told a companion, who had been in the hospital a short time before, that she, with


another woman of like character, had been sent to tho woods by a man who followed them there, cut rods for them, and then exposed his naked buttocks, commanded them to belabour him well. They obeyed, and it is easy to conjecture what he then did with them. Not only men have thus been excited and inflamed to lasciviousness, but

(also women, that they too might experience greater in- tensity of pleasure. 1 For this reason the Roman woman had herself whipped and beaten by the lupercis. Thus

Juvenal writes:

."" Steriles moriuntur, et illis Turgida non prodest condita psycido Lyde: Nee prodest agili palinas prtebere Luperco."

y In men, as well as in women, erection and orgasm, or leven ejaculation, may be induced by irritation of various other regions of the skin and mucous membrane. These "hyperaesthetic" zones in woman are, while she is a virgin, the clitoris, and, after defloration, the vagina and cervix uteri.

In woman the nipple particularly seems to possess this quality. Titillatio hujus regionis plays an important part in the ars erotica. In his "Typographical : Anatomy," 1865, Bd. i., p. 552, Hyrtl cites Val. Hildenbrandt, who observed a peculiar anomaly of the sexual instinct in a girl, which he called suctusstupratio. She had her mammae sucked by her lover, and after a while, by constantly pull- ing her nipples, she was enabled to suck them herself, an act that gave her most intense pleasure. Hyrtl also calls attention to the fact that cows sometimes suck the milk from their own udders. L. Brunn ("Zeitg. f. Literatur." etc., d. Hamburg, Correspondent, 1889, No. 21), in an in- teresting article on "Sensuality and Love of Kin," points mt how zealously the nursing mother gives herself to the cursing of the babe, "for love of the weak, undeveloped, helpless being".

'It is a common proceeding for biased and impotents to have themselves whipped. A few years ago mucli noise was made about one such amateur who died whilst being whipped by several women in a house of prostitution at Moscow. (Ibankoic. Archives d' An- tnropol. criminelle. xiv. p. 697).


It is easy to assume tliat, l.y the side of the ethical motives, tin- fact tliut the sucking may be attend. -d by feelings of physical ili-asurr phtys a part The remark of I'.ninn. although correct in it>elf, Lut one-sided, that, ac- cording to HouZ' iierienee, among the majority of animals the relations between mother ami offspring are close only during the time of nursim:. ami thereafter in- different, also speaks in favour of this assumption.

Bastion found the same thing (blunting of the feeling for the offspring after weaning) among savages.

Under pathological conditions, as is shown by Cham- bard, among others, in his thesis for the doctorate, other portions of the body (in hysterical persons) about the mammae and genitals may attain the significance of "hy- peraesthetic" zones.

In man, physiologically, the only "hyperaesthetic" zone is the glans penis and perhaps the skin of the external genitals.

Under pathological conditions the anus may become a "hyperaesthetic" area. Thus anal automasturbation, which seems to be only too frequent, and passive pederasty would be explained. (Cf. Gamier, "Anomalies sexuelles,*' Paris, p. 514; A. Moll, "Contrare Sexualempfindung," 3rd ed., p. 369; Frigerio, "Archivio di Psichiatria," 1893; Cristiani, "Archivio delle Psicopatie sessuali," p. 182, "au- topederastia in un alienato, affetto da follia periodica".)

The psycho-physiological process comprehended in the idea of sexual instinct is composed of

(1) concepts awakened centrally or peripherally;

(2) the pleasurable feelings associated with them. The longing for sexual satisfaction (libido sexualis)

arises from them. This desire grows stronger constantly in proportion as the excitation of the cerebral sphere ac- centuates the feeling of pleasure, by appropriate concep- tions and activity of the imagination ; and the pleasurable sensations are increased to lustful feeling by excitation of the erection centre and the consequent hypersemia of the


genitals (entrance of liquor prostaticus into the urethra, etc.).

If circumstances favour the satisfactory performance of the sexual act, the ever-increasing desire is gratified ; if, however, conditions are unfavourable, inhibition occurs, checks the central erectile power, and prevents the sexual act.

To civilised man the ready presence of ideas which inhibit sexual desire is of distinct import. The moral freedom of the individual, and the decision whether, under certain circumstances, excess, and even crime, be committed or not, depend, on the one hand, upon the strength of the instinctive impulses and the accompanying organic sen- sations; on the other, upon the power of the inhibitory ideas. Constitution, and especially organic influences, have a marked effect upon the instinctive impulses ; educa- tion and cultivation of self-control counteract the opposing influences.

The exciting and inhibitory powers are variable quanti- ties. For instance, over-indulgence in alcohol is very fatal in this respect, since it awakens and increases libido sexu- alis, while at the same time it weakens moral resistance.


The essential condition for the man is sufficient erec- tion. Anjel ("Arch, fur Psych., viii., H. 2) calls atten- tion to the fact that in sexual excitement not alone the erec- tion centre is influenced but the nervous excitement is dis- tributed over the entire vasomotor system of nerves. The proof of this is the turgescence of the organs in the sexual act, injection of the conjunctiva, prominence of the eye- balls, dilation of the pupils, cardiac palpitation (resulting from paralysis of the vasomotor nerves of the heart, which arise from the cervical sympathetic, and the resulting dila- tion of the cardiac arteries, and the increased stimulation of the cardiac ganglia induced by the consequent hype-

  • Cf. Roubavd, " TraiW do Pimpuissance et de la eWrilittf," Paria


Till 41

r:i mia of the canliae walls). The sexual act is accom- panied by a pleasurable feeling, which, in the male, is evoked by the passage of semen through the ductus ejacur II to tho urethra, in consequence of the sensory stimula- tion of the genitals. This pleasurable sensation occurs earlier in the male than in the female, grows rapidly in

iisity up to the moment of commencing ejaculation, reaches its acme in the instant of free emission, and disap- pears quickly post ejaculationem.

In the female the pleasurable feeling occurs later and comes on more slowly, and generally outlasts the act of ejaculation.

The distinctive event in coitus is ejaculation. This function is dependent on a centre (geni to-spinal), which Budge has shown to be situated at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. It is a reflex centre. The stimulus that excites it, is the ejection of semen from the vesicula* semi' nales into the pars membranacea urethras, a reflex effect of stimulation of the glans penis. As soon as the collec- tion of semen, with ever-increasing pleasurable sensation, has reached a sufficient amount to be effectual as a stimu- lus of the ejaculation-centre, this centre acts. The reflex motor path lies in the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves. The action consists of a convulsive excitation of the bulbo- cavernosus muscle (innervated by the third and fourth sacral nerves), which forces the semen out.

In the female as well, at the height of sexual and pleasurable excitement, a reflex movement occurs. It is induced by stimulation of the sensory genital nerves and consists of a peristaltic movement in the tubes and uterus as far down as the portio vaginalis, which presses out the mucous secretions of the tubes and uterus. Inhibition of the ejaculation centre is possible as a result of cortical influence (want of desire in coitus, emotions in general, influence of the will).

Under normal conditions, with the completion of the sexual act, libido sexualis and erection disappear, and the psychical and sexual excitement gives place to a comfort- able feeling of lassitude.


EVERY individual whose sexual development has been in accordance with the normal process, represents physical and metaphysical attributes which, as experience shows, are typical of the sex to which the individual belongs. These sexual characteristics are either primary (sexual glands and organs of propagation) or secondary. The latter are bodily and psychical and are developed only during the period of puberty. Now and then cases of precocious as well as retarded sexual development are reported. As a rule they may be found to be due to abnormal evolutionary conditions in them, chiefly in individuals with a heavy neu- rotic taint.

The secondary sexual characteristics differentiate the two sexes ; they present the specific male and female types. The higher the anthropological development of the race, the stronger these contrasts between man and woman, and vice versa.

Important somatic secondary sexual characteristics are, the skull, skeleton, pelvis (particularly), facial types, hair, larynx (voice), mammae, thighs, etc.

Important psychical characteristics are sexual con- sciousness (i.e., the knowledge of a special sexual indi- viduality as man or woman) and a congruous sexual in- stinct, from both of which a long series of special features and individual peculiarities are evolved, such as psychical dispositions, inclinations, etc.

This differentiation of the sexes and the development of sexual types is evidently the result of an infinite suc-

'Bardach, Die Physiologic als Erfahrungswissenschaft, 1826-40; Ploss, Das Weib, 1891, 3d edition; A. Moll, Die contrare Sexualem- pfindung, 3d ed. p. 3; Idem, Untersuchungen fiber die Libido sexualis, 1897-98.



cession of intermediary stages of evolution. The primary stage undoubtedly was bi-sexuality, such as still exists in the lowest classes of animal life and also during the first months of foetal existence in man. The type of the present stage of evolution is mono-sexuality, that is to say, a gruous development of the secondary bodily ami psychical sexual characteristics belonging to the respective sexual glands.

Observation teaches that the pure type of the man or the woman is often enough missed by nature, that is to say that certain secondary male characteristics are found in woman and vice versa, to wit, men with an inclination for female occupations (embroidery, toilet, etc.), and women with a decided predilection for manly sports (without the inlluencing elements of early education). In both in- stances particular cleverness in the inverted and pro- nounced awkwardness in the originally proper occupation will be noticed. In this class belong castrates, women with a bass voice (abnormal development of the larynx), a narrow pelvis, a beard, undevelopment of the mammae, etc.

Of special scientific interest are the cases of GyncB- comasty, i.e., the development of mammae in the male in- dividual, with concomitant inhibited development of the testicles during the period of puberty. Galen described and named this anomaly. Laurent's monograph 1 on this sub- ject is worthy of mention.

As a rule the gynccomast is slender in build, has a smooth face and stunted testicles, Is devoid of the secondary sexual characteristics of the man, has but little sexual de- sire for the opposite sex, is in short a sort of a man- woman of moral and metaphysical inferiority.

It is a remarkable fact that Gynecomasty only occurs in neurotically degenerated families, and must be looked upon as the manifestation of an anatomical and functional

i oration.

'Laurent, lea bisexual, Paris. 1894; Idem, de l'here\litfi dec gyn&omaates. Annales d. 'hygiene, publ. 1990.


Castration never produces Gynecomasiy , in which the glandular tissue but rarely develops, whilst the nipple bo- comes erogenous and capable of erection as in woman. Lac- tation has but seldom been observed. With involution even the mammae disappear. The true Gynecomast betrays signs of effemination the voice is soft and has a high pitch, the hair on the mons veneris is that of a woman, the skin is soft, the pelvis wide, potency though weak is yet heterosexual and libido is wanting. It cannot be denied that in these cases through the interruption of evolutionary processes the sexual characteristics of the man have been replaced by those of the woman and that by this substitu- tion the development also of other physical and psychical sexual characteristics has been influenced in the sense of inversion. The possible combinations, of course, vary greatly.

An interesting and important question now arises, viz. : "What determines the development of an individual of that definite sexual type which possesses all the character- istics of a man, or a woman ?"

One is tempted to look upon the development of the genital glands as the determining factor which may be recognized even in the apparently bisexual foetus. For the primary sexual characteristics in the form of the sexual organs are present and may be with puberty developed into the secondary sexual characteristics.

That the sexual glands are important so far as the sex itself is concerned is hardly open to controversy, but they are not necessarily the determining factor. For we shall see later on that the secondary characteristics (sexual sen- sations, attraction by the physical and psychical properties of the opposite sex, and the instinct to have sexual inter- course with persons of the opposite sex) may be inverted even at the very beginning of sexual development.

Again the experience of gynecologists allows of the fol- lowing deductions: Hegar (Nothnagel's Pathologic, xx. Part L, p. 371) points out:

(1) that despite of congenital defects and rudimentary


development of the ovaries the feminine type may be thor- oughly preserved ;

(2) that the female sexual characteristics are relatively independent of the ovaries as is proved by transverse lit rmaphroditism. The old axiom "Propter solum ovari- uin raulier est quod est," therefore falls.

The sex-determining moment tun is unknown. (

The form of the sexual glands is therefore not the quali- fying element of sex-determination, but we must look rather to sexual sensations and the sexual instinct.

All this directs our attention to the central domains of that nervous plexus which dominates the sexual functions and which renders intermediary sexual gradations between the pure type of man and woman possible, <juite in accord- ance with the original bisexual predisposition of the foetus. These grades may be due to some interference in the evolu- tion of our present mono-sexuality (corresponding physical and psychical sexual characteristics) based upon degener- ative, especially hereditary degeneration conditions.

The science of to-day can boast of but little positive knowledge about the evolutionary influence which the va- rious departments of the sexual apparatus exercise upon each other. It is natural that we should study the influ- ence exercised by the removal or total loss of the sexual glands upon the development or course of the vita sexualis. That such an influence exists cannot be doubted; but the

Mt of the controlling power of ]>oripheral factors might largely depend on whether the elimination of the sexual glands took place before or after the development of pu- berty ; and again due regard must be given to the fact that the rise of psychical sexual characteristics may have con- siderably preceded physical development. Facts seem to prove that with the loss of the genital glands previous to puberty the development of somatic and psychical sexual characteristics is stunted even unto Asexuality. This is true as to the male and female of the human kind as well as of domestic animals.

Matters are different if the injury occurs after this bio-


logical phase. Here we are bound to find physical as well as psychical characteristics already existing, but their further development becomes stunted. The manner in which these organs succumb (through illness or surgical interference) is of no import, neither is the sex itself. The only condition needed is that the development of the sec- ondary sexual characteristics had already begun as this is plainly dependent upon central spheres. How far then sexual development will go, depends chiefly upon the con- dition and the developing powers of these central factors; whilst its direction is governed by the biological energy of these bisexually predisposed centres.

If the development ran hitherto in heterosexual chan- nels, but was lacking in force, the sex experiences simply a check ; but if the original bisexual predisposition had not yet received a definite sexual direction, and possessed strength, sexual characteristics of the opposite sex and under circumstances even of an inverted nature may un- fold. In most cases there is but a partial development of the characteristics of the opposite sex.

Analogous experiences are made in cases in which the sexual glands were lost long after matured puberty. For instance, bearded women are frequently found in the post mortem, minus ovaries (Diet, de med. et de chirurg. prat, art. "ovario"). In a similar manner pheasant hens are found with degenerated ovaries, but with the plumage and voice of the male. 1 (Discuss, de la societe zoologique de Londres).

It is a well-known fact that many women grow a beard after the climacterium and that the voice drops to a lower register. If the climax be reached very early and vitality remains very strong even another (opposite) sex may be developed. See page 247 and cases 128 and 129.

A smart difference may also be found in eunuchs, ac- cording to whether castration took place before or after

l Cf. Moll, Libido sexualis, p. 335-350, where he gives a large number of cases of perverted sexual characteristics, of a physical as well as psychical nature, even of sexual inversion.


hical pulM-rty. In tin- 1; tlie vita scxualis is

Ity no menus a Malik ]>:iL r - f->r M-xnal fVrling, and sexual in-tinct for the opposite sex are present, although physical and psychical sexual characteristics of the male are stunted and femininism may take its place.

In rare cases apparently in strongly developed bi- sexuality signs of inverted sexuality may appear (Bedor's case in Cadiz of a eunuch with developed mammae).

These facts are not in favour of the exclusive effects exercised by the sexual glands upon the development of the vita sexualis, especially of the psychical sexual character- istics, which no doubt belong to those central spheres which normally come into functional force with arriving puberty a^pd thus determine the essential criterion of the sex (sex- ual instinct).



ANOMALIES of the sexual functions are met with especially in civilised races. This fact is explained in part by the frequent abuse of the sexual organs, and in part by the circumstance that such functional anomalies are chiefly the signs of an inherited diseased condition of the central nervous system ("functional signs of degeneration").

'Literature: Parent-Duchatelet, " Prostitution dans la ville de Paris," 1837. Rosenbautn, " Entstehung der Syphilis," Halle, 1839 also, " Die Lustseuche im Alterthuin," Halle, 1839. Descuret, " La medecine des Passions," Paris, 1800. Caspar, " Klin. Novellen," 1860. Bastion, " Der Mensch in der Geschichte ". Friedlander, " Sittengeschichte Roms ". Wiedemeister, " Casarenwahnsinn ". Scherr, " Deutsche Kultur und Sittengeschichte," Bd. i., cap. ix. Jeannel, " Die Prostitution," dcutsch von Miillcr, Erlangen, 1809. ; v. Krafft, " Neue Forschungen auf dcm Gebiete der Psychopathia sexualis," 2 Aufl., Stuttgart, 1891. Taxil, " La Prostitution conteraporaine," Paris, 1884. Frank Lydston, " Philadelph. Med. and Surg. Reports, 1889. Urquhardt, Journal of Mental Science, Jan. 1891. Antonini, " Archiv. di Psichiatria," xxi., 1, 2. Cantat ano, Zcitschr. " La Psichiatria," v., 2, 3. Krauss, " Psychologic des Verbrechens," 1884. Kiernan, "Medic. Standard," Nov., 1889. Delcourt, " Le Vice ft Paris," 1889. Lombroso, " L'uomo Delinquente," 2 Aufl., 1878. Toulmouche, " Annal. d'hygiene," 1868. Giraldds et Horteloup, ibidem, 1876, p. 419. Eulenburg, " Klin. Handb. d. Harn- und Sexualorgane," 1894, 4 Abthl., p. 36. Moll, " Untersuchungen tiber die Libido sexualis," 1897; "Archivio delle psicopatie scssuali," Naples (1896) volume unico. Tardicu, " Des attentats aux mceurs," 7 e"dit., 1878. Emminghaus, " Psychopatliol.," pp. 98, 225, 230, 232. Schiile, "Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten," p. 114. Marc, "Die Geisteskrankheiten," ii., p. 128. v. Krafft, " Lehrb. d. Psychiatric, 6 Aufl. i., p. 77; " Lehrb. d. ger. Psychopathol.," 3 Aufl., p. 279 ; " Archiv f. Psychiatric," vii., 2. Morcau, " Des aberrations du sens genesique," Paris, 1880. Kirn, " Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psychiatric," 39, Heft 2 u. 3. Lom- broso, " Geschlechtstrieb und Verbrechen in ihren gcgenseitigen Boziehungen". (Goltdammer's "Archiv." Bd. 30). Tamotcsky, "Die krank- haften Erscheinungcn des Geschlechtsainnes," Berlin, 1886. Ball, " La



Since the general ivo organs stand in Important func- tional relation to the entire nervous system, and especially to its psychical and somatic functions, the frequency of general neuroses and psychoses arising in sexual (func- tional or organic) disturbances, is easy to understand.



1. Sensory. (a) Anaesthesia; (6) Hyperaesthesia ; (c) Neuralgia.

2. Secretory. (a) Aspermia; (6) Polyspennia.

3. Motor. (a) Pollutions (spasm) ; (6) Spermatorrhoea (paralysis)

II. SPINAL NEUROSES. 1. Affections of the Erection Centre.

(a) Irritation (priapism) arises from reflex action of peripheral sensory irritants (e.g., gonorrhoea) ; directly, from organic irritation of the nerve-tracts leading from the brain to the erection centre (spinal disease in the lower cervical and upper dorsal regions), or of the centre itself (certain poisons) ; or from psychical irritation.

In the latter case satyriasis exists, t. e. t abnormal dura-

folie trotique," Paris, 1888. Rtrieux, " Recherches cliniques sur le* anomalies de 1'instinct sexuel," Paris, 1888. Hammond, " Sexual Impotence," 1889. v. Krafft, " Qber sexuale Penrersionen." Leyden'i deutache Klinik, l!01, vi. v. 8chrenk-\otzing, Die Suggestionathera- I i- 1S92; also, Zeitach. fUr Hypnotism us, vii., H. 1 & 2, viii., H. 1. ( I.iti-ntnr.) Moll, die contrftre Sexualempfindung, 3 Aufl. 1889; also. Intorsurhunt.'.-n ab. d. Libido sexualis, 1897-98. Hirachfeld, Jahrb. f. sexucllc Xwi^-licnstufon, Jahrg. i.-iv. Block, Beitrfige z. Aetiologie >lor Paychopathia sexualis, ii., Tlieil, 1903.

Among modern novelists who deal with the subject of sexual perversion in French are most pre-eminently; Catulle Mendès, Peladan, Lemonnier, Dubut de la Forest (" L'homme de joie"), Huysmans ("La bas"), Zola.


tion of erection, with libido sexualis. In reflex or direct organic irritation, libido sexualis may be wanting, and the priapism may even give rise to disgust.

(6) Paraylsis arises from the destruction of the centre, or of the nerve-tracts (nervi erigentes), in diseases of the spinal cord (paralytic impotence).

A milder form is that of lessened excitability of the centre, resulting from over-stimulation (sexual excess, especially onanism), or from alcoholic intoxication, abuse of bromides, etc. It may also originate from cerebral anaesthesia, or that of the external genitals. Cerebral hyperaesthesia is more frequent in such cases (increased libido sexualis, lust).

A peculiar form of diminished excitability is shown in those cases where the centre responds only to certain stimu- li. Thus there are men to whom sexual contact with their virtuous wives does not supply the necessary stimulus for an erection, but in whom it occurs when the act is at- tempted with a prostitute, or in the form of some unnatural sexual act. So far as psychical stimuli are concerned, they may be inadequate (v. infra, parsesthesia and perversion of sexual instinct).

(c) Inhibition. The erection centre may become in- capable of function through cerebral influence. This in- hibitory influence is an emotional process (disgust, fear of contagion), or fear 1 of impotence. There are men who have an unconquerable antipathy to woman, or fear of infection, or are suffering with perverse sexual instinct. In the latter condition are those neuropathic individuals (neurasthenics, hypochondriacs), frequently weakened sex- ually (masturbators), who have reason, or think they have, to mistrust their sexual power. This idea acts as an in-

  • An interesting instacce of how an imperative conception of

non-sexual content can exert an influence is related by Magnan ("Ann. Me"d. Psych.," 1885) : Student, aged twenty-one, strongly pre disposed hereditarily, previously a masturbator, constantly struggles with the number thirteen as an imperative conception. A oon as he attempts coitus the imperative idea inhibits erection and renders the act impossible.


hibitory impulse, and makes the act with the person of the opposite sex temporarily or absolutely impossible.

(d) Irridihli' H Kikncss. In this condition there is abnormal impressionability of the centre, but accompanied by rapid diminution of its energy. There may be func- lional disturbance of the centre itself, or weakness of the innervation through the nervi erigentes; or there may be \\cakness of the erector penis muscle. Cases in which erec- tion is abortive on account of abnormally early ejaculation, form a transition to the following anomalies :

2. Affections of the Ejaculation Centre.

(a) Abnormally easy ejaculation from absence of cerebral inhibition, resulting from excessive psychical ex- citement or irritable weakness of the centre. In this case, under certain circumstances, the simple conception of a la-, ivious situation is sufficient to set the centre in action (high degree of spinal neurasthenia, usually resulting from sexual abuse). A third possibility is hyperaesthesia of the urethra, by virtue of which the escaping semen induces an immediate and excessive reflex action of the ejaculation centre. In such cases simple proximity to the female genitals may be sufficient to induce ejaculation (ante portam).

In cases of hypersesthesia of the urethra (as a cause), ejaculation may be accompanied by painful, instead of pleasurable sensations. Usually in cases where there is hvperaesthesia of the urethra, there is at the same time irritable weakness of the centre. Both these functional disturbances are important in the production of pollutio nimia and diurna.

The accompanying pleasurable feeling may be patho- logically absent. This occurs in defective men and women (anaesthesia, aspermia?), and, further, as a result of dis- ease (neurasthenia, hysteria) ; or (in prostitutes) it fol- lows over-stimulation and the blunting this induced. The intensity of the pleasurable feeling accompanying the


sexual act depends on the degree of psychical and motor excitement. Under pathological conditions this may become so pronounced, that the movements of coitus assume the character of involuntary convulsive actions, and even pass into general convulsions.

(fe) Abnormally difficult ejaculation. It is occasioned by inexcitability of the centre (absence of libido, paralysis of the centre: organic, from disease of brain or spinal cord; functional, from sexual abuses, marasmus, diabetes, morphinism), and, in this case, for the most part, in con- nection with an&sthesia of the genitals and paralysis of the erection centre. Or, it is the result of a lesion of the reflox arc or of peripheral anaesthesia (urethra), or of aspermia. The ejaculation occurs either not at all, or tardily, in the course of the sexual act, or only afterward, in the form of a pollution.


(1) Paradoxia, i.e., sexual excitement occurring inde- pendently of the period of the physiological processes in the generative organs.

(2) Anaesthesia (absence of sexual instinct). Here all organic impulses arising from the sexual organs, as well as all impulses, and visual, auditory and olfactory sense impressions fail to sexually excite the individual. This is a physiological condition in childhood and old age.

(3) Hypercesthesia (increased desire, satyriasis). In this state there is an abnormally increased impressionabil- ity of the vita sexualis to organic, psychical and sensory stimuli (abnormally intense libido, lustfulness, lascivious- ness). The stimulus may be central (nymphomania, satyriasis) or peripheral, functional or organic.

(4) Parcesthcsia (perversion of the sexual instinct, i.e., excitability of the sexual functions to inadequate stimuli).

Sub-divisions of parcesthcsia are : (a) Sadism,. It consists in this that the association of lust and cruelty, which is indicated in the physiological


consciousness, lxcomes strongly market! on a psychically aerated basis, ami that this lustful impulse coupled with presentations of cruelty rises to the height of power- ful affects. This generates a force that seeks to mate- rialise these presentations of fancy, and which is ac- complished when hvpenesthesia supervenes as a compli- cation, or inhibitory moral counter-presentations fail to act.

The quality of sadistic acts is defined by the relative potency of the tainted individual. If potent, the impulse of the sadist is directed to coitus, coupled with prepar- atory, concomitant or consecutive maltreatment, even murder, of the consort ("Lust murder"), the latter oc- curring chiefly because sensual lust has not been satisfied with the consummated coitus.

If the sadist is psychically or spinally impotent, as an equivalent of coitus, there will be noticed strangling, stab- bing, flagellating (of women), or under circumstances ridiculously silly and mean, acts of violence on the other person (symbolical sadism), or also faute de mieux on any living and feeling object (whipping of school children, recruits, apprentices, cruel acts on animals, etc.).

(6) Masochism is the counterpart of sadism in so far as it derives the acme of pleasure from reckless acts of violence at the hands of the consort. It springs from the impulse to create a situation by means of external phy- sical force, which is in accordance with the individual psychical and spinal stage of potency, as a preparatory and concomitant means to experience the voluptuous sen- sation of coitus, to increase it or to make it a substitute for cohabitation. In direct ratio of the intensity of the perverse instinct and the remaining power of moral and aesthetic counter motives, it forms a gradation of the most abhorrent and monstrous to the most ludicrous and absurd acts (the request for personal castigation, humiliations of all sorts, passive flagellation, etc.).

(c) Fetichism invests imaginary presentations of sep-


arate parts of the body or portions of raiment of the op- posite sex, or even simply pieces of clothing-material, with voluptuous sensations. The pathological aspect of this manifestation may be deduced from the fact that fetichism of parts of the body never stands in direct relation to sex, that it concentrates the whole sexual interest in the one part abstracted from the entire body.

As a rule, when the individual fetish is absent coitus becomes impossible or can only be managed under the in- fluence of the respective imaginary presentation, and even then grants no gratification. Its pathological condition is strongly accentuated by the circumstance that the fetichist does not find gratification in coitus itself, but rather in the manipulation of that portion of the body or that object which forms the interesting and effective fetich.

The fetich varies individually and is, no doubt, occa- sioned by some incident which determines the relation be- tween a single impression and the voluptuous feeling.

(rf) Antipathic Sexuality is the total absence of sex- ual feeling toward the opposite sex. It concentrates all sexuality in its own sex. The physical and psychical properties of persons of the same sex alone exercise an aphrodisic effect and awaken a desire for sexual union. It is purely a psychical anomaly, for the sexual instinct does in no wise correspond with the primary and second- ary physical sexual characteristics. In spite of the fully differentiated sexual type, in spite of the normally devel- oped and active sexual glands, man is drawn sexually to the man, because he has, consciously or otherwise, the in- stinct of the female toward him, or vice versa.

From the clinical and anthropological standpoint this abnormal manifestation offers various grades of develop- ment.

(a) In predominant homosexual instinct traces of heterosexual (psychical) hermaphrodisia are to be found.

(6) If there is only inclination to the own sex (ho- mosexuality) the secondary physical sexual characteristics


are normal, but the psychical ones may point to incipient inversion.

(c) The psychical sexual characteristics are inverted, i.e., they are shaped in accordance with the existing ab- normal sexuality (effeminatio-viraginity).

(d) Also the secondary physical sexual characteristics approach that sex to which the individual, according to his instinct, belongs (androgyny-gynandry).

These cerebral anomalies fall within the domain of psychopathology. The spinal and peripheral anomalies may occur in combination with the former; but as a rule they affect persons free from mental disease. They may occur in various combinations, and become the cause of sexual crimes, for which reason they demand considera- tion in the following description. However, the cerebral anomalies claim the principal interest, since they very frequently lead to the commission of perverse and even criminal acts.

A. Paradoxia. Sexual Instinct Manifesting Itself Inde- pendently of Physiological Processes.

1. Sexual Instinct Manifested in Childhood.

Every physician conversant with nervous affections and diseases incident to childhood is aware of the fact that manifestations of sexual instinct may occur in very young children. The observations of Ultzmann concerning masturbation in childhood 1 are worthy of attention in relation to it. It is necessary here to differentiate between tlu* numerous cases, in which, as a result of phimosis, balanitis, or oxyriris in the rectum or the vagina, young

l Louycr-Villermay speaks of masturbation in a girl of three or four years, and Moreau ("aberrations du sens ge'ne'sique," 2 etlit., p. 209) of the same in one of two years. See further Maudtlry, ' Physiology and Pathology of Mind": flirscluprung ( Kopenhagen ) , Berlin, klin. Wochenschr.," 1886, Nr. 38; Lombroto. " The Criminal," case* 10, 10, and 21.


children have itching of the genitals, and experience a kind of pleasurable sensation from manipulations occar sioned thereby, and thus come to practise masturbation; and those cases in which sexual ideas and impulses occur in the child as a result of cerebral processes without peripheral causes. It is only in this latter class of cases that we have to do with premature manifestations of sexual instinct In such cases it may always be regarded as an accompanying symptom of a neuropsychopathic consti- tutional condition.

A case of Marc's ("Die Geisteskrankheiten," etc., von Ideler, i., p. 66) illustrates very well these conditions. The subject was a girl of eight years of age, of respectable fam- ily, who was devoid of all child-like and moral feelings, and had masturbated from her fourth year; at the same time she consorted with boys of the age of ten or twelve. She had thought of killing her parents, that she might become her own mistress and give herself up to pleasure with men.

In these cases of premature manifestation of libido the children begin early to masturbate; and, since they are greatly predisposed constitutionally, they often sink into dementia, or become subjects of severe degenerative neu- roses or psychoses.

Lombroso ("Archivio di Psichiatria," iv., p. 22) has collected a number of cases of children affected with very decided hereditary taint, which belong to this category. One was that of a girl who masturbated shamelessly and almost constantly at the age of three. Another girl began at the age of eight, and continued to practise masturba- tion when married, and even during pregnancy. She was pregnant twelve times. Five of the children died early, four were hydrocephalic, and two boys began to mastur- bate one at the age of seven, the other at the age of four.

Zamlaco ("L'Encephale," 1882, Tr. 1, 2) tells the disgusting story of two sisters affected with premature and perverse sexual desire. The elder R masturbated


at the age of si .'-li.-r.l lewdaess with boys, stole

wherever she could, , her l'mir-v car-old si.ster into

masturbation, and at the age of ten was given up to the practice of the most revolting vires. Even ferrum candens ad clitoridcm had no effect in overcoming the practice, and she masturbated with the cassock of a priest while he was exhorting her to reformation.

Cf. also Magnan, "Lectures on Psychiatry," (in Ger- man by Mobius, vols. ii. and iii., p. 27), giving the case of premature and preverse vita sexualis in a girl of twelve with hereditary taint. Other cases, ibidem p. 120-121.

2. Re-awakening of Sexual Instinct in Old Age.*

Cases in which the sexual instinct prevails until a great age are rare. "Senectus non quidem annis sed viribus magis tcstimatur" (Zittmann). Oestcrlen (Masch- Tca, Handb.," iii., p. 18) mentions the case of a man aged eighty-three, who was sentenced to three years' imprison- ment by a court in Wiirtemberg on account of sexual mis- demeanours. Unfortunately nothing is said of the nature of the crime or of the mental condition of the criminal.

The manifestation of sexual instinct in old age is not in itself pathological.

Presumption of pathological conditions must neces- sarily be entertained when the individual is decrepit and his sexual life has already long become extinct ; and when the impulse, in a man whose sexual needs were in his early life, perhaps, not very marked, manifests itself with greater strength, and strives for even perverse satisfaction in a shameless and impulsive manner.

In such cases a presumption of pathological condi- tions suggests itself at once. Medical science recognises the fact that such an impulse depends upon the morbid alterations of the brain which lead to senile dementia. This abnormal manifestation of sexual life may be the

't'f. Kirn, " Zeitachr. f. Psych.," Bd. T^JT Lcgrand du Baulle. "Annal. d'hyg.," Oct., 1868.


precursor of senile dementia, and make its appearance even long before there are any well-defined manifesta- tions of intellectual weakness. The attentive and expe- rienced observer will always be able to detect in this prodromal stage an alteration of character in pejus, and a deterioration of the moral sense accompanying the peculiar sexual manifestation.

The libido of those passing into senile dementia is at first expressed in lascivious speech and gesture. The first objects for the attempts of these senile subjects of brain atrophy and psychical degeneration are children. This sad and dangerous fact is explained by the better oppor- tunity they have in succeeding with children, but more especially by a feeling of imperfect sexual power. De- fective sexual power, and greatly diminished moral sense, explain the additional fact of the perversity of the sexual acts of such aged men. They are the equivalents of the impossible physiological act.

The annals of legal medicine distinguish as such, ex- hibition of the genitals, 1 lustful handling of the genitals of children, 2 inducing them to perform manustupration on the seducer, and performing masturbation 8 or flagellation on the victim.

In this stage the intellect may still be sufficiently in- tact to allow avoidance of publicity and discovery, while the moral sense is too far gone to allow consideration of the moral significance of the act, and resistance to the impulse. With the progress of dementia, these acts are more and more shamelessly committed. Then care on account of defective sexual power disappears, and adults also become the objects of the senile passion; but the defective sexual power necessitates equivalents for coitus. Not infrequently sodomy results, and, as Tarnowsky (op. cit., p. 77) points out, in the sexual act performed with

'Cases, vide Lastgue; " Les exhibitionistes," Union m&licale, 1871: 1st May.

'Legrand du Saulle, " La folie devant les tribunaux," p. 530.

Kirn, Maschka's " Handb. d. ger. Med." pp. 373, 374; " Allg. Zeitschrift f. Psychiatric," Bd. xxxix., p. 220.


geese, chickens, etc., the sight of the dying animal and its death-struggles at the time of coitus afford complete gratification. The perverse sexual acts with adults are piite as horrible, and may be explained psychologically in the same way.

Case 49, in the author's "Text-Book of Legal Psycho- pathology," second edition, p. 161, demonstrates how enormously increased sexual lust may be during the course of senile dementia. Quum scnex libidinosus ger- manam suam /ilium cemulatione motus necaret et adspeetu pectoris scissi puellcB moribundce delectareiur.

Erotic delirium and states of satyriasis may occur in the course of the malady, with or without maniacal episodes, as the following case shows :

Case 1

J. René, always given to indulgence in sensuality and sexual pleasures, but always with regard for decorum, had shown, since his seventy-sixth year, a progressive loss of intelligence and increasing perversion of his moral sense. Previously bright and outwardly moral, he now wasted his property in concourse with prostitutes, frequented brothels only, asked every woman on the street to marry him or allow coitus, and thus became publicly so obnoxious that it was necessary to place him in an asylum. There the sexual excitement increased to a veritable satyriasis, which lasted until he died. He masturbated continuously, even before others; took delight only in obscene ideas; thought the men about him were women, and followed them with indecent proposals (Legrand du Saulle, "La Folie," p. 533).

Moreover, women previously moral, when affected with senile dementia, may manifest similar conditions of great sexual excitement (nymphomania, furor uterinus).

It may be seen from a reading of Schopenhauer that, as a result of senile dementia, the abnormally excited and perverse instinct may be directed exclusively to persons of the same sex (v. infra). Gratification is obtained by passive pederasty, or, as I ascertained in the following case, by mutual masturbation :

Case 2

Mr. X., aged eighty, of high social standing, born of a family with hereditary taint. He was always very sensual and a cynic, of uncontrollable temper, and, according to his own confession, as a young man preferred masturbation to coitus. However, he never showed signs of sexual perversion, and kept mistresses, raising a child by one. At the age of forty-eight he married, out of inclination, and begat six children, and never gave his wife cause for complaint. I could obtain but an incomplete history of his family. It was certain that his brother was suspected of love for men, and that a nephew became insane as a result of excessive masturbation.

The patient's temper, always peculiar and quick, had for years been growing more violent. He had become exceedingly suspicious, and slight opposition to his wishes induced attacks of anger which turned at times into actual raving, when he would raise his hand even against his wife. For a year there had been unmistakable signs of incipient senile dementia. The patient had become forgetful, localised past events incorrectly, and had false ideas of time. For fourteen months it was noticed that he manifested affection for certain male servants, especially for a gardener's boy. Otherwise rude and overbearing to servants, he surfeited his favourite with favours and presents, and commanded his family and his house officials to treat the boy with the greatest respect. The aged patient awaited the hour of rendez-vous in true sexual excitement. He sent his family away, that he might be with his favourite undisturbed, and remained shut up with him for hours; and when the doors were opened again, he was found lying on the bed exhausted. Besides this object of his passion, the patient had intercourse episodically with other servants. It is certain that he enticed them, asked them for kisses, exhibited himself, allowed manipulation of the gentialia, and practised mutual masturbation. By these practices absolute demoralisation was brought about in the household.

The family was powerless; for any opposition caused violent outbreaks of anger and even threats against his relatives. The patient was completely without appreciation of his perverse sexual acts; and therefore the only course left to the afflicted family was to remove all authority from his hands and place him in an asylum. No erotic inclination towards the opposite sex was observed, though the patient occupied a sleeping-apartment with his wife. With reference to the perverse sexuality and the defective moral sense of this unfortunate man, it is worthy of note that he questioned the servants of his daughter-in-law as to whether she had lovers.

B. Anaesthesia Sexualis (Absence of Sexual Feeling).

1. As a Congenital Anomaly.

Only those cases can be regarded as unquestionable examples of absence of sexual instinct dependent on cere- bral causes, in which, in spite of generative organs nor- mally developed and the performance of their functions (secretion of semen, menstruation), the corresponding emotions of sexual life are absolutely wanting. These func- tionally sexless individuals are rare cases, and, indeed, always persons having degenerative defects, in whom other functional cerebral disturbances, states of psychical degen- eration, and even anatomical signs of degeneration, may be observed.

Case 3.

K., age 29, civil servant, consulted me on account of his abnormal sexual condition. Being without relatives he wanted to marry, but only on rational grounds. K. claimed to have never experienced a sensual emotion, sexual life was known to him only from what he had heard other men say about it or from what he had read in erotic novels, which, however, had never made any impression upon him. He had no dislike for the opposite sex, or special inclination towards his own sex, and had never masturbated. Since his seventeenth year he had at intervals nocturnal pollutions, but without concomitant lascivious dreams. Erections occurred in the morning when waking which, however, disappeared at once after emptying the bladder. Excepting this want of sexual instinct K. considered himself quite normal. No psychical defects could be detected. He was fond of solitude, but of a frigid nature, without interest in the arts or the beautiful, but a highly efficient and esteemed official.

Case 4

W., age 25, merchant, claimed to be untainted, never had a severe illness, never had masturbated, since his nineteenth year had but rarely pollutions, mostly without sensual dreams. Since his twenty-first year coitus rarissimus, actus quasi masturbatorius, in corpore feminae, sine ulla voluptate. W. declared to have made these attempts solely through curiosity, and soon gave them up altogether as desire, gratification, and ultimately even erection were wanting. He never had any leaning towards his own sex. His deficiency did not seem to cause him any worry. In the ethical and aesthetical field there were no abnormal manifestations.

Case 5

P., aged thirty-six, common labourer, was received at my clinic in the beginning of November on account of spastic spinal paralysis. He declared he came of a healthy family. A stutterer from his youth. Cranium microcephalic (cf. 53 cm.). Patient somewhat imbecile. He was never sociable, never had a sexual emotion. The sight of a woman never had anything enticing for him. He never had a desire to masturbate. Erections frequent but only on awakening in the morning with a full bladder, and without a trace of sexual feeling. Pollutions very infrequent about once a year, in sleep and usually while dreaming that he was concerned with a female.These dreams, however, as his dreams in general, were not markedly erotic. He said the act of pollution was not aclv any pleasurable sensation. Patient hid this absence of sexual sensation. He gave the assurance that his brother, aged thirty-four, was in exactly the same sexual condition as himself, and made it seem able that a sister, aged twenty-one, was in a similar. A younger In-other, he said, was sexually normal.

The examination of his genitals revealed nothing abnormal vd phimosis.

Further cases see V. Krafil, "Arbeiten," iv., p. 178, Hammond ("Sexual Impotence"), even with his wide experience, reports only the following three cases of anaesthesia sexualis :

Case 6

. Mr. W., aged thirty-three; strong, healthy, with normal genitals. He had never experienced libido, and had vainly sought to awaken his defective sexual in* stinct by means of obscene stories and intercourse with prostitutes. On the occasion of such attempts he experi- enced only disgust, with even a feeling of nausea, and became nervously and mentally exhausted. Only once, when he forced the situation, did he have a transitory erec- tion. W. had never masturbated, and had had pollutions about once every two months from his seventeenth year. Important interests demanded that he should marry. He had no horror femince, and longed for a home and a wife, but felt that he was incapable of the sexual act He died unmarried in the American Civil War.

Case 7

X., aged twenty-seven, genitals normal; never felt libido. Mechanical or thermic stimuli easily in- duced erection, but libido sexualis was regularly replaced by a desire for alcoholic indulgence. Such excesses also induced erections, and he then sometimes masturbated. He had a disinclination for women and a loathing of e"it us. If, with an erection, he made an attempt at enitus, it disappeared at once. Death in coma during an attack of cerebral hypersemia.

Case 8

Mrs. O., normally developed, healthy, men- struated regularly; aged thirty-five; fifteen years marri' <1. She never experienced libido, and never had any erotic excitement in sexual intercourse with her husband. She was not averse to coitus, and sometimes seemed to experi- ence pleasure in it, but she never had a wish for repetition of cohabitation.

In connection with such genuine cases of anaesthesia, 1 there should be considered other cases in which the mental side of the vita sexualis is a blank leaf in the life of the individual, but where elementary sexual sensations manifest themselves at least in masturbation (cf. the tran- sitional case 7). According to Magnan's ingenious classi- fication which, however, is not strictly correct and somewhat too dogmatic in such cases the sexual life is so limited as to be designated spinal. Possibly in some such cases there exists virtually a mental side of the vita sexualis, but it is very weak, and undermined by mastur- bation before it attains development. These represent the transitional cases from the congenital to the acquired (psychical) anaesthesia sexualis. This danger threatens many masturbators of vitiated constitution. It is psycho- logically interesting that when the sexual element is early vitiated, then an ethical defect is manifested.

The two following cases, previously published by me in the "Archiv fur Psychiatric," vii., are given here as illustrations worthy of consideration:

"No doubt Swift's, the great satirist, was a case of anaesthesia sexualis. Adolf Stern says in his biography of Swift (" Aus dem 18. Jahrhundert; Biographische Bilder und Skizzen," Leipzig, 1874) : " It seems that he was totally devoid of the sensual elements of love ; hia candid cynicism, found in many of his letters, is almost definite proof of this. Whoever properly grasps certain passages in ' Gulli- ver's Travels,' and especially the account which Swift gives of the marriage and progeny of the Houyhnhorses, the noble steeds of the last chapters, can scarcely doubt that this great satirist abhorred marriage, and never felt the impulse which draws the sexes together. Practically speaking, the enigmatical side of Swift's character, and several of his works, viz., "Diary to Stella" and "Gulliver's Travels." can only be understood if Swift is considered sexually anaesthetic.

Case 9

F. J., aged nineteen, student; mother waa nervous, sister epileptic. At the age of four, acute braiu affection, lasting two weeks. As a child he was not affectionate, and was cold towards his parents ; as a student he was peculiar, retiring, preoccupied with self, and given to much reading. Well endowed mentally. Masturbation from fifteenth year. Eccentric after puberty, with con- tinual vacillation between religious enthusiasm and ma- terialism now studying theology, now natural sciences. At the university his fellow-students took him for a fool. He read Jean Paul almost exclusively, and wasted his time. Absolute absence of sexual feeling toward the op- posite sex. Once he indulged in intercourse, experienced no sexual feeling in the act, found coitus absurd, and did not repeat it. Without any emotional cause whatever, he often had a thought of suicide. He made it the subject of a philosophical dissertation, in which he contended that it was, like masturbation, a justifiable act. After repeated experiments which he made on himself with various poi- sons, he attempted suicide with fifty-seven grains of opium, but he was saved and sent to an asylum.

Patient was destitute of moral and social feelings. Hia writings disclosed incredible frivolity and vulgarity. His knowledge was of a wide range, but his logic peculiarly distorted. There was no trace of emotionality. He treated everything (even the sublime) with incomparable cynicism and irony. He pleaded for the justification of suicide with false philosophical premises and conclusions, and, as one would speak of the most indifferent affair, he declared that he intended to accomplish it. He regretted that his pen- knife had been taken from him. If he had it, he would open his veins as Seneca did in the bath. At one time a friend had given him instead of a poison as he sup- posed, a cathartic. Instead of sending him to the other world, it sent him to the water-closet Only the Great Operator could eradicate his foolish and fatal idea with the scythe of death, etc.

The patient had a large, rhombic, distorted skull, the left half of the forehead being flatter than the right. The occiput was very straight. Ears far back, widely project- ing, and the external meatus formed a narrow slit. Genitals very lax ; testicles unusually soft and small.

Now and then the patient suffered with ononiatomania. He was compelled to think of the most useless problems and give himself up to interminable, distressing and worry- ing thoughts, and became so fatigued that he was no longer capable of any rational thinking. After some months the patient was sent home unimproved. There he spent his time in reading and frivolities, and busied himself with the thought of founding a new system of Christianity because Christ had been subject to grand delusions and had deceived the world with miracles ( !). After remaining at home some years the sudden occurrence of a maniacal outbreak brought him back to the asylum. He presented a mixture of primordial delirium of persecution (devil, antichrist, persecution, poisoning, persecuting voices) and delusions of grandeur (Christ, redemption of the world), with impulsive, incoherent actions. After five months there was a remission of this intercurrent acute mental disease, and the patient returned to the level of his original intellectual peculiarity and moral defect.

Case 10

E., aged thirty, journeyman painter, was arrested while trying to cut off the scrotum of a boy he had caught in the woods. He gave as a motive for this act that he wished to cut it off in order that the world should not multiply. Often in his youth, with like purpose, he had cut into his own genitals.

It is impossible to learn anything of his ancestry. From his childhood he was mentally abnormal, violent, never lively, very irritable, irascible, selfish and weak minded. He hated women, loved solitude, and read much. He sometimes laughed to himself and did silly things. Of late years his hatred of women had increased, especi "y of those that were pregnant, they being responsible for the misery of the world. He also hated children, and cursed his father. Ho entertained communistic ideas, and berated the rich aiid the ministry and God, who had allowed him to come into the world so poor, lie declared that it would be better to castrate all children than to allow others to come into the world fated only to endure poverty and misery. He had always had the in- tention, from his fifteenth year, of castrating himself, in order that he might have no part in increasing unhappiness and adding to the number of men. lie hated the female sex because it was a means of procreation. Only twice in his life had he allowed women to practise manustupration on him, and, with the exception of this he had never had anything to do with them. Occasionally he had sexual desire, but never for a natural gratification of it When nature did not help him, he occasionally helped himself by means of masturbation.

He was a powerful, muscular man. The formation of the genitals presented no abnormality. On the scrotum and penis were numerous scars, the results of his attempts at self-emasculation, which, he asserted, were not carried out on account of pain. Genu valgum of right leg. No evidence of onanism could be discovered. He was moody, defiant, irritable. Social feelings were absolutely foreign to him. With the exception of imperfect sleep and fre- quent headaches, there were no functional disturbances.

From cases of this kind, depending on cerebral causes, there must be distinguished others in which the absence of function arises from an absence of malformation of the generative organs, as in certain hermaphrodites, idiots and cretins.

Ultzmann's 1 observations show that anaesthesia sexualis is not caused simply by axpcrmia. He shows that even in congenital aspermia the vita sexualis and sexual power may be entirely satisfying; an additional proof that de-

'" Ueber mannliche Sterilitlt," Wiener med. Presse, 1878, Nr. 1. ' Ueber Potentia generandi et coSundi," Wiener Klinik, 1885, Heft 1, S. 5.

fective libido db origine is to be sought for iii cerebral con- ditions.

The naturae frigidae of Zacchias are examples of a milder form of anaesthesia. They are met with more fre- quently in women than in men. The characteristic signs of this anomaly are : slight inclination to sexual intercourse, or pronounced disinclination to coitus without sexual equiva- lent, and failure of corresponding psychical, pleasurable excitation during coitus, which is indulged in simply from sense of duty. I have often had occasion to hear com- plaints from husbands about this. In such cases the wivoa have always proved to be neuropathic ab origine. Some were at the same time hysterical.

2. Acquired Anasthesia.

Acquired diminution of sexual instinct, extending through all degrees to extinction, may depend on various causes. These may be organic and functional, psychical and somatic, central and peripheral. The diminution of libido, as age advances, and its temporary disappearance after the sexual act, are physiological. The variations with reference to the duration of the sexual instinct are de- pendent upon individual factors. Education and manner of life have a great influence upon the intensity of the vita sexualis. Intense mental activity (hard study), phy- sical exertion, emotional depression, and sexual continence decidedly diminish sexual inclination. Continence at first induces increase, but sooner or later, according to con- stitutional conditions, the activity of the generative organs decreases, and with it libido. At all events, in a person sexually mature, a close connection exists between the aetivitv of the generative glands and the degree of libido. That this relation is not determined is shown by the cases of sensual women, who, after the climacterinm, continue to have sexual intercourse, and may manifest states of sexual excitement (cerebral). Also in eunuchs it is seen that libido may long outlast the production of semen.

On the other hand, however, experience teaches that libido is essentially conditioned by the functions of the generative glands, and that the facts mentioned are ex- ceptional manifestations. As peripheral causes of diminu- tion or extinction of libido, may be mentioned castration, degeneration of the sexual glands, marasmus, sexual excesses in the form of coitus and masturbation, and alcoholism and abuse of cocaine. In the same way, the disappearance of libido in general disturbances of nutrition (diabetes, morphinism, etc.) may be explained. Finally, the atrophy of the testicles should be remem- bered, which has sometimes been observed to follow focal lesions of the brain (cerebellum).

A diminution of the vita sexualis from degeneration of the tracts of the cord and genito - spinal centre, occurs in diseases of the spinal cord and brain. A central interference with the sexual instinct may be or- ganically induced by cortical disease (dementia paralytica in its advanced stages) ; functionally, by hysteria (cen- tral anaesthesia?) and emotional insanity (melancholia, hypochondria).

C. Hyperatsthesia (Abnormally Increased Sexual Desire).

One of the most important anomalies of sexual life is an abnormal presence of sexual sensations and presenta- tions from which necessarily arise frequent and violent impulses for sexual gratification. No doubt it is the out- come of the education, or rather the breeding of many centuries that the sexual instinct which is indispensable for the preservation of the race and therefore congenital in every normal individual, is not the predominant key in the chord of human sentiments, but rather forms epi- sodes in the physical and psychical life of cultured man with periods of ebb and flood tide; is the generating ele- ment of higher and nobler social and moral sentiments, and leaves room for other spheres of activity, the object of which is the furtherance of interests affecting the indi- vidual as well as society at large.

It is, moreover, a statute of the moral code and of the common law that civilised man satisfy his sexual in- stinct only within the barriers (established in the interests of the community) of modesty and morality, and that man should, under all circumstances, control this instinct so soon as it comes in conflict with the altruistic demands of society.

If the normally constituted civilised individual were unable to comply with this rule, family and state would cease to exist as the foundations of a moral, lawful com- munity.

Practically speaking the sexual instinct never develops in the normal, sane individual that has not been deprived by intoxication (alcohol, etc.) of his reason or good senses, to such an extent that it permeates all this thoughts and feelings, allowing of no other aims in life, tumultuously, and in rut-like fashion demanding gratification without granting the possibility of moral and righteous counter-pre- sentations, and resolving itself into an impulsive, insatiable succession of sexual enjoyments.

For the latter would at once betray a pathological con- dition, which episodically might produce such a high degree of sexual affection, that self-consciousness becomes clouded, sanity impaired, and a true psychical calamity established which would lead to an irresistible impulse to commit sexual acts of violence.

Such psycho-sexual extravagances have been but little probed scientifically, though they are of great importance for the criminal forum since the individual so affected can scarcely be held mentally responsible. It is fortunate for society and for the criminal doctor, who is called upon to make the diagnosis, that these cases, in which irresistible hypersensuality leads to the gravest and indisputably path- ological sexual aberrations, are only encountered in that category of human beings whom we class among the de- generates infected with hereditary taint.

Alas, their number is by no means small in modern so- ciety, which shows many marks of physical and psychical degeneration, especially in the centres of culture and re- finement.

Coupled with perversions of sexual life and sexual im- becility springing from the same degenerated soil, often with the aiding influence of alcohol, the most monstrous and horrible sexual excesses (cf. Sadism) are perpetrated which would disgrace humanity at large, could they be committed by normal man.

The commission of these atrocious acts by degenerated and partially defective individuals is the outcome of an ir- resistible impulse or delirium. The mechanism of these actions is indeed the property of psychical degeneration.

The special act follows the direction given by the her- editary or acquired impulse and in many instances is de- termined by the relative potency or impotence of the agent. This pathological sexuality is a dreadful scourge for ita victim, for he is in constant danger of violating the laws of the state and of morality, of losing his honor, his freedom and even his life. Alcohol and prolonged sexual abstinence are apt to produce in such degenerated persons at any time powerful sexual affections.

Besides these graver manifestations of pathological sex- uality we find also milder and more numerous gradations of hypersexuality, to the lowest of which, perhaps, belong those individuals who, impecunious though they be whilst sexually potent, move in the better classes of society and have no other aim in life than to gratify their sexual de- sires. These are not afflicted with a pathological sexual condition, know to control themselves in a measure, observe the acknowledged rules of decency, do not compromise themselves, but allow no opportunity to pass by without utilizing it to the utmost. Another grade are the apron-} hunters, the Don Juans, whose whole existence is an end- less chain of sensual enjoyment and whose blunted moral I sense does not keep them from seduction, adultery and even incest.

Case 11

. P., Caretaker, age 53; married; no evidence of hereditary taint; no epileptic antecedents; mod- erate drinker ; no sign of senium precox ; appeared, accord- ing to the statement of his wife during the whole time of their married life covering a period of 28 years, hypersex- ual, extremely libidinous, ever potent, in fact insatiable in his marital relations. During coitus he became quite bestial and wild, trembled all over with excitement and panted heavily. This nauseated the wife who by nature was rather frigid and rendered the discharge of her conjugal duty a heavy burden. He worried her with his jealous behaviour, but he himself soon after the marriage seduced his wife's sister, an innocent girl, and had a child by her. In 1873 he took mother and child to his home. He now had two women, but gave preference to the sister-in-law, which the wife tolerated as a lesser evil. As years went by his libido increased, though his potency decreased. He often resorted to masturbation even immediately after coitus, and with- out in the least minding the presence of the women. Since 1892 he committed immoral acts with a girl of 16 years, who was his ward, i.e., puellam coagere solebat, ut eum masturbaret. He even tried to force her at the point of a revolver to have coitus with him. The same attempts he made on his own illegitimate child, so that both often had to be protected from him. At the clinic he was quiet and well-behaved. His excuse was hypersexuality. He ac- knowledged the wrongfulness of his actions, but said ho could not help himself. The frigidity of the wife had forced him to commit adultery. There was no disturbance of his mental faculties, but the ethical elements were ut- terly wanting. He had several epileptic fits but no signs of degeneration.

We must concede that the degree of libido sexualis is subject to rise and fall in the untainted individual, accord- ing to age, constitutional conditions, mode of life and the various influences of health and illness of the body, etc. Sexual desire rapidly increases after puberty, until it reaches a marked degree ; it is strongest from the twentieth to the fortieth year, and then slowly decreases. Married life seems to preserve and control the instinct v Sexual in- tercourse with many persons increases the desire.

Since woman has less sexual need than man, a pre- dominating sexual desire in her arouses a suspicion of its pathological significance. Those living in large cities, who are constantly reminded of sexual things and incited to sexual enjoyment, certainly have more sexual desire than those living in the country. A dissipated, luxurious, se- dentary manner of life, preponderance of animal food, and the consumption of spirits, spices, etc., have a stimulating influence on the sexual life. In woman the sexual inclina- tion is post-menstrually increased. At this period, in neu- ropathic women, the excitement may reach a pathological degree.

The great libido of consumptives is remarkable, even during the very latest stages of the disease. Sexual hyper- testhesia is in my opinion a functional manifestation of de- generation. Whether it may occur as an acquired, acci- dental, episodical condition in the untainted is worthy of scientific research. Excessive libido may be peripherally or centrally induced. The former manner of origin is the more infrequent. Pruritus and eczema of the genitals may cause it, and likewise certain substances, like cantharides, which powerfully stimulate sexual desire.

Not infrequently in women at the climacteric period sexual excitement occurs, occasioned by pruritus, and also in cases where there is neuropathic taint. Magnan ("An- nales medico-psychol.," 1885, p. 157) reports the case of a lady who was afflicted in the mornings with attacks of frightful erethismus genitalis, and the case of a man aged fifty-five who was tormented at night by unbearable pri- apism. In each case there was a neurosis.

The central origin of sexual excitement can often be traced 1 in persons having neurotic taint or hysteria and in

'In individuals in whom intense sexual hyperwstheaia is asso- ciated with acquired irritable weakness of the sexual apparatus, it happens that simply at the sight of a pleasing female figure, without peripheral irritation of the genitals, the psycho-sexual centre may excite into action not only the mechanism of the erection, but alM

conditions of psychical exaltation. When the cortex and the psycho-sexual centre are in a condition of hypenesthesui (abnormal excitability of the imagination, increased ease of association), not only visual and tactile impressions, but also auditory and olfactory sensations, may be sufficient to call up lascivious conceptions.

Magnan (op. cit.) reports the case of a young woman who hud an increasing sexual desire from puberty, and satisfied it by masturbation. Gradually she grew to l>e- come sexually excited at the sight of any man pleasing to her ; and, since she was unable to control herself, she would sometimes shut herself up in a room until the storm had passed. At last she gave herself up to men of her choice, that she might get rest from her tormenting desire, but neither coitus nor masturbation brought relief, and she went to an asylum.

The case of a mother of five children is added, who, in despair about her inordinate sexual impulse, attempted suicide, and then sought an asylum. There her condition improved, but she never trusted herself to leave it.

There are several illustrative cases in men and women in the author's article, "On Certain Anomalies of Sexual Instinct," cases 6 and 7 ("Archiv fur Psychiatrie," vii.,


The two following cases show how powerful, dangerous and painful sexual hypencsthesia may become in those af- flicted with this anomaly :

Case 12. Hypercesthesia sexualis. Masturbatio coram discipulis in schola.

Z., 36 years of age, father of seven children, president

that of ejaculation. For such individuals, all that is necessary to induce orgasm or even ejaculation, is to imagine themselves in a sexual situation with a female that sits opposite them in a railway carriage or a drtiwincr-room. Hammond (op. cit., p. 40) describee several cases of this kind that came to him for treatment or subse- quent impotence, and he mentions that these individuals used the tc-rm " ideal coitus " for the act. Dr. Moll, of Berlin, told me of a similar case, and in this instance the same designation was chosen for the act.

of school, confessed that he committed masturbation in school whilst sitting at his desk which, however, pn -venn ! the act being seen hy tin- pupils as it was encased all arouii(i. Ho drank more than usual on the preceding ini:, had been provoked to an^i-r before going to school, and had ln-en excited by the sight of some very pretty girls attending his lecture. This produced a violent erection and led to masturbation. At'u r the act he became conscious at once of his compromising position, but the thought that the pupils had not noticed his excitement had helped him to regain self-possession.

1 1 is previous conduct being without a blemish, the au- thorities suspected a pathological condition and insisted upon a medical examination by the author.

The facts elicited were the following: Z. came from healthy parents. Two close relations were epiletics. At the age of 13 Z. suffered from a severe concussion of tlio brain, which produced an acute dementia lasting three weeks. Since that time frequent spells of irritability and intolerance of alcohol.

At the age of 16 awakening of vita sexualis with ab- normal vigor and pronounced sexual emotions. Lascivious literature and pictures of women produced satisfying ejacu- lation. From the age of 18 onward he indulged now and then in coitus. But as a rule the touching of a woman's arm sufficed to produce orgasm and ejaculation. He mar- ried at the age of 24 and indulged in coitus three or four times daily, and besides practised masturbation, coupled with ideal coitus.

(See footnote on page 73).

With the birth of his fourth child (three years ago) Z. was forced, for economical reasons, to restrain himself from sexual intercourse as he despised anticonceptional means. Tactus feminarum, which produced pollutio diurna, proved unsatisfactory as did also automasturbation. He suffered much from incessant sexual excitement, which at the end of periods of six weeks became so strong that it affected his mind and will power sensibly. Only masturbation kept him from committing sexual violence on women. Ho became very irritable and easily flew into passion, yelled and raged about the house and even beat wife and children.

It often happened now that at the height of such a spell he would fall over and become unconscious, rattling from the throat in a peculiar manner. After a few minutes he would recover again with complete amnesia of what had happened. An attack of this kind had, however, not pre- ceded the act with which he now stood charged, but had occurred three days afterward.

Z. was an intelligent, decent man, most penitent and filled with shame.

He understood quite well that he could no longer teach at a girl's school and bewailed his unnatural, unbridled sensuality.

He made no attempt to in any way excuse his action, but pointed out that his nervous system had been thor- oughly shaken of late by libido insatiata and overwork (les- sons up to twelve hours daily).

Vegetative functions normal ; parietal protuberance of cranium ; genitals large, lax, but normal.

Patellar reflexes much exaggerated.

In my report I pointed out that Z. suffered from a pathologically exaggerated vita sexualis and most probably from epilepsy, and had committed the act whilst subject to a sexual affection which depressed the power of self-con- trol to a minimum.

Further legal proceedings were withdrawn. Z. was pensioned off.

Case 13

On 11th July, 1884, R., aged thirty-three, servant, was admitted suffering with paranoia persecutoria and neurasthenia sexualis. Mother was neuropathic ; father died of spinal disease. From childhood he had an intense sexual desire, of which he became conscious as early as his sixth year. From this age, masturbation; from fifteenth year, faute de mieux, pederasty ; occasionally, sodomitic indulgences. Later, dbusus coitus in matrimonio cum uxore.

Now and then even perverse impulse to commit and to administer cantharides to his wife, because her do did not equal his own. His wife died after a short period of married life. Patient's circumstances became straitened, and he had no means to indulge himself sexually. Then masturbation again ; employment of lingua canis to induce ejaculation. At times, priapism and conditions approaching satyriasis. He was then driven to masturbate in order to avoid rape. With gradually predominating sexual neurasthenia and hypochondria came beneficial diminution of libido nimia.

A particular species of hypercesthesia sexualis may be found in females in whom a most impulsive desire for sexual intercourse with certain men imperatively demands gratification. No doubt "unrequited love" for another man may often affect the married woman who does not either psychically or physically (impotentia mariti) experience connubial satisfaction; but the normal, untainted wife guided by ethical reasons knows how to conquer herself.

Of course, pathological conditions change the situation.

Fetichism must here be considered. Sexual impulse is overpowering, at times periodically recurrent. The very attempt to overcome it produces most painful attacks of worry and anxiety. This pathological want becomes so powerful that all considerations of shame, conventionality and womanly honour simply disappear, and it reveals itself in the most shameless manner even to the husband, whilst the normal woman, endowed with full moral consciousness, knows how to conceal the terrible secret

Magnan ("Psychiatr. Vorlesungen") quotes two striking instances from his own experience. One is specially instructive. A young woman, mother of three children, with a blameless past, but daughter of a lunatic, tells her husband one day openly that she is in love with a certain young man and that she would kill herself if her intimate relations with him were interfered with. She begs permission to live with him for six months in order to quench

the fire of her passion, when she would return to her family again. Husband and children have no place in her heart with her present love. The husband took her to a foreign country and placed her there under medical treatment.

This pathological love of married women for other men is a phenomenon in the domain of psychopathia sexualis which sadly stands in need of scientific explanation. The author has had the opportunity of observing five cases belonging to this category. The pathological conditions were paroxysmal, in one case repeatedly recurrent; but always sharply distinct from the unaffected, healthy period, during which deep sorrow and contrition over the occurrence were manifested. But it was the sorrow over an unavoidable fatality caused by psychically abnormal conditions.

Whilst the pathological conditions lasted, absolute indifference, even hatred, prevailed towards husband and children, and an utter want of understanding the bearings and consequences of the scandalous behaviour, jeopardising the honour and dignity of wife and family, were noticeable. It .is remarkable that in all these cases the husband and relatives had come to the conclusion that the condition was caused by psychopathia, even before they had obtained expert opinion.

As against the "non-psychopathical" but otherwise abnormally libidinous Messalinas, it is well worthy of note that this sexual aberration is only an episode in the life of the otherwise honourable woman, and that the illicit intercourse was of a strictly monogamic character. This, and particularly the circumstance that the unfortunate woman was not omnium virorum mulier, but only the mistress of one man, establishes a distinct difference from nymphomania. In three of the cases mentioned above, the grossly sensual momentum was missing, the real motive for marital infidelity was to be found in a fetich-like charm, in mental superior qualities, in one case the voice of the charmer.

In two cases unmistakable proofs of hypercssthesia sexualis and of absolute impotence towards the husband were found, whilst the merest touch of the other man produced orgasm, and the sexual act the acme of pleasure. Of course, in these latter cases absolute sexual abandonment followed.

D. Par&sthesia of Sexual Feeling (Perversion of the Sexual Instinct).

In this condition there is perverse emotional colouring of the sexual ideas. Ideas physiologically and psycho- logically accompanied by feelings of disgust, give rise to pleasurable sexual feelings; and the abnormal association finds expression in passionate, uncontrollable emotion. The practical results are perverse acts (perversion of the sexual instinct). This is more easily the case if the pleasurable feelings, increased to passionate intensity, inhibit any op- posing ideas with corresponding feelings of disgust ; or the influence of such opposing conceptions may be rendered impossible on account of the absence or loss of all ideas of morality, aesthetics and law. This loss, however, is only too frequently found where the spring well of ethical ideas and feeling* (a normal sexual instinct) has been poisoned from the beginning.

With opportunity for the natural satisfaction of the sexual instinct, every expression of it that does not corre- spond with the purpose of nature i.e., propagation must be regarded as perverse. The perverse sexual acts resulting from parsesthesia are of the greatest importance clinically, socially, and forensically ; and, therefore, they must here receive careful consideration; all aesthetic and moral dis- gust must be overcome.

Perversion of the sexual instinct, as will be seen farther on, is not to be confounded with perversity in the sexual act; since the latter may be induced by conditions other than psycho-pathological. The concrete perverse act, mon- strous as it may be, is clinically ndt decisive. In order to differentiate between disease (perversion) and vice (per- versity), one must investigate the whole personality of the

individual and the original motive leading to the perverse act Therein will be found the key to the diagnosis (v. in- fra}.

Partsesthesia may occur in combination with hyperaes- thesia. This association seems to be frequent clinically. Sexual acts are then confidently to be expected. The per- verse direction of sexual activity may be toward sexual satisfaction with the opposite or the same sex. Thus two great groups of perversions of sexual life may be distin- guished.

I. Sexual Inclination Toward Persons of the Opposite Sex, with Perverse Activity of the Instinct

1. Sadism. 1 Association of Active Cruelty and Violence with Lust.

Sadism, especially in its, rudimentary manifestations, seems to be of common occurrence in the domain of sexual perversion. Sadism is the experience of sexual pleasurable sensations (including orgasm) produced by acts of cruelty, bodily punishment afflicted on one's own person or when witnessed in others, be they animals or human beings. It may also consist of an innate desire to humiliate, hurt, wound or even destroy others in order thereby to create sexual pleasure in one's self.

Thus it will happen that one of the consorts in sexual heat will strike, bite 2 or pinch the other, that kissing de- generates into biting. Lovers and young married couples are fond of teasing each other, they wrestle together "just

'So named from the notorious Marquis de Bade, whose obscene novels treat of lust and cruelty. In French literature the expression " Sadism " has been applied to this perversion. Eulenburg (" Klin. Handb. der Harn und Sexual -organe ") uses the term "active algolagnia " in connection with these phenomena.

'Moll, Contr. Sexualempfindung, 3d ed., p. 160; Krafft-Ebing " Arbeit en" iv., p. 106; Idem, Leydcn's German clinic, vi. Sect. 2, p. 137; Eulenburg, Qrenzfragen des Nerven-und Seelenlebent, uci. p. 1.

for fun," imlulirr in all sorts of horseplay. The transition from these atavistic manifestations, which no doubt belong to the sphere of physiological sexuality, to the most monstrous acts of destruction of the consort's life can be readily traced.

Where the husband forces the wife by menaces and other violent means to the conjugal act, we can no longer describe such as a normal physiological manifestation, but

must ascribe it to sadistic impulses. It seems probable

that this sadistic force is developed by the natural shyness and modesty of woman towards the aggressive manners of the male, especially during the earlier periods of married life and particularly where the husband is hypersexual. Woman no doubt derives pleasure from her innate coyness and the final victory of man affords her intense and refined gratification. Hence the frequent recurrence of these little love comedies.

A further development of these sadistic traces may bo found in men who demand the sexual act in unusual places, for this seems to offer an opportunity to him to show his superiority over woman, to provoke her defense and delight in her subsequent confusion and abashment

Case 14

One of my patients, hereditarily tainted, a crank, married to an extremely handsome woman of very vivacious temperament, became impotent when he saw her beautiful, pure white skin and her elegant toilet, but was quite potent with any ordinary wench, no matter how dirty (Fetichism). But it would happen that during a lonely walk with her in the country he would suddenly force her to have coitus in a meadow, or behind a shrub. The stronger she refused the more excited he became with per- fect potency. The same would happen in places where there was a risk of being discovered in the act, for instance, in the railway train, in the lavatory of a restaurant. But at home in his own bed he was quite devoid of cupido.

In the civilized man of to-day, in so far as he is un- tainted, associations between lust and cruelty are found,

but in a weak and rather rudimentary degree. If such therefore occur and in fact even light atrocious manifesta- tions thereof, they must be attributed to distorted disposi- tions (sexual and motoric spheres).

They are due to an awakening of latent psychical dispo- sitions, occasioned by external circumstances which in no wise affect the normal individual. They are not accidental deviations of sentiment or instinct in the sense as given by the modern doctrine of association. Sadistic may often be traced back to early childhood and exist ing a period of life when their revival can by no manner of means be attributed to external impressions, much less to sexual temper. ,

Sadism must, therefore, like Masochism and the antipathic sexual instinct, be counted among the originary anomalies of the vita sexualis. It is a disturbance (a deviation) in the evolution of psvchosexual processes sprouting from the soil of psychical degeneration.

That lust and cruelty often occur together is a fact that has long been recognised and is frequently observed. Writers of all kinds have called attention to this phenomenon. 1

Blumroder ("Ueber Irresein," Leipzig, 1836, p. 51) saw a man who had several wounds in the pectoral muscle, which a woman, in great sexual excitement, had bitten at the acme of lustful feeling during coitus. The same authoi* ("Ueber Lust und Schmerz," Friedreich's "Magazin fiir Seelenkunde, 1830, ii., 5) calls especial attention to the psychological connection between lust and murder. In re- lation to This, he especially refers to the Indian myths of Siva and Durga (Death and Lust) ; to human sacrifice with voluptuous mysteries; and to sexual instinct at puberty with a lustful impulse to suicide, with whipping, pinching, and pricking of the genitals, in the blind impulse to satisfy sexual desire. Lombroso ("Verzeni e Agnoletti," Rome,

1 Cf. also Alfred de Musset's famous verses to the Andalusian girl : " Qu'elle est superbe en son de"sordre quand elle tombe les seins nus Qu'on la voit, bfente, ec tordre dans un baiser de r&fr et mordre En hurlant dea mots inconnus!"

1874) also cites numerous . .samples <f tin- occurrence of a munler with ^ivatlv increased lust.

Hall quotes in hi* "( 'Unique St. Anne" the case of a powerful epileptic who during coitus bit off pieces of his consort's nose and swallowed them.

Ferrlnni ( Archiv. delle p.-icopatie sessuali I. 1896, p. 100) speaks of a young man who used to wrestle with his

famorata before coitus, bit and pinched her during the t "because he felt otherwise no gratification." One day, however, he hurt the girl too much and she brought an ac- tion against him.

On the other hand, when homicidal mania has been ex- ^cited, lust often follows. Lombroso (op.' dt.) alludes to the fact mentioned by Mantegazza, that to the terrors of spoliation and plunder by bandits generally are added those of brutal lust and rape. 1 These examples form transitions to the pronounced pathological cases.

The examples of the degenerate Ca^ars (Nero, Tiberi- us) are also instructive. They took delight in having youths and maidens slaughtered before their eyes. Not less so is the history of that monster, Marschalls Grilles de Rays (Jacob, "Curiosites de 1'histoire de France," Paris, 1858), who was executed in 1440, on account of mutilation and murder, which he had practised for eight years on more than 800 children. As the monster confessed it, it was from reading Suetonius and the descriptions of the orgies of Tiberius, Caracalla, etc., that the idea was joined of locking children in his castles, torturing them, and then killing them. This inhuman wretch confessed that in the commission of these acts he enjoyed inexpressible pleasure. He had two assistants. The bodies of the unfortunate chil-

the excitement of battle the idea of lust forces its way into consciousness. Cf. the description of a battle, by a soldier, by (irillfiarzer:

" And as the signal rang out, the armies met, breast to breast lut of the gods here, there, the murderous steel slays enemy, <;ivni and taken death and lift with wavering change- wildly raging in frenzy" ("Dream a Life," ^ct .).

dren were burned, and only a number of heads of partic- ularly beautiful children were preserved as memorials.

Cf. Eulenburg, op. cit. p. 58, where he gives satisfac- tory proofs of Rays' insanity ; also, in "Die Zukunft,

vii., Jahrg. No. 26; Bossard et Maulle, Gilles de Rays, dit Barbe-Bleu, Paris, 1886 (Champion) ; Michelet, hj^- toire de France, Tome vi., p. 316-326; Bibliotheque de Criminologie, t. xix., Paris, 1899, p. 245.

In an attempt to explain the association of lust cruelty, it is necessary to return to a consideration of the quasi-physiological cases, in which, at the moment of most intense lust, very excitable individuals, who are otherwise normal, commit such acts as biting and scratching, which are usually due to anger. It must further be remembered that love and anger are not only the most intense emotions, but also the only two forms of robust (sthenic) emotion. Both seek their object, try to possess themselves of it, and naturally exhaust themselves in a physical effect on it; both throw the psycho-motor sphere into the most intense excitement, and thus, by means of this excitation, reach their normal expression.

From this standpoint it is clear how lust impels to acts that otherwise are expressive of anger. 1 The one, like the other, is a state of exaltation, an intense excitation of the entire psycho-motor sphere. Thus there arises an im- pulse to react on the object that induces the stimulus, in every possible way, and with the greatest intensity. Juat as maniacal exaltation easily passes to raging destructive- ness, so exaltation of the sexual emotion often induces an impulse to spend itself in senseless and apparently harm- ful acts. To a certain extent these are psychical accom- paniments; but it is not simply an unconscious excitation of innervation of muscles (which also sometimes occurs as blind violence) ; it is a true hyperbole, a desire to exert

  • 8chulz ("Wiener Med. Wochenschrift," No. 49, 1869) reports a

remarkable case of a man, aged twenty-eight, who could perform coitus with his wife only after working himself into an artificial fit of anger.

the utmost possible effect upon the individual giving rise to the stimulus. The most intense means, however, is the in- fliction of pain.

Through such cases of infliction of pain during the most intense emotion of lust, we approach the cases in which a jeml injury, wound, or death is inflicted on the victim. 1 In eases the impulse to cruelty which may accompany the emotion of lust, becomes unbounded in a psychopathic in- Dividual; and, at the same time, owing to defect of moral feeling, all nonnal inhibitory ideas are absent or weak- ened.

Such monstrous, sadistic acts have, however, in men, in whom they are much more frequent than in women, another source in physiological conditions. In the inter- course of the sexes, the active or aggressive role belongs to man ; woman remains passive, defensive.* It affords man great pleasure to win a woman, to conquer her; and in tho or* amandi, the modesty of woman, who keeps herself on the defensive until the moment of surrender, is an element of great psychological significance and importance. Under normal conditions man meets obstacles which it is his part to overcome, and for which nature has given him an ag- gressive character. This aggressive character, however, under pathological conditions may likewise be excessively developed, and express itself in an impulse to subdue abso- lutely the object of desire, even to destroy or kill it.*

'Concerning analogous acts in rutting animals, vide Lombroso, The Criminal."

'Among animals it is always the male who pursues the female with proffers of love. Playful or actual flight of the female is not Infrequently observed ; and then the relation is like that between the beast of prey and the victim.

The conquest of woman takes place to-day in the social form of courting, in seduction and deception, etc. From the history of civili sation and anthropology we know that there have been times, as there are savages to-day that practice it, where brutal force, robbery, or even blows that rendered a woman powerless, were made use ot to obtain loves desire. It is possible that tendencies to such out- breaks of sadism are atavistic

In the " JahrbUcher itir Psychologic, ii., p. 128, 8cMfr (Jena) refers to the reports of two cae by A. Payer. In the first

If both these constituent elements occur together the abnormally intensified impulse to. a violent reaction toward the object of the stimulus, and the abnormally intensified desire to conquer the woman ; then the most violent out- breaks of sadism occur.

Sadism is thus nothing else than an excessive and mon- strous pathological intensification of phenomena, possible, too, in normal conditions in rudimental forms, which ac- company the psychical vita sexualis, particularly in males. It is of course not at all necessary, and not even the rule, that the sadistic individual should be conscious of his in- stinct. What he feels is, as a rule, only the impulse to cruel arid violent treatment of the opposite sex, and the colouring of the idea of such acts with lustful feelings. Thus arises a powerful impulse to commit the imagined deeds. In as far as the actual motives of this instinct are not compre- hended by the individual, the sadistic acts have the char- acter of impulsive deeds.

When the association of lust and cruelty is present, not only does the lustful emotion awaken the impulse to cruelty, but vice versa; cruel ideas and acts of cruelty cause sexual excitement, and in this way are used by perverse individuals. 1

states of great sexual excitement were induced by the sight of bat- tles or of paintings of them; in the second, by cruel torturing of small animals. It is added : " The pleasure of battle and murder is so predominantly an attribute of the male sex throughout the animal kingdom that there can be no question about the close relation exist- ing between this side of the masculine character and male sexuality. 1 believe, too, that by unprejudiced observation I can show that, in men who are mentally and physically absolutely normal, the first indefinite and incomprehensible precursors of sexual excitement may be induced by the reading of exciting scenes of the chase and war t. e., they give rise to unconscious longings for a kind of satisfaction in warlike games (wrestling), in which the fundamental sexual im- pulse to the most perfect and intense contact with a companion is expressed, with the secondary thought of conquest more or less clearly defined."

  • It sometimes happens that an accidental sight of blood, etc.,

puts into motion the preformed psychical mechanism of the sadistic individual and awakens the instinct,

A differentiation of original and acquired cases of sad- ism is scarcely possible. Many individuals, tainted ab origine, for a long time do everything to conquer the per- verse instinct If they are potent, they are able for some time to lead a normal vita scxualis, often with the assist- ance of fanciful ideas of a perverse nature. Later, when the opposing motives of an ethical and aesthetic kind have been gradually overcome, and when oft-repeated experience has proved the natural act to give but incomplete satisfac- tion, the abnormal instinct suddenly bursts forth. Owing to this late expression, in acts, of an originally perverse dis- position, the appearances are those of an acquired perver- sion. As a rule, it may be safely assumed that this psycho- pathic state exists ab origine.

Sadistic acts vary in monstrousness according to the power exercised by the perverse instinct over the individual thus afflicted, and in accordance with the strength of op- posing ideas that may be present, which nearly always are more or less weakened by original ethical defects, heredi- tary degeneracy, or moral insanity. Thus there arises a long series of forms which begins with capital crime and ends with paltry acts affording merely symbolic satisfaction to the perverse desires of the sadistic individual.

Sadistic acts may be further differentiated according to their nature; either taking place after consummated coitus which leaves the libido nimia unsatisfied; or, with diminished virility, being undertaken to merely stimulate the diminished power; or, finally, where virility is abso- lutely wanting, as becoming simply an equivalent for im- possible coitus, and for the induction of ejaculation. In the last two cases, notwithstanding impotence, there is still intense libido; or there was, at least, intense libido in the individual at the time when the sadistic acts became a habit. Sexual hypenesthesia must always be regarded as the basis of sadistic inclinations. The impotence which oc- curs BO frequently in psychopathic and neuropathic indi- viduals here considered, resulting from excesses practised in early youth, is usually dependent upon spinal

Often, too, there is a kind of psychical impotence, super- induced by concentration of thought on the perverse act with simultaneous fading of theidea of normal satisfaction. No matter what the external form of the act may be, the mentally perverse predisposition and instinct of the indi- vidual are essential to an understanding of it.

(a) Lust-Murder 1 (Lust Potentiated as Cruelty, Murderous Lust Extending to Anthropophagy}.

The most horrible example, and one which most pointedly shows the connection between lust and a desire to kill, is the case of Andreas Bichel, which Feuerbach published in his "Aktenmassige Darstellung merkwiirdiger Verbrechen".

B. puellas stupratas necavit et dissecuit. With reference to one of his victims, at his examination he expressed him- self as follows: "I opened her breast and with a knife cut through the fleshy parts of the body. Then I arranged the body as a butcher does beef, and hacked it with an axe into pieces of a size to fit the hole which I had dug up in the mountain for burying it. I may say that while opening the body I was so greedy that I trembled, and could have cut out a piece and eaten it."

Lombroso, too ("Geschlechtstrieb und Verbrechen in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen". "Goltdammer's Archiv." Bd. xxx.), mentions cases falling in the same category. A certain Phillipe indulged in strangling prostitutes, post actum, and said : "I am fond of women, but it is sport for me to strangle them after having enjoyed them".

A certain Grassi (Lombroso, op. dt., p. 12) was one night seized with sexual desire for a relative. Irritated by her remonstrance, he stabbed her several times in the ab-

C/. " Metzger't ger. Arzneiw., herausgegeben von Remer," p 539; " Klein's Annalen," x., p. 176; xviii., p. 311; Heinroth, " Syatem der psych. Med.," p. 270; Never Pitaval, 1855, 23 Th. ("Fall Blaize Ferragc").

n with a knife, and also murdered her father and imrl<- who attempted to hold him hack. Immediately there- after lie hastened to visit a prostitute in order to cool in her embrace his sexual passion. But this was not sufficient, for he then murdered his own father and slaughtered sev- eral oxen in the stable.

1 1 cannot be doubted, after the foregoing, that a great number of so-called lust murders depend upon combined hypewesthesia and partrsthcsia sexualis. As a result of this perverse colouring of the feelings, further acts of bestiality with the corpse may result e.g., cutting it up and wallowing in the intestines. The case of Bichel points to this possibility.

A modern example is that of Menesclou ("Annales d'hygiene publique"), who was examined by Lasegue, Brouardel and Motet, declared to be mentally sound, and executed.

Case 15

A four-year-old girl was missing from her parents' home, 15th April, 1880. On 16th April, Menes- clou, one of the occupants of the house, was arrested. The forearm of the child was found in his pocket, and the head and entrails, in a half-charred condition, were taken from the stove. Other parts of the body were found in the water- closet The genitals could not be found. M., when asked their whereabouts, became embarrassed. The circum- stances, as well as an obscene poem found on his person, left no doubt that he had violated the child and then mur- dered her. M. expressed no remorse, asserting that his deed was an unhappy accident. His intelligence was limited. He presented no anatomical signs of degeneration; some- what deaf and scrofulous.

Age twenty.

Convulsions at the age of nine months. Later he suf- fered from disturbed sleep (enuresis nocturna) ; was nerv- ous, and developed tardily and imperfectly. With puberty he became irritable, showed evil inclinations, was lazy, in- tractable, and in all trades proved to be of no use. He grew

no better even in the House of Correction. He was made a marine, but there, too, he proved useless. When he re- turned home he stole from his parents, and spent his time in bad company. He did not run after women, but gave himself up passionately to masturbation, and occasionally indulged in sodomy with bitches. His mother suffered with mania menstrualis periodica. An uncle was insane, and another a drunkard. The examination of M.'s brain showed morbid changes of the frontal lobes, of the first and second temporal convolutions, and of a part of the occipital con- volutions.

Case 16

"Killed to-day a young girl; it was fine and hot."

Alton, a clerk in England, went for a walk out of town. He lured a child into a thicket. Afterwards at his office he made this entry in his note-book: "Killed to-day a young girl; it was fine and hot." The child was missed, searched for, and found cut into pieces. Many parts, and among them the genitals, could not be found. A. did not show the slightest trace of emotion, and gave no explanation of the motive or circumstances of his horrible deed. He was a psychopathic individual, and occasionally subject to fits of depression with taedium vitae. His father had had an attack of acute mania. A near relative suffered from mania with homicidal impulses. A. was executed.

Case 17

Jack the Ripper. On December 1, 1887, July 7, August 8, September 30, one day in the month of October and on the 9th of November, 1888 ; on the 1st of June, the 17th of July and the 10th of September, 1889, the bodies of women were found in various lonely quarters of London ripped open and mutilated in a peculiar fashion. The murderer has never been found. It is probable that he first cut the throats of his victims, then ripped open the abdomen and groped among the intestines. In some instances he cut off the genitals and carried them away; in others he only tore them to pieces and left them behind. He does not seem to have had sexual intercourse with his victims, but very likely the murderous act and subsequent mutilation of the corpse were equivalents for the sexual act.

(McDonald, le criminal type, 2 edit., Lyon, 1884 ; Spitzka, The Journal of Mental and Nervous Diseases, 188, December; Kierman, The Medical Standard, 1888, Nov. and Dec.)

Case 18

Joseph Vacher, the Ripper. On the 31st August, 1895, Portalier, seventeen years old, a shepherd, was found naked in the field. The belly was ripped open and the body bore other wounds besides. Examination showed that the victim had been strangled first. On the 4th August, 1897, a tramp, named Vacher, was arrested on suspicion of having committed this crime. lie confessed to it as well as to numerous other acts of a similar nature that had been perpetrated in various parts of France since 1894. He claimed that at the time when he committed the crimes he suffered from temporary insanity and irresistible impulse, in fact, was a madman. Medical examination, however, proved that Vacher was mentis compos when he committed these atrocious deeds, fled after their commission and had a very clear memory of the facts.

V. was born in 18G9 of honourable parents and be- longed to a mentally sound family. He never had a severe illness, was from his earliest infancy vicious, lazy and shy of work. When twenty he had immorally assaulted a small child. During his military service he had gained for him- self a very bad reputation and was in 1893 discharged from his regiment on account of "psychical disturbances" (con- fused talk, persecution-mania, threatening language, ex- treme irritability). In 1893 he wounded a girl because she refused to marry him, then made an attempt at suicide (he shot himself through the right ear, which left him deaf on that side and produced facial paralysis). He was sent to an insane asylum and there treated for persecution- mania. On April 1, 1894, he was dismissed as cured. He began to tramp about the country and committed the fol- lowing horrible crimes: On March 20, 1894, he strangled Delhomme, twenty-one years old, cut her throat, trampled upon her abdomen, tore out a portion of her right breast and then had coitus with the corpse. The same atrocity, but without ravaging the bodies, he committed on Novem- ber 20, 1894, on a girl of the name of Marcel, 13 years of age, and on May 12, 1895, on another girl named Mortureux, 17 years of age. On August 24, 1895, he strangled and then ravaged a lady of the name of Morand, 58 years old, and on the 22d he cut the throat of Allaise, a sixteen year old girl and attempted to rip her abdomen open. On September 29, he committed the same crime as later on on Portalier on Palet, a fifteen-year-old boy, but in this instance he also cut off the genitals of the boy and sexually assaulted the corpse.

On the 1st of March, 1896, he attempted rape on Deronet, a girl eleven years old, but was scared off by the field police. On the 10th of September, he committed his usual atrocity on a Mrs. Mounier, just married, nine- teen years of age, and on the 1st of October, on Rodier, a shepherdess, fourteen years of age. He cut out her genitals and carried them away. Toward the end of May, 1897, he killed a tramp boy, fourteen years old, named Beaupied, by cutting his throat. The corpse he threw down into a well. On June 18th he murdered a shepherd boy, thirteen years old, named Laurent, and committed pederasty on the corpse. Soon afterward he made an attempt on a Mrs. Plantier, but she was rescued. Unfortunately they allowed him to go unpunished.

Lacassagne, Professor of Forensic Medicine in Lyon, Pierrel, Professor of Psychiatry, and Rebatel, specialist on insanity, were the experts in this atrocious murder trial. They found no hereditary taints, no cerebral dis- ease, nor traces of epilepsy. V. was not particularly bright, very irascible from his earliest years, vicious and fond of maltreating animals. No one retained him long in service. He entered a monastery, but was soon dismissed as he began to masturbate his comrades. He could not find em- ployment on account of immorality and ill temper. He was not a drinker. In the army he was feared and shunned. One day when he was disappointed by not be- ing made a corporal, he flew into a passion, attacked his superior and became delirious. He was taken to the in- firmary and thence sent to the insane asylum. His com- rades did not consider him normal. During his spells of rage he was uncontrollable and considered dangerous. He always threatened others with cutting their throats, and was thought capable of doing such an act. He slept badly, constantly dreamed of murder, and often was delirious dur- ing the night, so that no one cared for sleeping near him.

At the asylum he was found to suffer from persecution- mania and was considered a dangerous character. Never- theless he was dismissed as cured.

Subsequently he became guilty of eleven murdeve, which are acts of sadism, lust murders. They consisted of strangling, cutting of the throat and ripping open of the abdomen, mutilation of the corpse, especially the genitals, eventually gratification of the sexual lust on the corpse.

It was definitely proved that V. acted in cold blood, was quite conscious of his actions and suffered from no psychical abnormality.

He committed the crimes in various sections of France, traversing the country in every direction.

There were no marks of anatomical degeneration. His genitals were normally developed. In confinement he was lazy, irascible and quite intractable. Out of sheer stub- bornness and because he thought he had been slighted, he refused on one occasion all food for a period of seven days. On another occasion he flew into a frightful rage when permission to go to church was refused him. He spoke cynically of his crimes, showed no remorse, insisted that they were the outcome of madness and insanity, played the insane, hoping thus to be sent to an insane asy- lum whence escape is easier. The experts could establish no symptoms of mental disturbance.

Resume of the experts: "V. is neither an epileptic nor subject to an impulsive disease. He is an immoral, passionate man, who once temporarily suffered from a depressing persecution-mania, coupled with an impulse to suicide. Of this he was cured, a'nd thereafter became re- sponsible for his actions. His crimes are those of an antisocial, sadistic, bloodthirsty being, who considers him- self privileged to commit these atrocities because he was once upon a time treated in an asylum for insanity, and thereby escaped well merited punishment. He is a com- mon criminal and there are no ameliorating circumstances to be found in his favour." V. was sentenced to death. (Archives d' anthropologie criminelle, xiii., No. 78.)

In such cases it may even happen that appetite for the flesh of the murdered victim arises, and in consequence of this perverse colouring of the idea, parts of the body may be eaten.

Case 19

. Leger, vine-dresser, aged twenty-four. From youth moody, silent, shy of people. He started out in search of a situation. Wandering about eight days in the forest he there caught a girl twelve years old ? violated her, mutilated her genitals, tore out her heart, ate of it, drank the blood, and buried the remains. Arrested, at first he lied, but finally confessed his crime with cynical cold-bloodedness. He" listened to his sentence of death with indifference, and was executed. At the post-mortem examination Esquirol found morbid adhesions between the cerebral membranes and the brain (Georgei, "Darstellung der Prozesse Leger, Feldtmann" etc., Darmstadt, 1827).

Case 20

Tirsch, hospital beneficiary of Prague, aged fifty-five, always silent, peculiar, coarse, very irritable, grumbling, revengeful, was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for violating a girl ten years old. He had attracted attention on account of outbursts of anger from insignificant causes, and also on account of taedium vitae. In 1864, on account of the refusal of an offer of marriage which he made to a widow, he developed a hatred toward women, and on the 8th of July he went about with the intention of killing ono of this hated sex.

"Vetulam occurentem in silvam allexit, coitum poposcit, renitentem prostravit, jugulum feminae compressit „furore captus“. Cadaver virga betulae desecta verberare voluit nequetamen id perfecit, quia conscientia sua haec fieri vetuit, cultello mammas et genitalia desecta domi cocta proximis diebus cum globus comedit."

On the 12th of September, when he was arrested, the remains of this meal were found. He gave as the motive of this act "inner impulse." He himself wished to be executed, because he had always been an outcast. In confinement he showed great emotional irritability and occasional outbursts of fury, preceded by refusal of food, which made isolation, lasting several days, necessary. It. was authoritatively established that the most of his earlier excesses were coincident with outbreaks of excitement and fury (Maschka, "Prager Vierteljahrsschrift," 1866, i., p. 79. "Gauster bei Maschka, Handb. dor gerichtl. Medicin," iv., p. 489).

In other cases of lustmurder, for physical and mental reasons (vide supra), violation is omitted, and the sadistic crime alone becomes the equivalent of coitus. The prototype of such cases is the following one of Verzeni. The life of his victim hung on the rapid or retarded occurrence of ejaculation. Since this remarkable case presents all the peculiarities which modern science knows concerning the relation of lust to lust-murder with anthropophagy, and especially since it was carefully studied, it receives detailed description here:

Latin correction of text sourced here

Case 21

Vincenz Verzeni, born in 1849 ; since Jan- uary llth, 1872, in prison; was accused (1) of an attempt to strangle his nurse Marianne, four years ago, while she lay sick in bed; (2) of a similar attempt on a married woman, Arsuffi, aged twenty-seven; (3) of an attempt to strangle a married woman, Gala, by grasping her throat while kneeling on her abdomen; (4) on suspicion of the fallowing murders: In December a fourteen-year-old girl, Johanna Motta, set out for a neighbouring village between seven and eight o'clock in the morning. As she did not return, her master set out to find her, and discovered her body near the village, lying by a path in the fields. The corpse was frightfully mutilated with numerous wounds. The intestines and genitals had been torn from the open body, and were found near by. The nakedness of the body and erosions on the thighs made it seem probable that there had been an attempt at rape; the mouth, filled with earth, pointed to suffocation. In the neighbourhood of the body, under a pile of straw, were found a portion of flesh torn from the right calf, and pieces of clothing. The perpetrator of the deed remained undiscovered.

On 28th August, 1871, a married woman, Frigeni, aged twenty-eight, set out into the fields early in the morning As she did not return by eight o'clock, her husband started out to fetch her. He found her a corpse, lying naked in the field, with the mark of a thong around her neck, with which she had been strangled, and with numerous: wounds. The abdomen had been ripped open, and the intestines were hanging out.

On August 29th, at noon, as Maria Previtali, aged nineteen, went through a field, she was followed by her cousin, Verzeni. He dragged her into a field of grain, threw her to the ground and began to choke her. As he let go of her for a moment to ascertain whether any one was near, the girl got up and, by her supplicating entreaty, in- duced Verzeni to let her go, after he had pressed her hands together for some time.

Verzeni was brought before a court. He was then twenty-two years old. Cranium of more than average size, but asymmetrical. The right frontal bone narrower and lower than the left, the right frontal prominence being less developed, and the right ear smaller than the left (by 1 centimetre in length and 3 centimetres in breadth) ; both ears defective in the inferior half of the helix; the right temporal artery somewhat atheromatous. Bull-necked;

development of the zygomw ami inferior maxilla ; [) nis greatly developed, franium wanting; slight divergent alternating st raltisimis ( insiitiiricncy of tin- internal rectus musolf, and myopia): Lombroso concluded from these signs of degeneration, that there was a congenital a of development of tlic riijht frontal bone. As seemed probable, Verzeni had a bad ancestry two uncles were cretins; a third, microcephalic, beardless, one testicle wanting, the other atrophic. The father showed traces of pellagrons degeneration, and had an attack of hypo- chondria pellagrosa. A cousin suffered from cerebral hypenemia ; another was a confirmed thief.

Verzeni's family was bigoted and low-minded. He him- self had ordinary intelligence; knew how to defend himself well ; sought to prove an alibi and cast suspicion on others. There was nothing in his past that pointed to mental dis- ease, but his character was peculiar. He was silent and inclined to be solitary. In prison he was cynical. He masturbated, and made every effort to gain sight of women.

Verzeni finally confessed his deeds and their motive. The commission of them gave him an indescribably pleasant (lustful) feeling, which was accompanied by erec- tion and ejaculation. As soon as he had grasped his vic- tim by the neck, sexual sensations were experienced. It was entirely the same to him, with reference to these sen- sations, whether the women were old, young, ugly, or beautiful. Usually, simply choking them had satisfied him, and he then had allowed his victims to live; in the two cases mentioned, the sexual satisfaction was delayed, and he had continued to choke them until they died. The gratification experienced in this garrotting was greater than in masturbation. The abrasions of the skin on Motta'a thighs were produced by his teeth, whilst sucking her blood in most intense lustful pleasure. He had torn out a piece of flesh from her calf and taken it with him to roast at home; but on the way he hid it under the straw- ?tack, for fear his mother might suspect him. He also carried pieces of the clothing and intestines some distance, because it gave him great pleasure to smell and touch them. The strength which -he possessed in these moments of intense lustful pleasure was enormous. He had never been a fool ; while committing his deeds he saw nothing around him (apparently as a result of intense sexual ex- citement, annihilation of perception instinctive action). After such acts he was always very happy, enjoying a feeling of great satisfaction. He had never had pangs of conscience. It had never occurred to him to touch the genitals of the martyred women, or to violate his victims. It had satisfied him to throttle them and suck their blood. These statements of this modern vampire seem to rest on truth. Normal sexual impulses seem to have remained foreign to him. Two sweethearts that he had, he was satisfied to look at; it was very strange to him that he had no inclination to strangle them or press their hands, but he had not had the same pleasure with them as with his victims. There was no trace of moral sense, remorse and the like.

Verzeni said himself that it would be a good thing if he were to be kept in prison, because with freedom he could not resist his impulses. Verzeni was sentenced to imprisonment for life (Lombroso, "Verzeni e Agnoletti," Rome, 1873). The confessions which Verzeni made after his sentence are interesting:

"I had an unspeakable delight in strangling women, ex- periencing during the act erections and real sexual pleas- ure. It was even a pleasure only to smell female clothing. The feeling of pleasure while strangling them was much greater than that which I experienced while masturbating. I took great delight in drinking Motta's blood. It also gave me the greatest pleasure to pull the hair-pins out of the hair of my victims.

"I took the clothing and intestines, because of the pleasure it gave me to smelt and touch them. At last my mother came to suspect me, because she noticed spots of semen on my shirt after each murder or attempt at one. I am not crazy, but in the moment of strangling my victims I saw nothing else. After the commission of the deeds I was satisfied and felt well. It never occurred to me to touch or look at the genitals or such things. It satisfied me to seize the women by the neck and suck their blood. To this very day I am ignorant of how a woman is formed. During the strangling and after it, I pressed myself on the entire body without thinking of one part more than another."

Verzeni arrived at his perverse acts quite indepen- dently, after having noticed, when he was twelve years old, that he experienced a peculiar feeling of pleasure while wringing the necks of chickens. After this he had often killed great numbers of them and then sa*id that a weasel had been in the hen-coop (Lombroso, "Goltdammer's Archiv," Bd. xxx., p. 13).

Lombroso mentions an analogous case ("Goltdammer's Archiv") which occurred in Vittoria (Spain) :

Case 22

Case 22. A certain Gruyo, aged forty-one, with a blameless past life, having been three times married, strangled six women in the course of ten years. They were almost all public prostitutes and quite old. After the strangling he tore out their intestines and kidneys per vaginam. Some of his victims he violated before killing, others,, on account of the occurrence of impotence, he did not. He set about his horrible deeds with such care that he remained undetected for ten years.

(b) Mutilation of Corpses.

Following on the preceding horrible group of perver- sions, come naturally the necrophiles; in these cases, just as with lustful murderers and analogous cases, an idea which in itself awakens a feeling of horror, and before which a sane person would shudder, is accompanied by lustful feelings, and thus leads to the impulse to indulge in acts of necrophilia.

The cases of mutilation of bodies mentioned in litera- ture seem to be of a pathological character; but, with the exception of that of Sergeant Bertrand (v. infra), they are far from being described and observed with accuracy. In certain cases there may be nothing more than the possibility that unbridled desire sees in the idea of death no obstacle to its satisfaction. The seventh case mentioned by Moreau, perhaps, belongs here.

A man, aged twenty-three, attempted to rape a woman, aged fifty-three. Struggling, he killed her, and then vio- lated her, threw her in the water, and fished her out again for renewed violation. The murderer was executed. The meninges of the anterior lobes were thickened and ad- herent to the cortex.

French writers have recorded numerous examples of necrophilia. 1 Two cases concerned monks performing the watch for the dead. In a third case the subject was an idiot, who also suffered from periodical mania, and after commission of rape was sent to an insane asylum, where he mutilated female bodies in the mortuary.

In other cases, however, there is undoubtedly direct preference for a corpse to the living woman. When no other act of cruelty cutting into pieces, etc. is practised on the cadaver, it is probable that the lifeless condition itself forms the stimulus for the perverse individual. It is possible that the corpse a human form absolutely without will satisfies an abnormal desire, in that the object of desire is seen to be capable of absolute subjuga- tion, without possibility of resistance.

Brierre de Boismont ("Gazette medicale," July 21st, 1859) relates the history of a corpse-violator who, after bribing the watchman, had gained entrance to the corpse of a girl of sixteen belonging to a family of high social position. At night a noise was heard in the death- chamber, as if a piece of furniture had fallen over. The

^Michea, Union m4d. 1849, Brierre, Gaz. mgd. 1849, July 21; Moreau (op. eit. ) p. 250, Epaulard, "Vampyrisme ( n&jrophilie, nficrosadism, ngcrophagie ) , Lyon, 1901.

mother of the dead girl effected an entrance and saw a man dressed in his night-shirt springing from the bed where the body lay. It was at first thought that the man was a thief, but the real explanation was soon discovered. It afterwards transpired that the culprit, a man of good family, had often violated the corpses of young women. He was sentenced to imprisonment for life.

The story of a prelate, reported by Tcuril 1 ("La prosti- tution contemporaine," p. 171), is of great interest as an example of necrophilia. From time to time he would visit a certain brothel in Paris and order a prostitute, dressed in white like a corpse, to be laid out on a bier. At the appointed hour he would appear in the room, which, in the meantime had been elaborately prepared as a room of mourning; then he would act as if reading a mass for the soul, and finally throw himself upon the girl, who, during the whole time, was compelled to play the role of a corpse. 1

The cases in which the perpetrator injures and cuts up the corpse are clearer. Such cases come next to those of lust-murder, in so far as cruelty, or at least an impulse to attack the female body, is connected with lust. It is possible that a remnant of moral sense deters from the cruel act on a living woman, and possibly the fancy passes beyond lust-murder and rests on its result, the corpse. Here also it is possible that the idea of defenselessness of the body plays a role.

Case 23

Sergeant Bertrand, a man of delicate physisical constitution and of peculiar character; from childhood silent and inclined to solitude.

A similar case is related by Neri (" Archivio delle psicopatie sessuali," 189G, p. 109). A man, fifty years of age, used in a Lupanar only girls who clad in white, lay motionless feigning death. He violated the borly of his own sister, immissionc mentufa in os mortwt u*que ad ejaculationemf

This monster had also fits of fetichism for crincg pubit pucllarum, and the trimmings of their fingernails; eating them caused strong sexual emotions.

'Simon ("Crimes et del its," p. 200) mentions an experience of Lacassagne's, to whom a respectable man said that he was never intensely excited sexually except when a spectator at a funeral.

The details of the health of his family were not satisfactorily known; but the occurrence of mental diseases in his ancestors was ascertained. It was said that while he as a child he was affected with destructive impulses, which he himself could not explain. He would break whatever was at hand. In early childhood, without teaching, he learned to masturbate. At nine he began to feel inclinations towards persons of the opposite sex. At thirteen the impulse to sexual intercourse became powerfully awakened in him. He now masturbated excessively. When he did this, his fancy always created a room filled with women. He would imagine that he carried out the sexual act with them and then killed them. Immediately thereafter he would think of them as corpses, and of how he defiled them. Occasionally in such situations the thought of carrying out a similar act with male corpses would come up, but it was always attended with a feeling of disgust.

In time he felt the impulse to carry out such acts with actual corpses. For want of human bodieSj he obtained those of animals. He would cut open the abdomen, tear out the entrails, and masturbate during the act. He de- clared that in this way he experienced inexpressible pleasure. In 1846 these bodies no longer satisfied him. He now killed dogs, and proceeded with them as before. Toward the end of 1846 he first felt the desire to make use of human bodies.

At first he had a horror of it. In 1847, being by accident in a graveyard, he ran across the grave of a newly buried corpse. Then this impulse, with headache and palpitation of the heart, became so powerful that, although there were people near by, and he was in danger of detection, he dug up the body. In the absence of a convenient instrument for cutting it up, he satisfied himself by hacking it with a shovel.

In 1847 and 1848, during two weeks, as reported, the impulse, accompanied by violent headache, to commit brut uli ties on corpses actuated him. Under the greatest difficulties and dangers he satisfied this impulse some fifteen times. He dug up the bodies with his hands, in nowise sensible in his excitement to the injuries he thus inflicted on himself. When he had obtained the body, he cut it up with a sword or pocket-knife, tore out the entrails, and then masturbated. The sex of the bodies is said to have been a matter of indifference to him, though it was ascertained that this modern vampire had dug up more female than male corpses.

During these acts he declared himself to have been in an indescribable state of sexual excitement. After having cut them up, he reinterred the bodies.

In July, 1848, he accidentally came across the body of a girl of sixteen. Then, for the first time, he experienced a desire to carry out coitus on a cadaver.

"I covered it with kisses and pressed it wildly to my heart. All that one could enjoy with a living woman is nothing in comparison with the pleasure I experienced. After I had enjoyed it for about a quarter of an hour, I cut the body up, as usual, and tore out the entrails. Then I buried the cadaver again." Only after this, as B. declared, had he felt the impulse to use the bodies sexually before cutting them up, and thereafter he had done it in three instances. The actual motive for exhuming the bodies, however, was then, as before, to cut them up; and the enjoyment in so doing was greater than in using the bodies sexually. The latter act had always been nothing more than an episode of the principal one, and had never quieted his desires; for which reason he had later on always mutilated the body.

The medico-legal examiners gave an opinion of "monomania". Court-martial sentence to one year's imprisonment. (Michea, "Union med.," 1849; Lunier, "Annal. meU -psycho.," 1849, p. 153; Tardieu, "Attentats aux moeurs," 1878, p. 114; Legrand, "La folie devant les tribun.," p. 524.)

Case 24

Ardisson, born, 1872, belonged to a family of criminals and insane. At school he learned readily ; he was not addicted to drink, had no epileptic antecedents, never had an illness, but was rather weakminded. The man who adopted him and with whom he lived, was a moral outcast. When A. came of puberty he practised masturbation, devorare solebat sperma proprium [and had the habit of drinking his own sperm] because "it would be a pity to lose it." He ran after the girls, but could not understand why they shunned him. Loco quo mulieres urinaverunt, lotium bibere solebat [Where women urinated, he drank the urine]. He did not think that there was anything wrong about this. He was looked upon in the village as a venal felon. With his adopter he shared the favours of the beggar women that stayed over night at their house. He was fond of fornication, was a mamma fetichist and loved mammas sugere. Later on he fell to necrophily. He exhumed cadavers of females ranging from three to sixty years of age, sucked their breasts, practised cunnilungus on them, but rarely coitus or mutilation. Once he carried away the head of a woman, at another time the whole corpse of a little girl three and one-half years old. After his ghoulish deeds he would re-arrange the grave properly. He lived isolated by himself, was at times very morose, never showed signs of heart. As a rule, however, he was not of an evil disposition even when in prison. Several times he worked as a stonemason. Remorse and shame over his misdeeds were unknown to him. In 1892 he had for a while acted as a gravedigger. He deserted from the army and then took to begging from house to house. He loved to eat rats and cats. When arrested and returned to the regiment he deserted again. He was not punished because he was not held responsible. Dismissed from the army he again became a gravedigger. When a girl of seventeen who had very prominent breasts was buried his old passion awoke again. He unearthed the cadaver and profaned it in his usual manner. This happened from now on very frequently. The head of one woman which he took home with him, he covered with kisses and called it his bride. He was caught after he had taken home the body of a child three and one-half years of age which he secreted in the straw. On this he gratified his sexual desires even whilst the putrid body was falling to pieces. The stench filling the house betrayed him. Laughingly he admitted everything. A. was small of stature, and prognathous and feeble; skull symmetrical; general tremor; genitals normal, without sexual emotion ; intelligence very limited ; devoid of all moral sense. A. was pleased with prison life. (Epaulard op. cit.)

(c) Injury to Women (Stabbing, Flagellation, etc.).

Following lust-murder and violation of corpses, come cases closely allied to the former, in which injury of the victim of lust and sight of the victim's blood are a delight and pleasure. The notorious Marquis de Sade1, after whom this combination of lust and cruelty has been named, was such a monster. Coitus only excited him when ho could prick the object of his desire until the blood came.

1 Taxil (op. cit.) gives more detailed accounts of this sexual monster, which must have been a case of habitual satyriasis, accompanied by perverse sexual instinct. Sade was so cynical that he actually sought to idealise his cruel lasciviousness and to be the apostle of a theory based upon it. He became so bad (among other things he made an invited company of ladies and gentlemen erotic by causing to be served to them chocolate bonbons which contained cantharides) that he was committed to the insane asylum at Charenton. During the revolution of 1790 he escaped. Then he wrote obscene novels filled with lust, cruelty and the most lascivious wenes. When Bonaparte became Consul, Sade made him a present of his novels, magnificently bound. The Consul had the works destroyed and the author committed to Charenton again, where he died at the age of sixty-four. Sade was inexhaustible in his lascivious publications, which were markedly intended for advertisement.

Fortunately it is difficult today to obtain copies. Extant are: " Histoire de Justine," 4 vols. ; " Histoire de Juliette," 6 vols. ; Philosophie dans le boudoir," London, 1805. Interesting is Sade's biography by J. Janin, 1835.

A scientific and very thorough study of Sadism has recently been made by Dr. Marciat, " Bibliothèque de criminologie" xix., 1899 (Paris, Masson). It gives an analysis and table of contents of Sade's writings. cf. also Duhren, " The Marquis de Sade " 1900.

His greatest pleasure was to injure naked prostitutes and then dress their wounds.

The case of a captain belongs here, mentioned by Brierre de Boismont, who always compelled the object of his affection to place leeches ad pudenda before coitus, which was very frequent. Finally this woman became very anaemic and, as a result of this, insane.

The following case, from my own practice, very clearly shows the connection between lust and cruelty, with desire to shed and see blood :

Case 25

. Mr. X., aged twenty-five; father syphi- litic, died of paretic dementia ; mother hysterical and neur- asthenic. He was a weak individual, constitutionally neur- opathic, and presented several anatomical signs of degen- eration.

When a child, hypochondria and imperative concep- tions; later, constant alternation of exaltation and depres- sion. While yet a child of ten the patient felt a peculiar lustful desire to see blood flow from his fingers. There- after he often cut or pricked himself in the fingers, and took great delight in it. Very early, erections were added to this, and also if he saw the blood of others ; for example, when he once saw the servant-girl cut her finger it gavo him an intense lustful feeling. From this time his vita sexualis became more and more powerful. Without any teaching he began to masturbate, and always during the act there were memory-pictures of bleeding women. It now no longer sufficed him to see his own blood flow ; he longed to see the blood of young females, especially those that were attractive to him. He could scarcely overcome the impulse to violate two cousins and a certain servant.

Any young woman, although not attractive, induced this impulse when she excited him by some peculiarity of dress or adornment, especially coral jewellery. At first he succeeded in overcoming these desires ; but in his imagina- tion thoughts of blood were ever present, inducing lustful excitement An inner relation existed between thoughts and feelings. Often there were other cruel fancies, lit; imagined himself in the role of a tyrant who had the people shot in crowds with grape-shot. He would imagine a scene as it would be, if enemies were to take a city and mutilate, torture, kill and rape the young women.

When in his normal state this patient, who had a mild disposition and was not morally defective, was ashamed of and horrified by such cruel, lustful fancies, which be- came at once latent, when his sexual excitement was satis- fied by masturbation.

After a few years the patient became neurasthenic. Then simple imaginary representations of blood and scenes of blood sufficed to induce ejaculation. In order to free himself from his vice and his cruel imagination, he began to indulge in sexual intercourse with females. Coitus was possible, but only when the patient called up the idea that the girl's fingers were bleeding. Without the assist- ance of this idea no erection was possible. The cruel thought of cutting was limited to the woman's hand. At the time of greatest sexual excitement, simply the sight of the hand of an attractive woman was sufficient to induce most violent erections. Frightened by the popular stories about the injurious results of onanism, he abstained and fell into a condition of severe general neurasthenia, with hypochondriacal dysthymia and ta'dium vitce. Careful and watchful medical treatment cured the patient after a few months. He remained mentally well for three years; but became again very sensual, though very seldom he was troubled by his earlier ideas of flowing blood. He gave up masturbation altogether, and found satisfaction in natural sexual indulgence, remained virile, and it was no longer necessary for him to call up ideas of blood.

The following case, reported by Tamowsky (op. cit., p. 61), shows that such lustful, cruel impulses may be simply episodical, and occur in certain exceptional states of mind in neurotic individuals; >


Case 26

. Z., physician; neuropathic constitution, reacting badly to alcohol. Under ordinary circumstance8 capable of normal coitus, but as soon as he had indulged in wine he found that his increased libido was no longer satisfied by simple coitus. In this condition he was com- pelled to prick the nates puellce, or to make stabs with' the lancet, to see blood, and feel the entrance of the blade into the living body, in order to have ejaculation and experi- ence complete satiety of his lust.

The majority of those afflicted with this form of per- version seem insensible to the normal stimulus of woman. In the first case (25), the assistance of the idea of blood was necessary to obtain erection. The following is that of a man who, by masturbation, etc., in early youth, had diminished his power of erection so that the sadistic act took the place of coitus :

Case 27. The girl-stabber of Bozen (reported by Demme, "Buch der Verbrechen," Bd. ii., p. 341). In 1829, H., aged thirty, soldier, became the subject of legal investigation. At different times, and in different places, he had wounded girls with pocket-knives or penknives, by stabbing them in the abdomen, preferably in the genitals. He gave as a motive for these acts heightened sexual im- pulse, increasing to the intensity of fury, which found satisfaction only in the thought and act of stabbing persons of the female sex. This impulse would pursue him for days at a time. He would then pass into a confused mental state, which would clear away only when the impulse had been satisfied by the deed. In the act of stabbing he ex- perienced the same satisfaction as that produced by com- pleted coitus. This was increased by the sight of blood dripping from the knife. In his tenth year the sexual in- stinct became powerfully manifest. At first he yielded to masturbation, and felt physically and mentally weakened by it. Before he became a girl-stabber, he had satisfied his sexual lust in violation of immature girls, by causing them


to practise masturbation on him, and by sodomy. Gradu- ally the thought came to him how pleasurable it would be to stab a young and pretty girl in the genitals, and take delight in the sight of the blood running from the knife.

Among his effects were found copies of the object* of phallic cult and obscene pictures painted by himself of Mary's conception, and of the "thought of God injected" into the lap of the Virgin. He was considered a peculiar, very irritable man, shy of people, fond of women, moody and glum. Of shame and regret for his deeds no traces were ever found. He was apparently a person 1 who had become impotent through early sexual excesses, and was thus predisposed, by the continuance of intense libido sexualis and heredity, to perversion of sexual life.

Case 28. In the "sixties" the inhabitants of Leipzig were frightened by a man who was accustomed to attack young girls on the street, stabbing them in the upper-arm with a dagger. Finally arrested, he was recognised as a sadist, who at the instant of stabbing had an ejaculation, and with whom the wounding of the girls was an equivalent for coitus. (Wharion, "A Treatise on Mental Unsound- ness," 623. Philadelphia, 1873.) 1

Impotence exists likewise in the next three cases. It may be psychical, however, since the principal tone of the vita sexualis lies in sadistic inclination and the normal ele- ments are distorted :

Case 29

. The girl-cutter of Augsburg (reported by

l Cf. Kraust, " Psychologic des Verbrechens," 1884, p. 188; Dr. Hofer, " Annalen der Staatsarzneikunde," 8 Jahrgang, Heft 2 ; " Schmidt 1 't Jahrbucher," Bd. 69, p. 94.

1 According to newspaper reports, in December, 1890, several similar attacks were made in Mainz. A young fellow between four- teen and sixteen years of age pressed against women and girls and stabbed them in the legs with a sharp-pointed instrument. He WM arrested, and seemed to be insane. Further details of the case are not known.


Demme "Buch der Verbrechen," vii., p. 281). Bartle, wine-merchant. He was subject to lively sexual excite- ment at the age of fourteen, though decidedly opposed to its satisfaction by coitus, his aversion going so far as dis- gust for the female sex. At that time he already had the idea to cut girls, and thus satisfy his sexual desire. He refrained from it, however, because of lack of opportunity and courage. He disdained masturbation, but now and then had pollutions with erotic dreams of girls who had been cut. At the age of nineteen he for the first time cut a girl. During the act he had a seminal emission and ex- perienced intense pleasure. From that time the impulse grew constantly more powerful. He chose only young and pretty girls, and, as a rule, asked them before the deed whether they were still single. The ejaculation or sexual satisfaction occurred only when he was sure that he had actually wounded the girls. After such an act he always felt tired and bad, and was also troubled with qualms of conscience. Up to his thirty-second year he pursued this process of cutting, but was always careful not to wound the girls dangerously. From that time until his thirty-sixth year he was able to control his impulse. Then he sought to satisfy himself by simply pressing the girls on the arm or neck, but this gave rise to erections only and not to ejaculation. Then he sought to attain his object by prick- ing the girls with the knife left in its sheath, but this did not suffice. Finally, he stabbed with the open knife, and had complete success, for he thought that a girl when stabbed bled more and suffered more pain than when merely cut. In his thirty-seventh year he was detected and arrested. In his lodgings were found a collection of dag- gers, sword-canes, and knives. He said that the mere sight of these weapons, and still more the grasping of them, gave him an intense feeling of sexual pleasure, with vio- lent excitement. According to his own confession, he had injured in all fifty girls. His external appearance was rather pleasing. He lived in very good circumstances, but was peculiar and shy,


Case 30

During the month of June, 1896, quite a number of young girls had been stabbed in the genitals in the street in broad daylight. On the 2nd of July the perpetrator was caught in the act. V., twenty years of age, was hereditarily heavily tainted ; when fifteen years old he had been sexually excited to a high degree at the sight of a woman's buttocks. From that time on it was this part of the female body which attracted him in a sensuous manner and became the object of his erotic fancies and dreams, accompanied by pollutions. Soon this was coupled with the lascivious desire to slap, pinch or cut the genitals of women. At the moment when he in his dreams performed this act, pollution took place. Soon he was tempted to transfer his dreams into real practice. For a while he succeeded in mastering his morbid craving, but this produced feelings of anxiety and a copious perspiration would break out from his entire body. When orgasm and erection became very vehement, he would be overcome with fear and confusion to such an extent that the impulse to cut became irresistible. At that psychical moment ejaculation would take place, and he felt relieved in body and mind. Magnan in Thoinot's op. cit. p. 451. For more detailed account see Garnier in Annales d'hygiene publique, 1900, Feb., p. 112.)

Case 31

. J. IT., aged twenty-six, in 1883 came for consultation concerning severe neurasthenia and hypochon- dria. Patient confessed that he had practised onanism since his fourteenth year, infrequently up to his eighteenth year, but since that time he had been unable to resist the impulse. Up to that time he had no opportunity to ap- proach females, for he had been anxiously cared for and never left alone on account of being an invalid. He had had no real desire for this unknown pleasure, but he acci- dentally learned what it was when one of his mother's maids cut her hand severely on a pane of glass, which she had brokrn while washing windows. While helping to stop the bleeding he could not keep from sucking up the blood that flowed from the wound, and in this act he experienced extreme erotic excitement, with complete orgasm and ejaculation.

From that time on, he sought, in every possible way to see and, where practicable, to taste the fresh blood of females. That of young girls was preferred by him. He spared no pains or expense to obtain this pleasure. At first he availed himself of a young servant, who allowed her finger to be pricked with a needle or lancet at his request. When his mother discovered this, she discharged the girl. Then he was driven to prostitutes as a substitute, with suc- cess frequently enough, though with some difficulty. In the intervals he practised onanism and manustupration per feminam, which, however, never afforded him com- plete satisfaction, but, on the contrary, caused listlessness and self-reproach. On account of his nervous difficulties he visited many sanatoria, and was twice a voluntary patient in institutions. He used hydrotherapy, electricity, and strengthening cures, without particular success. For a time it was possible, by means of cold sitz-baths, mono- bromate of camphor, and bromides, to diminish his sexual excitability and onanistic impulse. However, when the patient felt himself free again, he would immediately fall into his old passion, and spare no pains or money to satisfy his sexual desire in the abnormal manner described.

Of special interest for the scientific proof of sadism is a case related by Moll (vide case 29, ninth edition of this work (German) and recently published by Moll himself in his book on "Libido Sexualis," p. 500.

It discloses clearly one of the hidden roots of sadism the impulse to complete subjugation of the woman, which here became consciously entertained. This is the more remarkable since it occurred in an individual de- cidedly timid, and in other respects modest and even ap- prehensive. The case also shows clearly that powerful libido which even impels the individual to overcome all obstacles, may be present, while at the same time coitus is


not desired, because the principal intensity of feeling is, ab origine, connected with the cruel part of the sadistic (lustful and cruel) circle of ideas. This case also con- tains weak elements of masochism (v. infra).

Cases are by no means infrequent in which men with perverse inclinations induce prostitutes, by paying them high prices, to allow themselves to be whipped and even wounded by them. Works on prostitution contain reports of them (vide Coffignon, "La Corruption a Paris," etc.).

(d) Defilement of Women.

The perverse sadistic impulse, to injure women and put contempt and humiliation upon them, is also expressed in the desire to defile them with disgusting or, at least foul things.

The following case, published by Arndt ("Viertel- jahrsschr. f. ger. Medicin," N. F. xvii., H. 1), belongs here :

Case 32

. A., medical student at Greifswald, accu- satus quod iterum iterumque puellis honestis parentibus naiis in publico genitalia sua ebraj&s dependentia plane nudata quce antea summo amiculo (overcoat) tecta erant, ostenderat. Nonnunquam puellas fugientes secutus casque ad se attractas urina oblivit. HCBC luce clara facia suni; nunquam aliquid hcec faciens loculus est.

A. was twenty-three years old, well built, neat in dress, and polite in manners. Indication of cranium progeneum; chronic pneumonia of the apex of the right lung; emphy- sema. Pulse, 60; in excitement not more than 70 to 80.

itals normal. Occasional disturbances of digestion, and hardness of the abdomen, vertigo, excessive excitement of sexual desires, early led to onanism. The sexual desire r was directed toward a natural method of satisfac- tion. Occasional attacks of depression, or thoughts of de- precation of self, and of perverse impulses, for which he



could find no motive, such as laughing at serious things, throwing his money in the water, and running about in the pouring rain. The father of the culprit was of a nervous temperament, the mother subject to nervous headaches. A brother was subject to epileptic convulsions.

From his youth the culprit presented a nervous tem- perament, was inclined to convulsions and attacks of syn- cope, and when severely scolded would fall into a state of momentary stiffness. In 1869 he studied medicine in Ber- lin. In 1870 he went to the war as a hospital assistant. His letters at this time betray peculiar torpidity and soft- ness. On his return home, in 1871, his emotional irrita- bility was noticed at once by those about him. Thereafter frequent complaints of bodily ailments; unpleasantness resulting from a love affair. In November, 1871, he pur- sued his studies diligently in Greifswald. He was con- sidered very gentlemanly. In confinement he was quiet, calm, and sometimes self-absorbed. His acts he attributed to painful sexual excitement, which of late had become excessive. He declared that he had been fully conscious of his perverse acts, and after committing them ; had always been ashamed of them. He had not experienced actual sexual satisfaction in their commission. He obtained no correct insight into his position. He considered himself a kind of martyr a victim to an evil power. Presumption of irresponsibility, as a result of absence of free will.

The impulse to defile occurs also, paradoxically, in the aged, when there is a reappearance of sexual instinct, which, under such circumstances, is so often expressed in perverse acts. Thus Tarnowsky reports (p. 76) the follow- ing case :

Case 33

. I knew such a patient, who had a woman dressed in a decollete ball-dress lie down on a low sofa in a brightly lighted room. Ipse apud januam alius cubiculi dbscuraii constiiit adspiciendo aliquantulum feminam, ex- citatus in earn insiluit ct excrementa in siniis ejus deposuit.


HOBC faciens ejaculationem quondam sc sentire confessua est.

An officer of Vienna informed me that men, by means of large sums of money, induce prostitutes to suffer ut illi viri in ora earum spuereni et fasces et urinas in ora exple- rent. 1

The following case by Dr. Pascal ("Igiene dell* amore") seems also to belong here: %

Case 34

Case 34. A man had an inamorata who would allow Iii in to blacken her hands with coal or soot. She then had to sit before a mirror in such a way that he could see her hands in it. While conversing with her, which was often for a long time, he looked constantly at her mirrored hands, and finally, after a time, he would take his leave, fully satisfied.

The following case, communicated by a physician, may be of interest in relation to this subject:

An officer was known in a brothel in K. only by the name of "Oil". "Oil induced erection and ejaculation only by having puell. publ. nudam step into a tub filled with oil, while he rubbed the oil all over her body.

These 'acts lead to the presumption that certain cases of injury to the clothing of females (e.g., sprinkling them with sulphuric acid, ink, etc.) depend upon a perverse sex- ual impulse; at any rate the mdtive seems to be to inflict an injury, or pain of some sort, and those injured are always females, and the perpetrators males. In crimes of this kind, pains should always be taken to examine into the vita sexualis of the culprits.

The case of Bachmann, given below, Case 120, throws a clear light on the sexual nature of such crimes; for, in this case, the sexual motive in the deed is proven.

Tatril (" La Corruption," Paris, Noiret, p. 223) makes the same statements. There are also men who demand introductio lingmt mtretricit in onum.


Case 35

Case 35. B., age twenty-nine, merchant, married, heavily tainted, since his sixteenth year masturbation by means of a pocket electric battery, neurasthenic, impotent at the age of eighteen, for a while absynth drinker on ac- count of unrequited love. One day meeting a nurse-maid wearing a white apron such as his love used to wear, he could not resist the temptation to steal the white apron. He took it home and after masturbating into it burn it with renewed masturbation. Returning to the street he met a woman wearing a white dress. The sight of it produced an impulse to stain the dress with ink. Having done it he went home revelling in the sensual situation thus provoked and again masturbated. At another time strolling about the street he amused himself with cutting the dresses of women with a penknife. He was arrested as a pick-pocket. At other times a stain on a lady's dress caused orgasm and ejaculation in him. He obtained the same results while burning with a cigar a hole into the clothing of women whom he passed. (Magnan, reported by v. Thoinot, at- tentats aux moeurs, p. 434, and by Gamier, annales d' hy- giene publ., 1900, March, p. 237.)

Gamier (annales d' hygiene 1900, Feb'y-March) has given these cases of sadism special attention reducing them to fetichism (vide infra}. This is particularly apparent in case 35 in which the fetich consisted in a blue dress cov- ered with a white apron. The personality of the wearer was a matter of indifference, it was the fetich that fas- cinated, the impulse being irresistible. Gamier calls these cases Sadi-Fetichism and points out their social and for- ensic importance, suggesting confinement of such unfor- tunate individuals in an insane asylum. Destructive ac- tions like these towards the fetich which, properly speak- ing, is an object of desire and possession, this sadism on lifeless objects, may be explained by the fact that the fetich awakens sensual sensations coupled in sadistic natures with the pleasure derived from acts of cruelty and destruction. In fetichism, well-developed, the fetich itself ab- stracted from the personality of the wearer it dominates


per se the whole vita sexualis, brings it into action and may under circumstances awaken kindred regions of a sadistic nature which find gratification in the field of the (imper- sonal) fetich. The sadistic act in itself is often enough an equivalent for coitus rendered impossible by physical and psychical impotence. It may be practised on boys, animals, persons of the same sex, without relation to paedophilia, zoophilia or homosexuality.

It is remarkable and seems to prove the connection with lust-cruelty that at the moment of the destroying act against the fetich (cutting off girl's tresses, stabbing women, de- filing ladies' toilets, etc.) orgasm and ejaculation take place in the "sadi-fetichist."

A. Moll (Zeitschr. f. Medicinalbeamte) has recently published a case which may be considered classical :

An academically cultured man, age thirty-one years, heavily tainted by heredity, offspring from a marriage be- tween blood-relations, always shy and retired, used to rump about when growing into puberty (17) with the playfel- lows of his sister, girls about eleven years of age, and from the sight of their white underwear became a "laundry fet- ichist." He began to masturbate thinking of girls clad in white garments and manipulating during the act light- coloured pieces of clothing belonging to his female rela- tives.

When twenty-three years of age he began coitus with girls dressed in white. At the age of twenty-five he saw a girl's white dress being bespattered with mud. This pro- duced a very strong sexual emotion in him and from that f time on he felt an irresistible impulse to defile the apparel of women, to crush and tear it. This impulse was par- ticularly provoked at the sight of women clad in white. He used liquor ferri sesqui-chlorati or ink and thus produced orgasm and ejaculation. At times he had dreams of white female underwear which were accompanied by pollution at the moment of touching or crushing it. Insanity could not be established. He was mulcted in the sum of 50 marks for unlawfully causing damage to personal property.


(e) Other Kinds of Assault on Females Symbolic Sadism.

The foregoing groups do not exhaust the forms in which the sadistic impulse toward women is expressed. If the impulse is not overmastering, or if there is yet sufficient moral resistance, it may happen that the perverse inclina- tion is satisfied by an act that is apparently quite sense- less and silly, but which has nevertheless a symbolic mean- ing for the perpetrator. This seems to be the meaning of the two following cases :

Case 36

. (Dr. Pascal, "Igiene dell' amore".) A man was accustomed to go, on a certain day once a month, to an inamorata and cut her "fringe". This gave him the greatest pleasure. He made no other demands on the girl.

Case 37

. A man in Vienna regularly visited several prostitutes only to lather their faces and then to remove the lather with a razor, as if he were shaving them. He never hurt the girls, but became sexually excited ; and ejacu- lated during the procedure. 1

. Ideal Sadism.

Sadism may eventually manifest itself solely in the im- agination, i.e., in dream pictures which accompany the act of masturbation or accompany the process of pollution in sadistic fancies.

That it remains an ideal act only may be due to want of opportunity or courage to put it into practical action or . that latent ethics forbid violence, or it may be that when debility of the centre of ejaculation is pronounced, a vivid sadistic impression suffices to provoke ejaculatory gratifica- tion. In this case sadism is merely an equivalent for coitus.

1 Leo Taxil (op. cit., p. 224) relates that in Parisian brothels instruments are kept ready which look like knouts, but which are merely tubes filled with air, such as clowns use in circuses. Sadistic men use them to create for themselves the illusion that they are whipping women.

Case 38

. D., agent, age twenty-nine years, family ilv t u i nt cil, masturbation at the age of fourteen, coitus at twenty, but without pronounced libido or satisfaction, hereafter masturbation preferred. At first these acts were accompanied by the thought of a girl whom he could mal- treat and subject to humiliating and infamous actions.

Heading of acts of violence on women excited him sex- ually. But he did not like to see blood either on himself or on others. lie hated the sight of a naked woman.

He never felt inclined to put his sadistic ideas into ac- tual practice for unnatural sexual intercourse he disliked.

He could not account for his sadistic ideas. These statements he made at a consultation for neurasthenia.

Case 39

. Ideal sadism with "Podex-Fetichisin."

1'.. ni;r twenty-two, of independent means, heavily tainted by heredity, by accident saw the governess chastis- ing his sister (fourteen years of age) ad podicem inter genua. This made a deep impression on him and hence- forth he had a constant desire to see and touch his sister's buttocks. By some clever stratagem he succeeded. When seven years old he became the play-fellow of two small girls, of which one was tiny and lean, the other rather pi ump. He played the role of the father chastising his children. The lean girl he simply spanked over the clothes. The other, however, allowed him to smack her bare bottom (she was then ten years old). This gave him great sexual pleasure and caused erection.

One day, after being chastised in this manner the girl asked him to look at her pudenda. But he refused the in- vitation as this view did not interest him in the least.

At the age of nine he became acquainted with a boy a little older than himself. One day they came across a pic- ture representing the scene of flagellation in a monk's mon- astery. P. soon persuaded his companion to enact the scene. The latter consented to playing the passive role and found delight in it. This was often repeated. On one occasion P. assumed the passive role but it gave


him no pleasure. This relation between the two con- tinued till they grew up into manhood, and P. always ejac- ulated during the flagellation. He dominated over his friend, who looked upon him as a superior being. Only twice whilst this friendship lasted did P. attempt this pro- cedure on other persons ; once on a nurse-maid whose bare bottom he smacked, and once in the street on a girl, eleven years old, whose cries, however, drove him to hasty flight.

He never felt any inclination to masturbation, coitus with girls, nor antipathic sexual sensations. He confined himself to touch the buttocks of women when in a crowd, or of girls whilst mixing with them on the playground, to look under the dresses of women climbing the stairs of an omnibus or watch little girls undressing themselves.

He practised "Sadism-Fetichism". His fancy revelled in situations in which he flagellated his younger brother, a nurse-maid or a nun; he invented stories which always ended in a scene of flagellation; answered advertisements such as : "Dame severe demande eleve" and derived the ut- most delight from the correspondence that followed ; made drawings of flagellation scenes, of bare female buttocks, ransacked the libraries for books containing sadistic writ- ings, made abstracts of the whole literature, collected pictures referring to this favourite subject and designed such himself in keeping with the progress he made in developing his perversion.

The flights of his fancy rose from the exhibition of the naked buttocks, to smacking, flagellating and even teasing them, even to the murder of the owner. The latter act, however, frightened him. The ever recurring ejaculations finally brought on severe neurasthenia. He never could make up his mind to seek medical advice. At last he found a woman with whom he could have coitus as she permitted him to flagellate her during the act.

(Regis, Archives d' anthropologie criminelle, N. 82, July, 1899.)

Case 40

. Merchant, forty years of age, abnormally early hetero- and hypersexuaiity. From his twentieth year occasionally coitus and faute de mieux masturbation. In consequence of fright (surprise during coitus) psychical impotence. Treatment unsuccessful. This affected his mind and he came near to despair. He now tried imma- ture girls with whom impotence could not put him to shame. His moral will power, still unimpaired, enabled him to resist this impulse, however, and he found satisfac- tion to go with girls legally of age and no longer innocent, but they must in appearance be younger than their years. In such cases his impotence disappeared. One day he saw a lady smiting the face of her daughter, fourteen years old. This produced at once violent erection and orgasm in him. The thought of it had the same result. From that time he found a mighty stimulant in seeing girls, no matter how young, beaten ; even reading or hearing of maltreatment of females had the same result.

That the retarded sadism in this case was not acquired but only latent is evident from the fact that it ever existed in an ideal form. It was part of the sensual idea predom- inant in him that he introduced "extremitatem superiorem in vaginam femince usque ad scapulam" and groped about within. [Other cases of ideal sadism see Moll (Libido sex- ualis, pp. 324 and 500) ; Krafft, "Arbeiten," iv. p. 163.]

(g) Sadism with Any Other Object Whipping of Boys.

The sadistic acts with females just now described are also practised on other living, sensitive objects, children and animals. There may be a full consciousness that the impulse is really directed towards women, and that only faute de mieux the nearest attainable objects (pupils) are abused. But the condition of the perpetrator may be such that the impulse to cruel acts enters consciousness accom- panied only by lustful excitement, while its real object (which alone can explain the lustful colouring of such acts) remains latent.

The first alternative suffices as an* explanation of the


cases which Dr. Albert describes (Friedreich's "Blatter f. ger. Med.," p. 77, 1859), cases "in which lustful teacher* whipped their pupils on the naked buttocks without cause. We must think of the second alternative, the sadistic im- pulse with unconsciousness of its object, when the sight of punishment causes spontaneous sexual excitement in the witness and thus becomes the determining factor in his future vita sexualis, as in the following cases :

Case 41

. K., aged twenty-five, merchant, applied to me in the fall of 1889 for advice concerning an anomaly of his vita sexualis, which made him fear invalidism and impossibility of future happiness in marriage.

Patient came of a nervous family. As a child he was delicate, weak and nervous. Healthy except for measles; later on he became more robust.

At the age of eight, while at school, he saw the teacher punish the boys by taking their heads between his thighs and spanking them with a ferule. This sight caused the patient lustful excitement. "Without any idea of the danger and enormity of onanism," he satisfied himself with it, and from that time often masturbated, always calling up the memory-picture of a boy being punished.

Thus it continued until his twentieth year. Then he learned the significance of onanism, was terribly fright- ened, and tried to overcome his impulse to masturbate ; but he fell into the practice of psychical onanism, which he re- garded as innocuous and morally defensible, and for which he made use of the memory-pictures of boys being whipped, previously mentioned.

Patient now became neurasthenic, suffered with pollu- tions, and tried to cure himself by visiting brothels ; but he could not induce erection. Then he sought to obtain normal sexual feelings by means of social intercourse with ladies ; but he recognised that he was entirely insensible to the charms of the fair sex.

The patient was an intelligent man, normally devel- oped, and of aesthetic taste. There was no inclination to


persons of his own sex. My advice consisted of means to combat the neurasthenia and pollutions; interdiction of psychical and manual onanism ; avoidance of all sexual ex- citants ; and, possibly, hypnotic treatment to ultimately in- duce a return of the vita sexualis to its normal condition.

Case 42

Case 42. Abortive sadism. N., student, came under observation in December, 1890. He had practised mastur- bation from early youth. According to his statements, he became sexually excited when he saw his father whip the children, and, later, when he saw his companions whipped by the teacher. When a spectator of such scenes, he always experienced lustful feelings. He could not say exactly when this first occurred, but it may have been at about the age of six. He could not tell exactly when he began to mas- turbate, but he stated with certainty that his sexual in- stinct was first awakened by the punishment of others, and thus he unconsciously came to practise masturbation. The patient remembered clearly that from the age of four to the age of eight he was frequently spanked, and that this caused him pain, never lustful pleasure.

Since he did not always have opportunity to see others whipped, he began to imagine how others were punished. This excited his lust, and he^ would then masturbate. Whenever he could, he managed to see others punished at school. Now and then he also felt desire to whip others. At the age of twelve he induced a comrade to allow him to whip him. lie found great sexual pleasure in it. When, however, his companion beat him in return he experienced nothing but pain.

The impulse to beat others was never very strong. The patient experienced more satisfaction in filling his imagination with scenes of whipping. He never indulged in any other sadistic acts, and never had any desire to see blood, etc. Up to his fifteenth year his sexual indulgence consisted of masturbation, coupled with such fancies. After that (dancing lessons, association with girls) the early fancies disappeared almost entirely and were accompanied


by but weak lustful feelings; so that the patient gave them up entirely. In their place came thoughts of coitus in a natural way, without anything sadistic.

The patient indulged in coitus for the first time "on account of his health." He was potent, and the act gratified him. He then tried to abstain from masturbation, but was not successful, though he often indulged in coitus, and with more pleasure than he had in masturba- tion. He wished to be freed from masturbation as some- thing vicious. He had coitus once a month, but mastur- bated once or twice every night. He was sexually normal, excepting the masturbation. There was no neurasthenia; genitals normal.

Case 43

Case 43. P., aged 15, of high social position, came of an hysterical mother whose brother and father died in an asylum. Two children of the family died in early child- hood of convulsions. The patient was talented, virtuous, and quiet ; but at times he was very disobedient, stubborn, and of violent temper. He had epilepsy, and practised masturbation. One day it was learned that P., with money, induced a comrade of fourteen, B., to allow himself to be pinched in the arms, genitals, and thighs. When B. cried, P. became excited and struck at B. with his right hand, while with his left he made manipulations in the left pocket of his trousers. P. confessed that to maltreat his friend, of whom he was very fond, gave him peculiar delight; and that ejaculation while hurting his friend gave him much more pleasure than when he masturbated alone. (v. Gyurlcovechky , "Pathol. und Therapie der mannl. Impotenz.," p. 80, 1889).

Case 44

Case 44. K., fifty years of age, without occupation, heavily tainted, satisfied his perverse sexual feelings ex- clusively on boys of ten to fifteen years of age, whom he seduced to mutual masturbation. At the acme of the sit- uation he would pierce the lobe of the boy's ear. When this, later on, proved ineflicient, he cut off the lobe of a


boy's ear. He was arrested and sentenced to five years* imprisonment (Thoinot, op. cit. f p. 452.)

That in all these cases of sadistic abuse of boys there can be no thought of a combination of sadism and anti- pathetic sexual instinct, as often occurs (v. infra) in indi- viduals of inverted sexuality, is shown aside from the absence of all positive signs of it by a study of the next group, where, in association with the object of injury, animals, the instinct for women is seen to appear repeatedly.

(h) Sadistic Acts wiih Animals.

In numerous cases, sadistically perverse men, afraid of criminal acts with human beings, or who care only for the sight of the suffering of a sensitive being, make use of the sight of dying animals, 1 or torture animals, to stimulate or excite their lust.

The case of a man in Vienna, which is reported by Hofmann in his "Text-Book of Legal Medicine," is note- worthy in relation to this. According to the evidence of several prostitutes, before the sexual act he was accus- tomed to excite himself by torturing and killing chickens and pigeons and other birds, and, therefore, was called "Hendlherr" (chickenmister).

For the elucidation of such cases the observation of Lombroso is of value, according to whom two men had ejaculation when they killed chickens or pigeons, or wrung their necks.

The same author, in his "Uomo delinquente," p. 201. speaks of a poet of some reputation, who became power- fully excited sexually whenever he saw calves slaughtered, and also at the sight of bloody meat.

Mantegazza (op. cit. p. 114) relates that among degene- rate Chinese the practice prevails to sodomise geese and at the moment of ejaculation to cut off their heads.

'Dimitri, the son of Ivan the Cruel, derived unspeakable pleas- ure when witnessing the death struggles of sheep, chickens and geese. ( Bibliotheque de Criminologie, xix., p. 278.)


Mantegazza ("Fisiologia del piacere," fifth ed., pp. 394, 395) mentions the case of a man who once saw chick- ens killed, and from that time had a desire to wallow in their warm, steaming entrails, because he experienced a feeling of lust while doing it.

Thus, in these and similar cases, the vita sexualis is so constituted ab origine that the sight of blood, death, etc., excites lustful feeling. It is so in the following case :

Case 45

Case 45. C. L., aged forty-two, engineer, married, father of two children ; from a neuropathic family ; father irascible, a drinker; mother hysterical, subject to eclamptic attacks. The patient remembers that in childhood he took particular pleasure in witnessing the slaughtering of domestic animals, especially swine. He thus experienced lustful pleasure and ejaculation. Later he visited slaughter- houses, in order to delight in the sight of flowing blood and the death throes of the animals. When he could find opportunity, he killed the animals himself, which always afforded him a vicarious feeling of sexual pleasure.

At the time of full maturity he first attained to a knowledge of his abnormality. The patient was not exactly opposed in inclination to women, but close contact with them seemed to him repugnant. On the advice of a physician, at twenty-five he married a woman who pleased him, in the hope of freeing himself of his abnoi- mal condition. Although he was very partial to his wife, it was only seldom, and after great trouble and exertion of his imagination, that he could perform coitus with her; nevertheless, he begat two children. In 1866 he was in the war in Bohemia. His letters written at that time to his wife, were composed in an exalted, enthusiastic tone. He was missed after the battle of Koniggratz.

If, in this case, the capability of normal coitus was much impaired by the predominance of perverse ideas, ill the following it seems to have been entirely repressed:

Case 46

Case 46. (Dr. Pascal, "Igiene dell' araore ") A gentleman visited prostitutes, had them purchase a living fowl or rabbit, and made them torture the animal. He particularly revelled in the sight of cutting off the heads and tearing out the eyes and entrails. If he -found a girl who would consent, and go about it right cruelly, he was delighted, and paid her and went his way without asking anything more or touching her.

Interesting is the awakening of sadistic feelings to- ward animals as related in the following case of Fere:

Case 47

Case 47. B., thirty-seven years of age, tanner, tainted, began masturbation at the age of nine. One day, as he was about to masturbate with another boy at the corner of a street, where the gradient was very steep, a heavily laden dray pulled by four horses came along. The driver yelled at the horses and whipped them. The horses slipped about a good deal and made the sparks fly from the cobble stones. This excited B. very much and he ejaculated as one of the horses fell. Ever afterwards a similar occurrence would have the same effect on him and he went in search of it. If the difficulty was overcome without extra exertion on the part of the horse, or with- out the use of the whip, B. became only excited and he had to resort to masturbation or coitus to find final sat- isfaction. Even after he was married and had children, sadism continued. When one of his children fell ill with chorea, B. had hysterical attacks. (Fere, 1'instinct sexuel, p. 255).

The last two sections, g and Ti, show that the suffering of any living being may become a source of perverse sexual enjoyment to sadistically constituted persons, and that there may be sadism with almost any [living] object. However, it would be erroneous and an exaggeration to try to explain by sadistic perversion all the remarkable and surprising acts of cruelty that occur, and to assume sadism


as the motive underlying all the horrors recorded in history or found in certain psychological manifestations among the peoples of the present time.

Cruelty arises from various sources and is natural to primitive man. Compassion, in contrast with it, is a secondary manifestation and acquired late. The instinct to fight and destroy, so important an endowment in pre- historic conditions, is long afterwards operative; and, in the ideas engendered by civilisation, like that of "the criminal," it finds new objects, so long as its original object "the enemy" still exists. That not simply the death, but also torture of the conquered is demanded, is in part explained by the sense of power, which satisfies itself in this way, and in part by the insatiableness of the impulse of vengeance. Thus all horrors and historical enormities may be explained without recourse to sadism (which may often enough have been the motive, but should not be assumed as such, since it is a relatively rare perversion).

At the same time, there is still another powerful psychical element to be taken into consideration, which explains the attraction which is still exerted by execu- tions, etc. ; viz., the pleasure which is produced by intense and unusual impressions and rare sights, in contrast to which, in coarse and blunted beings, pity is silent.

But undoubtedly there are individuals for whom, in spite or even by reason of their lively compassion, all that is connected with death and suffering has a mysterious attraction who, with inward opposition, and yet follow- ing a dark impulse, occupy themselves with such things, or at least with pictures and notices of them. Still, this is not sadism, so long as no sexual element enters into consciousness; and yet it is possible that, in unconscious life, slender threads connect such manifestations with the hidden depths of sadism.


(t) Sadism in Woman.

That sadism a perversion, though often met with in men is less frequent in women, may be easily explained. In the first place, sadism, in whirh the need of subju- gation of the opposite sex forms a constituent element, in accordance with its nature represents a pathological intensification of the masculine sexual character; in the second place, the obstacles which oppose the expression of this monstrous impulse are, of course, much greater for woman than for man. Yet sadism occurs in women, and it can only be explained by the primary constituent ele- ment the general hyper-excitation of the motor sphere. Only two cases have thus far been scientifically studied.

Case 48

Case 48. A married man presented himself with numerous scars of cuts on his arms. He told their origin as follows: When he wished to approach his wife, who was young and somewhat "nervous," he first had to make a cut in his arm. Then she would suck the wound and during the act become violently excited sexually.

This case recalls the widespread legend of the vam- pires, the origin of which may perhaps be referred to such sadistic facts. 1

In the second case of feminine sadism, for which P am indebted to Dr. Moll, of Berlin, by the side of the perverse impulse, as so frequently happens, there is anaesthesia in the normal activities of sexual life; and there are also traces of masochism (v. infra).

Case 49

Case 49. Mrs. H., of H., aged twenty-six, came of a family in which nervous or mental diseases are said not to

1 The legend is especially spread throughout the Balkan peninsula. Among the modern Greeks it has its origin in the myth of the Iami<r and marmolykcs blood-sucking women. Goethe made use of this in his " Bride of Corinth." The verses referring to vampirism, " suck thy heart's blood," etc., can be thoroughly understood only when compared with their ancient sources.


have been observed ; but the patient herself presented sigas of hysteria and neurasthenia. Although married eight years and the mother of a child, Mrs. H. never had desire to perform coitus. Very strictly educated as a young girl, ntil her marriage she remained almost innocent of any knowledge of sexual matters. She had menstruated regularly since her fifteenth year. Essential abnormality of the genitals was not apparent. To the patient coitus was not only not a pleasure, but even an unpleasant act, and repugnance to it had constantly increased. The patient could not understand how any one could call such an act the greatest delight of love, which to her was something far sublimer and unconnected with sensual impulse. At the same time it should be mentioned that the patient really loved her husband. In kissing him, too, she experienced a decided pleasure, which she could not exactly describe. But she could not conceive how the genitals can have anything to do with love. In other respects Mrs. H. was a decidedly intelligent woman of feminine character.

Si oscula dat conjugi, magnam voluptatem percipit in mordendo eum. Gratissimum ei esset conjugem mordere eo modo ut sanguis fluat. Contenta esset, si loco coitus morderetur a conjuge ipsaeque eum mordere liceret. Tamen earn preniteret, si morsu magnum dolorem faceret. (Dr. Moll). 1

In history there are examples of famous women who, to some extent, had sadistic instincts. These Messalinas are particularly characterised by their thirst for power, lust, and cruelty. Among them are Valeria Messalina herself, and Catherine de' Medici, the instigator of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, whose greatest pleasure was to have the ladies of her court whipped before her eyes, etc. 2 (Confer above.)

1 Another case of Sadismus feminae is given by Moll, 3rd edit, of " Die Contr. Sexualempfindung," p. 507, case 29. It is the exact counterpart of Masochism in man and represents the ideal desire of the Masochist.

2. Masochism. 1 The Association of Passively Endured Cruelty and Violence with Lust

Masochism is the opposite of sadism. While the latter is the desire to cause pain am! use force, the former is the wish to suffer pain and be subjected to force.

By masochism I understand a peculiar perversion of the psychical vita sexualis in which the individual affected, in sexual feeling and thought, is controlled by the idea of being completely and unconditionally subject to the will of a person of the opposite sex; of being treated by this person as by a master, humiliated and abused. This idea is coloured by lustful feeling; the masochist lives in fancies, in which he creates situations of this kind and often attempts to realise them. By this perversion his sexual instinct is often made more or less insensible to the normal charms of the opposite sex incapable of a normal vita sextialis psychically impotent. But this psychical abnormal, gives a masterly portrayal of complete feminine sadism in hia " Penthesilea." In scene xxii., Kleist describes his heroine pursuing Achilles in the fire of love, and when he is betrayed into her hands, she tears him with lustful, murderous fury into pieces, and nets her dogs on him : " Tearing the armour from his body, she strikes her teeth in his white breast she and her dogs, the rivals, Oxus and Sphynx they on the right side, she on the left; and as I approached blood dripped from her hands and mouth." And later, when Penthesilea becomes satiated : " Did I kiss him to death T No. Did I not kiss him? Torn in pieces? Then it was a mistake; kissing rhymes with biting [in German, Kiisse, Bisse], and one who loves with the whole heart might easily mistake the one for the other." In recent literature we find the matter frequently treated, but particularly in Kacher-Masorh'a novels, of which mention is made later on, and in Ernest von Wildenbruch't " Brunhilde," Rochildc'a " Le Marquise de Sade," etc.

1 Literature, v. Krafft, Neue Forschungen aus dem Gebiete der

Psychopath i:i S-\tialis, 2 Aufl. Idem, Arbeiten aus d. Gesammt-

. ,1. l\\rhi:itrie u. Neuropathol., iv., p. 127-160. Moll, Die

i 'nut rare Sexualempfindung, 3. Aufl., 27&Eulcnburg, Grenzfragen

dos Nervon- und Seoh-nlolx-ns. xix., S.idismus u. Masochismus, 1902.

Fuck*, Therapie der anomalen vita sexualis (Stuttgart, Enke) Beob.

5 and 6. r. Xchrcnk \ otzing, Die Suggestions-Therapie, 1892.

Keydrl. Viortoliahrsohr. f. jr>riehtl. Med., 1893, iv. 2 ( Interessante

von Masochiftten ) . Bloch, Beitrftge z. Aetiol. d. Psychopi.

sexualis, 2 Theil, Dresden. 1903.

impotence does not in any way depend upon a horror sexus alterius, but upon the fact that the perverse instinct finds an adequate satisfaction differing from the normal in woman, to be sure, but not in coitus.

But cases also occur in which with the perverse im- pulse there is still some sensibility to normal stimuli, and intercourse under normal conditions takes place. In other cases the impotence is not purely psychical, but physical, i.e., spinal; for this perversion, like almost all other per- versions of the sexual instinct, is developed only on the basis of a psychopathic and, for the most part, hereditarily tainted individuality; and as a rule such individuals are given to excesses, particularly masturbation, to which the difficulty of attaining what their fancy creates drives them again and again.

I feel justified in calling this sexual anomaly "Masochism," because the author Sacher-Masoch frequently made this perversion, which up to his time was quite unknown to the scientific world as such, the substratum of his writings. I followed thereby the scientific formation of the term "Daltonism," from Dalton, the discoverer of colour-blindness.

During recent years facts have been advanced which prove that Sacher-Masoch was not only the poet of Maso- chism, but that he himself was afflicted with this anomaly. 1 Although these proofs were communicated to me without restriction, I refrain from giving them to the public. I refute the accusation that 'I have coupled the name of a revered author with a perversion of the sexual instinct, which has been made against me by some admirers of the author and by some critics of my book. As a man Sacher-Masoch cannot lose anything in the estimation of his cultured fellow-beings simply because he was afflicted with an anomaly of his sexual feelings. As an author he suffered severe injury so far as the influence and in- trinsic merit of his work is concerned, for so long and

1 Cf. for corroboration Sacher-Magoch, biography by v. Eulenbwg: Grenzfragen des Nerven- und Seelenlebens, 1902, xxix., pp. 46-57.

whenever he eliminated his perversion from his literary efforts he was a gift*-! writer, and as such would have achieved real greatness had he been actuated by normally sexual feelings. In this respect he is a remarkable exam- ple of the powerful influence exercised by the vita sexual is be it in the good or evil sense <>ver the formation and direction of man's mind.

The number of cases of undoubted masochism thus far observed is very large. Whether masochism occurs associated with normal sexual instincts, or exclusively controls the individual ; whether or not, and to what extent, the individual subject to this perversion strives to realise his peculiar fancies; whether or not, he has thus more or less diminished his virility depends upon the degree of intensity of the perversion in the single case, upon the strength of the opposing ethical and esthetic motives and the relative power of the physical and mental organisation of the affected individual. From the psychopathic point of view, the essential and common element in all these cases is the fact that the sexual instinct is directed to ideas of subjugation and abuse by the opposite sex.

Whatever has been said with reference to the im- pulsive character (indistinctness of motive) of the resulting acts and with reference to the original (congenital) nature of the perversion in sadism, is also true in masochism.

In masochism there is a gradation of the acts from the most repulsive and monstrous to the silliest, regulated by the degree of intensity of the perverse instinct and the power of the remnants of moral and aesthetic counter- motives. The extreme consequences of masochism, how- ever, are checked by the instinct of self-preservation, and therefore murder and serious injury, which may be com- mitted in sadistic excitement, have here in reality, so far as known, no passive equivalent. But the perverse de- sires of masochistic individuals may in imagination attain these extreme consequences (v. infra, case 50).

Moreover, the acts to which masochists resort are in some cases performed in connection with coitus, i.e., as preparatory measures; in others, as substitutes for coitus when this is impossible. This, too, depends only upon the condition of sexual power, which has been diminished for the most part physically and mentally by the activity of the sexual ideas in the perverse direction, and not upon the nature of the act itself.

(a) The Desire for Abuse and Humiliation as a Means of Sexual Satisfaction.

Case 50

Case 50. Mr. Z., age twenty-nine, technologist, came for consultation because of fear of tabes. Father nervous, died tabetic. Father's sister insane. Several relatives very nervous and peculiar. On closer examination the patient was found to have sexual, spinal and cerebral asthenia. He presented no symptoms of tabes dorsalis. Questions concerning abuse of the sexual organs brought out a con- fession of masturbation practised since youth. In the course of the examination the following interesting psycho- sexual anomalies were discovered: At the age of five the vita sexualis began with the impulse to whip himself, as well as with the desire to see others whipped. In this he never thought of individuals as of the one sex or the other. Faute de mieux he practised flagellation on him- self, and, in time, this induced ejaculation. Long before this he had begun to satisfy himself with masturbation, and always during the act revelled in imaginary scenes of whipping. He twice visited brothels to have himself flogged by prostitutes. For this purpose he chose the pret- tiest girl he could find ; but he was disappointed, and did not even have an erection, to say nothing of ejaculation. He recognized that the flagellation was subsidiary, and that the idea of subjection to the woman's will was the impor- tant thing. He realised this on the second trial. When he had the "thought of subjection" he was perfectly suc- cessful. In time, by straining his imagination with maso- chistic ideas, he performed coitus without flagellation ; but he found little satisfaction in it, so that he performed


sexual intercourse in a masochistic way. He found pleas- ure in masochistic scenes, in the sense of his original desire for flagellation, only when he was flagellated ad podicem, or, at least, only when he called up such a situation in imagination. At times of great excitability it was even sufficient if he told stories of such scenes to a pretty girl. He would thus have an orgasm, and usually ejaculation.

A very effectual fetichistic idea was early associated with this. He noticed that he was attracted and satisfied only by women wearing high heels and short jackets ("Hungarian fashion"). He did not know how he arrived at this fetichistic idea. Boys' legs with high heels also pleased him; but this charm was purely aesthetic, without any sensual colouring; and he said he had never noticed anything homosexual in himself. The patient referred his fetichism to his partiality for calves (legs). He was charmed by ladies' calves only when elegant shoes were on the feet. Nude legs feminine nudity in general did not in the least affect him sexually. A subordinate fetichistic idea for the patient was the human ear. It was a lustful pleasure for him to caress the handsome ears of people. With men this pleasure was slight, but with women it gave him great enjoyment.

He also had a weakness for cats. He thought them simply beautiful, and their movements were very attractive to him. The sight of a cat could raise him from a feeling of the deepest depression. Cats seemed to him sacred ; he saw something divine in them! He did not know the reason for this idiosyncrasy.

Of late he also frequently had sadistic ideas about punishing boys. In these imaginary flagellations both men and women played a part, but particularly the latter, and then his enjoyment was much more intense.

The patient found that, besides what he recognised and felt as masochism, there was something else which he preferred to designate "pageism."

While his masochistic fancies and acts were entirely of a coarse, sensual nature, his "pageism" consisted of the


idea of being a page to a beautiful girl. His conception was perfectly chaste, but piquant; his relation to her that of a slave, but absolutely , pure a mere platonic sub- mission. This revelling in the idea of serving such a "beautiful creature" as a page was coloured by a pleasur- able feeling, but this was in no way sexual. lie experi- enced in it an exquisite feeling of moral satisfaction, in contrast with sensually coloured masochism, and therefore he could but regard it as something of a different nature.

At first sight there was nothing remarkable in tho patient's appearance ; but his pelvis was abnormally broad, the ilia were flat, and the pelvis, as a whole, tilted and decidedly feminine. Eyes, neuropathic. He also men- tioned that he often had itching and lustful irritation at the anus, and that there ("erogenous" area) ope digiti, ho could satisfy himself.

The patient was troubled about his future. Help would be possible for him if he could but excite in himself an interest in women, but his will and imagination were too weak for that.

What the patient designated as "pageism" does not differ in any way from masochism, as may be seen when it is compared with the following cases of symbolic masochism and others; and, further, upon the considera- tion that in this perversion coitus is avoided as an inadequate act, and from the fact that in such cases there is often a fantastic exaltation of the perverse ideal :

Case 51

Case 51. Ideal Masochism. Mr. X., technologist, twenty-six years old. Mother of nervous disposition ; suf- fered from neuralgia. In the father's family a case of spinal disease and one of psychosis. A brother suffered from nervousness. Mr. X. had only slight infantile affec- tions ; he learned easily at school, and developed normally. He was of manly appearance, but rather weakly and under medium size. The descent of the right testicle was im- perfect, but could be noticed in the inguinal canal. Penis normally formed, but rather small.

At the age of five be felt sexual excitement whilst swinging on the cross-bar with legs crossed, and stretched out at full length, lie repeated the exercise several times, but forgot about the sensation until he grew up to maturer age. He then tried to induce this pleasurable feeling by repeating the exercise, but without success.

At the age of seven he took part in a general fight between the pupils of the school which he attended, after which the victors rode on the backs of the vanquished. This impressed X. considerably.

He thought the position of the prostrate boys a pleas- ant one, wanted to put himself in their place, imagining how by repeated efforts he could move the boy on his back near his face so that he might inhale the odour of his genitals. These thoughts, coupled with pleasurable feelings, often recurred to him afterwards, although they never occasioned real sensations of lust; in fact, he con- sidered these thoughts sinful and bad, and sought to repulse them. He claimed to have had no knowledge at that time of sexual matters. It is remarkable that the patient up to his twentieth year was periodically troubled with eneuresis nocturna.

Up to the time of puberty these masochistic fancies to lie under the thighs of others, boys as well as girls, recurred periodically. Now the objects were chiefly girls, but these exclusively when puberty was completed. Little by little these situations gained a different mean- ing, for soon the culminating point was the consciousness to be absolutely subject to the will and whims of a fully developed girl, coupled with corresponding humiliating acts and attitudes.

For instance, X. says :

"I am lying on my back on the floor. The mistress stands over my head with one foot on my breast or she holds my head between her feet so that her genitals are directly in a line with my vision. Or she sits a-straddle "ii my chest or on my face, using my body as a table. If 1 do not obey her commands promptly she locks me up


in a dark W.C. and leaves the house to find pleasure elsewhere. She introduces me to her friends as her slave and turns me over as such to them as a loan.

"She makes me perform the lowest menial work, wait upon her when she arises, in the bath et inter mictionem. At times she uses my face for the latter purpose and makes me drink of the voidance."

X. claimed that he never practically put these ideas into effect for fear of not realising the anticipated pleasure.

Once only he sneaked into the room of a pretty house- maid ut urinam puellce bibat; but he was too much dis- gusted to carry out the purpose.

He stated that he fought in vain against these maso- chistic impulses, considering them of a painful and dis- gusting nature. They were still prevalent. He pointed out particularly that the humiliation connected with these imaginary acts was the principal attraction, and that the pleasure derived from causing pain to others was never associated with them.

He preferred as "mistress" a slender maiden of about twenty years of age, with a pretty face, and wearing short light dresses.

The ordinary intercourse with young women, dancing, or mixed society, never impressed him.

With the period of puberty these masochistic ideas were at times accompanied by pollutions, but only weak emotions of lust.

At one time the patient resorted to friction of the glans penis, but he could not induce erection, much less ejaculation, and instead of pleasure he produced disagree- able paralytic feelings. This saved him from masturba- tion. But after the age of twenty he often experienced lustful emotions with ejaculation when performing gym- nastic exercises on the horizontal bar, or when climbing poles or ropes. He never had a desire for sexual inter- course with women or for inverted sexual actions. At the age of twenty-six a friend urged him to coitus, but already on the way to the house "anxiety, restlessness, and decided


disgust" crept over him. He became so excited, trembled

all over, and broke out into a profuse perspiration, that

<>uld not command an erection. Repeated attempts

-<d complete failures, but he was able to control his mental and physical excitement a little better than the first time.

Libido was never present. Masochistic imaginations gave no assistance, because his mental faculties at such times were "as if paralysed," and he "could not call up those intense imaginary representations which he found necessary for an erection." Thus he gave up all attempts at coitus, partly because libido was absent, and partly on account of his utter want of confidence in success. Only now and then he satisfied his weak sexual desires by the aid of gymnastic exercises. Oc- casionally, however, spontaneous or superinduced maso- chistic fancies (when awake) would cause erection, but never ejaculation.

Pollutions occurred at periods of six weeks.

The patient was highly intellectual, of refined man- ners, and a little neurasthenic. He complained that when in society the feeling obtruded itself constantly that he was being observed. This caused him worry and embarrass- ment, although he was fully aware that all this was naught but imagination. He loved solitude, for fear that others might find out his sexual abnormality.

This impotence did not cause him pain, for he had scarcely any desire. Nevertheless he would consider the cure of his oita sexualis a great boon, since so much depended upon it in social life, and he would be more self- possessed and manlier when among others.

\\\< present existence he considered a misery, and his life a burden.

Case 52

Case 52. X., man of letters, aged twenty-eight, tainted. Sexually hypersesthetic from childhood. At the age of six he had dreams of being whipped ad naies by a woman. Upon awakening, intense lustful excitement ; thui


he came to practise onanism. When eight years old he once asked the cook to whip him. From his tenth year, neurasthenia. Until his twenty-fifth year he had dreams of flagellation or similar fancies when awake, and indulged in onanism. Three years ago he had an impulse to have himself whipped by a puella. The patient was dis- appointed, for neither erection nor ejaculation occurred. At twenty-seven, another effort, with the thought to en- force erection and ejaculation. This was finally made possible by the following artifice: While coitus was attempted the puella had to tell him how she flogged mercilessly other impotent men, and threaten him with the same. Besides this, it was necessary for him to fancy that he was bound, entirely in the woman's power, help- less, and most painfully beaten by her. Occasionally, in order to become potent, it was necessary to have himself actually bound. Thus coitus was possible. Pollutions were accompanied by lustful feeling only when he (infre- quently) dreamed that he was abused, or that he looked on while one puella whipped the other. He never had a real lustful pleasure in coitus. The only things in women that interested him were the hands. Powerful women with big fists were his preference. At the same time, his desire for flagellation was only ideal ; for with his great cutaneous sensitiveness at the most a few strokes were sufficient. Blows from men were repugnant to him. He wished to marry. From the impossibility of asking a decent woman to perform flagellation and the doubt about being potent without flagellation sprang his embarrassment and desire to recover.

Passive Flagellation and Masochism.

Case 53

Case 53. D., age thirty-two, sculptor, hereditarily tainted, marks of degeneration, constitutionally neuro- pathic, neurasthenic, weakly in his earlier years. First emotions of sexuality at the age of seventeen; it devel- oped slowly and exclusively in a hetero-sexual, but maso- chistic direction. He craved for floggings at the hands


of a pretty woman (bu* no hand-fetichisin). He preferred women of haughty and imperious appearance. 'He never ought to put his masochistic desires into real practice. He could not explain them.

On four occasions he tried coitus but without success, He practised masturbation, which caused severe neuras- thenia, accompanied by phobia, whereupon he sought med- ical advice.

In three of the foregoing cases for the most part passive flagellation serves him that is subject to this perversion of masochism as an expression of the desired situation of subjection to the woman. The sum<- means is needed by a large number of masochists. But passive flagellation is a process which, as is known, has a tendency to induce erection reflexly by irritation of the nerves of the buttocks. 1 This effect of flagellation is used by weakened debauchees to help their diminished power; and this perversity not perversion is very common. It is, therefore, necessary to ascertain in what relation the passive flagellation of the masochists stands to those dissipated individuals who are not psychically perverse, but physically weakened.

It is not difficult to show that masochism is some- thing essentially different from flagellation, and more comprehensive. For the masochist the principal thing is subjection to the woman ; the punishment is only the expression of this relation the most intense effect of it he can bring upon himself. For him the act has only a symbolic value, and is a means to the end of mental satis- faction of his peculiar desires. On the other hand, the individual that is weakened and not subject to masochism and who has himself flagellated, desires only a mechanical irritation of his spinal centre..

Whether in a given case it is simple (reflex) flagella- tion or masochism is made clear by the individual's state- ments, and often by the secondary circumstances. The determination depends upon the following facts :

In the first place, the impulse to passive flagellation

  • C/. tupra, Introduction.


exists in the masocbist ab origine. The desire is felt before there has been any experience of the reflex effect, often first in dreams, as, for example, in case 55, v. infra. Secondly, with the masochist, as a rule, flagellation is only one of many and various punishments which come into his mind as fancies and are often realised. In these other punishments and the frequent acts expressing purely sym- bolic humiliations which occur by the side of flagellations, there can, of course, be no thought of a reflex physical irritative effect. Thirdly, it is significant that, in the masochist when the desired flagellation is carried out, it need have no aphrodisiac effect at all. Very often, indeed, there is a more or less defined disappointment; in fact, always, if the masochist is not successful in his desire to create by means of the prearranged programme the illu- sion of the desired situation (to be in the woman's power), so that the woman ordered to carry out the act seems to be nothing more than the executive agent of his own will. In reference to this important point, compare the three foregoing cases and case 58.

Between masochism and simple (reflex) flagellation, there is a relation somewhat analogous to that existing between inverted sexual instinct and acquired pederasty. It does not lessen the value of this opinion that, in the masochist, the flagellation may also have the known reflex effect; or that a whipping received in childhood may have aroused lust for the first time, and thus simultaneously excited the latent masochistically constituted vita sexualis. In this event, the case must be characterised by the con- ditions mentioned above under the heads of "secondly" and "thirdly" in order to be masochistic. If the details of the origin of the case are not known, other circum- stances, such as those mentioned above under "secondly' would make it clearly masochistic. This is illustrated in the following two cases :

Case 54

Case 54. A patient of Tarnowsky's had a person in his confidence rent a house during hia attacks, and instruct its personnel (three prostitutes) in what was to be done with him. Whenever he came there he was undressed, manustuprated and flagellated as ordered. He pretended to offer resistance, and begged for mercy; then, as ordered, he was allowed to eat and sleep. But in spite of protest he was kept there, and beaten if he did not submit Thus the affair would go on for some days. When the attack was over he was dismissed, and he returned to his wife and children, who had no suspicion of his disease. The attacks occurred once or twice a year (Tarnowsky, op. cit.)

Case 55

Case 55. X., aged thirty-four, greatly predisposed, suffered with antipathic sexual instinct. For various rea- sons he had no opportunity to satisfy himself with men, in spite of great sexual desire. Occasionally he dreamed that a woman whipped him, and then had a pollution.

Through this dream he came to have prostitutes beat him as a substitute for love with men. Occasionally he would obtain a prostitute, undress himself completely (while she was not to take off her chemise), and have her tread upon him, whip and beat him. Qua re summa libidine affectus pedem femince lambii quod solum eum libidinosum facere poiest: turn ejaculationem assequitur. Then disgust at the morally debasing situation occurred, and he retired as quickly as possible.

Case 56

Case 56. A gentleman of high standing, age twenty- eight years, would go to a house of prostitution once a month. lie always announced his coming, with a note reading thns: "Dear Peggy, I shall be with you to-mor- row evening between 8 and 9 o'clock. Whip and knout! Kindest regards. . . ."

He always arrived at the appointed time carrying a whip, a knout and leather straps. After undressing he had himself bound hand and foot, and then flogged by the girl on the soles of his feet, his calves and buttocks until ejaculation ensued. Other desires or wishes he never ex-


pressed. The fact that he disdained coitus seems to point to the fact that he resorted to this method simply as a means to gratify his masochistic inclination and not as a ruse to restore potency.

Cases occur, however, in which passive flagellation alone constitutes the entire content of the masochistic fancies, without other ideas of humiliation, etc., and without well-defined consciousness of the real nature of this expression of submission. Such cases are difficult to differentiate from those of simple reflex flagellation. A knowledge of the primary origin of the desire, before any experience of reflex stimuli (v. supra, under "first"), is the only thing that renders the differential diagnosis certain, if weighed with the circumstance that genuine masochists are perverse from early youth, and that the realisation of their desires is scarcely ever accomplished or proves a disappointment (v. supra, under "thirdly") ; for the whole thing chiefly belongs to the realm of imagination.

The following is a case of typical masochism in which the whole circle of ideas peculiar to this perversion appears completely developed. This case, in which there is a detailed personal description of the whole psychical state, is different from case 49 in the llth edition only in that there is here no thought of a realisation of the perverse fancies, and that, notwithstanding the perversion of the vita sexualis, normal stimuli are so far effectual that sexual intercourse is really possible under normal conditions.

Case 57

Case 57. "I am thirty-five years old, mentally and physically normal. Among all my relatives, in the direct as well as in the lateral line, I know of no case of mental disorder. My father, who at my birth was thirty years old, as far as I know had a preference for voluptuous, large women.

"Even in my early childhood I loved to revel in ideas about the absolute mastery of one man over others. The thought of slavery had something exciting in it for me, alike whether from the standpoint of master or servant.

That one man could possess, sell or whip another, caused me intense excitement; and in reading 'Uncle Tom's Cabin (which I read at about the beginning of puberty) I had erections. Particularly exciting for me was the thought of a man being hitched to a waggon in which another man sat with a whip, driving and whipping him. Until my twentieth year these ideas were purely objective and sexless i.e., the one in subjugation in my fancy was another (not myself), and the master was not necessarily a woman. These ideas were, therefore, without effect on my sexual desires i.e., on the way in which they took practical shape. Although these ideas caused erections, yet I have never masturbated in my life, and from my nineteenth year I had coitus without the help of these ideas and without any relation to them. I always had a great preference for elderly, voluptuous, large women, though I did not scorn younger ones.

"After my twenty-first year my ideas became objective, and it became an essential thing that the 'mistress' should be a woman over forty years old, tall and powerful. From this time I was always in my fancies the subject; the 'mistress' was a rough woman, who made use of me in every way, also sexually; who harnessed me to a carriage and made me take her for a drive, whom I must follow like a dog, at whose feet I must lie naked and be punished i.e., whipped by her. This was the constant element in my ideas, around which all others were grouped. In these fancies I always found endless pleasurable comfort which caused erection, but never ejaculation. As a result of the induced sexual excitement, I would immediately seek a woman, preferably one corresponding exteriorly with my ideal, and have coitus with her without any actual aid of my fancies, and sometimes also without any thought of them during the act. I had, however, also inclination toward women of a different kind, and had coitus with them without being impelled to it by my fancy.

"Notwithstanding all this, my life was not exceedingly abnormal sexually; yet these ideas were certain to occur periodically, and they have remained essentially unchanged. With growing sexual desire, the intervals constantly grew shorter. At the present time the attacks come every two or three weeks. If I previously were to have coitus, the occurrence of the fancies would, perhaps, be postponed. I have never attempted to realise my very definite and characteristic ideas i.e., to connect them with the world without me but I have contented myself with revelling in the thoughts, because I was convinced that my ideal would not allow even an approach to realisation. The thought of a comedy with paid prostitutes always seemed so silly and purposeless, for a person hired by me could never take the place of my imagination of a 'crtrel mistress'. I doubt whether there are sadistically constituted women like Sacher-Masoch's heroines. But, if there were such women, and I had the fortune ( !) to find one, still, in a world of reality, intercourse with her would ever seem only a farce to me. Indeed, I can say that, were I to become the slave of a Messalina, I believe that owing to the other necessary renunciations my desired manner of life would soon pall on me, and in my lucid intervals I should make every effort to obtain my freedom at all hazards.

"Yet I have found a way in which to induce, in a certain sense, a realisation. After my sexual desire has been intensely excited by revelling in my fancy, I go to a prostitute and there call up before my mind's eye with great intensity some scene of the kind mentioned, in which I play the principal role. After thinking of such a situation for about half an hour, with a constantly re- sulting erection, I perform coitus with increased lustful pleasure and strong ejaculation. After the latter, the vision fades away. Ashamed, I depart as quickly as possible, and try not to think of the affair. Then for about two weeks I have no more such ideas ! indeed, after a particularly satisfactory coitus, it may happen that until the next attack I have not even any sympathy whatever


xith masochistic ideas. But tho next attack is sure to sooner or later. I must, however, state that I also have coitus without being prepared by such ideas, especi- ally, too, with women that are acquainted with me and my position, and in whose presence I abhor such fancies. Under the latter circumstances, however, I am not always potent, while, with masochistic ideas, my virility is perfect. It does not seem superfluous to add that otherwise in my thought and feeling I am very aesthetic, and despise any- thing like maltreatment of a human being. Finally, I will not leave un mentioned the fact that the form of address is of importance. In my fancies it is essential that the 'mis- tress' address me in the second person (Du), while I must address her in the third (Sie). This circumstance of being thus familiarly addressed (Du) by a person so in- clined, as the expression of absolute mastery, has from my youth given me lustful pleasure, and does to-day.

"I had the fortune to find a wife who is in everything, but especially sexually, attractive to me; though, as I scarcely need say, she in no way resembles my masochistic ideals. She is gentle, but voluptuous, for without the latter characteristic I cannot conceive such a thing as sexual charm. The first few months of married life were normal sexually; the masochistic attacks did not occur, and I had almost lost all thought of masochism. Then came the first confinement and the necessary abstinence. Punctually, then, with the occurrence of libido came the masochistic fancies again, which, in spite of my great love for my wife, necessitated coitus with another, with the accompaniment of masochistic ideas. It is here worthy of note that coitus maritalis, which was later resumed, did not prove sufficient to banish the masochistic ideas, as masochistic coitus always does. As for the essential element in masochism, I am of the opinion that the ideas i.e., the mental element are the end and aim.

"If the realisation of the masochistic ideas (i.e., passive flagellation, etc.) be the desired end, then it is in opposi- tion to the fact that the majority of masochists never


attempt realisation; or when this is attempted great disappointment occurs, or at any rate the desired satis- faction is not obtained.

"Finally, I should mention that, according to my experience, the number of masochists, especially in big cities, seems to be quite large. The only sources of such information are since men do not reveal these things statements by prostitutes, and since they agree on the essential points, certain facts may be assumed as proved.

"Thus there is the fact that every experienced prosti- tute keeps some suitable instrument (usually a whip) for flagellation, but it must be remembered that there are men who have themselves whipped simply to increase their sexual pleasure. These, in contrast with masochists, regard flagellation as a means to an end.

"On the other hand, almost all prostitutes agree that there are many men who like to play 'slave' i.e., like to be so called, and have themselves scolded and trod upon and beaten. As has been said, the number of masochists is larger than has yet been dreamed.

"As you can imagine, your chapter on this subject has made a deep impression on me. I should like to have faith in a cure, in a logical cure, so to speak, in accordance with the motto: 'Tout comprendre c'est tout guerir'.

"Of course the word cure is to be taken with some limitation, and there must be a distinction made between general feelings and concrete ideas. The former can never be removed; they come like a streak of lightning, are there, and one does not know whence or how.

"But the practice of masochism in imagination by means of concrete associated ideas can be avoided, or at least restricted.

"Now the thing is changed. I say to myself: What! you busy your mind with things which not only the aesthetic sense of others, but also your own, disapproves? You regard that as beautiful and desirable which, in your own judgment, is at once ugly, coarse, silly, and impossi-


ble? You long for a situation which in reality you can never obtain? This opposing idea has an immediate in- hibitory and undeceiving effect, and breaks the point of the fancy. In fact, since reading your book (early this year) I have actually not revelled in my fancy, though the masochistic tendencies have recurred at regular intervals.

"I must also confess that, in spite of its marked patho- logical character, masochism is not only incapable of destroying my pleasure in life, but it does not in the least affect my outward life. When not in a masochistic state, as far as feeling and action are concerned, I am a perfectly normal man. During the activity of the masochistic tendencies there is, of course, a great revolution in my feeling, but my outward manner of life suffers no change; I have a calling that makes it necessary for me to move much in public, and I pursue it in the masochistic con- dition as well as ever."

The author of the foregoing lines also sends me the following notes :

I. "Masochism, according to my experience, is under all circumstances congenital, and never acquired by the individual. I know positively that I was never spanked; that my masochistic ideas were manifested from my earliest youth, and that, as long as I have been capable of think- ing, I have had such thoughts. If the origin of them had been the result of a particular event, especially of a beating, I should certainly not have forgotten it It is characteristic that the ideas were present before there was any libido. At that time the ideas were absolutely sexless. I remember that when a boy it affected (not to say ex- cited) me intensely when an older boy addressed me in the second person (Du) while I spoke to him in the third (Sie). I would keep up a conversation with him and have this exchange of address (Du and Sie) take place as often as possible. Later, when I had become more mature sexually, such things affected me only when they occurred with a woman, and one relatively older than myself.


II. "Physically and mentally I am in all respects mas- culine. I have a superabundant growth of beard, and my whole body is very hairy. In my relations to the female sex that are not masochistic the dominating position of the man is an indispensable condition, and any attempt to change it would meet with my energetic opposition. I am energetic, if not over-courageous'; but the want of courage is not manifest when my pride is injured. I am not sensitive to events in nature (thunder storms, storma at sea, etc.). 1

"Again, my masochistic tendencies have nothing femi- nine or effeminate about them ( ?). To be sure, in these, the inclination to be sought and desired by the woman is dominant; but the general relation desired with her is not that in which a woman stands to a man, but that of the slave to the master, the domestic animal to its owner. If one regards the ultimate aim of masochism without prejudice, it must be acknowledged that its ideal is the position of a dog or horse. Both are owned by masters and punished by them, and the masters are responsible to no one. Just this unlimited power of life and death, as exercised over slaves and domestic animals, is the aim and end of all masochistic ideas.

III. "The foundation of all masochistic ideas is libido, and as this ebbs and flows, so do the masochistic fancies. On the other hand, as soon as the ideas are present, they greatly intensify the libido. I am not by nature exces- sively sensual. However, when the masochistic ideas occur I am impelled to coitus at any cost (for the most part I am driven to the lowest women) ; and if these impulses are not soon obeyed, libido soon becomes almost satyriasis. One is almost justified in looking upon this as a circulus vitiosus.

"Libido occurs either in the course of time or as the result of especial excitement (also of a kind that is not

1 This difference of courage in the face of events in nature, on the one hand, and in the face of conflict with will-power, on the other, is certainly remarkable, even though it is the only indication of effeminacy apparent in this case.


masochistic e.g., Visaing). Tn spite <f its manner of ori- gin, tins lil>i<lo, by virtue of the masochistic ideas it engen- , is soon transformed into a masochistic and impure libido.

"Moreover, there is no doubt that external accidental impressions, particularly loitering in the streets of a large city, greatly intensify the desire. The sight of beautiful and imposing female forms, in nature as well as in art, is exciting. For those subject to masochism at least during the attacks the whole external world be- comes masochistic. The box on the ear administered by the teacher to the pupil and the crack of the driver's whip make deep impressions on the masochist, while they leave him indifferent or annoy him when he is not in the maso- chistic state.

IV. "In reading Saclier-Masoch it struck me that in masochists now and then there was also an undercurrent of sadistic feeling. I have now and then discovered in myself sporadic feelings of sadism. I must remark, how- ever, that the sadistic feelings are not so marked as the masochistic. Apart from the fact that they appear but seldom, and then only in a manner as accessories, these sadistic fancies never leave the sphere of abstract feeling, and, above all, never take the form of concrete, connected ideas. The effect on libido t however, is the same with both."

If this case is remarkable on account of the complete development of the psychical state which constitute; 1 ! masochism, the following is noteworthy because of the great extravagance of the acts resulting from perversion. The case is also particularly suited to make clear the reason for the subjection and humiliation at the hands of the woman, and the peculiar sexual colouring of the resulting situations :

Case 58

Case 58. Mr. Z., official, aged fifty; tall, muscular, healthy. Said to come of healthy parentage, but his father


was thirty years older than his mother. A sister, two years older than Z., suffered with delusions of persecu- tion. There was nothing remarkable in Z.'s external ap- pearance. Skeleton entirely masculine; abundant beard, but no hair on trunk. He characterised himself as a man of sanguine temperament, who could not refuse others any- thing; though irascible and quick-tempered, he was quick to regret outbursts.

Z. claimed that he had never masturbated. From his youth there had been nightly pollutions, in which girls played part, but the sexual act never. For example, he dreamed that a pleasing woman lay heavily on him, or that as he lay sleeping on the grass she playfully walked up his back. Z. had always been averse to coitus with women. This act seemed bestial to him. Nevertheless, he was drawn to women. It was only in the society of beautiful women and girls that he felt well and in his place. Ho was very gallant, without being forward.

A voluptuous woman of beautiful form, and particu- larly with a pretty foot, when seated, had the power to thrown him into intense excitement. He was impelled to offer himself as a chair, in order "to support such grand beauty". A kick, a box on the ear from her, would be heaven to him. He had a horror at the thought of coitus with her. He felt the need to serve woman. He thought how much ladies liked to ride. He revelled in the thought how fine it would be to be wearied by the burden of a beautiful woman in order to give her pleasure. He painted the situation in all colours; thought of the beautiful foot armed with spurs, the beautiful calves, the soft, full thighs. Every beautiful mature woman, every pretty female foot, always excited his imagination; but he never betrayed the peculiar feelings that seemed to him abnor- mal, and was able to control himself. But he felt no need to fight against them; on the contrary, it would have grieved him to be compelled to give up the feelings that had become so dear to him.

At the age of thirty-two Z. happened to make the


ac<|imintance of an attractive woman, aged twenty-seven, >'. L" had been separated from her husband, and whom

uml in n. (1. I lc took her and worked for her with- out any selfish motive, for months. One evening she impatiently demanded sexual satisfaction from him, and almost used violence. Coitus was successful. Z. took tin' woman, lived with her, and indulged in coitus moder- ately, but coitus was more a burden than a pleasure;

ions became weak, and he could no longer satisfy the woman. She finally declared that she would not have intercourse with him, because he only excited without satisfying her. Though he loved the woman very much, he could not give up his peculiar fancies. After this he lived with her only in friendly relations, and deeply re- gretted that he could not serve her in the way she desired. Fear of how she would receive his propositions and a feeling of shame kept him from confessing. He found a substitute in his dreams. Thus, for example, he dreamed that he was a proud, fiery steed, ridden by a beautiful lady. He felt her weight, the bit he had to obey, the pressure of the thighs on his flanks; he heard her beautiful, joyous voice. The exertion threw him into a perspiration, the touch of the spurs did the rest, and always induced pollution with great lustful pleasure. Under the influence of such dreams, seven years ago Z. overcame his reluctance, in order to experience such things in reality. He was successful in creating a suitable opportunity. He speaks of it as follows: "I knew how to arrange it so that on an occasion she would of her own will seat herself on my back. Then I endeavoured to make this situation as pleasant as possible, and easily arranged it so that on the next occasion she said spon- taneously, 'Come, give me a little ride!' Being of tall stature, both hands braced on a chair, I made my back horizontal, and she mounted astride, after the manner of a man. I then did the best I could to imitate the move- ments of a horse, and loved to have her treat me like a horse, without consideration. She could beat, priok,


scold, or caress me, just as she felt inclined. I could carry on my back persons weighing from sixty to eighty kilos, for half or tli roc-quarters of an hour, without inter- ruption. At the end of this time I usually asked for a rest. During this the intercourse between the mistress and me was perfectly harmless, and without any relation to what had preceded. After about a quarter of an hour I was rested and placed myself again at the disposal of the mistress. When time and circumstances allowed it, I did this three or four times in succession. It sometimes happened that I practised it both in the morning and afternoon. After it I never felt weary or had uncomfort- able feelings, but on such days I had very little appetite. When possible, I liked best to bare my trunk, that I might feel the riding-whip more sharply. The mistress had to be decent. I liked her best in pretty shoes and stockings, with short closed drawers reaching to the knee; with the upper portion of her person completely dressed, and with hat and gloves."

Mr. Z. further said he had not performed coitus in seven years, but he thought he was potent. The riding was a perfect substitute for that "bestial act," even when ejaculation was not induced.

For eight months Z. had determined to give up his masochistic play, and had kept his determination. But he thought that if a woman only moderately pretty were to address him directly and say, "Come, I want to ride you," he would not be strong enough to withstand the tempta- tion. Z. wished to know whether his abnormality was curable, whether he was unworthy as a vicious man, or an invalid deserving pity..

Even in the foregoing series of cases, with other things, the act of being walked upon has played a role as a means of expressing the masochistic situations of humiliation and pain. The exclusive and most extensive use of this means for perverse excitation and satisfaction, which has caused me to arrange a special group, because it forms the tran-


sition to another kind of perversion (vide infra (6), is shown in the following classical case of masochism, re- ported by Hammond (op. cit., p. 28) from an observation by Dr. Cox 1 of Colorado :

Case 59

Case 59. X., a model husband, very moral, the father of several children, had times i.e., attacks in which he visited brothels, chose two or three of the largest girls, and shut himsolf up with them. He bared the upper portion of his body, lay down on the floor, crossed his hands on his abdomen, closed his eyes, and then had the girls walk over his naked breast, neck and face, urging them at every step to press hard on his flesh with the heels of their shoes. Sometimes he wanted a heavier girl, or some other act still more cruel than this procedure. After two or three hours he had enough. He paid the girls with wine and money, rubbed his blue bruises, dressed himself, paid his bill, and went back to his busi- ness, only to give himself the same strange pleasure again after a few weeks.

Occasionally it happened that he had one of the girls stand on his breast, and the others then turn her around until his skin was torn and bleeding from tlio turning of the heels of her shoes. Frequently one of the girls had to stand on him in such a way that one shoe was over the eyes, with its heel pressing on one eye, while the other shoe rested across his neck. In this position he endured the. pressure of a person weighing about l. r >0 pounds for four or five minutes. The author speaks of dozens of similar cases that are known to him. Hammond prrsnnu'*, with reason, that this man had become impotent for intercourse with women ; that in this strange procedure he found an equiva- lent for coitus ; and that, when the heels drew blood, he had pleasant sexual feelings, accompanied by ejaculations.

Case 60

Case 60. X., gentleman belonging to upper class of society ; age sixty-six ; father hypersexual ; two brothers said to be masochists. X. claimed that his masochism dates back to early childhood. At the age of five he asked little girls to undress him and spank his naked bottom. Later on he arranged with other boys or girls in playing teacher with him to flog him. With the age of fifteen he began to imagine that girls ambushed and then beat him. At that time he had no idea as yet of the sexual meaning of such proceedings, in fact he was still unaware of the viia sexualis. His craving for being beaten by women steadily increased. At the age of eighteen he learned how to satisfy it and had the first pollution during the act. When nineteen first coitus with complete satisfaction and potency and without masochistic representations. Normal sexual intercourse until he was twenty-one, when a girl suggested a masochistic scene. He accepted, and from that time never had coitus without a masochistic adventure preceding it. He soon recognized the -fact that the stimulus proceeded from the idea to be in the power of a woman rather than from the act of violence itself. He succeeded in making a happy marriage, free from masochistic ideas, but admitted that from time to time he had to seek relief in some masochistic act with a girl, even though he then had grand children. The masochistic scene was always the prelude to coitus. He showed no psychopathic symptoms and was free from other perversions. He pointed out the frequency of masochism and the clever methods often applied by so-called masseuses. According to his experience masochism is of frequent occurrence in England, and English women are easily persuaded to practise it

Case 61

Case 61. L., artist, age twenty-nine; nervous disease and tuberculosis of frequent occurrence in family. Vita sexualis suddenly aroused in him at the age of seven whilst being caned ad podicem ; at ten, masturbation. Dur- ing the act he always thought of some one flagellating him. In later years nocturnal pollutions were always accompa- nied by dreams of flagellation. The wish to be flogged


was ever present in his mind since he was ten years old. From eleven to eighteen he had inclinations to persons of his own sex, though they never overstepped the bounds of boyish friendship. During this homosexual period he was forever agitated by the desire to be beaten by his companion.

At nineteen coitus, but without sufficient erection or gratifying pleasure. His heterosexual inclinations were always towards women older than himself. He was in- different towards young girls. His craving for flagellation increased with the years.

At twenty-five he fell violently in love with a woman much older than himself, but marriage he refused. The woman made every effort in her power to win him over to natural sexual intercourse. Although he detested the state of affairs and professed undieing love for the woman he insisted that his sexual feelings for her were only of a masochistic character. Now and then he succeeded in persuading her to flagellate him.

His sexual needs being strong he had girls flagellate him. He claimed that flagellation was the only adequate sexual act during which he could experience really pleas- urable ejaculation. Coitus was of minor importance and only on rare occasions did he couple it with the act of flagellation, probably on account of psychical impotence.

Nevertheless the two acts affected him in a different manner. Coitus seemed to improve him both mentally and physically, whilst flagellation had bodily exhaustion and moral depression in its wake. He was persuaded that masochism in him was a pathological condition; on that ground he came for advice.

His appearance was undeniably masculine, his con- duct decent and beyond criticism. He complained of cerebral neurasthenia (weakness of mind, of will power, absent-mindedness, irritability, shyness, anxiety of mind, pressure in the head, etc.). Genitals normal. Erections only in the morning.

He inclined to the belief that if he could find a woman


whom he could love, he might strip off his masochistic in- clination in wedlock.

Therapeutic advice: auto-combating of masochistic thoughts, impulses and acts, if necessary, with the aid of hypnotic suggestion; strengthening of the nervous sys- tem, and removing manifestations of irritating weakness by antineurasthenic treatment.

The cases of masochism thus far described, and the numerous analogous cases mentioned by those who report them, form a counterpart to the previously described Group "c" of sadism. Just as in sadism men excite and satisfy themselves by maltreating women, so in maso- chism the same effect is sought in the passive reception of similar abuse. 1 But Group "a" of the sadists that of lust-murder strange as it may seem, is not without its counterpart in masochism. In its extreme consequences, masochism must lead to the desire to be killed by a person of the opposite sex, in the same way that sadism has its acme in active lust-murder. But the instinct of self- preservation opposes such a result, so that the extreme is not actually carried out. When, however, the whole structure of masochistic ideas is purely psychical, in the imagination of such individuals even the extreme may be reached, as the following case shows :

Case 62

Case 62. A middle-aged man, married, and the father of a family, who had always led a normal vita sex- ualis, but who came of a very nervous family, made the following communication: In his early youth he was powerfully excited sexually at the sight of a woman slaughtering an animal with a knife. From that time, for many years, he had revelled in the lustfully coloured idea of being stabbed and cut, and even killed, by women with knives. Later on, after the beginning of normal sexual intercourse, these ideas lost completely their per- verse stimulus for him.

1 Instructive instances are given by Seydel, " Vierteljahrsschr. f. ger. Med.," 1893, Heft 2, pp. 275, 276.


This case should bo compared with the statements according to \vhirh men find sexual pleasure in being lightly priekod with knives in the hands of women, who at the same time threaten them with death.

Such fancies, perhaps, give the key to an understand- ing of the following strange case, for which I am indebted to a communication from Dr. Korber, of Rankau, in Silesia :

Case 63

Case 63. "A lady makes me the following communi- cation : While still a young and innocent girl, she was married to a man of about thirty years. On their wedding night he forced a bowl with soap into her hands, and without any expression of endearment wanted her to lather his chin and neck (as if for shaving). The inex- perienced young wife did it, and was not a little astonished during the first weeks of married life to learn its secrets in absolutely no other form. Her husband always told her that it gave him the greatest delight to have his face lathered by her. Later, after she had sought the advice of friends, she induced her husband to perform coitus, and had three children in the course of time (by him, she states with every assurance). The husband was industrious and reliable, but a moody man, with short temper; by occupation a merchant."

It may be inferred that this man conceived the act of being shaved (i.e., the lathering as a preparatory measure) as a rudimentary, symbolic realisation of ideas of injury or death, or of fancies about knives, like those the man pre- viously mentioned had had in his youth, and by means of which he had been sexually excited and satisfied. The ct sadistic counterpart to this case, looked upon in the same light, is offered by observation 37, which is a case of symbolic sadism.

Symbolic Masochism. At any rate, there is a whole group of masochists who


satisfy themselves with the symbolic representations of situations corresponding with their perversion; a group which corresponds with Group "a" and "e" of sadism. Thus, just as the perverse longings of the masochist may on the one hand advance to "passive lust-murder" (to be sure, only in imagination), so, on the other hand, they may be satisfied with simple symbolic representations of the desired situations, which otherwise are expressed in acts of cruelty, (this, of course, taken objectively, goes much farther than the idea of being murdered, but in fact not so far, owing to the determining subjective con- ditions). Cases similar to 63 may be here described, in which the acts desired and planned by the masochists have a purely symbolic character, and to a certain extent serve to define the desired situation.

Case 64

Case 64. (Pascal, "Igiene dell' amore".) Every three months a man of about forty-five years would visit a certain prostitute and pay her ten francs for the follow- ing act. The puella had to undress him, tie his hands and feet, bandage his eyes, and draw the curtains of the win- dows. Then she would make her guest sit down on a sofa, and leave him there alone in a helpless position. After half an hour she had to come back and unbind him. Then the man would pay her and leave perfectly satisfied, to repeat his visit in about three months.

In the dark this man seems to have extended this situation of being helpless in the hands of a woman by the aid of imagination. The following case, in which again a complicated comedy in the sense of masochistic desires is played, is still more peculiar :

Case 65. (Dr. Pascal, ibid.} A gentleman in Paris was accustomed to call on certain evenings at a house where a woman, the owner, acceded to his peculiar desire. He entered the salon in full dress, and she, likewise in evening toilette, had to receive him with a very haughty


manner. He addressed her as Marquise," and she had to call him "<lrar Count". Thru he spoke of his good for- tune in iimlin^ her alone, of his love for her, and of a lover's interview. At this the lady had to feel insulted. The pseudo-count grew bolder and bolder, and asked the pseudo-marquise for a kiss on her shoulder. "There is an angry scene; the bell is rung; a servant, prepared for the occasion, appears, and throws the count out of the house. He departs well satisfied, and pays the acton in the farce handsomely."

Case 66

Case 66. X., age thirty-eight, engineer, married, father of three children, married life unmarred. Visited periodically a prostitute who had to enact, previous to coitus, the following comedy. As soon as he entered her compartment she took him by the ears, and pulled him all over the room, shouting: "What do you want here? Do you know that you ought to be at school ? Why don't you go to school?" She would then slap his face and flog him soundly, until he knelt before her begging pardon. She then handed him a little basket containing bread and fruit, such as children carry with them to school. He remained renitent until the girl's harshness produced or- gasm in him, when he would call out: "I am going! I am going!" and then performed coitus.

It is pyobable that this masochistic comedy may have arisen from some scenes enacted during his schooltime and that in this wise libido became associated with them. Fur- ther details of X.'s vita sexualis are not known. (Dr. Carrara, in Archivio di Psichiatria xxix., 4).

Ideal Masochism.

A distinction must be made between "symbolic" and "ideal" masochism. In the latter the psychical perver- sion remains entirely within the spheres of imagination and fancy, and no attempt at realisation is made. (Cf.



cases 57 and 62.) Two other cases of ideal masochism are quoted here. The first is that of an individual men- tally and physically tainted, bearing degenerative signs, in whom mental and physical impotence occurred early :

Case 67. Mr. Z., aged twenty-two, single, was brought to me by his father for medical advice, because ho was very nervous and plainly sexually abnormal. Mother and maternal grandmother were insane. His father begat him at a time when he was suffering severely from ner- vousness.

Patient was said to have been a very lively and talented child. At the age of seven he was noticed to practise masturbation. After his ninth year he became inattentive, forgetful, and did not progress in his studies, constantly requiring help and protection. With difficulty he got through the Gymnasium, and during his time of freedom had attracted attention by his indolence, absent-minded- ness, and various foolish acts.

Consultation was occasioned by an occurrence in the street, in which Z. had forced himself on a young girl in a very impetuous manner, and in great excitement had tried to have a conversation with her.

The patient gave as a reason that by conversing with a respectable girl he wished to excite himself so that he could be potent in coitus with a prostitute !

His father characterised him as a man of perfectly good disposition, moral but lazy, dissatisfied with himself, often in despair about his want of success in life, indolent, and interested in nothing but music, for which he possessed great talent.

The patient's exterior his plagiocephalic head, his large, prominent ears, the deficient innervation of the right facialis about the mouth, the neuropathic expression of the eyes indicated a degenerate, neuropathic indi- vidual.

Z. was tall, of powerful frame, and in all respects of masculine appearance. Pelvis masculine, testicles well


developed, penis remarkably large, mons veneris with abundant hair. The right testicle much lower than the left, the cremasteric reflex weak on both sides. The patient was intellectually below the average. He felt his deficiency, complained of his indolence, and asked to have his will strengthened. His awkward, embarrassed manner, timid glances, and relaxed attitude pointed to masturbation. The patient confessed that from his seventh year until a year and a half ago he practised it, years at a time, from eight to ten times daily. Until a few years ago, when he became neurasthenic (cephalic pressure, loss of mental power, spinal irritation, etc.), he said he always found great sensuous pleasure in it. Since then this had been lost, and the desire to masturbate had disappeared. He had constantly grown more bashful and indolent, less energetic, and more cowardly and apprehensive. He had lost interest in everything, and attended to his business only from a sense of duty, feeling very low-spirited. He had never thought of coitus, and from his standpoint as an onanist, he could not understand how others could find pleasure in it

Investigation in the direction of inverted sexual in- stinct gave a negative result. He said he never was drawn toward persons of his own sex ; he rather thought he had now and then had a weak inclination for females. He asserted that he came to masturbate independently. In this thirteenth year he first noticed ejaculations as a result of masturbatic manipulations.

It was only after long persuasion that Z. consented to entirely unveil his vita sexualis. As his statements which follow show, he may be classified as a case of ideal maso- chism, with rudimentary sadism. The patient distinctly remembered that at the age of six, without any cause, he had "ideas of violence". He was compelled to imagine that a servant girl spread his legs apart and showed his genitals to another; that she tried to throw him into cold or hot water in order to cause him pain. These "ideas of violence" were attended with lustful feelings, and became


the cause of masturbatic manipulations. Later the patient called them up voluntarily, in order to incite himself to masturbation. They also played a part in his dreams; but they never induced pollution, apparently because the patient masturbated excessively during the day.

In time, to these masochistic "ideas of violence" others of a sadistic nature were added. At first they were scenes in which boys forcibly practised onanism on one another, or cut off the genitals. He often imagined him- self such a boy, now in an active, now in a passive role. Later he busied himself with mental pictures of girls and women exhibiting themselves to one another. He revelled in the thought, for example, of a servant girl spreading another girl's legs apart and pulling the genital hair; or in the thought of boys treating girls cruelly, and pricking and pinching their genitals.

Such ideas also always induced sexual excitement, but he never experienced any impulse to carry them out actively or to have them performed on himself passively. It satisfied him to use them for masturbation. Later on, with diminishing sexual imagination and libido these ideas and impulses had become infrequent, but their content remained unchanged. The masochistic "ideas of violence" predominated over the sadistic. Whenever he saw a lady, he had the thought that she had sexual ideas like his own. In this way, in part, he explained his embarrassment in social intercourse. Having heard that he would get rid of his burdensome sexual ideas if he were to accustom himself to natural sexual indulgence, he had twice at- tempted coitus, though he only experienced repugnance, and was not confident of success. On both occasions the attempt was a fiasco. The second time he made the attempt he felt such aversion that he pushed the girl away and fled.

The second case is the following observation pladed at my disposal by a colleague. Even though it be aphor- istic, it seems particularly suited to throw a clear light on the distinctive element of masochism the consciousness of subjection, in its peculiar psycho-sexual effect :


Case 68

Case 68. Z., aged twenty-seven, artist, powerfully built, of pleasing appearance, said to be free from hereditary taint. Healthy in youth, since his twenty-third year he had been nervous and inclined to be hypochrondriacal. Although he bragged of sexual indulgence he was not very virile. In spite of associations with females, his relations with them were limited to innocent attentions. At the same time, his covetousness for women who were cold toward him was remarkable. Since his twenty-fifth year he had noticed that females, no matter how ugly, always excited him sexually whenever he discovered anything domineering in their character. An angry word from the lips of such a woman was sufficient to give him the most violent erections. Thus, one day he sat in a cafe and heard the (ugly) female cashier scold the waiters in a loud voice. This threw him into the most intense sexual excitement, which soon induced ejaculation. Z. required the women with whom he was to have sexual intercourse to repulse and annoy him in various ways. He thought that only a woman like the heroines of Sacher-Masoch's romances could charm him.

These cases of ideal masochism plainly demonstrate that the persons afflicted with this anomaly do not aim at actually suffering pain. The term "algolagnia," therefore, as applied by Schrenck-Notzing and by v. Eulenburg to this anomaly, does not signify the essence, i.e., the psychical nucleus of the element of masochistic sentiment and imagination. This essence consists rather of the lustfully coloured consciousness of being subject to the power of another person. The ideal, or even actual, enactment of violence on the part of the controlling person, is only the means to the end, i.e., the realisation of the sentiment.

Cases like this, in which the whole perversion of the vita sexualis is confined to the sphere of imagination to the inner world of thought and instinct and only accidentally comes to the knowledge of others, do not seem to be infrequent. Their practical significance, like that of masochism in general (which has not the great forensic importance of sadism), is confined to the psychical impotence to which such individuals, as a rule, become subject ; and to the intense impulse to solitary indulgence, with adequate imaginary ideas, and all its consequences.

That masochism is a perversion of uncommonly frequent occurrence is sufficiently shown by the relatively large number of cases that have thus far been studied scientifically, as well as by the agreement of the various statements reported.

The works concerning prostitution in large cities also contain numerous statements concerning this matter. 1

It is interesting and worthy of mention that one of the most celebrated of men was subject to this perversion and describes it in his autobiography (though somewhat erroneously). From "Jean Jacques Rousseau's Confessions" it is evident that he was affected with masochism.

Rousseau, with reference to whose life and malady Mobius ("J. J. Rousseau's Krankheitsgeschichte." Leipzig, 1890) and Chatelain ("La folie de J. J. Rousseau," Neuchatel, 1891) may be consulted, tells in his "Confessions" (part i., book i.) how Miss Lambercier, aged thirty, greatly impressed him when he was eight years old and lived with her brother as his pupil. Her solicitude when he could not immediately answer a question, and her threats to

1 Leo Taxil (op. cit., p. 228) describes masochistic scenes in Parisian brothels. The man affected with this perversion is there also called " slave."

Coffignon (" La corruption a Paris") has a chapter in his book entitled " Les Passionels " which contains contributions to this subject.

The strongest proof of the frequency of masochism lies in the fact that it openly appears in newspaper advertisements. For instance, the following advertisement appeared in the "Hannoveraches' Tageblatt," 4th December, 1895:

" Sacher-Masoch. 109,404. Ladies interested in the works, and who embody the female characters, of this author are requested to send their address, under No. R. 537, to the offices of this paper. Strictest discretion." Another similar advertisement appeared in the same number.

punish him if In- <1M nt Irani well, made the deepest imjiression on him. When one day he had blows at her hands, with the feeling of pain and shame he also experi- 1 sensuous pleasure, that incited a great desire to be whipped by her again. It was only for fear of disturbing the lady that Rousseau failed to make other opportunities to experience this lustful, sensual feeling. One day, however, he unintentionally gave cause for a whipping at Miss Lambercier's hands. This was the last; for Miss Lambercier must have noticed something of the peculiar effect of the punishment, she did not allow the eight-year-old boy to sleep in her room any more. From this time Rousseau felt a desire to have himself punished by ladies pleasing to him, a la Lambercier, but he asserts that until he became a youth he knew nothing of the relation of the sexes to each other. As is known, Rousseau was first introduced to the real mysteries of love in his thirteenth year, and lost his innocence through Madame de Warrens. Till then he had had only feelings and impulses attracting him to woman in the nature of passive flagellation, and other masochistic ideas.

Rousseau describes in extenso how he suffered, with his great sexual desires, by reason of his peculiar sensuousness, which had undoubtedly been awakened by his whippings, for he revelled in desire, and could not disclose his longings. It would be erroneous, however, to suppose that Rousseau was concerned merely with flagellation. Flagellation only awakened ideas of a masochistic nature. At least in these ideas lies the psychological nucleus of his interesting study of self. The essential element with Rousseau was the feeling of subjection to the woman. This is clearly shown by the "Confessions," in which he expressly emphasises that "Etre aux genoux d'une maitresse imperieuse, obeir a ses ordres, avoir des pardons a lui demander, etaient pour moi de tres douces jouissances."

This passage proves that the consciousness of subjection to and humiliation by the woman was the most important element.

To be sure, Rousseau was himself in error in supposing that this impulse to be humiliated by a woman had arisen by association of ideas from the idea of flagellation:

"N'osant jamais déclarer mon goût, je l'amusais du moins par des rapports qui m'en conservaient l'idée.

It is only in connection with the numerous cases of masochism, the existence of which has now been established, and among which there are so many that are in no wise connected with flagellation, showing the primary and purely psychical character of this instinct of subjection it is only in connection with these cases that a complete insight into Rousseau's case is obtained and the error detected into which he necessarily fell in the analysis of his own condition.

Binet ("Revue Anthropologique," xxiv., p. 256), who analyses Rousseau's case in detail, justly calls attention to its masochistic significance when he says: "Ce qu'aime Rousseau dans les femmes, ce n'est pas seulement le sourcil fronce, la main levee, le regard severe, 1'attitude imperieuse, c'est aussi 1'etat emotionnel, dont ces faits sont la traduction exterieure; ill aime la femme fiere, dedaigneuse, 1'ecrasant a ses pieds du poids de sa royale colere".

The solution of this enigmatical psychological fact Binet finds in his assumption that it is an instance of fetichism, only with the difference that the object of the fetichism i.e., the object of individual attraction (fetich) is not a portion of the body like a hand or foot, but a mental peculiarity. This enthusiasm he calls "amour spiritualiste" in contrast with "amour plastique" as manifested in ordinary fetichism.

This deduction is acute, but it is only a term by which to designate a fact, not a solution of it. Whether an explanation is possible, will later occupy our attention.

There were also elements of masochism (and sadism) in the French writer C. P. Baudelaire, who died insane.

Baudelaire came of an insane and eccentric family. From his youth he was psychically abnormal. His vita sexualis was decidedly abnormal. He had love-affairs with ugly, repulsive women negresses, dwarfs, giantesses.

About a very beautiful woman he expressed the wish to see her hung up by her hands and to kiss her feet. This enthusiasm for the naked foot also appears in one of his fiercely feverish poems as the equivalent of sexual indulgence. He said women were animals who had to be shut up, beaten and fed well. The man displaying these masochistic and sadistic inclinations died of paretic dementia. (Lombroso, "The Man of Genius".)

In scientific literature, the conditions constituting masochism have not received attention until recently. Tarnowsky, however ("Die krankhaften Erscheinungen des Geschlechtssinns," Berlin, 1886), relates that he has known happily married, intellectual men, who from time to time felt an irresistible impulse to subject themselves to the coarsest, cynical treatment to scoldings or blows from passive or active pederasts or prostitutes. It is worthy of remark that, as Tarnowsky observes, in certain cases blows, even when they draw blood, do not bring the desired result (virility, or at least ejaculation during flagellation) by those given to passive flagellation. "The individual must then be undressed by force, his hands tied, fastened to a bench, etc., during which he shams opposition, scolds, and pretends to resist. Only under such circumstances do the blows induce excitement leading to ejaculation."

0. Zimmerman's work, "Die Wonne des Leids," Leipzig, 1885, also contributes much to this subject, 1 taken from history and literature.

1 However, the domain of masochism must be sharply differentiated from the principal subject of that work, which is, that love contains an element of suffering. Unrequited love has always been described as " sweet, but sorrowful," and poets speak of " blissful pain " or " painful bliss." This must not be confounded, as Z. does, with the manifestations of masochism, any more than should be the characterisation of an unyielding lover as " cruel." It is remarkable, however, that Hamerling ("Amor und Psyche," iv. Gesang) uses perfect masochistic pictures, flagellation, etc., to express this feeling.

More recently this matter has attracted fuller attention.

A. Moll, in his work, "Die Contrare Sexualempfindung," pp. 133 and 151 et seq., Berlin, 1891, quotes a number of cases of complete masochism in individuals of inverted sexuality, and among them that of a man suffering with sexual perversion, who sent written instructions, containing twenty paragraphs, to a man engaged for this purpose, who was to treat and abuse him like a slave.

In June, 1891, Mr. Dimitri von Stefanowsky, Deputy Government Attorney in Jaroslaw, Russia, informed Vne that, about three years before, he had given his attention to the perversion of the vita sexualis designated "masochism" by me, and called "passivism" by him; that a year and a half previously he had prepared a paper on the subject for Professor von Kowalewsky for the Russian "Archives of Psychiatry" ; and that in November, 1888, he had read a paper on this subject, considered in its legal and psychological aspects, before the Law Society of Moscow (printed in the "Juridischer Boten," the organ of the society, in Nos. 6 to 8). 1

V. Schrenck-Notzing devotes in his work "Therapeutic Suggestions in Psychopathia Sexualis" (Stuttgart, 1892), several paragraphs to masochism and sadism and quotes several observations of his own.

Professor E. DeaJc of Buda Pesth, points out that the favourite thought of the masochist, viz. : to be used by a female person as a beast of burden, may be found in the old-Indian Literature, e.g., in "Pantschatandra" (Benfey, Vol. ii., Book iv.) in the form of a narrative: "Woman's Wiles," the gist of which is: The wife of King Nenda (in t

1 Cf. his recent paper on " Passivisimus " in the " Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle," 1892, vii., p. 294.

consequence of some love quarrel) was very angry with JUT husband, but despite of his most earnest entreaties would not be reconciled. Ho says to her: "Love, without thee I cannot exist. I throw myself at thy feet and im- plore thee to be kind to me." She replies : "If thou wilt let me put a bit in thy mouth, mount thee arid goad thee on to run and neigh like a horse, I will forgive thee." He did it. (Cf. t Case 58 of this book !)

Benfey found a similar story in a Buddhistic narrative which is published in "Memoires sur les contrees' occidentales par Hionen Thsang, traduit du Chinois par St. Julien," i., 124.

Sacher-Masoch's writings have repeatedly been mentioned in this book.

Many perverts refer to this author as having given typical descriptions of their psychical conditions.

Zola has a masochistic scene in his "Nana," also in "Eugene Rougon." The "decadent" literature of recent times in France and Germany often has for a theme sadism and masochism. According to v. Stefanowsky the tendency of the Russian novel lies in the same direction. Johann George Forster (1754-94) mentions in his "Travels" that the same idea underlies the Russian folklore. Stefanowsky finds the type of the "Passivist" in an English tragedy by Otway: "Venice preserved," and refers also to Dr. Luiz's "Les fellatores. Moeurs de la decadence," Paris, 1888 (Union des bibliophiles).

Johannes Wedde (social-democrat agitator, died 1890), of Hamburg, advocates in his lyrics the subjection of man to woman who should be mistress instead of handmaid. (Cf. Max Hoffmann, "Magazin," v. 29, 2, 96).

A striking example of masochism may also be found in northern literature by J. P. Jacobsen, "Niels Lyne."

(b) Latent Masochism Foot- and Shoe-Fetichists.

Following the group of masochists is the very numerous class of foot- and shoe-fetichists. This group forms the transition to the manifestations of another independent perversion, i.e., fetichism itself j but it stands in closer relationship to masochism than to the latter, for which reason it is placed here.

By fetichists (v. page 218) I understand individuals whose sexual interest is concentrated exclusively on certain parts of the female body, or on certain portions of female attire. One of the most frequent forms of this fetichism is that in which the female foot or shoe is the fetich, and becomes the exclusive object of sexual feeling and desire. It is highly probable, and shown by a correct classification of the observed cases, that the majority and perhaps all of the cases of shoe fetichism, rest upon a basis of more or less conscious masochistic desire for self-humiliation.

In Hammond's case (case 59) the satisfaction of a masochist was found in being trod upon. In cases 55 and 58 they also had themselves trod upon. In case 59, equus eroticus, the person loved a woman's foot, etc. In the majority of cases of masochism the act of being trod upon with feet plays a part as an easily accessible means of expressing the relation of subjection. 1

Case 69

Case 69. Z., age 28, hereditarily and constitutionally neuropathic, claimed to have had pollution at the age of eleven, when he was chastised by his mother ad podicem. He often recalled the scene as a pleasurable experience. At the age of thirteen he developed a weakness for ladies'

1 (Moll, " Untersuchungen tiber Libido Sexualis, Bd. i., 2 Theil, Beob. 36, p. 320.) However, against the theory that foot- and shoe-fetichism is a manifestation of (latent) masochism, Dr. Moll (op. cit., p. 136) raises the objection that it is still unexplained why the fetichist so often prefers boots with high heels, to boots and shoes of a particular kind buttoned or laced. To this objection it may be remarked that in the first place the high heels characterise the shoes as feminine, and in the second place, that in spite of the sexual character of his inclination, the fetichist demands all kinds of aesthetic qualities in his fetich; also the interesting theories advanced by Restif de la Bretonne [himself foot- fetichist], and quoted in Mott's work, op. cit., pp. 498 and 499, footnote.


boots with high heels. He pressed them between his thighs and thus produced ejaculation. The very thought of it sufficed to effect the desired result He soon added to this fancy the idea that he lay at the feet of a pretty girl and allowed her to kick him with her pretty boots. This caused ejaculation. Until he was twenty-one he never had desire for coitus or the female genitals. From twenty- one to twenty-five he suffered from tuberculosis, during which period the masochistic* inclination almost disap- peared. After recovery he tried coitus for the first time, but when he saw the nude form of the girl his desire van- ished completely. He now confined himself to his maso- chistic fancies, but hoped that some day he would meet with the ideal woman who by means of sadistic acts might lead him to normal sexual intercourse.

Such cases are numerous in which, within a fully developed circle of masochistic ideas, the foot and the shoe or boot of a woman, conceived as a means of humili- ation, have become the objects of special sexual interest Through numerous degrees that are easily discriminated they form the demonstrable transition to other cases in which the masochistic inclinations retreat more and more to the background, and little by little pass beyond the threshold of consciousness, while the interest in women's shoes, apparently absolutely inexplicable, alone remains in consciousness. Frequent cases of shoe-lovers, which, like all cases of fetichism, possess forensic interest (theft of shoes), occupy a position midway between masochism and fetichism. The majority or all may be looked upon as instances of latent masochism (the motive remaining un- conscious) in which the female foot or shoe, as the maso- chist's fetich, has acquired an independent significance.

In cases 70 and 71 the female shoe possesses a subor- dinate interest, but unmistakable masochistic desires play an important part:

Case 70

Case 70. Mr. X., aged twenty-five, parents healthy, never ill before, placed the following autobiography at my disposal: "I began to practise onanism at the age of ten, without ever having any lustful thoughts during the act. Yet at that time I am sure of this the sight and touch of girls' elegant boots had a peculiar charm for me ; my greatest desire was also to wear such shoes, a wish that was occasionally fulfilled at masquerades. But I was also troubled by a very different thought: my ideal was to see myself in a position of humiliation; I would gladly have been a slave, and whipped; in short, I wished to receive the treatment that one finds described in many stories of slavery. I do not know whether the reading of such stories gave rise to my wish, or whether it arose spon- taneously.

"Puberty began at the age of thirteen; with the occurrence of ejaculation lustful pleasure increased, and E masturbated more frequently, often two or three times a day. From my twelfth to my sixteenth year, during the act of onanism, I always had the idea that I was forced to wear girls' boots. The sight of an elegant boot, on the foot of a girl at all pretty, intoxicated me; I inhaled the odour of the leather with avidity. In order to smell leather during the act of onanism, I bought a pair of leathern cuffs, which I smelled while I masturbated. My enthusiasm for ladies' leathern shoes remains the same to-day; only, since my seventeenth year, it has boon coupled with the wish to become a servant, to blacken shoes for distinguished ladies, to put on and take off their shoes for them, etc.

"My dreams at night are made up of shoe-scenes: either I stand before the show-window of a shoe-shop regarding the elegant ladies' shoes, particularly buttoned shoes, or I lie at a lady's feet and smell and lick her shoes. For about a year I have given up onanism and go ad puellas; coitus takes place by means of intense thought of ladies' buttoned shoes ; or, if necessary, I take the shoe of the puella to bed with me. I have never suffered from mv former onanism. I learn easily, have a good memory,


and have never had a headache in my life. This much concerning myself.

"A few words about my brother: I am thoroughly n.nvinced that he is also a shoe-fetichist. Of the many facts that demonstrate this to me, it is only necessary to mention that it is a great pleasure for him to have a cer- tain cousin (a very beautiful girl) tread upon him. As for the rest, I might undertake to tell whether a man who stands before a shoe-shop and regards the shoes on exhibi- tion is a "foot-lover" or not. This anomaly is uncom- monly frequent. When in the circle of my acquaintance I turn the conversation to the question of what woman's charm is, I very frequently hear it said that it is much more in attire than in nudity ; but every one is careful not to reveal his especial fetich. I think an uncle of mine is also a shoe-fetichist."

Case 71

Case 71. Z., twenty-eight years, official, comes from neuropathic mother. Father died early; as to his family and health no information obtainable. Z. was from early childhood nervous and impressionable; began early to masturbate on his own accord; with puberty he became neurasthenic, avoided onanism for a while, but was trou- bled with pollutions very frequently; recovered somewhat at a hydropathic institute; experienced strong libido to- wards woman, but never succeeded in coitus partly on ac- count of diffidence in his power, partly from fear of in- fection. This upset him very much, especially as he re- lapsed faute de mieux into his secret habit.

Z., during a searching consultation about his vita sex- ualis, proved to be fetichist as well as masochist, and revealed interesting relations between these two anoma- lies. He asserted that since his ninth year he had a weak- ness for women's shoes. This, he claimed, was caused by seeing at that time a lady mounting a horse whilst an attendant held the stirrup for her. This sight excited him very much, it constantly recurred to his imagination, ever increasing his lustful feelings. Later on his sensations


during pollution were connected with women in high boots. Laced boots with high heels charmed him most especially when this idea was associated with the lustful thought that a woman trod upon him with her heel, and that he, whilst kneeling, kissed a woman's shoes. The only interesting thing about a woman was her shoe. Im- pressions of odour did not play any part in this. The shoe as such was insufficient; it must be worn by woman. Whenever he saw a woman with laced boots he became excited and masturbated. He believed that he could not command virile power with any woman unless her feet were clad with laced boots.

Faute de mieux he made a drawing of such a boot, and whilst masturbating revelled in gazing at it.

The following case is not only instructive because of the relations shown therein to exist between shoe-fetich- ism and masochism, but is also of interest on account of the cure of the vita sexualis brought about by the patient himself.

Case 72

Case 72. Mr. M., thirty-three years of age, of good family, which on the maternal side for generations had shown manifestations of psychical degeneration, extend- ing even to cases of moral insanity. The mother was neuropathic and characterologically abnormal. Himself strong, well built, but neuropathic; began as a small boy to practise onanism spontaneously. When twelve years of age peculiar dreams of being tortured, whipped and kicked by men and women, especially by the latter. When about fourteen a weakness for women's boots came over him. They caused sexual excitement; he was forced to kiss and press them to him; this produced erection and orgasm, followed by masturbation. But these acts were also accompanied by masochistic ideas of being kicked and tortured.

He recognized that his vita sexualis was abnormal, and at the age of seventeen he sought a cure in coitus.


lie found himself quite impotent. At eighteen another

.}! proved a failure; he continued masturbation

assisted by shoe-fetichism and masochistic fancies.

At the age of nineteen he heard by accident a man speak of flagellation by a girl as a means to bring about virility. He now felt that he had found his remedy, and hastened to carry out the advice just received, but waa completely disappointed. The whole situation disgusted him so thoroughly that no erection resulted.

He made no more similar attempts, and satisfied him- self in the accustomed manner. When he was twenty- seven he met by accident a sympathetic and galante girl, became intimate, and complained to her about his impo- tence. She laughed at him, and said that at his age and with his constitution this was impossible.

He gained self-confidence, but only after fourteen days of the greatest intimacy and with the aid of shoe-fetichism and masochistic fancies he obtained power. This lasted several months. His condition improved, he could do without the secret aids, and his abnormal fancies became latent. Then for three years, on account of psychical impotence with other women, he yielded again to mastur- bation and his former fetichism. With his thirtieth year he entered again upon sympathetic relations with another girl ; but as he felt himself incapable of coitus without the aid of masochistic situations, he instructed her to treat him as her slave. She played her part well, made him kiss her feet, whipped him with a switch, and trod upon him. But it was all in vain. He only felt pain and utter confusion, and soon had these assaults discontinued. Ideal masochistic situations, however, aided him at times to accomplish coitus.

But he found little satisfaction under these circum- stances. Then he came across my book on "Psychopathia Sexualis," and found out the real condition of his anomaly. He wrote to his former acquaintance and entered again upon intimate relations with her, but told her definitely that the former absurd scenes of "slavery" must not. be



enacted again, and that under no circumstances, even though he request it himself, must she enter upon his masochistic ideas.

In order to free himself of shoe-fetichism he adopted the following plan. He bought a lady's elegant boot and made daily these suggestions to himself whilst kissing the boot repeatedly: "Why should I have erections when kissing this boot, which is after all only a piece of ordinary leather?" This practice little by little stripped the object of its fetichistic charm. The erections disappeared, and finally the boot impressed him only as a boot. Intimate intercourse with the sympathetic per- son ran parallel with this suggestive self-treatment, and although at first he could not produce virility without the assistance of masochistic ideas, these latter gradually disappeared.

He was so pleased with his cure that he came to thank me for the valuable help he had found in the perusal of my book, which had shown him the right way to remedy his defect.

Since then he wrote that he was completely cured, that he met with no difficulties in his sexual intercourse, although from time to time masochistic representations faintly reappeared without, however, leaving any im- pression on his mind.

Case 73

Case 73. Reported by Mantegazza in his "Anthropological Studies," 1886, p. 110. X., American, of good family, mentally and morally well constituted; from the beginning of puberty capable of being excited sexually only by a woman's shoe. Her body and naked or stockinged foot made no impression on him; but the foot, when covered with the shoe, or a shoe alone, in- duced erection and even ejaculation. Sight alone was sufficient for him in the case of elegant shoes i.e., shoea of black leather, buttoning up the side and having very high heels. His sexual desire was powerfully excited by touching, kissing, or putting such shoes on his feet.


enjoyment was increased by driving nails through the soles so that their points would penetrate his feet while walking. This caused him terrible pain, but he had real lustful feeling at the same time. His greatest enjoyment was to kneel down before the elegant clad feet of ladies and have them step on him. If the wearer be an ugly woman, the shoes would not affect him, and his fancy would cool. If the patient had empty shoes only at his disposal, his fancy would create a beautiful woman wear- ing them, and ejaculation would result. His nightly dreams were of the shoes of beautiful women. He con- sidered the exposure of ladies' shoes in show-windowi immoral, while talk about the nature of woman seemed to him harmless, but in bad taste. X. attempted coitus several times without success, ejaculation never occurred.

In the following case the masochistic as well as the sadistic element is in evidence (cf. "Torture of Animals," under "Sadism") :

Case 74

Case 74. A young, powerful man, aged twenty-six. Nothing in the opposite sex excited his sensual feeling except elegant shoes on the feet of a buxom woman, es- pecially when they were made of black leather, and had high heels. The shoes without the wearer were sufficient. It gave him the greatest pleasure to see, touch and kiss tliein. The feminine foot, when bare or covered with a stocking, had no effect on him. Since childhood he had a weakness for ladies' fine shoes.

X. was potent; during the sexual act the female must be elegantly dressed and, above all, have on pretty shoes. At the height of sexual excitement cruel thoughts about the shoes arose. He was forced to think with delight of the death agonies of the animal from which the leather was taken. Sometimes he was impelled to take chickens and other animals with him to Phryne, in order to have her tread on them with her pretty shoes for his pleasure. He called this "sacrificing to the feet of Venus." At other


times he had the woman walk on him with her shoes on, the harder the better.

Until the previous year it was sufficient since he did not take the slightest sensual pleasure in women to caress ladies' shoes that pleased him, thus attaining ejaculation and complete satisfaction (Lombroso, "Arch, di psichiatria," ix., fascic. iii.).

The next case reminds one of case 73, on account of the interest in the nails of the shoes (as capable of inflicting pain) ; and of 74, on account of the slight ac- companying sadistic element :

Case 75

Case 75. X., aged thirty-four, married; of neuro- pathic parentage; suffered severely from convulsions as a child; remarkably precocious, but one-sided in develop- ment (could read at age of three) ; nervous from childhood. At the age of seven he manifested an inclination to finger shoes, especially the nails of women's shoes. The mere sight, but still more the touching of the shoe nails and counting them, gave him indescribable pleasure.

At night he gave himself up to imagining how his cousins had their measures taken for shoes; how he nailed horse-shoes on to one of them or cut her feet off. In time the shoe-scenes came upon him during the day, and involuntarily induced erection and ejaculation. Fre- quently he took the shoes of female occupants of the house; and if he touched them with his penis he had an ejaculation. For a long time, when a student, it was possible for him to control his ideas and inclinations ; but there came a time when he was compelled to listen to female footsteps on the pavement, which, like the sight of the nails being driven into ladies' shoes, or the sight of shoes in the windows of the boot-shops, always swayed him with feelings of lustful pleasure. He married, and during the first months of his married life was free from these desires. Gradually he became hysteropathic and neurasthenic.


At this stage ho began to have hysterical attacks when the shoemaker spoke to him of nails in ladies' shoes or of driving nails in the same. The reaction was still greater if lie chanced to see a pretty lady with shoes well beset with nails. In order to induce ejaculation it was only necessary for him to cut soles out of pasteboard and beset them with nails; or he would buy ladies' shoes, have them beset with nails in the shop, and at home scrape th -in on the ground, and finally touch them with the end of his penis. Moreover, lustful shoe-visions occurred spontaneously, in which he satisfied himself by masturba- tion.

X. was otherwise intelligent, skilful in his calling, but powerless in combating his perverse inclinations. lie presented phimosis; penis short, expanded at the root, and incapable of complete erection. One day the patient allowed himself to masturbate when excited by the sight of ladies' shoes beset with nails in front of the window, of a shoe-shop, and thus became a criminal (Blanche "Archiv. de Neurologie," 1882, No. 22).

Reference may be made here to a case of inverted sexuality, to be described later, Case 137, in which the principal sexual interest was in the boots of male servants. The desire was to be trod upon by them, etc.

Case 76

Case 76. (Dr. Pascal "Igiene dell' amore".) X., merchant; from time to time (but particularly in bad weather) had the following desire: He would accost some prostitute and ask her to go to a shoe-shop with him, where he would buy her the handsomest pair of shoes made of patent leather, under the condition that she would put them on immediately. When this had taken place, she had to go about in the street, walking in manure and mud as much as possible, in order to soil the shoes. Then X. would lead the person to a hotel, and, almost before they had reached a room, he would cast himself upon her feet, feeling an extraordinary plea-


sure in licking them with his lips. When he had cleaned the shoes in this manner, he paid her and went his way.

From these cases it may be plainly seen that the shoe is the fetich of the masochist, and apparently because of the relation of the dressed female foot to the idea of being trod upon and other acts of humiliation. When, therefore, m other cases of shoe-fetichism, the female shoe appears alone as the excitant of sexual desire, one is justified in presuming that masochistic motives have remained latent. The idea of being trod upon, etc., remains in the depths of unconscious life, and the idea of the shoe alone, the means for such acts, rises into consciousness. Cases which would otherwise remain wholly inexplicable are suffi- ciently explained. 1 Here one has to do with latent maso- chism which may always be assumed as the unconscious motive, when not infrequently the origin of the fetichism can be proved to arise from an association of ideas with some particular event, as in cases 113 and 114.

Such cases of desire for ladies' shoes, without conscious motive and without demonstrable origin, are really innu- merable. 2 Three cases are here given as examples:

Case 77

Case 77. Minister, aged fifty. From time to time he went to houses of prostitution under the pretext of renting a room. He entered it with a girl. Then he lustfully regarded her shoes, took one off, osculatur et mordet cal- igam libidine captus. Ad genitalia denique caligam pre- mit, ejaculat semen semineque ejaculate exillas pedusque terit; then he awoke from his sexual ecstasy. He begged the woman to allow him to keep the shoe for a few days, and always, at the appointed time, returned it with thanks (Cantaranot, "La Psichiatria," v., p. 205).

1 Compare the instructive case of Moll, Libido sexualis, p. 320.

2 There is apparently a connection between foot-fetichism and the fact that certain persons of this kind, whom coitus does not satisfy, or who are unable to perform it, find a substitute for it in tritw membri inter pedes mulieris.

Case 78

Case 78. Z., Student, aged twenty-three; of a tainted family. Sister was insane; brother suffered with hil^ifrid i-ir His. The patient, peculiar from childhood, had frequent attacks of hypochondriacal depression, icedi- um vitce, and felt that he was being slighted. In a con- sultation on account of mental trouble, I found him to be a very perverse hereditarily predisposed man, with neu- rasthenic and hypochondriacal symptoms. A suspicion of masturbation was confirmed. Patient made interesting disclosures concerning his vita sexualis. At the age of ten he was powerfully attracted by the foot of one of his com- rades. At twelve he became an enthusiast for ladies' feet. It gave him a delightful sensation to revel in the sight of thoin. At fourteen he began to masturbate, thinking, at the same time, of the beautiful foot of a lady. At this time he revelled in the sight of the feet of his three-year- old sister. The feet of other females that attracted him induced sexual excitement. Only women's feet no other part of them interested him. The thought of sexual intercourse with women excited his disgust. He had never attempted coitus. After his twelfth year he had no interest in the feet of male individuals. The style of covering of the female foot was indifferent to him; it was only necessary that the person seemed to be sympathetic. The thought of enjoying the feet of prostitutes was disgusting to him. For years he had been in love with his sister's feet. If he could but obtain her shoes, the sight of them powerfully excited his sensuality. Kissing or embracing his sister did not have this effect. His greatest delight was to embrace and kiss the foot of a sympathetic woman, when ejaculation would result with a lively pleasurable sensation. Often he was impelled to touch his genitals with one of his sister's shoes; but he had been able, thus far, to master this impulse, especially for the reason that for two years (owing to progressive irritable weakness of the p'nitul-) the simple sight of the foot had induced ejaculation. From his relatives it was ascertained that }l.e patient had a silly admiration for the feet of his sister;


so that she avoided him and sought to hide her feet from him. The patient looked upon his perverse sexual impulse as pathological, and was painfully affected by the fact that his vile fancy had for its object his sister's foot. He avoided opportunity as much as he could, and sought to help the matter by masturbation when, as in dreams accompanied by pollution, ladies' feet filled his imagina- tion. However, when the impulse became too powerful he could not avoid gaining a partial sight of his sister's foot. Immediately after ejaculation he would become angry with himself at having been weak again. His partiality for his sister's foot had cost him many a sleep- less night. He often wondered that he could still love his sister. Although it seemed right to him that she should conceal her feet from him, yet he was often irritated because the concealment caused him to have pollutions. The patient gave assurances, confirmed by his relatives, of being moral in other respects.

Case 79

Case 79. S., New York, was accused of being a street-thief. Numerous cases of insanity in his ancestry; father, brother and sister mentally abnormal. At seven years, violent cerebral concussion twice. At thirteen, struck by a beam. At fourteen S. had violent attacks of headache. Accompanying these attacks, or immediately after them, peculiar impulse to take the shoes of female members of the family as a rule, only one at a time and hide them in some out-of-the way corner. Taken to task, he would lie, or declare that he had no recollection of the affair. The passion for shoes was unconquerable, and made its appearance every three or four months. On one occasion he attempted to take a shoe from the foot of one of the servants, and on another he stole his sister's shoe from her bedroom. In the spring two ladies had their shoes torn from their feet in the open street. In August, S. left his home early in the morning to go to his work as a printer. A moment afterwards he tore the shoe from a girl's foot in the open street, fled to his


place of work, and tin-re waa arrested as a street-thief, lit- <1 'dared that hr did not know much of his act; that it 1 1 ad come upon him like a stroke of lightning, at the sight of the shoe, that he must possess himself of it, but for what purpose he did not know. He had acted while in a state of unconsciousness. The shoe, as he correctly indicated, was found in his coat In confinement he was so much excited mentally that an outbreak of insanity was feared. Discharged, he stole his wife's shoes while she was asleep. His moral character and habits of life were blameless. He was an intelligent workman; but irregularity of employment, that soon followed, made him confused and incapable of work. Pardoned (Nichols, "Am. Journal of Insanity," 1859 ; Beck, "Med. Jurispru- dence," vol. i., p. 732, 1860).

Dr. Pascal (op. cit.) has some similar cases, and many others have been mentioned to me by colleagues and patients.

(c) Disgusting Acts for the Purpose of Self -Humiliation and Sexual Gratification Latent Masochism Kopro- lagnia.

Whilst in the manifestations thus far described the aesthetic sentiment is at least, so far as appearances go, saved, and the lustful situation is kept within the confines of a symbolic or ideal character, there are many cases in which the desire for sexual gratification by self-humilia- tion before woman finds expression in acts which defile the moral and aesthetic feeling of the normal man.

Impressions obtained through the senses of smell and taste, which in the normal man produce orfy feelings of nausea and disgust, are made the basis of the most vivid emotions of lust, producing in the perverse subject mighty impulses to orgasm and even ejaculation.

An analogy with the excesses of religious enthusiasm can be even traced. The religious enthusiast, Antoinette


Bouvignon de la Porte, used to mix with her food excreta in order to mortify herself (Zimmefmann, op. cit., p. 124). The beatified Marie Alacoque licked up with her tongue the excrement of sick people to "mortify" herself, and sucked their festering toes. The analogy with sadism is also of interest in this connection because here also mani- festations in the sense of varnpyrism and anthropophagy arising from disgusting appetites of the organs of taste and olf action produce lustful feelings (cf. case 59, Bichel, Menesclou, f. Beob. 18, 19, 20, 22). This impulse to dis- gusting acts might well be named KOPROLAGNIA. Its relations to Masochism (as a subordinate form) have been indicated in case 51. The subsequent observation will render them clearer.

In some cases it would appear as if the masochistic element were unknown to the perverse subject and tho instinct for nauseating acts alone were present (latent masochism). A striking instance of masochistic kopro- lagnia (combined with perverse sexuality) may be found in case 114 of the eighth edition of this work. The subject of this case revels not only in the thought of being the slave of the beloved, referring for this purpose to Sacher- Masoch's "Venus in Furs," sed etiam sibi fingit amatum poscere ut crepidas sudore diffluentes olfaciat ejusque ster- core vescaiur. Delude narrat, quid non habeat, quce con- fingat et exoptet, eorum loco suas crepidas sudore infectas olfacere suoque stercore vesci, inter quce facta pene erecto se voluptate perturbari semenque ejaculari.

Case 80

Case 80. Masochism Koprolagnia. Z., fifty-two years of age; high position; father phthisical; family claimed to be untainted; always nervous, only child, de- posed to have had peculiar emotions since he was seven, when by chance he saw the servants take off their boots and stockings preparatory to scrubbing the floors of the house. Once he begged one of the maids to show him her toes and feet before she washed them. When he began going to school and reading books, be fait forcibly drawn


TO literature which contained descriptions of refined cruelty and tortures, especially when they were executed at the de- mands of women. He simply devoured novels dealing with slavery and bondage, and whilst reading them, IK? became so excited that he began masturbation. What. i i d him most was to imagine that he was the slave of a pretty young lady of his acquaintance who allowed hi in after a long walk, pcdes lambere* proecipue plautas et spatia inter diyitos. He thought of the young lady as particularly cruel and enjoying tortures and whippings meted out to him. These fancies were accompanied by masturbation. At the age of fifteen whilst revelling in such fiction, he let a poodle dog lick his feet. One day he noticed how a pretty servant girl in his own home let a poodle dog lick her toes whilst she was reading. This caused in him erection and ejaculation. He per- suaded the girl to let this happen frequently whilst he looked on. After a while he took the place of the poodle and ejaculated every time.

From his fifteenth to his eighteenth year he was at a boarding-school and had no opportunity for practising such evil habits. He was satisfied to excite himself every few weeks with the perusal of literature treating on cruel- ties committed by women, imagining all the time that he was licking the feet of such women. This produced ejaculation accompanied by the highest lustful excitement. The female organs had never any attraction for him. and he never felt sexually drawn towards men. When lie ha<l attained puberty he solicited girls and had coitus with them, but always sucked their feet before the act. Ho would do this also, inter actum, and asked the girls to tell him with what cruelties they. would afflict him in case he did not lick their toes quite clean. Z. affirms that he very often succeeded in this, and that the whole action was always pleasing to the girls.

This .lis^Mi-tin^ impulse is also referred to in case 68 of the edition of tliis work. It scorns to occur especially with

ko;>ml:ii:iiist8 and fetid


He was especially attracted by the feet of well-bred women that were deformed by narrow boots and had not been washed for several days, but he could stomach only "slight, natural deposits, such as one may find upon the feet of clean well-bred ladies, also discolorations from the stockings, whilst sweating feet excited him only in imagin- ation, but in reality disgusted him". "Cruel tortures" also existed for him only in imagination as a means to excitement; he abhorred them and never craved for them in reality. Nevertheless they played a pre-eminent part in his fancy, and he never neglected to instruct the women with whom he kept in masochistic touch how they were to write him threatening letters. From the collection of such letters placed at my disposal by Z. one is given here because it clearly illustrates the line of thought and sentiment :

"Lambitor sudoris pedum mulierum! I take the ut- most delight in conjuring up the moment when you will lick my toes, especially after a long walk. A facsimile of my foot I shall send you soon. It will intoxicate me like nectar when you will lick up my sudor pedum. And if you will not do it voluntarily, I shall force you to it; I shall treat you as my meanest slave. You shall witness how another favoritus sudorem pedum mihi lambit, whilst you shall whine like a dog under the lashes of my servants. I shall declare you outlawed. I shall find the most exquisite pleasure in seeing you in pain, breathing your last under the most cruel tortures, licking my toes in extreme agony. . . . You challenge my cruelty very well, I shall crush you under my foot like a worm. . . . You ask me for a stocking ? . I shall wear it longer than usual. But I demand that you kiss it and lick it ; that you soak the foot of it in water and then drink the latter. If you do not carry out my pleasure absolutely, I shall chastise you with my riding-whip. I demand uncon- ditional obedience. If you do not obey, I shall have you whipped with the knout, I shall make you walk over a floor well-spiked with sharp nails, I shall have you


battinaded and cast to the lions in the cage. It will give me th<> utmost delight to see how the wild beasts enjoy your flesh."

In spite of such ridiculous tirades, ordered by himself, Z. looked upon them as a means to satisfy his perverse sexuality. These sexual monstrosities, which to him were only a congenital anomaly, he did not consider unnatural, although he admitted them to be disgusting to the nor- mally constituted man. Otherwise he appeared to be a decent sort of a man with rather refined manners, but his otherwise meagre aesthetic sentiments were overbalanced by sensuality which gratified his perverse desires.

Z. gave me an insight into his correspondence with the literary champion of masochism, Sacher-Masoch.

One of these letters, dated 1888, shows as a heading thf picture of a luxuriant woman, with imperial bearing, only half covered witli furs and holding a riding- whip as if ready to strike. Sacher-Masoch contends that "the passion to play the slave" is widespread, especially among the Germans and Russians. In this letter, the history of a noble Russian is related who loved to be tied and whipped by several beautiful women. One day he found his ideal in a pretty young French woman and took her to his home.

According to Sacher-Masoch, a Danish woman yielded her favour to no man until he acted the part of slave to her for a considerable time. Amanlrs coagere solebat, ut pedes suos et podicem lambeant. She had her adorers put in chains and whipped until they obeyed her lambendo pedes. Once she had the "slave" fastened to her bed- posts and thus made him witness her granting the highest favour to another. After the latter left her she had the fcttored "slave" whipped by her servants until he yielded lambere podicem domincB.

If these assertions were true which, of course, cannot be accepted from the poet without definite proof, they would constitute remarkable proofs of sadismus femina- rum. At any rate they are psychologically interesting in-


stances of thoughts and sentiments specific to masochism (my own observations, "Centralblatt fur Krankheiten der Harn- und Sexualorgane," vi., 7).

Case 81

Case 81. Z., aged twenty-four; Russian civil serv- ant; mother neuropathic, father psychopathic. Z. was in- telligent, of refined manners, physically normal, of pleas- ing appearance and aesthetic tastes ; never had a severe ill- ness. Claimed to have been of a nervous disposition from infancy ; had like his mother neuropathic eyes and latterly suffered from cerebral asthenic troubles. Perversio vitce sexualis caused him much worry, bordering on despair, deprived him of self-esteem and tempted him to suicide.

What oppressed him was the unnatural desire recurring every four weeks for mictio mulieris in os suum. As cause he gave the following facts, interesting on account of their genetic importance. When six years of age he put his hand by accident sub podicem puellce who sat next to him in school. This caused him pleasure and he repeatedly did so. The memory of these pleasant situations strongly aroused his fancy.

Puerum decem annorum serva educatrix libidine mota ad corpus suum appressit et digitum ejus in vaginam intro- duxit. Quum postea fortuitu digito nasum ietigit, odore ejus valde delectatus fuit.

This immoral act developed into a lustful fancy which made him believe vinctus inter femora mulieris cumbere, coactus, ut dormiat sub ejus podice et ut bibat ejus urinam.

With the thirteenth year these fictions disappeared. At fifteen first coitus, at sixteen second, quite normal and without fanciful representations.

Deficiente pecunia et magna libidine perturbatus mas- turbatione earn satiabat.

At seventeen perverse ideas recurred. They became more powerful and he struggled against them in vain.

At eighteen he yielded to the impulse. Quum mulier qucedam in os ei minxit, maxima voluptate affect us est. He then had coitus with the vile woman. Since then,


he felt the necessity (,. repent the disgusting act every four weeks.

After indulging in this perverse action he was ashamed of himself and disgust overcame him. Ejaculations ac- eompanird the act but seldom, but it produced erections and orgasm and whenever ejaculation missed, he gratified himself with coitus.

During the intervals between these excessive impulses hf was quite free from perverse thoughts and desires as well as from ideal masochism and fetichistic relations. Libido during these intervals was but slight and easily gratified in the normal fashion without the assistance of perverse fiction. He often travelled miles from his coun- try seat to the city to satisfy his cravings when these spells came over him.

Again and again the patient refined as he was and disgusted with his own perversity sought to resist the morbid impulse, but in vain; restlessness, anxiety, trem-


jsyehiei. rt-

ihcatmn of - .

ly, but was at >. rcoine v

contempt for himself border'

ntal struggles enen

plained of debility of memory, absent -mimie-. impotence, and cerebral pressure. His last hope was that ni'-dical science might succeed in freeing him from this monstrous affliction and in re-establishing his moral self.

Case 82

Case 82. Masochism Fetichism Koprolagnia. B., aged thirty-one, official, family neuropathically tainted, nervous from early childhood, weakly, nocturnal frights. I-'irst pollution at the age of sixteen. At seventeen fell in love with a French woman, twenty-eight years old and anything but pretty. Had a special weakness for her shoes. Whenever he could do so without being observed, he would cover them with kisses. This gave him sensual delights; but it never caused ejaculation. At that time


according to his statement, he had no knowledge of the difference in sexes. He could not understand his weakness for shoes. After he attained the age of twenty-two he had coitus about once a month, but did not derive psychical gratification from the act. One day he met a prostitute in the street whose haughty demeanor, fascinating eye and challenging mien made a peculiar impression on him. He felt an impulse to throw himself at her feet, kiss them, and follow her like a dog or slave. Her "majestic" feet clad in patent leather boots especially captivated him. He trembled with voluptuous excitement. During the night he could not find sleep for the thought of the woman haunted him. He imagined that he was kissing this woman's feet. This fancy superinduced ejaculation. Shy by nature, he now resorted to psychical masturbation, and having a dislike for prostitutes, he shunned henceforth the society of women altogether. He revelled in the thought of the pretty foot of an imperious woman and associated this thought with the olfactory impression he would re- ceive from its proximity. In erotic dreams he would fol- low such wome.ri. T!li. Tvouiu begin 'to 'fail ,ind the woman ug her skirts would show her pretty foot, ankle and calf, encased in a silken stocking. As soon as he grasped and fondled the warm form, so soft and yet so firm, he would ejaculate. On rainy days he used to patrol the streets to see such scenes in reality. If he saw what he came for he would carry away the impression in his memory and it became the object of his nightly dreams and acts of psychical masturbation. To hasten the act he would sniff his own socks, kiss, bite and chew them. His dreams and libidinous ecstasies were also mingled with fancies of a purely masochistic character, e.g., a woman but slightly clad stood in front of him holding a whip in her hand, whilst he knelt at her feet like a slave. She would cut him with the whip, put her foot on his neck, face or mouth, till he consented secretum inter digitos nudos pedis ejus bene clans exsugere. During this mental act he would smell of his own feet, the odor of which was repulsive to


him when in his normal state. He would vary these prac- tices with acts of "poderfetichism" by using a girl's Ira were et stercus proprium naribus appositum. At other (ilia's the cunnus feminat would be his fetich and he would practise ideal c mini lingua. For assistance he would use pieces cut from the armpits of a woman's undervest, or stockings, or shoes. After six years, during which neu- rasthenia had increased whilst the imaginative power had waned, he lost all power to accomplish these act* of psychical onanism and came down to the level of a common masturbator. He, later on, be- came acquainted with a girl of a similar masochistic ten- dency, and coitus became possible for both, but always by having recourse to some masochistic situation. But the old fetichistic fascinations reappeared and he found greater pleasures in appeasing this perverse appetite than in coitus, which he performed only honoris causa. The end of this cynical sexual existence was a marriage after his mistress had forsaken him with a woman who had the same perverse inclinations as himself. They had chil- dren, but found sexual gratification chiefly in masochistic marital acts. (Centralblatt fur Krankheiten der Harn- und Sexual organe, vi., 7.)

Other cases of Cantarano's (loc. cit.) belong here (mic~ iio even dcfcecatio puellce ad linguam viri ante actum) con- sumption of confects smelling like faces, in order to be- come potent; and also the following case, likewise com- municated to me by a physician :

"A Russian prince, who was very decrepit, was ac- customed to have his mistress turn her back to him and defecate on his breast; this being the only way in which he could excite the remnant of libido."

Another supported a mistress in unusually brilliant style, with the condition that she ate marchpane exclu- sively. Ut libidinosus fiat et ejaculate possit excrementa feminw ere excipit. A Brazilian physician tells me of



several cases of defcecatio feminae in os viri that have como to his knowledge. Such cases occur everywhere, and are not at all infrequent. All kinds of secretions saliva, nasal mucus, and even aural cerumen are used in way and swallowed with pleasure ; and oscula ad nates and even ad anum are indulged in. Dr. Moll (op. cit. f p. 135) reports the same thing of a man affected with inverted sexuality. The perverse desire to practise cunnilingus, which is very wide-spread, probably has its root frequently in masochistic impulses.

Evidently the case quoted by Cantarano ("La Psichia- tria," v., p. 207) belongs here also, in which coitus is preceded by morsus et succio of the woman's toes which have not been washed for some time. Also a case quoted by me in the eighth edition of this book, cf. ibid., case 68.

Stefanowsky ("Archives de 1'Anthropologie crimi- nelle," 1892, vol. vii.) knows of a Russian merchant qui valde delectatus fuit bibendo ae quce puella lupanarii jusso suo in vas spuerunt.

Neri, "Archivio delle psicopatie sessuali," p. 198 : Workman, aged twenty-seven, heavily tainted, tic in the face, troubled with phobia (especially agoraphobia) and alcoholism. Summa ei fit voluptas, si meretrices in os ejus faces et urinas deponunt. Vinum supra corpus scortorum effusum defluens ore ad meretricis cunnum adposito excipit. Valde delectatur, si, sanguinem menstrualem ex vagina ef- fluentem sugere potest. He is fetichist of ladies' gloves and slippers, osculatur calceos sororis, cujus pedes sudorc ma- dent. Libido cjus turn dcmun maxime satiatur, si a puellis insultatur, immo vero verberatur, ut sanguis exeat. Dum verberatur, genibus nixus veniam et clementiam pueUa expetit, deinde masturbare incipit.

Pelanda ("Archivio di Psichiatria," x., fascicolo 3, 4) relates the following case :

Case 83

Case 83. W., aged forty-five, predisposed, was given to masturbation at the age of eight. A decimo sexto anno


lihidines suas bibendo recentem feminarum urinam satia- rit. Tanta erat voluptas urinam bibentis ut nee aliquid olfaceret nee saperei, hcec faciens. After drinking he al- ways experienced disgust and ill-feeling, and made firm it inns to do it no more in the future. Once he had the same pleasure in drinking the urine of a nine-year-old boy, with whom he once practised fellatio. The patient suffered from epileptic insanity.

Still older cases belong here, which Tardieu ("Etude medico-legale sur les attentats aux moeurs," p. 206) ob- served in senile individuals. He describes as "Renifleurs" persons "qui in sccretos locos nimirum theatrorum porticos convenientes quo complures femince ad micturiendum fes- tinani, per nares urinali odore excitati, illico se invicem polluunt". The "Stercoraires" that Taxil ("La prostitu- tion contemporaine") mentions are, in relation to this subject, unique.

Eulenburg relates further monstrous facts belonging to this section. Cf. Zulzer's "Klin. Handbuch der Ham- und Sexualorgane," iv., p. 47.

(d) Masochism in Woman.

In woman voluntary subjection to the opposite sex is a physiological phenomenon. Owing to her passive role in procreation and long-existent social conditions, ideas of subjection are, in woman, normally connected with the idea of sexual relations. They form, so to speak, the harmonics which determine the tone-quality of feminine feeling.

Any one conversant with the history of civilisation knows in what a state of absolute subjection woman was always kept until a relatively high degree of civilisation was reached; 1 and an attentive observer of life may still

1 The laws of the early middle ages gave the husband the right to kill the wife; those of the later middle ages, the right to beat her. The latter right was used freely, even by those of high stand-


easily recognise how the custom of unnumbered genera- tions, in connection with the ^-passive role with which woman has been endowed by Nature, has given her an instinctive inclination to voluntary subordination to man; he will notice that exaggeration of customary gallantry is very distasteful to women, and that a deviation from it in the direction of masterful behaviour, though loudly reprehended, is often accepted with secret satisfaction. 2 Under the veneer of polite society the instinct of feminine servitude is everywhere discernible.

Thus it is easy to regard masochism in general as a pathological growth of specific feminine mental ele- ments, as an abnormal intensification of certain features of the psycho-sexual character of woman, and to seek its primary origin in that sex (v. infra, p. 199). It may, how- ever, be held to be established that, in woman, an inclina- tion to subordination to man (which may be regarded as an acquired, purposeful arrangement, a phenomenon of adaptation to social requirements) is to a certain extent a normal manifestation.

The reason that, under such circumstances, the "poetry" of the symbolic act of subjection is not reached, lies partly in the fact that man has not the vanity of that weakling who would improve the opportunity by the dis- play of his power (as the ladies of the middle ages did towards the love-serving knights), but prefers to realise solid advantages. The barbarian has his wife plough for him, and the civilised lover speculates about her dowry; she willingly endures both.

Cases of pathological increase of this instinct of sub- jection, in the sense of feminine masochism, are probably

ing (cf. Schultze, "Das hofische Leben zur Zeit des Minnesangs," Bd. i., p. 163 et seq.). Yet, by the side of this, the paradoxical chivalry of the middle ages stands unexplained (v. infra, p. 198).

2 Cf. Lady Milford's words in Schiller's " Kabale und Liebe": "We women can only ehoose between ruling and serving; but the highest pleasure power affords is but a miserable substitute, if the grater joy of being the slaves of a man we love is denied ua!" (Act II./ Scene I.).


enough, but custom represses their manifesta- ti-'ii. Manv Noting women like nothing better than to kii el U-t'oro their husbands or lovers. Among the lower classes of Slavs it is said that the wives feel hurt if they are not beaten by their husbands. A Hungarian official informs me that the peasant women of the Soinogyer Comitate do not think they are loved by their husbands until they have received the first box on the ear as a sign of love.

It would probably be difficult for the physician to find cases of feminine masochism. 1 Intrinsic and extraneous restraints modesty and custom naturally constitute in woman insurmountable obstacles to the expression of per- verse sexual instinct. Thus it happens that, up to the present time, but two cases of masochism in woman have been scientifically established.

Case 84. Miss X., twenty-one years of age; her mother was a morphia maniac and died some years ago from nervous disorders. Her uncle (mother's side) was also a morphia-eater. One brother of the girl was neurasthenic, another a masochist (wished to be beaten with a cane by proud, noble ladies). Miss X. had never had a severe ill- ness, but at times suffered from headaches. She considered If to ! be physically sound, but periodically insane, vix., when she was haunted by the fancies which she thus described :

Since her earliest youth she fancied herself being whipped. She simply revelled in these ideas, and had the most intense desire to be severely punished with a rattan cane.

This desire, she claimed, originated from the fact that at the age of five a friend of her father's took her for fun

I 8eydel, " Vierteljahresschr. f. gor. Mcd.," 1893, vol. ii., quotes an an f iu:i-<><-|iism the patient of Dicffenbach, who repeat-

edly and purposely dislocated her arm in order to experience lustful sensations when it was being reduced, anaesthetics not being known



across his knees, pretending to whip her. Since then she had longed for the opportunity of being caned, but to her great regret her wish was never realised. At these periods she imagined herself as absolutely helpless and fettered. The mere mention of the words "rattan cane" and "to whip" caused her intense excitement Only for the last two years she associated these ideas with the male sex. Previously she only thought of a severe school-mistress or simply a hand.

Now she wished to be the slave of a man whom she loves; she would kiss his feet if he would only whip her.

She did not understand that these manifestations were of a sexual nature.

A few quotations from her letters are characteristic as bearing upon the masochistic character of this case:

"In former years I seriously contemplated going into a lunatic asylum whenever these ideas worried me. I fell upon this idea whilst reading how the director of an insane asylum pulled a lady by the hair from her bed and beat her with a cane and a riding-whip. I longed to be treated in a similar manner at such an institute, and have therefore unconsciously associated my ideas with the male sex. I liked, however, best to think of brutal, uneducated female warders beating me mercilessly.

"Lying (in fancy) before him, he puts one foot on my neck whilst I kiss the other. I revel in the idea of being whipped by him; but this changes often, and I fancy quite different scenes in which he beats me. At times I take the blows as so many tokens of love he is at first extremely kind and tender, and then, in the excess of his love, he beats me. I fancy that to beat me for love's sake gives him the highest pleasure. Often I have dreamed that I was his slave but, mind you, not his female slave ! For instance, I have imagined that he was Robinson- and I the savage that served him. I often look at the pictures in which Robinson puts his foot on the neck of the savage. 1 now find an explanation of these strauee fancies : I look


upon woman in general as low, far below man; but I am

\\i-e extremely proud and quite indomitable, whence

it arises that I think as a man (who is by nature proud and superior). This renders my humiliation before the man I love the more intense. I have also fancied myself to be his female slave; but this does not suffice, for after all every woman can be the slave of her husband.

Case 85

Case 85. Miss v. X., aged thirty-five ; of greatly predisposed family. For some years she had been in the initial stages of paranoia persecutoria. This sprang from cerebro-spinal neurasthenia, the origin of which was found to be sexual hyperexcitation. With twenty-four she was given to masturbation. As a result of disappointment in an engagement, she began to practise masturbation and psychical onanism. Inclination toward persons of her own sex never occurred. The patient says: "At the age of six or eight I conceived a desire to be whipped. Since I had never been whipped, and had never been present when others were thus punished, I cannot understand how I came to have this strange desire. I can only think that it is congenital. With these ideas of being whipped I had a feeling of actual delight, and pictured in my fancy how fine it would be to be whipped by one of my female friends. I never had any thought of being whipped by a man. I revelled in the idea, and never attempted any actual realisation of my fancies, which disappeared after my tenth year. Only when I read "Rousseau's Confessions," at the age of thirty-four, did I understand what my longing for whippings meant, and that my abnormal ideas were like those of Rousseau.

On account of its original character and the reference to Rousseau, this case may with certainty be called a case of masochism. The fact that it is a female friend who is conceived in imagination's whipping her, is explained by the circumstance that the masochistic desire was here present in the mind of a child before the psychical vita sexualis had developed and the instinct for the male had been awakened. Antipathic sexual instinct. is here expressly excluded.

Case 86

Case 86. A physician in the General Hospital of Vienna had his attention drawn to a girl who used to call on the medical assistants of the institution. When meet- ing one of them she would express great delight at meeting a medical man and ask him to at once undertake a gyneco- logical examination on her. She said she would make re- sistance, but he must take no notice of that, on the contrary ask her to be calm and proceed with the examination. If X. consented, the scene would be enacted as she desired. She would resist, and thus work herself up into a high state of sexual excitement. If the medical man refused to pro- ceed any further she would beg him not to desist. It was quite evident that the examination was only requested for the purpose of inducing the highest possible degree of orgasm. When the medical man refused coitus she felt deeply offended, but begged him to let her come again. Money she never accepted.

It is apparent that orgasm was not induced by the mere palpation of the genitals, but the exciting cause undoubt- edly lay in the act of force, which was always demanded, and which became the equivalent of coitus. It is evidently a manifestation belonging in the province of masochism in woman.

An Attempt to Explain Masochism

The facts of masochism are certainly among the most interesting in the domain of psychopathology. An attempt at explanation must first seek to distinguish in them the essential from the unessential. The distinguishing characteristic in masochism is certainly the unlimited subjection to the will of a person of the opposite sex (in sadism, on the contrary, the unlimited mastery of this person), with the awakening and accompaniment of lustful sexual feelings to the degree of orgasm. From the foregoing it is that the particular manner in which this relation of subjection or domination is expressed (v. supra), whether !y in symbolic acts, or whether there is also a desire to suffer pain at the hands of a person of the opposite sex, is a subordinate matter.

While sadism may be looked upon as a pathological intensification of the masculine sexual character in its psychical peculiarities, masochism rather represents a pathological degeneration of the distinctive psychical peculiarities of woman. But masculine masochism is undoubtedly frequent; and it is this that comes most frequently under observation and almost exclusively makes u j> the series of observed cases. The reason for this has een previously stated.

Two sources of masochism can be distinguished in the sphere of normal phenomena. The first is, that in the state of lustful excitement every impression made by the person giving rise to the sexual stimulus, independently of the nature of its action, is pleasing to the individual excited.

It is entirely physiological that playful taps and light blows should be taken for caresses, 1

Like the lover's pinch, which hurts and is desired.

Anthony and Cleopatra, v., 2.

From here the step is not long to a state where the wish experience a very intense impression at the hands of the consort leads to a desire for blows, etc., in cases of pathological intensification of lust; for pain is ever a r ;i'ly means for producing intense bodily impressions. Just as in sadism the sexual emotion leads to a state of exaltation in which the excessive motor excitement implicates neighbouring nervous tracts, so in masochism an ecstatic state arises, in which the rising flood of a single

1 Analogous facts are found in the animal kingdom. Pulmonata Cuv., for instance, possess a small calcareous staff which lies hidden in a special pouch of the body, but is at the time of mating projected and used as a means of sexual excitement, producing, beyond doubt, pain.

emotion ravenously devours and covers with lust every impression coming from the beloved person.

The second and, indeed, the most important source of masochism is to be sought in a wide-spread phenomenon, which, though it is extraordinary and abnormal, yet, J)y no means lies within the domain of sexual perversion.

I here refer to the very prevalent fact that in innumerable instances, which occur in all varieties, one individual becomes dependent on another of the opposite sex, in a very extraordinary and remarkable manner, even to the loss of all independent will-power; a depend- ence which forces the party in subjection to acts and suffering which greatly prejudice personal interest, and often enough lead to offences against both morality and law.

This dependence, however, differs from. the manifestations of normal life only in the intensity of the sexual feeling that here comes in play, and in the slight .degree of will-power necessary for the maintenance of its equilibrium. The difference is one of intensity, not of quality, as in masochistic manifestations.

This dependence of one person upon another of the opposite sex abnormal but not perverse, a phenomenon possessing great interest when .regarded from a forensic standpoint I designate "sexual bondage"; 1 for the relations and circumstances attending it have in all respects the character of bondage. The will of the ruling 2 indivirtual dominates that of the person in subjection, just as the master's does that of bondsmen.

1 Cf. the author's article, " tiber geschlechtliche Horigkeit und Masochismus," in the " Psychiatrist-he Jahrbticher," Bd. x., p. 169 et teq., where this subject is treated in detail, and particularly from the forensic standpoint.

  • The expressions " slave " and " slavery," though often used metaphorically under such circumstances, are avoided here because

they are the favourite expressions of masochism, from which this " bondage " must be strictly differentiated.

The expression " bondage " is not to be construed to mean J. S. Mill's " Bondage of Woman." What Mill designates with this expression are laws and customs, social and historical facts. Here, however, we always speak of facts having peculiar individual motives that even conflict with prevalent customs and laws. Besides it has reference to either sex.

This "sexual bondage," as has been said, is certainly an abnormal phenomenon. It hegins with the first deviation from the normal. The degree of dependence of one person upon another, or of two upon each other, resulting from individual peculiarity in the intensity of motives that in themselves are normal, constitutes the normal standard established by law and custom. Sexual bondage is not a perverse manifestation, however; the instinctive activities at work here are the same as those that set in motion even though it be with less violence the psychical vita sexualis which moves entirely within normal limits.

Fear of losing the companion and the desire to keep him always content, amiable, and inclined to sexual intercourse, are here the motives of the individual in subjection. An extraordinary degree of love which, particularly in woman, does not always indicate an unusual degree of sensuality and a weak character are the simple elements of this extraordinary process. 1

The motive of the dominant individual is egotism which finds unlimited room for action.

The manifestations of sexual bondage are various in form, and the cases are very numerous. 2 At every step in life we find men that have fallen into sexual bondage.

1 Perhaps the moat important element is, that by the habit of submission a kind of mechanical obedience, without consciousness of its motives, which operates with automatic certainty, may be established, having no opposing motives to contend with, because it lies beyond the threshold of consciousness; and it may be used by the dominant individual like an inanimate instrument.

1 Sexual bondage, of course, plays a rdle in all literature. Indeed, for the poet, the extraordinary manifestations of the sexual life that are not perverse form a rich and open field. The most celebrated description of masculine "bondage" is that by Albt Pr^vott, " Manon Lescault." An excellent description of feminine " bondage " is that of " Leone Leoni," by George Sand. But first of all comes Kleist's Käthchen von Heilbronn," who himself called it the counterpart of (sadistic) " Penthesilea." Halm's "Griseldis' and many other similar poema also belong here.

Among married men, hen-pecked husbands belong to this category,particularly elderly men who marry young wives and try to overcome the disparity of years and physical defects by unconditional submission to the wife's every whim; and unmarried men of ripe maturity, who seek to better their last chance of love by unlimited sacrifice, are also to be enumerated here. Here belong, also, men of any age, who, seized by hot passion for a woman, moot coldness and calculation, and have to capitulate on hard conditions; men of loving natures who allow themselves to be persuaded to marriage by notorious prostitutes ; men who, to run after adventuresses, leave everything and jeopardise their future; husbands and fathers who leave wife and child, to lay the income of a family at the feet of a harlot.

But, numerous as the examples of masculine "bondage" are, every observer of life who is at all unprejudiced must allow that they are far from equalling in number and importance the cases of feminine "bondage". This is easily explained. For a man, love is almost always only an episode, and he has many other and important interests; for a woman, on the other hand, love is the principal thing in life, and, until the birth of children, always her first interest. After this it is still oftener her first thought, but always takes at least the second place. But, what is still more important, man ruled by this impulse easily satisfies it in embraces for which he finds unlimited opportunities. Woman in the upper classes'of society, if she have a husband, is bound to him alone; and even in the lower classes there are still great obstacles to polyandry. Therefore, a woman's husband means for her the whole sex, and his importance to her becomes very great. It must also be considered that the normal relation established by law and custom between husband and wife is far from being one of equality. In itself it expresses a sufficient predominance of woman's dependence. The concessions she makes to her lover, to retain the love which it would be almost impossible for her to replace, only plunge her deeper in bondage ; and this increases the insatiable demands of husbands resolved to use their advantage and traffic in woman's readiness to sacrifice herself.

Here may be placed the fortune-hunter, who for money allows himself to be enveloped in the easily created illusions of a maiden; the seducer, and the man who compromises wives, calculating on blackmail ; the gilded army officer and the musician with the lion's mane, who know so well how to stammer "Thee or death!" as a means to pay debts and provide a life of ease. Here, too, belong the kitchen-soldier, whose love the cook returns with love plus means to satisfy a different appetite ; the drinker, who consumes the savings of the mistress he marries; and the man who with blows compels the prostitute on whom he lives to earn a certain sum for him daily. These are only a few of the innumerable forms of bondage into which woman is forced by her greater need of love and the difficulties of her position.

It was necessary to give the subject of "sexual bondage" here brief consideration, for in it may be clearly discerned the soil from which the main root of masochism springs. The relationship of these two phenomena of psychical sexual life is immediately apparent. Bondage and masochism both consist of the unconditional subjection of the individual affected with this abnormality to a person of the opposite sex, and of domination of the former by the latter. 1 The two phenomena, however, must be strictly differentiated ; they are not different in degree, but in quality.

Sexual bondage is not a perversion and not pathological ; the elements from which it arises love and weakness of will are not perverse; it is only their simultaneous activity that produces the abnormal result which is so

1 Cases may occur in which the sexual bondage is expressed in the same acts that are common in masochism. When rough men beat their wives, and the latter suffer for love, without, however, having a desire for blows, we have a pseudo form of bondage that may simulate masochism, opposed to self-interest, and often to custom and law.

The motive, in obedience to which the subordinated individual acts and endures tyranny, is the normal instinct toward woman (or man), the satisfaction of which is the price of bondage. The acts of the person in subjection, by means of which the bondage is expressed, are performed at the command of the ruling individual, to satisfy selfishness, etc. For the subordinated individual they have no independent purpose; they are only the means to an end to obtain or retain possession of the ruling individual. Finally, bondage is a result of love for a particular person; it first appears when this love is awakened.

In masochism, which is decidedly abnormal and a perversion, this is all very different. The motive underlying the acts and suffering of the person in subjection is here the charm afforded by the tyranny in itself. There may, at the same time, be a desire for coitus with the dominant person, but the impulse is directed to the acts which serve to express the tyranny, as the immediate objects of gratification. These acts in which masochism is expressed are, for the individual in subjection, not means to an end, as in bondage, but the end in themselves. Finally, in masochism the longing for subjection occurs a priori before the occurrence of an inclination to any particular object of love.

The connection between bondage and masochism may be assumed by reason of the correspondence of the two phenomena in the objective condition of dependence, notwithstanding the difference in their motives; and the transformation of the abnormality into the perversion probably takes place in the following manner: Any one living for a long time in sexual bondage becomes disposed to acquire a slight degree of masochism. Love that willingly bears the tyranny of the loved one then becomes an immediate love of tyranny. When the idea of being tyrannised is for a long time closely associated with the Jwtful thought of the beloved person, the lustful emotion is finally transferred to the tyranny itself, and the transformation to perversion is completed. This is the manner in which masochism may be acquired by cultivation. 1

Thus a mild degree of masochism may arise from "bondage" become acquired; but genuine, complete, deep-rooted masochism, with its feverish longing for subjection from the time of earliest youth, is congenital.

1 It is highly interesting, and dependent upon the nature of bondage and masochism, which essentially correspond in external effects, that to illustrate the former certain playful, metaphorical expressions are in general use ; such as " slavery," " to bear chains," " bound," " to hold the whip over," " to harness to the triumphal car," " to lie at the feet," " henpecked," etc., all things which, literally carried out, form the objects of the masochist's desire. Such similes are frequently used in daily life and have become trite. They are derived from the language of poetry. Poetry has always recognized, within the general idea of the passion of love, the element of dependence in the lover, who practises self-sacrifice spontaneously or of necessity. The facts of " bondage " have also always presented themselves to the poetical imagination. When the poet chooses such expressions as those mentioned, to picture the dependence of the lover in striking similes, he proceeds exactly on the same lines at does the masochitt, viz., to intensify the idea of his dependence (his ultimate aim), he creates such situations in reality. In ancient poetry, the expression " domina " is used to signify the loved one, with a preference for the simile of " casting in chains " (e.g., Horace, Od. iv., 11). From antiquity through all the centuries to our own times ( cf. Grillparzer, " Ottokar," act v. : " To rule is sweet, almost as sweet as to obey") the poetry of love is filled with similar phrases nnd similes. The history of the word " mistress " is also interesting. But poetry reacts on life. It is probable that the courtly chivalry of the middle ages arose in this way. In its reverence for women as " mistresses " in society and in individual love-rolatinns; its transference of the relations of feudalism and vassalage to the relation between the knight and his lady ; its submission to all feminine whims; its love-tests and vows; its duty of obedience to every command of the lady in all this, chivalry appears as a systematic, poetical development of the " bondage " of love. Certain extreme manifestations, like the deeds and sufferings of Ulrich von Lichtentein or Pierre Vidal in the Rprviee of their ladies; or the practice of the fraternity of the " Galois " in France, whose members sought martyrdom in love and subjected themselves to all kinds of suffering these clearly have a masochistic character, and demonstrate the natural transformation of one phenomenon into the other.

The explanation of the origin of the perversion infrequent though it be of fully developed masochism is most probably to be found in the assumption that it arises from the more frequent abnormality of "sexual bondage, through which, now and then, this abnormality is hereditarily transferred to a psychopathic individual in such a manner that it becomes transformed into a perversion. It has been previously shown how a slight displacement of the psychical elements under consideration may effect this transition. Whatever effects associating habits may have on possible cases of acquired masochism, the same effects are produced by the varying tricks of heredity upon original masochism. No new eleme'nt is thereby added to "bondage," but on the contrary the very element is deleted which cements love and dependence, and thereby distinguishes "bondage" from masochism and abnormality from perversion. It is quite natural that only the instinctive element is transmitted.

This transition from abnormality into perversion, through hereditary transference, takes place very easily where the psychopathic constitution of the descendant presents the other factor of masochism, i.e., what has been previously called its main root, the tendency of sexually hyperrcsthetic natures to assimilate all impressions coming from the beloved person with the sexual impression.

From these two elements, from "sexual bondage" on the one hand and from the above-mentioned disposition to sexual ecstasy, which apperceives even maltreatment with lustful emotion, on the other, the roots of which may be traced back to the field of physiological facts, masochism arises from the basis of psychopathic predisposition, in so far as its sexual hypersesthesia intensifies first all the physiological accessories of the vita sexualis and, finallv, only its abnormal accompaniments, to the pathological degree of perversion. 1

1 If it he considered that, as shown above, " sexual bondage " is a phenomenon observed much more frequently and in a more pronounced degree in the female sex than in the male, the thought arises that masochism (if not always, at least as a ruls-* is a*

At any rate, masochism, as a ci.nircnital sexual peritutes a functional sign of degeneration in (almost exclusively) hereditary taint ; and this clinical deduction is continual in my cases of masochism and

-in. It is easy to demonstrate that the peculiar, hically anomalous direction of the vita sexualis resented in masochism is an original abnormality, and not, so to speak, cultivated in a predisposed individual by passive flagellation, through association of ideas, as Rousseau and Binet contend. This is shown by the numerous cases of masochism in fact, the majority in which flagellation never appears, in which the perverse impulse is directed exclusively to purely symbolic acts expressing subjection without any actual infliction of pain. This is demonstrated by the whole series of observations, from case 50, given here.

The same result namely, that passive flagellation is not the nucleus around which all the rest is gathered is reached when closer study is given to the cases in which passive flagellation plays a role, as in cases 50 and 52. Case 58 is particularly instructive in relation to this; for in this instance there can be no thought of a sexually stimulating effect by punishment received in youth. Moreover, in this case, connection with an early experience is not possible; for the situation constituting the object of principal sexual interest is absolutely incapable of being carried out by a child.

Finally, the origin of masochism from purely psychical elements, on confronting it with sadism (v. infra), is convincingly demonstrated. That passive flagellation occurs

inheritance of the " bondage " of feminine ancestry. Thus it comes into a relation though distant with antipathic sexual instinct, as a transference to the male of a perversion really belonging to the female.

It must, however, be emphasised that " bondage " also plays no unimportant role in the masculine vita scxualis, and that masochism in man may also be explained without any such transference of feminine elements. It must also be remembered here that masochism, a well aa its counterpart, sadism, occurs in irregular combination with antipathic sexual instinct.

so frequently in masochism is explained simply by the fact that it is the most extreme means of expressing the relation of subjection.

I repeat that the decisive points in the differentiation of simple passive flagellation from flagellation dependent upon masochistic desire are, that in the former the act is a means to render coitus, or at least ejaculation, possible ; and that in the latter it is a means of gratification of masochistic desires.

As we have already seen, masochists subject themselves to all other kinds of maltreatment and suffering in which there can be no question of reflex excitation of lust. Since such cases are numerous, we must in these acts (as well as in flagellation in masochists, having like significance) seek to ascertain the relation in which pain and lust stand to each other. From the statement of a masochist it is as follows :

The relation is not of such a nature that what causes physical pain is here simply perceived as physical pleasure; for the person in a state of masochistic ecstasy feels no pain, either because, by reason of his emotional state (like that of the soldier in battle), the physical effect on his cutaneous nerves is not apperceived, or because ( as with religious martyrs and enthusiasts), in the preoccupation of consciousness with lustful emotion, the idea of maltreatment remains merely a symbol, without its quality of pain.

To a certain extent there is overcompensation of physical pain in the psychical pleasure, and only the excess remains in consciousness as psychical lust. This also undergoes an increase, since, either through reflex spinal influence or through a peculiar colouring in the sensoriuiu of sensory impressions, a kind of hallucination of bodily pleasure takes place, with a vague localisation of the objectively projected sensation.

In the self-torture of religious enthusiasts (fakirs, howling dervishes, religious flagellants) there is an analogous state, only with a difference in the quality of pleasuru!>lo frclin^. Ilm- the coiiccjition of martyrdom is apperccivcd without its pain; for consciousness is filial \\ith tin- plcasnrably colon PM! idea of serving God, atoning for sins, deserving heaven, etc., through martyrdom.

In order to give masochism its proper place in the sphere of sexual perversion, we must proceed from the fact that it is a manifestation of psychical characteristics of the feminine type transcending into pathological con- ditions, in so far as its determining marks are suffering, subjection to the will of others, and to force. Among peoples of a lower class of culture the subjection of woman is extended even to brutality. This flagrant proof of de- pendence is felt by woman even with sensual pleasure and accepted as a token of love. It is probable that the woman of high civilisation looks upon the role of being over- shadowed by the male consort as an acceptable situation which forms a portion of the lustful feeling developed in the sexual act. The daring and self-confident demeanor of man undoubtedly exercises a sexual charm over woman. It cannot be doubted that the masochist considers himself in a passive, feminine role towards his mistress and that his sexual gratification is governed by the success his il- lusion experiences in the complete subjection to the will of the consort. The pleasurable feeling, call it lust, re- sulting from this act differs per se in no wise from the feeling which woman derives from the sexual act.

The masochistically inclined individual seeks and finds an equivalent for his purpose in the fact that he endows in his imagination the consort with certain masculine psy- chical sexual characteristics i.e., in a perverse manner, in so far as the sadistic female partner constitutes his ideal.

From this emanates the deduction that masochism is, properly speaking, only a rudimentary form of antipathic soxiial instinct. It is a partial effemination which has only apperceived the secondary sexual characteristics of the psychical vita sexualis.

This assumption is supported by the fact that heterosexual masochists consider themselves merely as individuals endowed with feminine feelings. 1 Observation shows that they really possess feminine traits of character. 2 This renders it intellfgible that the masochistic element is so fre- quently found in homosexual men. 3

In the woman masochist also these relations to antipathic sexual instinct are to be found. Cf., case 84. Moll quotes a typical case of homosexuality in a woman afflicted with passive flagellantism and koprolagnia :

Case 87

Case 87. Miss X., age twenty-six. At the age of six cunnilingus mutuus; then up to seventeen deficiente occasione solitary masturbation. Since then cunnilingus with various female friends, at times playing the passive, at others the active role, always producing ejaculation in herself. For years koprolagnia. Maxime delectata fuit lambendo anum feminarum amatarum, lambendo san- guinem menstrualem amicae. The same effect had ver- bera amicae delectae nudae et robustae ad nates. The thought of performing koprolagnia in corpore viri was repulsive to her. Satisfaction in cunnilingus viri she only obtained when she imagined that the act was performed by a woman, not by a man. Coitus cum viro she dis- dained. Erotic dreams were always of a homosexual na- ture and were confined to active or passive cunnilingus. Inter osculationem mutuam maximam offert voluptatem

  • Cf. cases 57 and 58.

a Cf. case 70 in Schrenck-Notzing; case 20 in F6r6, 1'instinct sexuell, p. 262.

1 Cf. case 67 in Schrenck-Notzing; Atoll, Contr. Sexualempfindung, 3rd edition, p. 265 (gentleman who pestered an officer with letters in which he begged him to be allowed to clean his boots) ; ibidem, p. 281 (gentleman who was agitated by two wishes, viz.: (1) to be a woman that he might have coitus with the man he loved, (2) to be maltreated by the same) ; ibidem, case 17; ditto, p. 283 (man who finds satis- faction in the act with another man only when the latter rubs his back with a hard brush till the blood flows) ; p. 284 (koprolagnia) ; p. 317; v. Krafft, Psycop. sexual., 6th edit., case 43; 8th edit., cases 46, 114, 115; item, Jahrb. f. Psychiatric, xii., pp. 339 and 351; item, "Arbeiten," iv., p. 134.

raorsus consortis, by preference in the lobe of the ear, causing pain and subsequent swelling.

X. always had leaning to male occupations, loved to be among moil as one of their own. From her tenth to her fifteenth year she worked in the brewery of a relative, if possible clad in trousers and a leather apron. She was bright, intelligent and good-natured, and felt quite happy in her perverse, homosexual existence. She smoked ami drank beer. Female larynx (Dr. Flatau), small, badly developed breasts, large hands and feet. (Dr. Moll, intern. (Vntralblatt f. Physiol. und Patholog. der Harn- und Sex- ual-organe. iv. 3).

Masochism and Sadism.

The perfect counterpart of masochism is sadism. While in the former there is a desire to suffer and be subjected to violence, in the latter the wish is to inflict pain and use violence.

The parallelism is perfect. All the acts and situations used by the sadist in the active role become the object of tin desire of the masochist in the passive role. In both perversions these acts advance from purely symbolic acts to severe maltreatment. Even murder, in which sadism reaches its acme, finds, as is shown in case 62, of course, only in fancy, its passive counterpart. Under favouring conditions, both perversions may occur with a normal vita sexualis; in both, the acts in which they express themselves are preparatory to coitus or substi- tutes for it. 1

  • Of course, both have to contend with opposing ethical and

esthetic motives in foro intcrno. After these have been overcome, active sadism immediately conies in conflict with the law. This is not the case with ninsodrism, which accounts for the greater fre- quency of masochistic acts. But the instinct of self-preservation and fear of pain prevent the realisation of the latter. The practical significance of masochism lies only in its relations to psychical impotence; while that of sadism lies beyond this, and is principally forensic.

But the analogy does not exist-simply in external man- ifestations; it also extends to the intrinsic character of both perversions. Both are to be regarded as original psychopathies in mentally abnormal individuals, who, in particular, are affected with psychical hypercesthcsia sexu- alis, and, as a rule, also with other abnormalities ; and for each of these perversions two constituent elements may be demonstrated, which have their roots in psychical facts lying within physiological limits. In masochism, as shown above, these elements lie in the fact (1) that in the state of sexual emotion every impression produced by the con- sort, independently of the manner of its production, is, per se, attended with lustful pleasure, which, when accom- panied by hypercesthesia sexualis, may go so far as to overcompensate all painful sensation; and in the fact (2) that "sexual bondage," dependent on mental factors in themselves not perverse may, under pathological condi- tions, become a perverse, pleasurable desire for subjection to the opposite sex, which even if its inheritance from the female side need not be presupposed represents a pathological degeneration of the character (really belong- ing to woman) of the instinct of subordination, physiolo- gical in woman.

In harmony with this, there are, likewise, two constit- uent elements explanatory of sadism, the origin of which may also be traced back within physiological limits. These are: the fact (1) that in sexual emotion, to a certain ex- tent as an accompanying psychical excitation, an impulse may arise to influence the object of desire in every possible way and with the greatest possible intensity, which, in in- dividuals sexually hypersesthetic, may degenerate into a craving to inflict pain; and the fact (2) that, under path- ological conditions, man's active role of winning woman may become an unlimited desire for subjugation.

Thus masochism and sadism represent perfect counterparts. It is also in harmony with this that the individuals affected with these perversions regard the opposite perversion in the other sex as their ideal, as shown by case 57, and also by "Rousseau's Confessions".

But the contrast of masochism and sadism may also be used to invalidate the assumption that the former has its origin in the reflex effect of passive flagellation, and that all the rest is the product of association of related ideas, as Binet, in his explanation of Rousseau's case, thinks, and as Rousseau himself believed. In the active maltreatment forming the object of the sadist's sexual desire there is, in fact, no irritation of his own sensory nerves by the act of maltreatment, so that there can be no doubt of the purely psychical character of the origin of this perversion. Sadism and masochism, however, are so related to each other, and so correspond in all points with each other, that the one allows, by analogy, a conclusion for the other; and this is alone sufficient to establish the purely psychical character of masochism.

According to the above-detailed contrast of all the ele- ments and phenomena of masochism and sadism, and as a resume of all observed cases, lust in the infliction of pain and lust in inflicted pain appear but as two different sides of the same psychical process, of which the primary and essential thing is the consciousness of active or passive subjection, in which the combination of cruelty and lustful pleasure has only a secondary psychological significance. Acts of cruelty serve to express this subjection ; first, be- cause they are the most extreme means for the expression of this relation; and, again, because they represent the most intense effect that one person, either with or without coitus, can exert on another.

Sadism and masochism are the results of associations, just the same as all complicated manifestations of psychi- cal life are associations. For psychic life consists, after the production of the simplest elements of consciousness, simply of associations and disassociations of these ele- ments.

The chief point gained by this analysis is that sadism and masochism are not merely the results of accidental associations, occasioned by chance.or an opportune coinci- dence, but results of associations springing from causes existing under normal circumstances, easily produced under certain conditions e.g., sexual hyperaesthesia. An abnormally intensified sexual instinct spreads in every direction. It reaches into adjacent spheres, and amalga- mates with their contents, thus producing the pathological associations which are the real essence of both these per- versions. 1

Of course, this need not always be so, for there are cases of hyperaesthesia without perversion. But these cases of pure hypercesthesia sexualis at least, those of striking intensity seem to be of rarer occurrence than those of perversion.

The cases in which sadism and masochism occur simultaneously in one individual are interesting, but they pre-

1 Schrenck-Notzing, who in his explanation of all perversions lays particular stress upon the " occasional momentum," gives prefer- ence to the theory of acquired perversions over the congenital, and allows the manifestations of sadism and masochism only a subordi- nate position. Although he admits that many cases can only be explained on the assumption of congenital predisposition, yet he contends that circumstances or a timely coincidence control their acquirement (op. cit. p. 170).

His arguments are based upon observations. Quoting two cases of psychopathia sexualis (29 and 37 of the seventh edition) he con- tends that the accidental sight of a girl bleeding or a boy being whipped coinciding with a strong sexual emotion may be sufficient cause for continued pathological associations.

Against this it may, however, be decisively held that in every hyperaesthetic individual early and strong sexual emotions have often coincided with numerous heterogeneous things, whilst the patho- logical associations are always coupled with but few definite (sadistic and masochistic) things. Numerous pupils indulge in sexual emotions or gratifications during lessons in grammar and mathe- matics in the class-room, as well as elsewhere, without thereby con- tracting perverse associations.

From this clearly follows that the sight of a whipping or similar scenes may provoke pathological associations already present but latent, but that it cannot produce them. Moreover, the aroused sexual instinct is not associated with the numerous indifferent things that are ever present, but only with such as normally excite disgust. The same argument refers to the opinion of Binet, who also seeks to explain these manifestations by accidental associations.

sent some difficulties of explanation. Such cases are, for instance, No. 47 of the seventh edition, also Nos. 57 and t the present, but especially No. 29 of the ninth edi- tion. Fnua the latter it is evident that it is especially the idea of subjection that, both actively and passively, forms the nucleus of the perverse desires. Traces of the same thing are also to bo observed, with more or less clear- ness, in many other cases. At any rate, one of the two perversions is always markedly predominant.

Owing to this marked predominance of one perversion and the later appearance of the other in such cases, it may well be assumed that the predominating perversion is original, and that the other has been acquired in the course of time. The ideas of subjection and maltreat- ment, coloured with lustful pleasure, either in an active or passive sense, have become deeply imbedded in such an individual. Occasionally the imagination is tempted to try the same ideas in an inverted role. There may even be realisation of this inversion. Such attempts in imagination and in acts, are, however, usually soon aban- doned as inadequate for the original inclination.

Masochism and sadism also occur in combination with antipathic sexual instinct, #nd, in fact, in association with all forms and degrees of this perversion. The individual of inverted sexuality may be a sadist as well as a masochist (cf. cases 55 of the present and 49 of the seventh edition and numerous cases in the subsequent series of cases of sexual inversion).

Wherever a sexual perversion has developed on the basis of a neuropathic individuality, sexual hypersesthesia, which may always be assumed to be present, may induce the phenomena of masochism and sadism now of the one, now of both combined, one arising from the other. Thus masochism and sadism appear as the fundamental forms of psycho-sexual perversion, which may make their appearance at any point in the dojnain of sexual aberra- tion. 1


Fetichism. The Association of Lust with the Idea of Certain Portions of the Female Person, or with Certain Articles of Female Attire.

In the considerations concerning the psychology of the normal sexual life in the introduction to this work it was shown that, within physiological limits, the pronounced preference for a certain portion of the body of persons of the opposite sex, particularly for a certain form of this part, may attain great psycho-sexual importance. In-

1 Every attempt to explain the facts of either sadism or maso- chism owing to the close connection of the two phenomena demon- strated here, must also be suited to explain the other perversion. An attempt to offer an explanation of sadism, by J. O. Kiernan (Chicago) (vide "Psychological Aspects of the Sexual Appetite," Alienist and Neurologist, St. Louis, April, 1891 ) meets this require- ment, and for this reason may be briefly mentioned here. Kiernan, who has several authorities in Anglo-American literature for his theory, starts from the assumption of several naturalists (Dallinger, Drysdale, Rolph, Cicnkowsky) which conceives the so-called con- jugation, a sexual act in certain low forms of animal life, to be cannibalism, a devouring of the partner in the act. He brings into immediate connection with this the well-known facts that at the time of sexual union crabs tear limbs from their bodies and spiders bite off the heads of the males, and other sadistic acts performed by rutting animals with their consorts. From this he passes to lust- murder and other lustful acts of cruelty in man, and assumes that hunger and the sexual appetite are, in their origin, identical ; that the sexual cannibalism of lower forms of animal life has an influence in higher forms and in man, and that sadism is an atavistic rebound.

This explanation of sadism would, of course, also explain masochism; for if the origin of sexual intercourse is to be sought in cannibalistic process, then both the survival of one sex and the destruction of the other would fulfil the purpose of nature, and thus the instinctive desire to be the victim would be explained. But it must be stated in objection that the basis of this reasoning is insufficient. The extremely complicated process of conjugation in lower organisms, into which science has really penetrated only during the last few years, is by no means to be regarded as simply a devouring of one individual by another (cf. Weismann, "Die Bedeutung der sexuellcn Fortpflanzung fdr die Selectionstheorie," p. 51, Jena, 1886).

deed, the especial power of attraction possessed by certain forms and peculiarities for many men in fact, the ma- jority may be regarded as the real principle of individ- ualism in love.

This preference for certain particular physical characteristics in persons of the opposite sex by the side of which, likewise, a marked preference for certain psychical characteristics may be demonstrated following Binet ("Du Fetischisme dans L'amour," "Revue Philosophique," 1887) and Lombroso (Introduction to the Italian edition of the second edition of this work), I have called "fetichism" ; because this enthusiasm for certain portions of the body (or even articles of attire) and the worship of them, in obedience to sexual impulses, frequently call to mind the reverence for relics, holy objects, etc., in religious cults. This physiological fetichism has already been described in detail.

By the side of this physiological fetichism, however, there is, in the psycho-sexual sphere, an undoubted patho- logical, erotic fetichism, of which there is already a numer- ous series of cases presenting phenomena having great clinical and psychiatric interest, and, under certain cir- cumstances also, forensic importance. This pathological fetichism does not confine itself to certain parts of the body alone, but it is even extended to inanimate objects, which, however, are almost always articles of female wearing-apparel, and thus stand in close relation with the female person.

This pathological iVtirliism is connected, through grad- ual transitions, with physiological fetich ism, so that (at least in body-fetichism) it is almost impossible to sharply define the beginning of the perversion. Moreover, the whole field of body-fetichism does not really extend beyond the limits of things which normally stimulate the sexual instinct. Here the abnormality consists only in the fact that the whole sexual interest is concentrated on the im- pression made ly a part of the person of the opposite sex, so that all other impressions fade and become more or less indifferent. Therefore, the body-fetichist is not to be re- garded as a monstrum per excessum, like the sadist or masochist, but rather as a monstrum per defectum. What stimulates him is not abnormal, but rather what does not affect him, the limitation of sexual interest that has taken place in him. Of course, this limited sexual interest, within its narrower limits, is usually expressed with a correspondingly greater and abnormal intensity.

It would seem reasonable to assume, as the distinguish- ing mark of pathological fetichism, the necessity for the presence of the fetich as a conditio sine qua non for the possibility of performance of coitus. But when the facts are more carefully studied, it is seen that this limitation is really only indefinite. There are numerous cases in which, even in the absence of the fetich, coitus is possible, but incomplete and forced (often with the help of fancies relating to the fetich), and particularly unsatisfying and exhausting; and, too, closer study of the distinctive sub- jective psychical conditions in these cases shows that there are transitional states, passing, on the one hand, to mere physiological preferences, and, on the other, to psychical impotence, in the absence of the fetich.

It is therefore better, perhaps, to seek the pathological criterion of body-fetichism in purely subjective psychical states. The concentration of the sexual interest on a cer- tain portion of the body that has no direct relation to sex (as have the mammae and external genitals) a peculiarity to be emphasised often leads body-fetichists to such a condition that they do not regard coitus as the real means of sexual gratification, but rather some form of manipula- tion of that portion of the body that is effectual as a fetich. This perverse instinct of body-fetichists may be taken as the pathological criterion, no matter whether actual coitus is still possible or not.

Fetichism of inanimate objects or articles of dress, how- ever, in all cases, may well be regarded as a pathological phenomenon, since its object, falls without the circle of normal sexual stimuli. But even here, in the phenomena, there is a certain outward correspondence with processes of the normal psychical rita sexualis; the inner connection and meaning of pathological fetichism, however, are en- tirely different. In the ecstatic love of a man mentally normal, a handkerchief or shoe, a glove or letter, the flower "she gave," or a lock of hair, etc., may become the object of worship, but only because they represent a mnemonic symbol of the beloved person absent or dead whose whole personality is reproduced by them. The pathologi- cal fetichist has no such relations. The fetich constitutes the entire content of his idea. When he becomes aware of its presence, sexual excitement occurs, and the fetich makes itself felt. 1

According to all observations thus far made, patho- logical fetichism seems to arise only on the basis of a psychopathic constitution that is for the most part heredi- tary, or on the basis of existent mental disease.

Thus it happens that it not infrequently appears com- bined with the other (original) sexual perversions that arise on the same basis. Not infrequently fetichism occurs in the most various forms in combination with inverted sexuality, sadism, and masochism. Indeed, certain forms of body-fetichism (hand- and foot-fetichism) probably have a more or less distinct connection with the latter two per- versions (v. infra).

But if fetichism also rests upon a congenital general psychopathic disposition, yet this perversion is not, like those previously considered, essentially of an original na- ture; it is not congenitally perfect, as we may well assume sadism and masochism to be.

While in the sexual perversions described in the pre- ceding chapters we have met only cases of a congenital type, here we meet only acquired cases. Aside from the fact that often in fetichism the causative circumstance of

1 In Zola's "Therese Raquin," where the lover repeatedly kisses his mistress's boot, the case is quite different from that of shoe- and boot-fetichists, who, at the sight of every boot worn by a lady, or even alone, are thrown into sexual excitement, even to the extent of ejaculation

its acquirement is traced, yet the physiological conditions are wanting, which in sadism and masochism, by means of sexual hyperaesthesia, are intensified to perversions, and justify the assumption of congenital origin. In fetichism, every case requires an event which affords the ground for the perversion.

As has been said, it is, of course, physiological in sexual life to be partial to one or another of woman's charms, and to be enthusiastic about it; but concentration of the entire sexual interest on such partial impression is here the essential thing; and for this concentration there must be a particular reason in every individual affected. There- fore, we may accept Binet's conclusion that in the life of every fetichist there may be assumed to have been some event which determined the association of lustful feeling with the single impression. This event must be sought for in the time of early youth, and, as a rule, occurs in connec- tion with the first awakening of the vita sexualis. This first awakening is associated with some partial sexual im- pression (since it is always a thing standing in some rela- tion to woman), 1 and stamps it for life as the principal object of sexual interest. The circumstances under which the association arises are usually forgotten; the result of the association alone is retained. The general predisposi- tion to psychopathic states and the sexual hypersesthesia of such individuals are all that is original here. 2

1 Cf. " Arbeiten," iv., p. 172. Case of ring fetichism; p. 174, mourning crape fetichism in homosexual persons.

'Though Binet (op. cit.)' declares that every sexual perversion, without exception, depends upon such an " accident acting on a predisposed subject " ( where, under predisposition, only hyper- rcsthesia in general is understood), yet such an assumption for other perversions than fetichism is neither necessary nor satisfactory. For example, it is not clear how the sight of another's chastisement could excite sexually even a very excitable individual, if the physio- logical relationship of lust and cruelty had not been developed into original sadism in an abnormally excitable individual. As the sadistic and masochistic associations are performed in the mind of the subject from homogeneous elements in adjacent spheres, in the same measure la the possibility of fetichistic associations prepared

Like the other perversions thus far considered, erotic (pathological) fetichism may also express itself in strange, unnatural, and even criminal acts: gratification with the female person loco indcbito, theft and robbery of objects of fetichism, pollution of such objects, etc. Here, too, it only depends upon the intensity of the perverse impulse and the relative power of opposing ethical motives, whether and to what extent such acts are performed.

These perverse acts of fetichists, like those of other sexually perverse individuals, may either alone constitute the entire external vita scxualis, or occur parallel with the normal sexual act. This depends upon the condition of physical and psychical sexual power, and the degree of excitability to normal stimuli that has been retained. Where excitability is diminished, not infrequently the sight or touch of the fetich serves as a necessary pre- paratory act

The great practical importance which attaches to the facts of fetichism, in accordance with what has been said, lies in two factors. In the first place, pathological fetich- ism is not infrequently a cause of psychical impotence. 1 Since the object upon which the sexual interest of the fetichist is concentrated stands, in itself, in no immediate relation to the normal sexual act, it often happens that the fetichist diminishes his excitability to normal stimuli by his perversion, or, at least, is capable of coitus only

by the idiosyncrasies of the object and thus easier understood. In nearly every instance it is impressions of parts of the female form (including garments) that are in question. Fetichistic association which originated only by mere accident can only be traced in a few special cases.

1 When young husbands who have associated much with prostitutes feel impotent in the face of the chastity of their young wives a thing of frequent occurrence the condition may be regarded as a kind of (psychical) fetichism in a wider sense. One of my patients was never potent with his beautiful and chaste young wife, because he was accustomed to the lascivious methods of prostitutes. When he now and then attempted coitus with puellis he was perfectly potent. Hammond (op. cit. pp. 48, 49) reports a very similar interesting case. Of course, in such cases, a bad conscience and hypochcadriacal fear of impotence play an important part.

by means of concentration of his "fancy upon his fetich. In this perversion, and in the difficulty of its adequate gratification, just as in the other perversions of the sexual instinct, lie conditions favouring psychical and physical onanisra, which again reacts deleteriously on the constitu- tion and sexual power. This is especially true in the case of youthful individuals, and particularly in the case of those who, on account of opposing ethical and aesthetic motives, shrink from the realisation of their perverse de- sires.

Secondly, fetichism is of great forensic importance. Just as sadism may extend to murder and the infliction of bodily injury, fetichism may lead to theft and even to robbery for the possession of the desired articles.

Erotic fetichism has for its object either a certain portion of the body of a person of the opposite sex, or a certain article or material of wearing apparel of the opposite sex. (Only cases of pathological fetichism in men have thus far been observed, and .therefore only portions of the female person and attire are spoken of here.) In accordance with this, fetichists fall into three groups.

(a) The Fetich is a Part of the Female Body.

Just as, in physiological fetichism, the eye, the hand, the foot and the hair of woman frequently become fetiches, so, in the pathological domain, the same portions of the body become the sole objects of sexual interest. This ex- clusive concentration of interest on these parts, by the side of which everything else feminine fades, and all other sexual value of woman may sink to nil, so that, instead of coitus, strange manipulations of the fetich become the object of desire, this it is that makes these cases patho- logical.

Case 88

Case 88. (Binet, op. cit.) X., aged thirty-four, teacher in a gymnasium. In childhood he suffered from convulsions. At the age of ten he began to masturbate, with lustful feelings, which were connected with very strange ideas. He was particularly partial to women's eyes ; but since he wished to imagine some form of coitus, and was absolutely innocent in sexual matters, to avoid too great a separation from the eyes, he evolved the idea of making the nostrils the seat of the female sexual organs. Then his vivid sexual desires revolved around this idea. He sketched drawings representing correct Greek profiles of female heads, but the nostrils were so large that immissio penis would have been possible.

One day, in an omnibus, he saw a girl in whom he thought he recognised his ideal. He followed her to her home and immediately proposed to her. Shown the door, he returned again and again, until arrested. X. never had sexual intercourse.

Nose fetichism is but seldomly met with. The following rare bit of poetry comes to me from England :

"Oh! sweet and pretty little nose, so charming unto me;
Oh, were I but the sweetest rose, I'd give my scent to thee.
Oh, make it full with honey sweet, that I may suck it all;
T'would be for me the greatest treat, a real festival.
How sweet and how nutritious your darling nose does seem;
It would be more delicious, than strawberries and cream."

Hand-fetichists are very numerous. The following case is not really pathological. It is given here as a transitional one :

Case 89

Case 89. B., of neuropathic family, very sensual mentally intact. At the sight of the hand of a beautiful young lady he was always charmed and felt sexual excite- ment to the extent of erection. It was his delight to kiss and press such hands. As long as they were covered with gloves he felt unhappy. By pretexts he tried to get hold of such hands. He was indifferent to the foot. If the beautiful hands were ornamented with rings, his lust was increased. Only the living hand, not its image, caused him this lustful excitement. It was only when he was



exhausted sexually by frequent coitus that the hand lost its sexual charm. At first the memory-picture of female hands disturbed him even while at work (Binet.. op. cit.).

Binet states that such cases of enthusiasm for the female hand are numerous. Here it may be recalled that, according to case 25, a man may be partial to the female hand as a result of sadistic impulses; and that, according to case 52, the same thing may be due to masochistic desires. Thus such cases have more than one meaning. But it docs by no means follow that all, or even a majority, of the cases of hand-fetichism allow or require a sadistic or masochistic explanation.

The following interesting case, that has been studied in detail, shows that, in spite of the fact that at first a sadistic or masochistic element seems to have exercised an influence, at the time of the individual's maturity and the complete development of the perversion, the latter contained nothing of these elements. Of course, it is possible that, in the course of time, they disappeared; but here the assumption of the origin of the fetichism in an accidental association meets every requirement:

Case 90

Case 90. A case of hand-fetichism, communicated by Albert Moll. P. L., aged twenty-eight, a merchant in Westphalia. Aside from the fact that the patient's father was remarkably moody and somewhat quick-tempered, nothing of an hereditary nature could be proved in the family. At school the patient was not very diligent; he was never able to concentrate his attention on any one subject for any length of time ; on the other hand, from childhood he had a great inclination for music. His temperament was always nervous.

In August, 1890, he came to me complaining of head- ache and abdominal pain, which in every way gave the impression of being neurasthenic. The patient also said he was destitute of energy. Only after accurately dim-to] questions did the patient make the following statements concerning his sexual life. As far as he could remember, tin- Ix-giiining of sexual excitement occurred in his seventh year. Whenever he saw a boy of his own age urinate and caught sight of his genitals, he became lustfully excited. L. states with certainty that this excitement was associated with strongly accentuated erections. Led astray by an- other boy, L. learned to masturbate at the age of seven or eight. "Being of a very excitable nature," said L., "I practised masturbation very frequently until my eighteenth year, without gaining any clear idea of the evil results or the meaning of the practice." He was particularly fond of practising mutual onanism with some of his school- friends, but it was by no means an indifferent matter who the other boy was ; on the contrary, only a few of his com- |i;iiiions could satisfy him in this respect. To the question as to what particularly caused him to prefer this or that boy, L. replied that a white, beautifully formed hand in his school-fellow impelled him to practise mutual onanism with him. L. further remembered that frequently, at the beginning of the gymnastic lesson, he would exercise by himself on a bar standing apart. He did this for the purpose of exciting himself as much as possible, and he was so successful that, without using his hand and without ejaculation L. was still too young he had lustful plea- sure. Another early event which L. remembered is inter- esting. One day his favourite companion, N., who prac- tised mutual onanism with him, proposed that L. should try to get hold of his (N.'s) penis, and he would do all he could to prevent it L. acquiesced. In this way onan- isra was directly combined with a struggle between both parties, in which N. was always conquered. The struggle was finally ended in N.'s being compelled to allow L. to practice onanisrn on him. L. assured me that this kind of masturbation had given him, as well as N., especial pleas- ure. In this way L. continued to practice masturbation very frequently until his eighteenth year. Warned by a friend, he then Ix-iran to struggle with all his might against this evil habit. He became more and more successful, and finally, after the first performance of coitus, he stopped the practice of onanism entirely. But this was only ac- complished in his twenty-second year. It now seemed incomprehensible to the patient and he said he was filled with disgust at the thought how he could ever have found pleasure in performing masturbation with other boys. Now, nothing could induce him to touch another man's genitals, the sight of which was even unpleasant to him. He had lost all inclination for men, and felt attracted by women exclusively.

It must be mentioned, however, that although L. had a decided inclination for the female sex, he presented an abnormal phenomenon.

The essential thing in woman that excited him was the sight of her beautiful hands ; L. was far more impressed when he touched a beautiful female hand than he would have been had he seen its possessor in a state of complete nudity. The extent to which L.'s preference for beautiful female hands went is shown by the following incident:

L. knew a beautiful young lady possessed of every charm, but her hands were quite large and not beautifully formed, and often they were not as clean as L. could wish. For this reason it was not only impossible for L. to con- ceive a deeper interest in the lady, but he was not able even to touch her. L. believed that there was nothing more disgusting to him than dirty finger-nails ; this alone would make it impossible for him to touch a woman who in all other respects was most beautiful. L. formerly, as a substitute for coitus, induced the puella to perform genital manipulation with her hand until ejaculation took place.

To the question as to what there was about a woman's hand that attracted him in particular, whether he saw in it a symbol of power, and whether it gave him pleasure to be directly humiliated by a woman, the patient answered that only the beautiful form of the hand charmed him; that it afforded him no gratification to be humiliated by a woman ; and that he had never had any thought to regard the hand as the symbol or instrument of a woman's power.

The preference for the hand was still so great that the patient had greater pleasure when his genitals were touched lv it thnt when he performed e<>itus in vaginam. Yet, the patient preferred to perform the latter, because it seen KM 1 to him to be natural, while the former seemed abnormal. The touch of a beautiful female hand on his body imme- diately caused him to have erection; he thought that kiss- ing and other contacts do not exert nearly so strong an influence. It was only of late years that the patient had performed coitus frequently, but it had always been very difficult for him to determine to do it. Moreover, in coitus, he did not find the complete satisfaction he sought. How- ever, when he found himself near a woman whom he would like to possess, sometimes, at mere sight of her, his sexual excitement became so intense that ejaculation resulted. L. said expressly that during this process he did not in- tentionally touch or press his genitajs; ejaculation under such circumstances afforded him much more pleasure than he experienced in actual coitus. 1

To go back, the patient's dreams were never about coitus. When he had pollutions at night, they were almost always associated with other thoughts than those that occur to the normal man. The patient's dreams were of events of his school-days, when, besides the mutual onan- ism described, he had ejaculations whenever he became anxiously excited. When, for example, the teacher dic- tated an extemporaneous exercise, and L. was unable to follow in translation, ejaculation often occurred. 1 The pollutions that now occurred occasionally, at night, were

1 Great sexual hypertesthesia.

'This is also seximl hypersesthesia. Any intense excitement affects the sexual sphere (Rinet'a " Dynamogeiiie g4nrale"). Con- cerning this Dr. Moll communicates the following case: " A similar thing is described by Mr. E., aged twenty-seven; merchant. While at school, and afterward, he often had ejaculation with pleasurable feeling when he was seized with a spell of intense anxiety. Besides, almost every other physical or mental pain exerted a similar influence. E., as he stated, had a normal sexual instinct, but suffered with nervous impotence."

only accompanied by dreams that had the same or u similar subject i.e., the events at school just mentioned. On account of his unnatural feeling and sensibility the patient thought he was incapable of loving a woman permanently. Treatment of the patient's perversion was not possible.

This case of hand-fetichism certainly does not depend on masochism or sadism, but is to be explained simply on the ground of early indulgence in mutual onanism. Neither is there antipathic sexual instinct. Before the sexual appetite was clearly conscious of its object, the hands of school-fellows were used. As soon as the instinct for the opposite sex became evident, the interest for the hand was transferred to that of woman.

In hand fetichists, who according to Binet, are numer- ous, it is possible that other associations lead to the same result

Next to the hand-fetichists, naturally come the foot- fetichists. While glove-fetichism, which belongs to the next group of object-fetichism, seldom takes the place of hand-fetichism, we find shoe- and boot-fetichism, of which there are innumerable cases occurring everywhere, taking the place of enthusiasm for the naked female foot. It is easy to see the reason for this. The female hand is usually seen uncovered; the foot, covered. Thus the early associations which determine the direction of the vita sexualis are naturally connected with the naked hand, but with the foot when covered.

This assumption is certainly correct with regard to those who have grown up in large cities, and easily explains the scarcity of foot-fetichism, 1 which will be elucidated by the following cases.

Case 91

Case 91. Foot-fetichism. Acquired inverted sexuality.

1 Exceptions are the cases of latent masochism in the form of Koprolagnia in which case the fetichistic stimulus is not to be found in the clean naked foot but e contra, cf. case 8G.


Mr. X., civil servant, twmt v-nine years of age; mother neuropathic, father diabetic.

Had good mental qualities, was of nervous disposition, but never suffered from nervous disease, showed no signs of degeneration. Patient distinctly recalled tiiat even at the age of six he became sexually excited when he saw the naked feet of women, and was impelled to follow them, or watch them when at work.

At the age of fourteen he slipped one night into the room where his sister slept and kissed her foot. At the age of eight he began spontaneously to masturbate, think- ing all the while of the naked feet of women.

\Vlien sixteen he often took shoes and stockings of servant girls to bed with him; and whilst fingering them excited himself into masturbation.

At the age of eighteen he began sexual intercourse with persons of the opposite sex. He had full power, and coitus satisfied him without the aid of a fetich. For males he had not the slightest sexual inclination, neither had the feet of men any attraction for him.

At the age of twenty-four a great change came over his sexual feelings and his physical condition.

Patient became neurasthenic and began to experience sexual inclination to males. No doubt excessive mastur- bation brought about neurosis and inverted sexuality to which he was led by -libido nimia remaining unsated by coitus, and by the sight (accidental or otherwise) of female

As neurasthenia (at first sexualis) increased, a rapid cessation of libido, power and gratification, with regard to women set in. Parallel with this, inclination towards his own sex developed and his fetichism was transferred to males.

With the age of twenty-five he had coitus cum muliere but rarely, and without satisfaction. He had lost nearly all interest in the foot of woman. The craving to have sexual intercourse wfth men grew daily stronger. When he was transferred to a large city he found the long-


wished-for opportunity and actually revelled with intense passion in this unnatural love.

He ejaculated during these acts with the utmost volup- tuousness. By-and-by the sight of a sympathetic man, especially if he were barefooted, sufficed him.

His nocturnal pollutions had now for their object intercourse with men, and, to be sure, in the fetichistic sense (feet). Shoes did not interest him. The naked foot was his charm. He often felt impelled to follow men in the street, hoping to find occasion for taking off their shoes. As a substitute he went barefooted himself. At times he was driven to walk along the street in his bare feet, thereby experiencing the most intense lustful feelings. If he resisted, agony, trembling, and palpitation of the heart set in. Often at nights he yielded to this impulse for hours, even in stormy, rainy weather, not minding the many risks and personal dangers to which he exposed himself by so doing.

He would carry the shoes in his hand, became sexually excited, and only found satisfaction in spontaneous, or induced ejaculation. He felt envious of navvies and the poor who could go barefoot without attracting attention.

His happiest moments were the time which he spent in an hydropathic establishment, a la Kneipp, where he was allowed to go barefoot with the other men under treatment.

An awkward affair, the result of his perverse sexual practices sobered him. He sought safety from his un- natural sexual existence by consulting a physician who sent him to me.

The patient did his utmost to abstain from masturba- tion and perverse connection with men. He underwent treatment for neurasthenia in an hydropathic institute, regained some interest in the gentle sex his foot-fetich- ism serving as a bridge had once, with a degree of plea- sure, coitus with a barefooted peasant girl who acceded to his wishes, and later on visited puellas a few times but without gratification. Then he turned again to persons


of his own sex, backslided totally, felt irresistibly drawn to tramps and farm labourers, whom he paid for the favour to kiss their feet. An attempt to rescue the unfor- tunate man by suggestive treatment was wrecked on the impossibility to remove an enervation which was beyond therapeutic aid.

Case 92

Case 92. Foot-fetichism with continued hetero-sexuality. Mr. Y., fifty years of age, bachelor, belonged to high society. Consulted a physician on account of "nervous" troubles. Tainted, from childhood nervous, very sensitive to cold and heat, troubled with delusions which assumed the character of transient dementia persecutoria. For instance, when he sat in a restaurant he imagined that everybody stared at him, talked about, and made fun of him. As soon as he rose this feeling left him and he no longer believed his fancies.

He never felt settled for any length of time, and moved about from one place to another. At times it happened that he engaged rooms at a hotel, but never went there on account of his peculiar delusions.

He never had much libido. All his sentiments were heterosexual. Now and then he found gratification in coitus which he claimed to have been normal.

Y. admitted that his sexual life was peculiar from early youth. Neither women nor men excited him sexually, but the sight of female feet, be they of children or grown- up women, would do so. All other parts of the female body had no attraction for him.

If by chance he could see the naked feet of female gipsies or tramps he could gaze at them by the hour and was driven by a "terrible" impulse terere genitalia propria ad pedes illarum. Thus far he had successfully resisted this impulse.

What annoyed him most was to see these feet covered with dirt He would like to see them well washed and clean. He could not say how this fetichism originated in him (from a communication of Professor Forel).

Moll in his recent researches in libido sexualis, p. 288, relates a most interesting case -x>f foot-fetichism which resembles case 91 above, in so far as the patient by force of the fetich became homosexual.

Shoe-fetichism also finds its place in the following group of dress-fetich ism ; however, on account of its demonstrable masochistic character in the majority of cases, it has been, for the most part, described already above.

Besides the eye, hand and foot, the mouth and ear often play the role of a fetich. Among others, Moll (op. cit.) mentions such cases. (Cf. Belot's romance, "La Bouche de Madame X.," which, B. states, rests upon actual ob- servation. )

The following remarkable case comes under my per- sonal observation :

Case 93

Case 93. A gentleman of very bad heredity con- sulted me concerning impotence that was driving him al- most to despair. While he was young, his fetich was women of plump form. He married such a lady, and was happy and potent with her. After a few months the lady fell very ill, and lost much flesh. When, one day, he tried to resume his marital duty, he was absolutely impotent, and remained so. If, however, he attempted coitus with plump women, he was perfectly potent.

Even bodily defects become fetiches.

Case 94

. X., twenty-eight years of age; family heavily tainted ; neurasthenic ; want of self-confidence and frequent depression of mind, with fits of suicidal inten- tions, which he had great trouble to ward off. The smallest worries threw him out of temper, and filled him with despair. He was an engineer in a factory in Russian- Poland, a man of robust frame, without signs of degenera- tion. He complained of a peculiar mania, which caused


him to doubt his sanity. Since his seventeenth year ho became sexually excited at the sight of physical defect* in women, especially lameness and disfigured feet. He was not conscious of the original associative connection be- tween his libido and these defects in women.

Ever since puberty he had been under the bane of this fetichism, which was painful to himself. Normal women had no attraction for him. If a woman, however, was afflicted with lameness or with contorted or disfigured feet, she exercised a powerful sensual influence over him, no matter whether she was otherwise pretty or ugly.

In his dreams, accompanied by pollutions, the forms of halting women were ever before him. At times he could not resist the temptation to imitate their gait, which caused vehement orgasm, with lustful ejaculation. lie claimed to have strong libido, and suffered intensely when his sexual desire remained unsatisfied. Despite these facts, he had >ims for the first time when he was twenty-two years of age, and then but five times. He felt, however, not the slightest satisfaction in spite of complete ability. !! thought it would cause him intense pleasure if he had the chance to mate with a halting woman. At any rate, be could never marry any other than a lame woman.

Since his twentieth year the patient manifested fetich- ism for garments. It often sufficed him to put on female stockings, shoes and drawers. He I* night such wearing apparel at times and, putting it on secretly, became lust- fully excited and ejaculated. Garments which had been worn by women had no attraction for him. He would fain prefer to wear female garb, so as to keep up sensual emotions, but had not yet dared to do so for fear of being detected.

His i-lln SCJT nulls was reduced ;<> these practices. He was definite in asserting that In- nver was addicted to mas- turbation. Quite recently lie had been, in consequence of his neurasthenic afflictions, much troubled with pollutions.

Case 95

. Z., gentleman, family tainted. Even iu


early childhood always felt great ..sympathy with the lame and the halt. He used to limp about the room on two brooms in lieu of crutches, or when unobserved, go limping about the streets; but at that time no sexual significance was coupled with the idea. Gradually the thought super- vened that he would like "as a pretty lame child" to meet a pretty girl who would express sympathy with his afflic- tion. Sympathy from men he disdained. Z. was brought up in a rich man's house by a private tutor, and claimed that he was unaware of the difference in sexes up to his twentieth year. His feelings were confined to the idea of being pitied by a pretty girl for being lame, or extending the same sympathy himself to a lame girl. Gradually erotic emotions associated themselves with this fancy and at the age of twenty he succumbed to a temptation and masturbated for the first time. This act he practised henceforth very often. Neurasthenia sexualis supervened and an irritable weakness took hold of him to such an extent that the very sight of a girl with a halting gait induced ejaculation. When masturbating, or in his erotic dreams, the idea of the limping girl was always the con- trolling element. The personality of the halting girl was a matter of indifference to Z., his interest being solely centered in the limping foot. He never had coitus with a girl thus afflicted. He never felt an inclination for doing so and did not think he could be potent under the circum- stances. His perverse fancies only revolved around mas- turbation against the foot of a halting female. At times he anchored his hope on the thought that he might succeed in winning and marrying a chaste lame girl, that, on ac- count of his love for her, she would take pity on him and free him of his crime by "transferring his love from the soul of her foot to the foot of her soul." He sought de- liverance in this thought. His present existence was one of untold misery.

Case 96

. Mr. V., thirty years, civil servant ; parents neuropathic. Since his seventh year he had for a play- mate a lame girl of the same age.


At the age of twelve, being of a nervous disposition and hyporsexually inclined, the boy began spontaneously to masturbate. At that period puberty set in, and it lies beyond doubt that the first sexual emotions towards the other sex were coincident with the sight of the lame girl.

For ever after only halting women excited him sexu- ally. His fetich was a pretty lady who, like the companion of his childhood, limped with the left foot

Always heterosexual but abnormally sensual he sought early relations with the opposite sex, but was absolutely impotent with women who were not lame. Virility and gratification were most strongly elicited if the puella limped with the left foot, but he was successful also if the lameness was in the right foot. As, in consequence of his fetichism the opportunities for coitus occurred but seldom, he resorted to masturbation, but found it a dis- gusting and miserable substitute. His sexual anomaly rendered him very unhappy, and he was often near com- mitting suicide, but regard for his parents prevented him.

This moral affliction culminated in the desire for marriage with a sympathetic lame lady, but since he could not love the soul of such a wife, but only her defect of lameness, he considered such a union a profanation of matrimony and an unbearable, ignoble existence. On this account he had often thought of resignation and castration.

When V. came to me for advice I obtained, in my examination of him, only negative results as regards signs of degeneration, nervous disease, etc.

I enlightened the patient on the subject, and told him that it was difficult, if not absolutely impossible, for medical science to obliterate a fetichism so deeply rooted by old associations, but expressed the hope that if he made a limping maid happy in wedlock he himself would find happiness also.

Descartes, who himself ("Traite des Passions," cxxxvi.) expresses some opinions concerning the origin of


peculiar affections in associations of ideas, was alwavA partial to cross-eyed women, because the object of his first love had such a defect (Binet, op. cit.).

Lydston ("A Lecture on Sexual Perversion," Chicago, 1890) reports the case of a man who had a love affair with a woman whose right lower extremity had been am- putated. After separation from her he searched for other women with a like defect A negative fetich!

A peculiar variety of body fetichism may be found in the following case (strongly complicated with sadistic ele- ments), in which fine white virgin skin is the fetich, and sadism leads to lustful acts of cruelty (as an equivalent to coitus), even to anthropophagy (cf. p. 95 ei seq.), for which the deeply degenerated and probably epileptic pa- tient seeks to find a substitute in automutilation and auto- phagy.

Case 97

. L., labourer, was arrested because he had cut a large piece of skin from his left forearm with a pair of scissors in a public park.

He confessed that for a long time he had been craving to eat a piece of the fine white skin of amaiden, and that for this purpose he had been lying in wait for such a vic- tim with a pair of scissors ; but, as he had been unsuccess- ful, he desisted from his purpose and instead had cut his own skin.

His father was an epileptic, and his sister was an imbe- cile. Tip to his seventeenth year he suffered from enuresis nociuma, was dreaded by everybody on account of his rough and irascible nature, and dismissed from school because of his insubordination and viciousness.

He began onanism at an early age, and read with preference pious books. His character showed traits of superstition, proneness to the mystic, and showy acts of devotion.

When thirteen his lustful anomaly awoke at the sight of a beautiful young girl who had a fine white skin. The impulse to bite off a piece of that skin and eat it became

ntnciiiBic. 239

paramount with him. Xo other parts of the female body excited lam. He nrv< -r had any desire for sexual inter- course, and never attempted such.

Hi hoped to achieve his end easier with the aid of scissors than with his teeth, for which reason he always carried a pair with him for years. On several occasions his efforts were nearly successful. Since the previous year he found it most difficult to bear his failures any longer, when he decided upon a substitute viz., each time when he had unsuccessfully pursued a girl he would cut a piece of skin from his own arm, thigh or abdomen and 'eat it. Imagining that it was a piece of the skin of the girl whom he had pursued, he would whilst masticating his own skin obtain orgasm and ejaculation.

Many extensive and deep wounds and numerous scars were found on his body.

During the act of self-mutilation, and for a long time afterwards, he suffered severe pains, but they were over- compensated by the lustful feelings which he experienced whilst eating the raw flesh, especially if the latter dripped with blood, and when he succeeded in his illusion that it was cutis virginis. The mere sight of a knife or scissors sufficed to provoke this perverse impulse, which threw him into a state of anxiety, accompanied by profuse per- spiration, vertigo, palpitation of the heart, craving for cutis femince. lie must, with scissors in hand, follow the woman that attracted him, but he did not lose conscious- ness or self-control, for at the acme of the crisis he took from his own what was denied him from the body of the girl. During the whole crisis he had erection and orgasm, and at the very moment when he began to chew the piece of his skin ejaculation set in. After that he felt greatly relieved and comforted.

L. was quite conscious of the pathological aspect of his condition. Of course, this dangerous character was sent to an insane asylum, where he attempted suicide (Magnan "Psychiatrische Vorlesungen").

An interesting category is formed by the hair-fetich-


ists. The transition from "admirer of woman's hair" within physiological limits to pathological fetichism is easy. The beginning of the pathological series is formed by those cases in which the hair of a woman simply makes a sensual impression and incites to cohabitation. Then fol- low those in which virility is only possible with a woman who possesses this individual fetich. Possibly various senses (sight, smell, hearing, crepitant sounds, also touch as with velvet- and silk-fetichists, vide infra) are drawn into activity in this hair-fetichism as they receive lustful impulses.

The end of the series is formed by those whom the hair of woman suffices even when severed from the body so to speak, no longer a part of the living body, but only matter, even a mercantile article to excite libido and sensual gratification by way of physical or psychical onan- ism, eventually under contact of the genitals with the fetich. 1 An interesting instance of a hair-fetichist belong- ing to the second category is related by Dr. Gemy, under the title of "Historic des peruques aphrodisiaques," in "La Medecine Internationale," September, 1894.

Case 98

. A lady told Dr. Gemy that in the bridal night and in the night following her husband contented himself with kissing her, and running his fingers through the wealth of her tresses. He then fell asleep. In the third night Mr. X. produced an immense wig, with enormously long hair, and begged his wife to put it on. As soon as she had done so, he richly compensated her for his neglected marital duties. In the morning he showed again extreme tenderness, whilst he caressed the wig. When Mrs. X. re- moved the wig she lost at once all charm for her husband.

l Gamier ( Sadi-fetichism, Annal. d'hyg.) knew a degenerate whose fetich was the hair of the Mons Veneris. His greatest delight was to tear them out with his teeth. He collected specimens and used them for renewed sexual gratification by biting and chewing them. He bribed housemaids of hotels to let him search the beds in which ladies had slept for such hairs. Whilst searching for them he be- came erotically excited and trembled with happiness when he made a successful find.


Mrs. X. recognised this as a hobby, and readily yielded to the wishes of her husband, whom she loved dearly, and whose libido depended on the wearing of the wig. It was remarkable, however, that a wig had the desired effect only for a fortnight or three weeks at a time. It had to be made of thick, long hair, no matter of what colour.

The result of this marriage was, after five years, two children, and a collection of seventy-two wigs.

The following case, observed by Magnan and reported by Thoinot (op. cit. p. 419), is that of a man with anti- pathic sexual instinct, to whom the actual existence of the fetich was a conditio sine qua non of potency.

Case 99

. X., aged twenty, inverted sexually. Only loved men with a large bushy mustache. One day he met a man who answered his ideal. He invited him to his home, but was unspeakably disappointed when this man removed an artificial mustache. Only when the vis- itor put the ornament on the upper lip again, he exercised his charm over X. once more and restored him to the full possession of virility.

In those cases in which the female hair as mere mat- ter possesses the properties of a fetich, it not uncom- monly happens that the fetichist seeks to possess himself of woman's hair by unlawful acts. These form the group of hair-deepoilers, of no slight importance from the foren- sic aspect. 1

Case 100

A hair-despoiler. P., aged forty, artistic, locksmith, single. His father was temporarily insane, and his mother was very nervous. He was well de- veloped and intelligent, but was early affected with tic and delusions. He had never masturbated. He loved

1 Moll (op. cit., p. 131) reports: "A man, X., becomes intensely excited sexually whenever he sees a woman with the hair in a braid; loose hair, no matter how beautiful, cannot produce this effect."

Of course, it is not justifiable to consider all hair-despoilers Midlists, for in a few cases such acts are done for the purpose of gain i. e. t the stolen hair is not a fetich.



platonically, and often busied himself with matrimonial plans. He had coitus with prostitutes but rarely, and never felt satisfied with such intercourse rather, disgusted. Three years ago he was overtaken by misfortune (financial ruin), and besides, he had a febrile disease, with delirium. These things had a very bad effect on his hereditarily predisposed nervous system. On August 28, 1889, P. was arrested at the Trocadero, in Paris, in flagranti, as he forc- ibly cut off a young girl's hair. He was arrested with the hair in his hand and a pair of scissors in his pocket. He excused himself on the ground of momentary mental confusion and an unfortunate, irresistible passion; he confessed that he had ten times cut off hair, which he took great delight in keeping at home. On searching his home, sixty-five switches and tresses of hair were found, as- sorted in packets. P. had already been once arrested, on 15th December, 1886, under similar circumstances, but was released for lack of evidence.

P. stated that, for the last three years, when he was alone in his room at night, he felt ill, anxious, excited and dizzy, and then was troubled by the impulse to touch female hair. When it happened that he could actually take a young girl's hair in his hand, he felt intensely excited sexually, and had erection and ejaculation without touching the girl in any other way. On reaching home, he would feel ashamed of what had taken place; but the wish to possess hair, always accompanied by great sexual pleasure, became more and more powerful in him. He wondered that previously, even in the most intimate inter- course with women, he had experienced no such feeling. One evening he could not resist the impulse to cut off a girl's hair. With the hair in his hand, at home, the sensuous process was repeated. He was forced to rub his body with the hair and envelop his genitals in it. Finally, quite exhausted, he grew ashamed, and could not trust himself to go out for several days. After months of rest he was again impelled to possess himself of female hair, indifferent as to whose it might be. If he attained his

yracuisM. 243

end, he felt himself possessed by a supernatural power and unable to give up his booty. If he could not attain tin- object of his desire, ho became greatly depressed, hurried IK .mo, and there revelled in his collection of hair. II*- combed and fondled it, and thus had intense orgasm, satisfying himself by masturbation. Hair exposed in tin; show-cases of hair-dressers made no impression on him; it required hair hanging down from a female head.

At the height of his act, he was in such a state of ex* <-i i finent that he had only imperfect apperception and subsequent recollection of what he had done. When he touched the hair with the scissors he had erection, and, at the instant of cutting it off, ejaculation. Since his mis- fortune, about three years ago, he had weakness of mem- ory, was easily exhausted mentally, and troubled by sleep- lessness and night-terrors. P. deeply regretted his crime.

Not only hair, but a number of hair-pins, ribbons and other articles of the feminine toilet, were found in his possession, which he had had presented to him. He had always had an actual mania for collecting such things, as well as newspapers, pieces of wood and other worthless trash, which he would never give up. He also had a strange, and, to him, inexplicable fear of passing a certain street ; if he ever tried it, it made him ill.

The opinion (medico-legal) showed him to be heredi- tarily predisposed, and proved the imperative, impulsive and decidedly involuntary character of the criminal acts, which had the significance of an imperative act, induced by an imperative idea, with an accompaniment of over- powering abnormal sexual feeling. Pardon; asylum for insane (Voisin, Socquet, Motet, "Annales d'hygiene," April, 1890).

Following this case is a similar one, which also de- serves attention, for it has been well studied, and may be called almost classical ; and it places also the fetich, as well as the original associative awakening of the idea, in a clear light


Case 101

. A hair-despoilcr, E., aged twenty-five. Maternal aunt, epileptic; brother had convulsions. Was fairly healthy as a child, and learned quite easily. At the age of fifteen he had an erotic feeling of pleasure, with erection, at the sight of one of the village beauties combing her hair. Until that time persons of the oppo- site sex had made no impression on him. Two months later, in Paris, the sight of young girls with their hair flowing down over their shoulders ever excited him in- tensely. One day he could not resist an opportunity to twist a young girl's hair in his fingers. For this he was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment for three months. After that he served five years in the army. During this time hair was not dangerous for him, because not very accessible; but he dreamed sometimes of female heads with the hair braided or flowing. Occasional coitus with women, but without their hair being effective as a fetich. Once more in Paris, he again dreamed as beforej and became greatly excited by female hair. He never dreamed about the whole form of a woman, only of heads with braids of hair. His sexual excitement due to this fetich had become so intense of late that he had resorted to mas- turbation. The idea of touching female hair, or, better, of possessing it to masturbate while handling it, grew more and more powerful. Of late, when he had female hair in his fingers, ejaculation was induced. One day he succeeded in cutting hair, about twenty-five centimetres long, from three little girls in the street, and keeping it in his possession, when he was arrested in a fourth attempt. Deep regret and shame. He was not sentenced. After spending some time in the asylum, he improved so far that female hair no longer excited him. Set at liberty, ho thought of going to his native place, where the women wear their hair done up (Magnan, "Archiv. de 1'anthro- pol. criminelle," v., No. 28).

A third case is the following, which is likewise suited to illustrate the psychopathic nature of such phenomena;


and the remarkable means which induced a cure are worthy of note:

Case 102

. Hair-fetichism. Mr. X., between thirty and fortv \vars old; of the higher class of society; single. Came of a healthy family, but from childhood had been nervous, vacillating and peculiar; since his eighth year he had been powerfully attracted by female hair. This was particularly true in the case of young girls. When he was nine years old, a girl of thirteen seduced him. He did not understand it, and was not at all excited. A twelve-year- old sister of this girl also courted, kissed, and hugged him. lie allowed this quietly, because this girl's hair pleased him so well. When about ten years old, he began to have erotic feelings at the sight of female hair that pleased him. Gradually these feelings occurred spontaneously, and memory-pictures of girl's hair were always immediately associated with them. At the age of eleven he was taught to masturbate by school-mates. The associative connec- tion of sexual feelings and a fetichistic idea were already established, and always appeared when the patient in- dulged in evil practices with his companions. With ad- vancing years, the fetich grew more and more powerful. Even false hair began to excite him, but he always pre- ferred natural hair. When he could touch or kiss it, he was perfectly happy. He wrote essays and poems on the beauty of female hair ; he sketched heads of hair and mas- turbated. After his fourteenth year he became so power- fully excited by his fetich that he had violent erections. In contrast with his early taste while a boy, he was now charmed only by luxuriant, thick black hair. He ex- perienced intense desire to kiss such hair, particularly to suck it. To touch such hair afforded him but little sat- isfaction ; he obtained much more pleasure in looking at it, but particularly in kissing and sucking it. If this were impossible, he would become unhappy, even to the extent of toedium vitce. Then he would attempt to re- lieve himself, imagining fantastic "hair-adventures" and


masturbating. Not infrequently, in the street and in crowds, he could not keep from imprinting a kiss on ladies' heads, lie would then hurry home to masturbate. Sometimes he could resist this impulse; but it was then necessary for him, filled with feelings of fear, to run away as quickly as possible, in order to escape the domination of his fetich, lie was only once impelled to cut off a girl's hair in a crowd. In the act he was seized with fear, and was not successful with his pocket-knife; and, by flight, he narrowly escaped detection.

When he became mature, he attempted to satisfy him- self in coitus with puellis. lie induced powerful erection by kissing their tresses, but could not induce ejaculation, and coitus did not satisfy him. At the same time, his favourite idea was coitus with kissing of hair; but even this did not satisfy him, because it did not induce ejacu- lation. Faute de mieux, he once stole the combings of a lady's hair, put it in his mouth, and masturbated while calling its owner up in imagination. In the dark a woman could not interest him, because he could not then see her hair. Flowing hair also had no charm for him; nor did the hair about the genitals. His erotic dreams were all about hair. Of late the patient had become so excited that he had a kind of satyriasis. He was incapable of business, and felt so unhappy that he sought to drown his sorrow in alcohol. He drank large quantities, had alcoholic delirium, an attack of alcoholic epilepsy, and required hospital treatment. After the intoxication had passed away, under appropriate treatment, the sexual excitement soon disappeared; and when the patient was discharged, he was freed from his fetichistic idea, save for its occasional occurrence in dreams. The physical examination showed normal genitals and no degenerative signs whatever.

Such cases of hair-fetichism, which lead to attacks on female hair, seem to occur everywhere, from time to time. In November 1890, according to reports in Aineri-


can new-papers, several cities in the United States were tr<>ul>lrj by such hair-despoilers.

(b) The Fetich is an Article of Female Attire.

The great importance of adornment, ornament and dress in the normal vita sexualis of man is very generally recognised. Culture and fashion have, to a certain extent, endowed woman with artificial sexual characteristics, the removal of which, when woman is seen unattired, in spite of the normal sexual effect of this sight, may exert an opposite influence. 1 It should not be overlooked that female dress often shows a tendency to emphasise and exaggerate certain sexual peculiarities, secondary sexual characteristics (bosom, waist, hips). In most individuals the sexual instinct awakes long before there is any possi- bility or opportunity of intimate intercourse, and the early desires of youth are concerned with the ordinary appear- ance of the attired female form. Thus it happens that not infrequently, at the beginning of the vita sexualis, ideas of the persons exerting sexual charms and ideas of their attire become associated. This association may be lasting the attired woman may be always preferred if the individuals dominated by this perversion do not in other rts attain to a normal ///</ scxualis, and find gratifi- cation in natural charms.

In psychopathic individuals, sexually hypersesthetic, as a result of this, it actually happens that the dressed woman is always preferred to the nude female form. It may be recalled that in case 55 the woman was not to take off her chemise, and that it case 58, cquus eroticus, the woman was prrtVnvd dressed. Further on a similar case will be referred to.

Dr. Moll (op. cit. second edition) mentions a patient who could not perform coitus with puella nuda; the woman

l ('f. (;<M-tlic'.s remark* iilxmt his adventure in Geneva (" Brief e

aus der S<-li\\ri/.," 1. AMln-il.. S.-MIISH).


had to have on a chemise, at least. The same author (op. cit. t p. 16) mentions a man affected with inverted sex- uality, who is subject to the same dress-fetichism.

The reason for this phenomenon is apparently to be found in the mental onanism of such individuals. In seeing innumerable clothed forms, they have set desires before seeing nudity. 1

A more marked form of dress-fetichism is that in which, instead of the dressed woman in general, a certain kind of attire in particular becomes a fetich. One can understand how, with an intense and early sexual impres- sion, combined with the idea of a particular garment on the woman, in hypersesthetic individuals, a very intense interest in this garment might be developed.

Hammond (op. cit., p. 46) reports the following case, taken from Roubaud ("Traite de Timpuissance," Paris, 1876) :

Case 103

. X., son of a general. He was raised in the country. At the age of fourteen he was initiated into the pleasures of love by a young lady. This lady was a blonde, and wore her hair in ringlets; and, in order to avoid detection in sexual intercourse with her young lover, she always wore her usual clothing, gaiters, a corset, and a silk dress on such occasions.

When his studies were completed, and he was sent to a garrison where he could enjoy freedom, he found that his sexual desire could be excited only under certain condi- tions. A brunette could not excite him in the least, and a woman in night-clothes would stifle every bit of love in him. In order to awaken his desire, a woman had to be a blonde, and wear gaiters, a corset and a silk dress, in short, she had to be dressed like the lady who had first

lr The fact that the partly veiled form is often more charming than when it is perfectly nude, is, as far as object goes, similar, but quite different psychically. This depends upon the effect of contrast and expectation, which are common phenomena, and in no sense pathological.


awakened his sexual desire. He was always compelled to give up thoughts of matrimony, because he knew he would be unable to fulfil his marital duty with a woman in night-clothes.

Hammond (p. 42) reports another case where coitus marital is could be performed only by the help of a certain costume; and Dr. Moll mentions several similar cases in individuals of hetero- and homo-sexuality. The cause may often be shown to be an early association, and such may always be assumed. It is only in this way that one can explain why a certain costume is irresistible to such individuals, no matter who the person is that wears the fetich. Thus one can understand why, as Coffignon (op. cit.) relates, men at brothels demand that the women with whom they are concerned put on certain costumes, such as that of a ballet-dancer, or a nun, etc. ; and why these houses are furnished with a complete wardrobe for such purposes.

Binet (op. cit.) relates the case of a judge who was exclusively in love with Italian girls who came to Paris as artists' models, and their peculiar costume. The cause was here demonstrably an impression made at the time of the awakening of the sexual instinct.

There is but a step from such cases to the complete absorption of the whole vita sexualis by the fetich, the possession and manipulation of which may suffice to pro- voke orgasm and even ejaculation where irritable weak- ness of the centrum ejaculationis prevails.

Case 104

. P., thirty-three years of age, business man, son of a mother who suffered from melancholia and committed suicide. He was tainted with several signs of anatomical degeneration, was looked upon by his neigh- bours as a "type," and had the nickname I'amoureux des nourrices et des bonnes d'enfants.

He became a nuisance to these girls by his obtrusive behaviour, picked a quarrel with one of them who wore his fetich, and was arrested.


He claimed to have always been vehemently excited at the sight of wet-nurses and nurse-'maids, but not because they were of the female sex, but because they wore a cer- tain costume. Again, it was not certain portions, but the costume as a whole which attracted him. To be in the company of such persons was his greatest happiness. When he returned home from such interviews it was suf- ficient for him to recall the impressions just received, in order to produce oryasmus venereus.

An analogous case is related by Motet. It refers to a young man, who became sexually excited only at the sight of a woman attired in bridal costume. The individuality of the woman was a matter of indifference to him. In order to gratify his fetichistic cravings, he spent a great deal of his time at the door of a restaurant where many weddings were celebrated (Gamier, "Les Fetichistes, p. 59).

A third form of dress-fetichism, having a much higher degree of pathological significance, is by far the most fre- quent. In this form it is no longer the woman herself, dressed, or even dressed in a particular fashion, that constitutes the principal sexual stimulus, but the sexual interest is so concentrated on some particular article of female attire that the lustful idea of this object is entirely separated from the idea of woman, and thus obtains an independent value. This is the real domain of dress-fetichism, where an inanimate object an isolated article of wearing-apparel is alone used for the excitation and satisfaction of the sexual instinct. This third form of dress-fetichism is also the one which forensically is the most important.

In a large number of these cases the fetiches are articles of female underwear, which, owing to their private use, are suited to occasion such associations.

Case 105

. K., aged forty-five, shoemaker, was re- ported to be without hereditary taint. He was peculiar,


and had small mental endowment. lie was of masculine habits, and without signs of di generation. Previously blameless in conduct, on the evening of Mh 'July, 187G, he wafl detected removing stolen fi-male under-garmcnts from a place of concealment. There were found with him about 300 articles of the female toilet, among them, be- sides chemises and drawers, night . rters, and a female doll. When arrested he was wearing a chemise. Since his thirteenth year he had been a slave to an im- pulse to steal women's linen; but, after his first pun- ishment for it, he became very careful, and stole with refinement and success. When this longing came over him, lie would grow anxious, and his head would become heavy. Then he could not resist the impulse, cost what it might. It was a matter of indifference to him from whom he took the articles. At night, on going to bed, he would put on the stolen clothing and create beautiful women in imagination, thus inducing pleasurable feeling and ejaculation. This was apparently the motive of his thefts ; at least, he had never disposed of any of the articles, but had hidden them here and there.

He declared that, earlier in his life, he had indulged in normal sexual intercourse with women. He denied onan- i^in, pederasty, and other sexual acts. He said he was

.red at twenty-five, but the engagement was broken through no fault of his. lie was incapable of grasping the abnormality of his condition and the wrong of his acts. . Yierteljahrsschrift f. ger. Medic.," N. F. .\\viii., p. 61; Krauss, "Psychologic des Verbrechens," 1884, p. 190).

Case 106

. J., a young butcher. When arrested he underneath his overcoat a bodice, a corset, a vest, a jacket, a collar, a jersey, and a chemise, also fine stockings and garters.

Since he was eleven he was troubled by the desire to wear a chemise of his elder sister. Wheiie er he could do it unnoticed he indulged in this pleasure, and since the ago of puberty the wearing of such a garment would bring on ejaculation. When he became independent he bought chemises and other articles of female toilet. In his room a complete outfit of female attire was found. To put on such garments was the great aim of his sexual instinct. This fetichism had financially ruined him. At the hospital he begged the attending physician to permit him to wear female attire. Inverted sexuality did not exist (Gamier, "Les Fetichistes," p. 62).

Case 107

. Z., thirty-six years of age, scholar; had never heretofore felt interested in woman, only in her attire, and never had sexual intercourse. Besides the elegance and smartness of the female toilet in general, certain underwear, chemises made of cambric and trimmed with lace, silk corsets, embroidered silk skirts and silk stockings formed his particular fetich. It caused him voluptuous feelings to inspect and finger such female gar- ments at the draper's. His ideal was the female form in bathing costume, with silk stockings and corset, and clad in a mourning-dress with a long train. '

He studied the costumes of the coureuses des rues, but found them tasteless. He found more pleasure in gazing at the shop windows, but felt annoyed because the exhibits therein were not changed often enough. He found partial satisfaction in holding and studying fashion magazines, and in buying now and then single garments of excep- tional beauty. It would be the height of pleasure for him if he had access to the toilet arts of the boudoir or the fitting rooms of the dressmaker, or if he could be the fcmme de chambre of some wealthy lady of the world, and could arrange the toilet for her. There were no traces of masochism or homosexual inclination to be found on this peculiar fetichist. He was of thoroughly manly presence (Gamier, "La folie a Paris," 1890).

Hammond (op. cit.} reports a case of passionate inter- est in single articles of female wearing-apparel. Here,


also, the patient's pleasure consisted in wearing a corset and other female garments (without any traces of anti- pathic sexual instinct). The pain of tight lacing, ex- perienced by himself or induced in women, was a delight to him, sadistic-masochistic element.

A case probably belonging here is one reported by Diet ("Der Selbstmord," 1838, p. 24), where a young man could not resist the impulse to tear female linen. While tearing it, he always had ejaculation.

A combination of fetichism with an impulse to destroy the fetich (in a certain sense, sadism with inanimate ob- jects) seems to occur quite frequently (cf. case 120).

An article of dress, which, though it has not really a private character, by its material and colour, as well as by the place where it is worn, might be suggestive of under- garments, and hence has sexual relations, is the apron (cf. also the metonymic use of the word "apron" for "petticoat" in the saying, "To chase every apron," etc.). This ex- plains the following case :


Case 108.

C., aged thirty-seven; of a badly tainted family; of small mental endowment; plagiocephalic. At fifteen his attention was attracted by an apron hung out to dry. He put it on and masturbated behind the fence. From that time he could not see aprons without repeating the act. If he met any one no matter whether man or woman with an apron on, he was compelled to run after the person. In order to free him from this constant stealing of aprons, he was sent as a marine in his sixteenth year. In this calling he saw no aprons, and had continual rest. When, at nineteen, he returned home, he was again compelled to steal aprons, and, as a result, got into serious complications, and was several times locked up. He sought to free himself of his weakness by a sojourn of several years with the Trappists. When he left them, he was just as bad as before. As a result of a new theft, he underwent a medico-legal examination, and was committed to an asylum. He never stole anything but aprons, it was a pleasure to him to revel in the memory of the first apron he ever stole. His dreams were filled with aprons. He occasionally used the memory of his thefts to make coitus possible, or for masturbation (Charcot-Magnan, "Arch. de neurolog.," 1882, No. 12).

In a case reported by Lombroso ("Amori anomali precoci nei pazzi," "Arch, di psich.," 1883, p. 17), analogous to those of this series, a boy of very bad heredity, at the age of four, had erections and great sexual excitement at the sight of white garments, particularly underclothing. He was lustfully excited by handling and crumpling them. At the age of ten he began to masturbate at the sight of white, starched linen. He seemed to have been affected with moral insanity, and was executed for murder.

The following case of petticoat- fetichism is coupled with peculiar circumstances :

Case 109.

Z., aged thirty-five; civil servant; the only child of a nervous mother and a healthy father. From childhood he was "nervous," and at the consul- tation his neuropathic eyes, delicate, slender body, fine features, very thin voice, and sparse growth of beard at- tracted attention. The patient presented nothing ab- normal except symptoms of slight neurasthenia. Genitals and sexual functions normal. Patient stated that he had only masturbated four or five times when he was very young. As early as at the age of thirteen, the patient was powerfully excited sexually by the sight of wet female dresses, while the same dresses, when dry, had no effect upon him. His greatest delight was to look at women with wet garments in the rain. If he met a woman having a pleasing face under such circumstances, he experienced an intense feeling of lustful pleasure, had erection and felt impelled to perform coitus. He stated that he had never had any desire to steal wet female dresses or to throw water on women. He could give no explanation of the origin of his peculiarity.

It is possible that, in this case, the sexual instinct was


first awakened by UK- M^lit <>f a unman as she exposed In T charms by raiding her skirts in wet weather. The obscure instin.-t, not yet conscious of its object, then became directed to the wet garments, ' as in other

Lovers of female handkerchiefs are frequent, and, therefore, important forensically. As to the frequency >f handkerchief -fetichism, it may be remarked that the handkerchief is the one article of feminine attire which, outside of intimate association, is most frequently dis- playi (!, and which, with its warmth from the person and specific odours, may by accident fall into the hands of

rs. The frequency of early association of lustful feel- ings with the idea of a handkerchief, which may always be presumed to have occurred in such cases of fetichism, probably is due to this.

Case 110.

A baker's assistant, aged thirty-two, sin- ^|f, previously of good repute, was discovered stealing a handkerchief from a lady. In sincere remorse, he con- fessed that he had stolen from eighty to ninety such hand- kerchiefs. He had cared only for handkerchiefs, and, indeed, only for those belonging to young women attractive to him. In his outward appearance the culprit presented nothing peculiar. He dressed himself with much taste. His conduct was peculiar, anxious, depressed and unman- ly, and lie often lapsed into whining and tears. Lack of self-reliance, weakness of comprehension, and slowness of

ption and reflection were noticeable. One of his sis- ters was epileptic. He lived in good circumstances ; never had a severe 1 illness; was well developed. In relating his history, he showed weakness of memory and lack of clear- ness ; calculation was hard for him, though when young he learned and comprehended easily. His anxious, uncertain <>f mind gave rise to a suspicion of onanism. The culprit confessed that he had been given to this practice

>sively since his nineteenth year. For some years, as


a result of his vice, he had suffered with depression, lassi- tude, trembling of the limbs, pain, in the back, and disincli- nation for work. Frequently a depressed, anxious state of mind came over him, in which he avoided people. He had exaggerated, fantastic notions about the results of sex- ual intercourse with women, and could not bring himself to indulge in it. Of late, however, he had thought of mar- riage. With great remorse and in a weak-minded way, he now confessed that six months ago, while in a crowd, he became violently excited sexually at the sight of a pretty young girl, and was compelled to crowd up against her. He felt an impulse to compensate himself for the want of a more complete satisfaction of his sexual excitement, by stealing her handkerchief. Thereafter, as soon as he came near attractive females, with violent sexual excitement, palpitation of the heart, erection and impetus cceundi, the impulse would seize him to crowd up against them and faute de mieux, steal their handkerchiefs. Although the consciousness of his criminal act never left him for a moment, he was unable to resist the impulse. During the act he was uneasy, which was in part due to his inordinate sexual impulse, and partly to the fear of detection. The medico-legal opinion rightly gave weight to the congenital mental enfeeblement and the pernicious influence of mas- turbation, and referred the abnormal impulses to a per- verse sexual impulse, calling attention to the presence of an interesting and well-known physiological connection between olfactory and sexual senses. The inability to resist the pathological impulse was recognised. X. was not punished (Zippe, "Wiener Med. Wochenschrift," 1879, No. 23).

I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Fritsch, of Vienna, for further facts concerning this handkerchief- fetichist, who was again arrested in August, 1890, in the act of taking a handkerchief from a lady's pocket :

On searching his house, 446 ladies' handkerchiefs


were found. I !< stated that In- had avready burned two bundles of them. In the course of tin examination, it was further shown that X. had been punished with im- prisonment for fourteen days in 1883 for stealing twenty-

D handkerchiefs, and aguin with imprisonment for three weeks in 1886 for a similar crime. Concerning his relatives, nothing more could be learned than that his father was subject to congestions and that a brother's daughter was an imbecile and constitutionally neuro- pathic. X. had married in 1879, and embarked in an independent business, and in 1881 he made an assign- ment Soon af ^er that his wife, who could not live with him, and with whom he did not perform his marital duty (denied by X.), demanded a divorce. Thereafter he lived as assistant baker to his brother. He complained bitterly of an impulse for ladies' handkerchiefs, but when opportunity offered, unfortunately, he could not resist it. In the act he experienced a feeling of delight, and felt as if some one were forcing him to it. Sometimes he could restrain himself, but when the lady was pleasing to him he yielded to the first impulse. He would be wet with sweat, partly from fear of detection, and partly on account of the impulse to perform the act. He said he had been sexually excited by the sight of handkerchiefs belonging to women since puberty. He could not recall the exact cir- cumstances of this fetichistic association. The sexual excitement occasioned by the sight of a lady with handkerchief hanging out of her pocket had constantly increased. This had repeatedly caused erection, but nevef ejaculation. After his twenty-first year, he said, he had inclination to normal sexual indulgence, and had coitus without difficulty without ideas of handkerchiefs. With increasing fetichism, the appropriation of handkerchiefs had afforded him much more satisfaction than coitus. The appropriation of the handkerchief of a lady attractive to him was the same to him as intercourse with her would been. In the act he had true orgasm.

If he could not gain possession of the handkerchief he



desired, he would become painfully excited, tremble ant! sweat all over. He kept separate the handkerchiefs of ladies particularly pleasing to him, and revelled in tlr> sight of them, taking great pleasure in it. The odour of them also gave him great delight, though he states that it was really the odour peculiar .to the linen, and not the perfume, which excited him sensually. He had mastur- bated but very seldom.

X. complained of no physical ailments except occa- sional headache and vertigo. He greatly regretted his misfortune, his abnormal impulse, the evil spirit that impelled him to such criminal acts. He had but one wish: that some one might help him. Objectively there were mild neurasthenic symptoms, anomalies of the distri- bution of blood, and unequal pupils.

It was proved that X. had committed his crimes in obedience to an abnormal, irresistible impulse. Pardon.

Case 111.

Z. began *o masturbate at the age of twelve. From that time he could not see a woman's handkerchief without having orgasm and ejaculation. He was irresistibly compelled to possess himself of it. At that time he was a choir boy and used the handkerchiefs to masturbate with in the bell-tower close to the choir. But he chose only such handkerchiefs as had black and white borders or violet stripes running through them. At fifteen he had coitus. Later on he married. As a rule, he was only potent when he wound such a handkerchief around his penis. Often he preferred coitus inter femora femince where he had placed a handkerchief. Wherever he espied a handkerchief he did not rest until he came in possession of it. He always had a number of them in his pockets and around his genitals (Rayneau, annales medico- psychol., 1895).

Such cases of handkerchief-fetichism, where an abnor- mal individual is driven to theft, are very numerous. They also occur in combination with inverted sexuality, as is


proved l>y the following ca^c, which I borrow from page ' of Dr. Moll's frequently citl work: *

Case 112.

Handkerchief- fclichism in a case of an- tijxiilii'- srj-iinl instinct. K., agod thirty-eight; mechanic; a powerfully built man. He made numerous com- plaints, weakness of the legs, pain in the back, headache, want of pleasure in work, etc. The complaints gave the decided impression of neurasthenia with tendency to hypochondria. Only after the patient had been under Dr. Moll's treatment for several months did he state that he was also abnormal sexually.

K. had never had any inclination whatever for women ; but handsome men, on the other hand, had a peculiar charm for him. Patient had masturbated frequently until he came to Dr. Moll. He had never practised mutual onanism or pederasty. He did not think that he would have found satisfaction in this, because, in spite of his preference for men, an article of white linen was his chief charm, though the beauty of its owner played a role. The handkerchiefs of handsome men particularly excited him sexually. His greatest delight was to masturbate in men's handkerchiefs. For this reason he often took his friends* handkerchiefs. In order to save himself from detection, he always left one of his own handkerchiefs with his friends in place of the one he stole. In this way he sought to escape the suspicion of theft, by creating the appearance of a mistake. Other articles of men's linen also excited K. sexually, but not to the extent that handkerchiefs did.

On page 1<J1 (op. cit.) Dr. Moll writes concerning Una impulse in hetero- sexual individuals : " The passion for handkerchiefs may go so far that the man is entirely under its control. A woman tells me: 'I know a certain gentleman, and when I see him at a distance I only need to draw out my handkerchief so that it peeps out of ray pocket, and I am certain that he will follow me as a dog follows its master. Go where I please, this gentleman will follow me. He may be riding in a carriage or engaged in important business, and yet, when he see* my handkerchief he drops everything in order to follow me, . e., my handkerchief.'"


K. had often performed coitus with women, having erection and ejaculation, but without lustful pleasure. There was also nothing which could stimulate the patient to the performance of coitus. Erection and ejaculation occurred only when, during the act, he thought of a man's handkerchief; and this was easier for the patient when he took a friend's handkerchief with him and had it in his hand during coitus. In accordance with his sexual per- version, in his nightly pollutions with lustful ideas, men's linen played the. principal role. 1

Still far more frequent than the f etichism of linen gar- ments is that of women's shoes. These cases are, in fact, almost innumerable, and a great many of them have been scientifically studied. I have but a few reports at third hand of similar glove-fetichism ; not to speak of case 122 (vide infra), in which glove-fetichism develops itself merely into "stuff-f etichism". (Concerning the reason for the relative infrequency of glove-fetichism, vide above a).

In shoe-fetichism the close relationship of the object to the feminine person, which explains linen-f etichism, is absolutely wanting. For this reason, and because there is a large number of well-observed cases at hand, in which the fetichistic enthusiasm for the female shoe or boot con- sciously and undoubtedly arises from masochistic ideas, an origin of a masochistic nature, even when it is con- cealed, may always be assumed in shoe-fetichism when, in the concrete case, no other manner of origin is demon- strable. For this reason the majority of the cases of

1 Another case of temporary, t. e., periodical handkerchief- fetichism, accompanied by anxiety and severe sweating, is related by Dr. M oil in the " Centralblatt f. d. Krankheiten der Harn- und Sexual-organe," v., 8. This might be a case of latent epilepsy. (Trauma capitis at the age of ten, imbecility, repeated fainting fits, later on partial amnesia for fetichistic conditions, accompanied by anxiety and sweating, etc.) In these attacks of morbid impulse to steal ladies' handkerchiefs, which set in after an attack of typhus at the age of thirty, the patient would wipe his face with the stolen article, which act produced erection, and at times also ejaculation. A physician whom he consulted had given him the advice never to wear linen shirts again, as his peculiar impulse was caused by them.


shoe- or -foot-fetichisra have been given under "Maso- cliism. There the constant masochistic character of form of erotic fetichism has been sufficiently de- monstrated by means of transitional conditions. This presumption of the masochistic character of shoe-fetichism is weakened and removed only where another accidental cause for an association between sexual excitation and the idea of women's shoes the occurrence of which is quite improbable a priori is capable of proof. In the two following cases, however, there is such a demonstrable connection :

Case 113.

Shoe-fetichism. Mr. v. P., of an old and honourable family, Pole, aged thirty-two, consulted me, in 1890, on account of "unnaturalness" of his vita sexualis. lie gave the assurance that he came of a perfectly healthy family. He had been nervous from childhood, and had suffered with chorea minor at the age of eleven. For ten years he had suffered with sleeplessness and various neu- rasthenic ailments. From his fifteenth year he had recog- nised the difference of the sexes and been capable of sex- ual excitation. At the age of seventeen he had been seduced by a French governess, but coitus was not per- mitted; so that intense mutual sexual excitement (mutual masturbation) was all that was possible. In this situation his attention was attracted by her very elegant boots. Tli<'v made a very deep impression. His intercourse with tli is lewd person lasted four months. During this associa- tion her shoes became a fetich for the unfortunate lx>y. He Ix-^jin to have an interest in ladies' shoes in general, and actually went about trying to catch sight of ladies wearing pretty boots. The shoe-fetichism gained great power over his mind. He had the governess touch his j en is witli her shoes, and thus ejaculation with great lust- ful feeling was immediately induced. After separation from the governess he went to puellas, whom he made

rni the same manipulation. This was usually suffi- cient for satisfaction. Only seldom did he resort to coitus


as an auxiliary, and inclination for it grew less and less. His vita sexualis consisted of dream-pollutions, in which women's shoes played the exclusive role; and of gratifica- tion with women's shoes appositos ad mentulam, but this had to be done by the puella. In the society of the opposite sex the only thing that interested him was the shoe, and that only when it was elegant, of the French style, with heels, and of a brilliant black, like the original. In the course of time the following conditions became accessory: a prostitute's shoe that was elegant and chic; starched petticoats, and black hose, if possible. Nothing else in woman interested him. Pie was absolutely indiffer- ent to the naked foot. Women have not the slightest psy- chic charm for him. He had never had masochistic desires in the sense of being trod upon. In the course of years his fetichism had gained such power over him that when he saw a lady in the street, of a certain appearance and with certain shoes, he was so intensely excited that he had to masturbate. Slight pressure on the penis sufficed to induce ejaculation in this state of severe neurasthenia. Shoes displayed in shops, and, of late, even advertise- ments of shoes, sufficed to excite him intensely. In states of intense libido he made use of onanism if shoes were not at his immediate command. The patient quite early recognised the pain and danger of his condition, and, even when he was free from neurasthenic ailments, he was morally very much depressed. He sought help of various physicians. Cold-water cures and hypnotism were unsuccessful. The most celebrated physicians advised him to marry, and assured him that, as soon as he once really loved a girl, he would be free from his fetichism. The patient had no confidence in his future, but he fol- lowed the advice of the physicians. He was cruelly dis- appointed in the hope which the authority of the physi- cians had aroused in him, though he led to the altar a lady distinguished by both mental and physical charms. The wedding night was terrible; he felt like a criminal, and did not approach his wife. The next day he saw a


prostitute with the required chic. lie was weak enough to have intercourse with her in his way. Then he bought a pair of elegant ladies' boots and hid them in bed, and, by touching them, while in marital embrace, after a few days, he was able to perform his marital duty. He ejacu- lated tardily, for he had to force himself to coitus; and after a few weeks this artifice failed, because his imagina- tion failed. lie felt unspeakably miserable, and would have preferred to make an end of himself. lie could no longer satisfy his wife, who was sensual, and much excited by their previous intercourse; and he saw her suffering severely, both mentally and morally. lie could not, and would not, disclose his secret. He experienced disgust in marital intercourse ; he felt afraid of his wife, and feared the coming of night and being alone with her. He could no longer induce erection.

He again made attempts with prostitutes, and satisfied himself by touching their shoes. Then the puella had to touch his penis, when he would have ejaculation; but, if this did not take place, he would attempt coitus with the lewd woman; without success, however, for ejacula- tion would occur immediately. In absolute despair, the patient came for consultation. He deeply regretted that, against his inner conviction, he had followed the un- fortunate advice of the physicians, and made a virtuous wife unhappy, having deeply injured her, both mentally and morally. Could he answer God for continuing such a marriage? Even if he were to discover himself to his wife, and she were to do everything for him, it would not help him ; for the familiar perfume of the demi-monde was also necessary.

Aside from his mental pain, this unfortunate man pre- sented no remarkable symptoms*. Genitals perfectly nor- mal. Prostate somewhat large. He complained that he was so under the domination of his boot-ideas that he would even blush when boots were talked about. His whole imagination was criven up to such ideas. When he was on his estate, he often suddenly had to go a distance


of ten. miles to the city, to satisfy his fetichism at shoe- shops or with puellis.

This pitiable man could not bring himself to take treatment; for his faith in physicians had been greatly shaken. An attempt to ascertain whether hypnosis and a removal of the fetichistic association by this means, were possible, proved abortive on account of the mental excitement of the unfortunate man, who was exclusively controlled by the thought that he had made his wife un- happy.

Case 114.

X., aged twenty-four, from a badly taint- ed family (mother's brother and grandfather insane, one sister epileptic, another sister subject to migraine, parents of excitable temperament). During dentition he had convulsions. At the age of seven he was taught to mas- turbate by a servant-girl. X. first experienced pleasure in these manipulations cum ilia puella fortuito pede calce- olo tecto penem tetigit. Thus, in the predisposed boy, an association was established, as a result of which, from that time on, merely the sight of a woman's shoes, and, finally, merely the idea of them, sufficed to induce sexual excite- ment and erection. He now masturbated while looking at women's shoes, or while calling them up in imagination. The shoes of the schoolmistress excited him intensely, and in general he was affected by shoes that were partly con- cealed by female garments. One day he could not keep from grasping the teacher's shoes an act that caused him great sexual excitement. In spite of punishment he could not keep from performing this act repeatedly. Finally, it was recognized that there must be an abnormal motive in play, and he was sent to a male teacher. He then revelled in the memory of shoe-scenes with his former school-mistress, and thus had erections, orgasms, and, after his fourteenth year, ejaculation. At the same time, he masturbated while thinking of a woman's shoe. One day the thought came to him to increase his pleasure by using such a shoe for masturbation. Thereafter he frequently took shoes secretly, and used them for that purpose.


else in a woman could excite him; the thought itus filled him with horror. Men did not interest him in any way. At the age of eighteen he opened a shop, and, among other things, dealt in ladies' shoes. He was -.\rit <! M-xually by fitting shoes for his female patrons, or hy manipulating shoes that came for mending. One day while doin<j; this he had an epileptic attack, and, soon after, another while practising onanism in his customary way. Then he recognised for the first time the injury to health caused by his sexual practices. He tried to overcome his onanism, sold no more shoes, and strove to free himself from the abnormal association between women's shoes and the sexual function. Then frequent pollutions, with erotic dreams about shoes, occurred, and the epileptic attacks con- tinued. Though devoid of the slightest feeling for the female sex, he determined on marriage, which seemed to him to be the only remedy.

He married a pretty young lady. In spite of lively erections when he thought of his wife's shoes, in attempts at cohabitation he was absolutely impotent, because his distaste for coitus and for close intercourse in general was far more powerful than the influence of the shoe-idea, which induced sexual excitement. On account of his im- potence, the patient applied to Dr. Hammond, who treated his epilepsy with bromides, and advised him to hang a shoe up over his bed, and look at it fixedly during coitus, at the same time imagining his wife to be a shoe. The patient became free from epileptic attacks, and potent so that he could have coitus about once a week. His sexual excita- tion by women's shoes also grew less and less (Hammond, "Sexual Impotence").

These two cases of shoe-fetichism, 1 which apparently

1 Other cases of shoe-fetichiam without distant relations to masochism are given by Alzheimer, " A Congenital Criminal," " Archiv f. Psychiatric u. Nerven Krankheiten," Bd. 28, p. 350. This same case was declared by Kurella, "Fetischiamus oder Simulation," ibid., Bd. 28, p. 904, to be imulation; but the reasons given are trivial and easily refuted. Vide also Moil, " Untersuchungcn liber libido sexualia." case 32.


depend upon subjective accidental associations, as is the case in fetichism generally, do not offer anything startling with reference to their objective cause, because, in the former case, it is only a matter of partial impression of the general appearance of woman, and in the latter, a partial impression of the exciting manipulation.

But there are cases up till now only two have been closely" observed in which the determining association has decidedly not been brought about by any connection of the nature of the object with the otherwise normally exciting cause.

Case 115.

Shoe-fetichism. Kurella, in his "Natur- geschichte des Verbrechers," p. 213, tried to prove that this man was an imposter who invented an interesting nervous disease as a pretense for making a living by fraud. The author arrived at a different result

O., born in 1865, student of theology, was tried, before a magistrate as a fraud and mendicant. He came from a heavily tainted family, was afflicted with shoe-fetichism, had from his twenty-first year periodical episodes in which he was irresistibly forced to run away and give himself up to drinking-bouts, although by doing so he knowingly jeopardised his position and property. When in the army he repeatedly deserted and became a veritable degenerate, an enigma to his superiors, for at times his conduct was exemplary and beyond blemish.

Examined before a commission of army medical men, he was declared to suffer from "periodical insanity," in- herited beyond doubt. In consequence this "congenital criminal" was dismissed from service. He sank deeper and deeper in the mire, became a tramp, lived on his wits, and was confined several times in an insane asylum.

The author found a pronounced asymmetry of the skull, and also the right foot much larger than the left, etc.

O. was able to trace his shoe-fetichism back to his eighth year. At that time he had frequently at school


let things fall on tin- ground so that he might have a cause for coming near to the lady teacher's foot. Periodically the image of a woman's shoe impressed him so greatly that uld not resist tin- impulse to run away.

This same impulse had been tin- cause of his vagrancy. lit In-Ill himself responsible for any punishable acts ho was guilty of. The author tested him as to the existence of his shoe-fetich ism and found definite proof that tin- same was not simulated. Kurella had assumed that tin' shoc-fetichism of the patient was a mere invention, in fact, had derived the idea from reading the author's book, "Psychopathia Sexualis," as other critics have done on similar occasions.

It became quite evident that O. had never seen or heard of the book. (Cf. the original report of Kurella, in which his reasons for stamping O. a criminal, are given in extenso.) ,

The scientific observations made by the author in this case were based upon the following points, viz. : hereditary taint, asymmetry of the skull and other signs of degenera- tion, sexual perversion with periodical psychical manifes- tations in which irresistible perverse impulses forced the patient to abnormal thoughts and acts.

Even during his lucid intervals, O. should not be held responsible for his actions, since nervous disturbances and other psychical anomalies in the shape of normal defects formed part of his degenerative psychopathic constitution.

O. suffered from an inherited degenerative mania, and was to be considered a danger to society (Alzheimer, Archiv. f. Psychiatric, xxviii., 2).

Case 116.

L., aged thirty-seven, clerk, from tainted family, had his first erection at five years, when he saw his bed-fellow an aged relative put on his night-cap. The same thing occurred later, when he saw an old servant put on her night-cap. Later, simply the idea of an old, ugly woman's head, covered with a night-cap, was sufficient to cause an erection. The sight of a cap or of a naked


woman or man only made no impression, but the mere touch of a night-cap induced erection, and sometimes even ejaculation. L. was not a masturbator, and had never been sexually active until his thirty-second year, when he married a young girl with whom he had fallen in love. On his marriage-night he remained cold until, from neces- sity he brought to his aid the memory-picture of an ugly woman's head with a night-cap. Coitus was immediately successful. Thereafter it was always necessary for him to use this means. Since childhood he had been subject to occasional attacks of depression, with tendency to sui- cide, and now and then to frightful hallucinations at night. When looking out of a window, he became dizzy and anx- ious. He was a perverse, peculiar, and easily embarrassed man, of bad mental constitution (Charcot-Magnan, "Arch, de neurol.," 1882, No. 12).

In this very peculiar case, the simultaneous coinci- dence of the first sexual citation and an absolutely hetero- geneous impression seems to have determined the associa- tion.

Hammond (op. cit.} also mentions a case of accidental associative fetichism that is quite peculiar. A married man, aged thirty, who, in other respects, was healthy, physically and mentally, is said to have suddenly lost his sexual power after moving to another house, and to have regained it as soon as the furniture of the sleeping-room had been arranged as it was before.

(c) The Fetich is Some Special Material.

There is a third principal group of fetichists who have as a fetich neither a portion of the female body nor a part of female attire, but some particular material which is so used, not because it is a material for female garments, but because in itself it can arouse or increase sexual feelings. Such materials are furs, velvets and silks.

These cases differ from the foregoing instances of erotic


dress-fetichism, in this, that these materials, unlike female linen, do not have any close relation to the female body; and, unlike shoes and gloves, they are not related to cer- tain parts of the person which have peculiar symbolic sig- nificance. Moreover, this fetichism cannot be due to an accidental association, like that in the cases of the night- caps and the arrangement of the sleeping-room; for these cases form an entire group having the same object. It must be presumed that certain tactile sensations (a kind of tickling irritation which stands in some distant relation to lustful sensations?), in hypersesthetic individuals, fur- nish the occasion for the origin of this fetichisni.

The following is a personal observation of a man af- fected with this peculiar fetichism:

Case 117.

N. N., aged thirty-seven; of a neuro- pathic family; neuropathic constitution. He made the following statement: "From my earliest youth I have al- ways had a deeply rooted partiality for furs and velvets, in so far that these materials cause me sexual excitement, and the sight and touch of them give me lustful pleasure. I can recall no event that caused this peculiarity (such as the simultaneous occurrence of the first sexual excitation and an impression of these materials, i. e. f first excitation by a woman dressed in them) ; in fact, I cannot remember when this enthusiasm began. However, by this I would not exclude the possibility of such an event, of an acci- dental connection in a first impression and consequent association; but I think it very improbable that such a thing took place, because I believe such an occurrence would have deeply impressed me. All I know is, that even when a small child I had a lively desire to see and stroke furs, and thus had an obscure sexual pleasure. With the first occurrence of definite sexual ideas, i.e., the direction of sexual thoughts to woman, the peculiar pre- ference for women dressed in such materials was present $ince then, up to mature manhood, it has remained un-


changed. A" woman wearing furs or velvet, or, even bet- ter, both, excites me much more quickly and intensely than one devoid of these auxiliaries. To be sure, these materials are not a conditio sine qua non of excitation; the desire occurs also without them in response to the usual stimuli ; but the sight and, particularly, the touch of these fetich- materials form for me a powerful aid to other normal stimuli and intensify erotic pleasure. Often merely the sight of only a passably pretty girl dressed in these ma- terials causes me vivid excitement, and overcomes me com- pletely. Even the sight of my fetich-materials gives me pleasure, but the touch of them much more. (To the penetrating odour of furs I am indifferent rather, it is unpleasant and it is endurable only by reason of the association with pleasing visual and tactile impressions.) I have an intense longing to touch these materials while on a woman's person, to stroke and kiss them, and bury my face in them. My greatest pleasure is, inter actum, to see and feel my fetich on the woman's shoulder.

"Fur, or velvet alone, exerts on me the effect described, the former much more intensely than the latter. The combination of the two has the most intense effect. Again, female garments made of velvet and fur, seen and touched when off the wearer, cause me sexual excitement; indeed, though to a less extent, the same effect is exerted by furs or robes having no relation to female attire, and also by the velvet and plush of furniture and drapery. Merely pictures of costumes of furs and velvet are objects of erotic interest to me; indeed, the very word "fur" has a magic charm, and immediately calls up erotic ideas.

"Fur is such an object of sexual interest to me that a man wearing fur that is effective (v. infra) makes a very unpleasant, repugnant, and disgusting impression on me, such as would be made on a normal person by a man in the costume and attitude of a ballet-dancer. Similarly repugnant to me is the sight of an old or ugly woman clad


in beautiful furs, because contradicting feelings are thus aroused.

"This erotic delight in furs and velvet is something entirely different from simple esthetic pleasure. I have a very lively appreciation of beautiful female attire, and, at the same time, a particular partiality for point-lace; but this is purely of an aesthetic nature. A woman dressed in a point-lace toilette (or in other elegant, elaborate attire) is more beautiful than another ; but one dressed in my fetich- material is more charming.

"Furs, however, exercise on me the effect described only when the fur has very thick, fine, smooth and rather long hair, that stands out like that of the so-called bearded furs. I have noticed that the effect depends upon this. I am entirely indifferent not only to the ordinary, coarse, bushy furs, but also to those that are commonly regarded as beautiful and precious, from which the long hair has been removed (seal, beaver), or of which the hair is natu- rally short (ermine) ; and likewise to those of which the hair is overlong and lies down (monkey, bear). The speci- fic effect is exerted only by the standing long hair of the sable, marten, skunk, etc. Now, velvet is made of thick, fine, standing hairs (fibres) ; and its effect may be due to this. The effect seems to depend upon a very definite im- pression of the points of thick, fine hair upon the terminals of the sensory nerves.

"But how this peculiar impression on the tactile nerves is related to sexual instinct is a perfect enigma to me. The fact is, that this is the case with many men. I would also state expressly that beautiful female hair pleases me, but plays no more important part than the other charms ; and that while touching fur I have no thought of female hair (the tactile sensation, also, has not the least resemblance to that imparted by female hair). There is never associa- tion of any other idea. Fur, per se, arouses sensuality in me, how, I cannot explain.

"The mere aesthetic effect, the beauty of costly furs, to which every one is more or less susceptible, and which,


since Raphael's Fornarina and Reuben's Helene Four- raent, has been used as the foil and frame of female beauty by innumerable painters; which also plays so important a role in fashion, the art and science of female dress, this aesthetic effect, as has been remarked, explains nothing here. Beautiful furs have the same aesthetic effect on me as on normal individuals, and affect me in the same way that flowers, ribbons, precious stones, and other orna- ments affect every one. Such things, when skilfully used enhance female beauty, and thus, under certain circum- stances, may have an indirect sensual effect. They never have a direct, powerful, sensual effect on me, as do the fetich-materials mentioned.

"Though in me, and, in fact, in all 'fetichists,' the sensual and aesthetic effect must be strictly differentiated, nevertheless, that does not prevent me from demanding in my fetich a whole series of aesthetic qualities in form, style, colour, etc. I could give a lengthy description of these qualities demanded by my tastes ; but I omit it as not being essential to the real subject in hand. I would only call attention to the fact that erotic fetichism is complicated with purely aesthetic tastes.

"The specific erotic effect of my fetich-materials can be explained no better by the association with the idea of the person of the female wearing them, than by their aesthetic impression. For, in the first place, as has been said, these materials, as such, affect me when entirely isolated from the body; and, in the second place, articles of clothing of a much more private nature, and which undoubtedly call up associations, exert a much weaker influence over me. Thus the fetich-materials have an independent sensual value for me. Why, is an enigma to me.

"Feathers in women's hats, fans, etc., have the same erotic fetichistic effect on me as furs and velvet (similar tactile sensation of airy, peculiar tickling). Finally, the fetichistic effect, with much less intensity, is exerted by

FETICH18M. 273

other smooth materials (satin and silk) ; but rough goods (cloth, flannel) have a repelling effect.

"In conclusion, I will mention that somewhere I read an article by Carl Vogt on microccphalic men, according to which these creatures, at the sight of furs, rushed for them and stroked them with every manifestation of de- light. I am far from any thought, on this ground, to see in widespread fur-fetich ism an atavistic retrogression to the taste of our hairy ancestors. Every cretin, with that simplicity belonging to its condition, touches anything that pleases him, and the act is not necessarily of a sexual nature; just as many normal men like to stroke a cat and the like, or even velvet furs, and are not thus excited sexually."

In the literature of this subject, there are a few cases belonging here:

Case 118.

A boy, aged twelve, became powerfully excited sexually, when, by chance, he covered himself with a fox-skin. Prom that time on there was masturbation with the employment of furs, or by means of taking a furry dog to bed. Ejaculation would result, sometimes followed by an hysterical attack. His nocturnal pollu- tions were induced by dreaming that he lay entirely cov- ered up in a soft skin. He was absolutely insusceptible to stimuli coming from men or women. He was neu- rasthenic, suffered with delusions of being watched, and thought that every one noticed his sexual anomaly. He had toedium vitce on account of this, and finally became in- sane. He had marked taint ; his genitals were imperfectly formed, and he presented other signs of degeneration (Tarnowsky, op. cit., p. 22).

Case 119.

C., was an especial lover of velvet. He was attracted in a normal way by beautiful women, but it particularly excited him to have the person with whom he had sexual intercourse dressed in velvet In this, it



was remarkable that it was not so much the sight as the touch of the velvet that caused the excitation. C. told me that stroking a woman's velvet jacket would excite him sexually to an extent scarcely possible in any other way (Dr. Moll, op. c\i., p. 127). *

A physician communicated to me the following case :

In a brothel a man was known under the name of "Velvet". He would dress a sympathetic puella with a garment made of black velvet, and would excite and satisfy his sexual desires simply by stroking his face with a corner of her velvety dress, not touching any other part of the person at all.

Another authority assures me that this weakness for furs, velvets and silks and feathers, is quite common among masochists (cf. case 50). *

The following is a very peculiar case of material- fetichism. It is combined with the impulse to injure the fetich, which, in this case, represents an element of sadism toward the woman wearing the fetich, or impersonal sadism toward objects, which is of frequent occurrence in fetichists (cf. p. 253). This impulse to cause injury made this a remarkable criminal case:

Case 120.

In July, 1891, Alfred Bachman, aged twenty-five, locksmith, was brought before Judge N., in the second term of the criminal court, in Berlin. In April, 1891, the police had had numerous complaints, according to which some evil hand had cut women's

lln the novels of Sacher-Masoch, fur plays an important rdle; in fact, it serves as a title in some of them. The explanation given is that fur (crmin) is the symbol of sovereignty, and therefore the fetich of the men described in these novels, seems unsatisfactory and far-fetched.


dresses with a very sharp instrument. In the evening of 25th April, tlu-y were successful in arresting the perpe- trator in the person of the accused. A policeman noticed how the accused pressed, in a remarkable manner, against a lady in the company of a gentleman, while they were going through a passage. The officer requested the lady to examine her dress, while he held the man under suspicion. It was ascertained that the dress had received quite a long slit. The accused was taken to the station, where he was examined. Besides a sharp knife, which he confessed he used for cutting dresses, two silk sashes, such as ladies wear on their dresses, were found on him; he also confessed that he had taken these from dresses in crowds. Finally, the examination of his person brought to light a lady's silken neck-scarf. The accused said he had found this. Since his statement in this case could not be refuted, complaint was therefore made to rest on the result of the search; in two instances in which complaint was made by the injured parties his acts were designated as injury to property, and in two other instances as theft The accused, a man who had been often punished before, with a pale, expressionless face, before the judge, gave a strange explanation of his enigmatical action. A major's cook had once thrown him downstairs when he was begging of her, and since that time he had entertained great hatred of the whole female sex. There was a doubt about his responsibility, and he was therefore examined by a physician. The medical expert gave the opinion at the final trial that there was no reason to regard the accused as insane, though he was of low intelligence. The culprit defended himself in a peculiar manner. An irresistible impulse forced him to approach women wear- ing silk dresses. The touch of silk material gave him a feeling of delight, and this went so far that, while in prison for examination, he had been excited if a silk thread happened to pass through his fingers while ravelling rags. Judge Miiller considered the accused to be simply a dan- gerous, vicious man, who should be made harmless for a


long time. He advised imprisonment for one year. The court sentenced him to six months' imprisonment, with loss of honour for a year.

A classical case of material-fetichism (silk) is the following related by Dr. P. Gamier:

Case 121.

On 22nd September, 1881, V. was ar- rested in the streets of Paris whilst he interfered with the silk dresses of a lady in a manner which aroused the suspicion of his being a pick-pocket. At first he was very much confused, but finally, after many vain excuses, made a clean confession of his "mania". He was twenty-nine years of age, an assistant in a bookseller's shop ; his father was a drunkard and a religious zealot, his mother of ab- normal character. She wished to make a priest of him. Since his early youth he felt an instinctive impulse con- genital as he believes to touch silk. When at the age of twelve as a choir boy he was allowed to wear a silk sash, he could not often enough finger it. He could not describe the peculiar sensation which he experienced in doing so. Later on he became acquainted with a ten- year-old girl for whom he had a childish affection. When on Sundays he met this girl clad in a silk dress, he was impelled to lovingly put his arms around her and touch her silk dress. Later he found exceeding great pleasure in gazing at the silk gowns exposed in a dressmaker's shop and to feel them.

When they gave him remnants of silk material, he would hasten to put them next to his body, which act im- mediately produced erection, orgasm and even ejaculation. These lustful desires made him uneasy, so that he doubted his vocation to the priesthood and obtained his discharge from the seminary. In consequence of habitual mastur- bation he was at that time very neurasthenic. His silk- fetichism swayed him as ever. Only when a woman wore a silk gown could she charm him.

Even when a child, ladies with silk gowns played a


j.r. 'iiiiiient part in his dreams; later on the latter were accompanied l>y pollutions On account of his natural shyne.-s lie did not resort to coitus until later in life, and then he could only succeed in it with a woman I in silk. He much preferred to mix with crowds in the street and there t<uch the silk gowns of ladies, which always produced ejaculation accompanied by powerful -in.- and intense lustful feelings. What gratified him more than Ix-ing with the prettiest woman was to put on a silk petticoat when going to bed.

The forensic medical opinion declared him to be a heavily tainted subject who gave way to abnormal desires under the strain of morbid impulses. Pardon (Dr. Gamier, "Annales d'hygiene publique," 3 e serie, xxix., 5).

The following case of kid-glove- fetichism is peculiarly adapted to show the origin of fetichistic associations as well as the enormous influence permanently exercised by such an association, although itself based upon a psychico- physical and morbid predisposition.

Case 122.

Mr. Z., an American, thirty-three years of age, manufacturer, for eight years enjoying a happy married life, blessed with offspring; consulted me for a peculiar troublesome glove-fetichism. He despised him- self on account of it, and said it brought him well nigh to the verge of despair and even insanity.

He claimed to come of thoroughly sound parents, but since infancy had been neuropathic and very excitable. By nature he was very sensual, whilst his wife was very frigid.

At the age of nine, he was seduced by schoolmates to practise masturbation, which gratified him immensely, and he yielded to it with passion.

One day when sexually excited he found a small bag of chamois skin, lie stripped it over his membrum and experienced thereby great sensual pleasure. After that


he used it for onanistic manipulations, put it around his scrotum and carried it about with him day and night. This aroused in him an unusual interest for leather in general, but particularly for kid gloves.

With puberty this centered entirely in ladies' kid gloves, which simply fascinated him. If he touched his penis with one such glove it produced erection and even ejaculation.

Men's gloves did not excite him in the least, although he loved to wear them.

In consequence, nothing about woman attracted him but her kid gloves. These were his fetich. They must be long, with many buttons, and if worn out, dirty and saturated with perspiration at the finger-tips, they were preferable. Women wearing such, even if ugly and old, had a particular charm for him. Ladies with silk, or cotton gloves did not attract him. He always looked at her gloves first when meeting a lady. As for the rest he took very little interest in the female sex.

When he could shake hands with a lady gloved with kid, the contact with the soft, warm leather would cause erection and orgasm in him.

Whenever he could get hold of such a glove he would at once retire to a lavatory, wrap it around his genitals and masturbate.

Later on when visiting brothels he would beg the puella to put on long gloves provided by himself for that purpose, which act alone would excite him so much that ejaculation ensued forthwith.

Z. became a collector of ladies' kid gloves. He would hide away hundreds of pairs in various places. These he would count and gloat over in his spare time, "as a miser would over his gold," place them over his genitals, bury his face in a pile of them, put one on his hand and then masturbate. This gave him more intense pleasure than coitus.

He made covers for his penis of them, or suspensories, wearing them for days. He preferred black, soft leather^


He would fasten ladies' kid gloves around his waist in such a fashion that they would, apron-like, hang down over his genitals.

After marriage this fetichism grew worse. As a rule he was only virile when he put a pair of his wife's gloves during coitus by her head so that he could kiss them.

The acme of pleasure was when he could persuade his wife to put on kid gloves and thus touch his genitals previous to cohabitation.

Z. felt very unhappy on account of this fetichism, and made repeated but vain attempts to free himself of the curse.

Whenever he came across the word, or the picture of a glove in novels, fashion-plates, advertisements, etc., he was simply fascinated. At the theatre his eyes were riveted on the hands of the actresses. He could scarcely tear himself away from the show-windows of glove-dealers. He often would stuff long gloves with wool or some such material to make them resemble arms and hands. Then he would make tritus membri inter brachia talia arti- ficialia, until he had achieved his object.

It was his habit to take ladies' kid gloves to bed with him and wrap them around his penis until he could feel them like a large leathern priapus between his legs.

In the larger towns he bought from the cleaners ladies* gloves which had not been called for, but preferred those most soiled and worn. Twice he admitted to have yielded to the temptation to steal such gloves, although in every other respect he was absolutely correct. When in a crowd he must touch ladies' hands whenever possible. At his office he allowed no opportunity to pass without shaking hands with ladies, in order to fool for "at least a second the soft, warm leather". His wife must wear as much as possible kid gloves or such made v <-^o.m<MA. with which he provided her lavishly.

At his office he always had ladies' gloves lying on h>* desk. Not an hour passed in which he did not toucB


and stroke them. When especially excited (sexually) he put such a glove in his mouth and chewed it.

Other articles of the female toilet, likewise other parts of the female body besides the hand, did not attract him. Z. felt much depressed about this anomaly. He felt ashamed to look into the innocent eyes of his children, and prayed God to protect them from this curse of their father.

The object of fetichism may also be found in a thing which only by sheer accident stands in relation to the body of woman, as may be gathered from the following instance related by Moll. It proves, moreover, how by the merely accidental association of an apperception with a parallel sexual emotion based, of course, upon a special psychic process the object of such apperception may become a fetich which in its turn may some day disappear again.

The theory of association in connection with original perverse manifestations (based on organo-psychical mo- tives) seems here quite acceptable. The same may be said of the data relating to masochism and sadism.

Case 123.

B., thirty years of age, apparently un- tainted, refined and sensitive ; great lover of flowers ; liked to kiss them, but without any sensual motive or sensual excitement ; rather of natura frigida; did not before twen- ty-one practise onanism, and subsequently only at periods. When twenty-one he was introduced to a young lady who wore some large roses on her bosom. Ever since then large roses dominated over his sexual feelings. He in- cessantly bought roses; kissing them would produce erec- tion. He took them to bed with him although he never touched his genitals with them. His pollutions henceforth were accompanied by dreams of roses. He would dream of roses of fairy-like beauty and, inhaling their fragrance, have ejaculation.

He became secretly engaged to his "lady of roses," but the platonic relations grew colder, and when the engagement was broken off tlio rose-fetirlii.-m suddenly ami prniianrntly li. -appeared. It never returned, even \\hfii he became again engaged after a long spell of melancholia (4. Moll, "Centralb. f. d. Krankheiten der 1 1 urn- mid Sexual-organe," v., 3).

(d) Beast-fctichism.

In close relation to stuff-fetichism, certain cases must be considered in which 'beasts exercise an aphrodisical influence over human beings. One feels tempted to call it Zoophilia Erotica.

This perversion seems to be rooted in a fetichism the object of which is the skin of the beast.

The transmitting medium of this fetichism may, perhaps, be found in a peculiar idiosyncrasis of the tactile nerves which, by touching furs or animal skins, produces peculiar and lustful emotions (analogous to hair-, braid-, velvet-, and silk-fetichism). This may, perhaps, also explain that peculiar hobby for cats and dogs at times met with in sexually perverted persons (vide especially case 118). The following case, coming under my personal observation, seems to favour this as- sumption.

Case 124.

Zoophilia erotica, fetichism. Mr. N. N., twenty-one years of age, from a neuropathically tainted family, himself congenitally neuropathic. Even as a child he often felt impelled to perform at times quite in- different actions for fear of encountering some untoward event. lie learned easily, never had a severe illness, and early a great love for domestic animals, especially dogs and cats, because when petting them he experienced lustful emotions. For years he indulged in this play with ani- mals, which sensually stimulated him, although in an innocent fashion, as it were. When he arrived at the age of puberty he recognized the immorality of his acts and tried to free himself from the habit. lie succeeded in this,


but henceforth he was troubled in his dreams by such situations which produced pollutions. He then began onanism. At first he practised if by manipulation accom- panied by the idea that he was petting and stroking ani- mals. After some time he arrived at psychical onanism, produced by vividly imagining such situations, and ac- companied by orgasm and ejaculation. This made him neurasthenic.

He claimed that sodomitic ideas never entered his mind, that the sexus bcstiarum never influenced his fancies or actions, in fact he had given it no thought.

He never had homosexual instinct; but heterosexual desires were not foreign to him, though he had never indulged in coitus because of want of libido (ex masturba- tione et neurasthenia!) and from fear of infection. He was drawn only to women of lithe figure and with a proud gait.

The usual symptoms of cerebro-spinal neurasthenia were present. Patient was of slight build and anaemic. He was greatly concerned to know whether his lost virility could be restored, as this would raise his waning self- esteem.

Suggestions how to avoid psychic onanism, to remove neurasthenia, to strengthen the sexual centres, to satisfy the vita sexualis in the normal way as soon as this should be possible and successful.

Epicrisis. No bestiality, but fetichism. Very likely the petting of domestic animals coupled with an abnormally premature vita sexualis coincided with a primary sexual emotion probably originating from tactile sensations and thus established an association between the two facts which by repetition became permanent ("Zeitschr. f. Psy- chiatric," Bd. 50).

Antipathic Sexuality.

After the attainment of complete sexual development, among the most constant elements of self-consciousness in


the individual are the knowledge of representing a definite sexual personality and the consciousness of desire, during tlu> period of physiological activity of the reproductive organs (production of semen and ova), to perform sexual acts corresponding with that sexual personality, acts which, consciously or unconsciously, have a procreative purpose.

The sexual instinct and desire, save for indistinct feelings and impulses, remain latent until the period of development of the sexual organs. The child is generis neutrius; and though, during this latent period, when sexuality has not yet risen into clear consciousness, is but virtually present, and unconnected with powerful organic sensations, abnormally early excitation of the genitals may occur, either spontaneously or as a result of external influence, and find satisfaction in masturbation ; yet, notwithstanding this, the psychical relation to persons of the opposite sex is still absolutely wanting, and the sexual acts during this period exhibit more or less a reflex spinal character.

The existence of innocence, or of sexual neutrality, is the more remarkable, since very early in education, employ- ment, dress, etc., the child undergoes a differentiation from children of the opposite sex. These impressions remain, however, devoid of psychical significance, because they apparently are stripped of sexual meaning ; for the central organ {cortex) of sexual emotions and ideas is not yet capable of activity, owing to its undeveloped condition.

With the inception of anatomical and functional development of the generative organs, and the differen- tiation of form belonging to each sex, which goes hand in hand with it (in the boy as well as in the girl), rudi- Jments of a mental fppling ftf>r rp ?p nm ling with the sex jure developed ; jind in this of c"iir-e, education and external influences in p-neral have a powerful .-tTecr upon the individual, who now begins to observe.

If the sexual development is normal and undisturbed, a definite character, corresponding with the sex, is devel-


oped. Certain well-defined inclinations and reactions in intercourse with persons of the opposite sex arise; and it is psychologically worthy of note with what relative rapidity each individual psychical type corresponding with the sex is evolved.

While modesty, for instance, during childhood, is essentially but an uncomprehended and incomprehensible exaction of education and imitation, expressed but im- perfectly in the innocence and naivete of the child; in the youth and maiden it becomes an imperative require- ment of self-respect; and, if in any way it is offended, intense vaso-motor reaction (blushing) and psychical emotions are induced.

If the original constitution is favourable and normal,

and factors injurious to the psycho-sexual development

exercise no adverse influence, then a psycho-sexual

\ personality is developed which is so unchangeable and

! corresponds so completely and harmoniously with the sex

/ of the individual in question, that subsequent loss of the

generative organs (as by castration), or the climacterium

or senility, cannot essentially alter it.

This, however, must not be taken as a declaration that the castrated man or woman, the youth and the aged man, the maiden and the matron, the impotent and the potent man, do not differ essentially from each other ill their psychical existence.

An interesting and important question for what follows

is, whether the peripheral influences of the generative

fglands (testes and ovaries), or central cerebral conditions,

! are the determining factors in psycho-sexual development.

The fact that congenital deficiency of the generative?

glands, or removal of them before puberty, have a great

influence on physical and psycho-sexual development, so

that the latter is stunted and assumes a type more closely

resembling the opposite sex (eunuchs, certain viragoes,

etc.), betokens their great importance in this respect.

That the physical processes taking place in the genital


organs are only co-operative, and not the exclusive factors, in the process of development of the psycho-sexual char- acter, is shown by the fact that, notwithstanding a normal anatomical and physiological state of these organs, a sexual instinct may be developed which is the exact opposite of that characteristic of the sex to which the individual belongs.

In this case, the cause is to be sought only in an anom- aly of central conditions, in an abnormal psycho-sexual constitution. This constitution, as far as its anatomical and functional foundation is concerned, is as yet unknown. Since, in nearly all such cases, the individual tainted with antipathic sexual instinct displays a neuropathic predispo- sition in several directions, and the latter may be brought into relation with hereditary degenerate conditions, this anomaly of psycho-sexual feeling may be called, clinically, a functional sign of degeneration. This inverted sexuality appears spontaneously, without external cause, with the development of sexual life, as an individual manifestation \of an abnormal form of the vita sexualis, having the force of a congenital phenomenon ; or it develops iipon a sexuality the beginning of which was normal, as a result of very definite injurious influences, and thus appears as an ac- quired anomaly. Upon what conditions this enigmatical phenomenon of acquired homo-sexual instinct depends, remains still unexplained, and is a mere matter of hypo- thesis. Careful examination of the so-called acquired cases makes it probable that the predisposition also present here consists of a latent. homo-sexuality, or, at any rate, bi-sexuality, which, for its manifestation, re- quires the influence of accidental exciting causes to rouse it from its dormant state.

In so-called antipathic sexual instinct there are degrees of the phenomenon which quite correspond with the de- grees of predisposition of the individuals. Thus, in the milder cases, there is simple hermaphroditism ; in more pronounced cases, only homo-sexual feeling and instinct, but limited to the vita sexualis; in still more complete


cases, the whole psychical personality, and even the bodily sensations, are transformed so as to correspond with the sexual inversion; and, in the complete cases, the physical form is correspondingly altered.

The following division of the various phenomena of this psycho-sexual anomaly is made, therefore, in accord- ance with these clinical facts.

A. Homo-sexual Feeling as an Acquired Manifestation in Both Sexes.

The determining factor here is the demonstration of perverse feeling for the same sex; not the proof of sexual acts with the same sex. These two phenomena must not be confounded with each other; perversity must not be taken for perversion.

Perverse sexual acts, without being dependent upon perversion, often come under observation. This is. espe- cially true with reference to sexual acts between persons of the same sex, particularly in pederasty. Here paroes- thesia sexualis is not necessarily at work; but hyperaes- thesia, with physical or psychical impossibility for natural sexual satisfaction.

Thus we find homo - sexual intercourse in impotent masturbators or debauchees, or faute de mieux in sensual men and women under imprisonment, on ship-board, in garrisons, bagnios, boarding-schools, etc.

There is an immediate return to normal sexual inter- course as soon as the obstacles to it are removed. Very frequently the cause of such temporary aberration is masturbation and its results in youthful individuals.

Nothing is so prone to contaminate under certain circumstances, even to exhaust the source of all noble and ideal sentiments, which arise of themselves from a normally developing sexual instinct, as the practice of masturbation in early years. It despoils the unfolding bud of perfume and beauty, and leaves behind only the coarse, animal desire for sexual satisfaction. If an individual,


thus (Irjirnvcd, reaches the age of maturity, there is wanting in liiiu that aesthetic, ideal, pure and free impulse which draws the opposite sexes together. The glow of sensual sensibility wanes, and the inclination toward the opposite sex is weakened. This defect influences the morals, the character, fancy, feeling and instinct of tho youthful masturbator, male or female, in an unfavourable manner, even causing, under certain circumstances, the desire for the opposite sex to sink to nil; so that masturba- tion is preferred to the natural mode of satisfaction.

Sometimes the development of the nobler sexual feel- ings toward the opposite sex suffers, on account of hypo- chrondriacal fear of infection in sexual intercourse; or on account of an actual infection ; or as a result of a faulty education which points out such dangers and exaggerates them. Again (especially in females), fear of the result of coituj^Jj^regmmfiy), or abhorrence of men, by reason of physical or moral defects, may direct into perverse chan- inels an instinct that makes itself felt with abnormal in- tensity. On the other hand, premature and perverse sexual satisfaction injures not merely the mind, but also the body; inasmuch as it induces neuroses of the sexual apparatus (irritable weakness of the centres governing erection and ejaculation; defective pleasurable feeling in coitus, etc.), while, at the same time, it maintains imagin- ation and libido in continuous excitement.

Almost every masturbator at last reaches a point \vhere, frightened on learning the results of the vice, or on experiencing them (neurasthenia), or led by example or seduction to the opposite sex, he wishes to free himself of the vice and re-instate his vita sexnalis.

The moral and mental conditions are here the most unfavourable possible. The pure glow of sexual feeling is destroyed ; the fire of sexual instinct is wanting, and self- confidence is lost ; for every masturbator is more or less timid and cowardly. If the youthful sinner at last comes to make an attempt at coitus, he is either disappointed because enjoyment is wanting, on account of defective


eensual feeling, or he is lacking in the physical strength necessary to accomplish the act. This fiasco has a fatal effect, and leads to absolute psychical impotence. A bad conscience and the memory of past failures prevent suc- cess in any further attempts. The ever present libido sexualis, however, demands satisfaction, and this moral and mental perversion separates further and further from woman.

For various reasons, however, (neurasthenic complaints, hypochondriacal fear of results, etc.), the individual is also kept from masturbation. At times, under such cir- cumstances, bestiality is resorted to. Intercourse with the same sex is then near at hand, as the result of seduction or of the feelings of friendship which, on the level of patho- logical sexuality, easily associate themselves with sexual feelings.

Passive and mutual onanism now become the equivalent of the avoided act. If there is a seducer, which, un- fortunately often happens, then the cultivated pederast is produced, i.e., a man who performs quasi acts of onan- ism with persons of his own sex, and, at the same time, feels and prefers himself in an active role corresponding with his real sex; who is mentally indifferent not only to persons of the opposite sex, but also to those of his own.

Sexual aberration reaches this degree in the normally constituted, untainted, mentally healthy individual. No case has yet been demonstrated in which perversity has been transformed into perversion i.e., into an inversion of the sexual instinct. 1

1 Gamier ("Anomalies Sexuelles," Paris, pp. 508, 509) reports two cases (cases 222 and 223) that are apparently opposed to this assumption, particularly the first, in which despair about the unfaith- fulness of a lover led the individual to submit to the seductions of men. But the case itself clearly shows that this individual never found pleasure in homo-sexual acts. In case 223, the individual waa effeminated ab origine, or was at least a psychical hermaphrodite.

Those who hold to the opinion that the origin of homo-sexual feelings and instinct is found to be exclusively in defective education and other psychological influences are entirely in error.

An untainted male may be raised ever so much like a female,


With l<iint<d individuals, the matter is quite different The latent perverse sexuality is developed under the influ- ence of neurasthenia induced 1>\ ma.-turhation, abstinence, or other

Gradually, in contact with persons of the same sex, sexual excitation by them is induced. Related ideas are coloured with lustful feelings, and awaken corresponding desires. This decidedly degenerate reaction is the begin- ning of a process, of physical and mental transformation, a description <>f which is attempted in what follows, and which is one of the most interesting psychological phenom- ena that have been observed. This metamorphosis pre- sents different stages, or degrees.

1. Degree: Simple Reversal of Sexual Feeling.

This degree is attained when a person exercises an

\aphrodisiac effect over another person of the same sex

'who reciprocates the sexual feeling. Character and in-

Btinct, however, still correspond with the sex of the indi-

and a female like a male, but they will not become homo-sexual.

The natural disposition is the determining condition; not education

nn>l oth-r mSndcntal circumstances, I :'.< m <lu<-ti',. T!i.-r- mu he no

thought of antipathic sexual instinct save when the person of the

same sex exerts a psycho-sexual influence over the individual, and

thus brings About libido and orgasm,-^t!~c., has a psychical attrac-

tion. Those cases are quite different in which, faute de micux, with

I great sensuality and a defective aesthetic sense, the body of a person

I of the same sex is used for an onanistic act (not for coitus in a

(psychical sense).

In his excellent monograph, Moll shows very clearly and con- vincingly the importance of original predisposition in contrast with exciting causes (cf. op. cit., pp. 212-231). He knows "many cases where early sexual intercourse with men was not capable of inducing perversion." Moll significantly says, further: "I know of such an epidemic (of mutual onanism) in a Berlin school, where a person, who is now an actor, shamelessly introduced mutual onanism. Though I now know the names of very many urnings in Berlin, yet I could not ascertain, even with anything like probability, that among all the pupils of that school at that time there was one that had become an urning; but, on the other hand, I have quite certain knowledge that many of those pupils are now normal sexuallv. in feeling and intercourse.



vidual presenting the reversal of sexual feeling. He feels himself in the active role; he recognizes his impulse toward his own sex as an aberration, and finally seeks aid.

With episodical improvement of the neurosis, at first even normal sexual feelings may reappear and assert themselves. The following case seems well suited to exemplify this stage of the psycho-sexual degeneration:

Case 125.

Acquired Antipathic Sexual Instinct. "I am an official, and, as far as I know, come from an un- tainted family. My father died of an acute disease; my mother, still living, is very nervous. A sister has been very intensely religious for some years.

"I myself am tall, and, in speech, gait and manner, give a perfectly masculine impression. Measles is the only disease I have had; but since my thirteenth year I have suffered with so-called nervous headaches.

"My sexual life began in my thirteenth year, when I became acquainted with a boy somewhat older than myself, quocum alter alterius genitalia tangendo delectdbar. I had the first ejaculation in my fourteenth year. Seduced to onanism by two older school-mates, I practised it partly with others and partly alone; in the latter case, however, always with the thought of persons of the female sex. My libido sexualis was very great, as it is to-day. Later, I tried to win a pretty, stout servant-girl who had very large mammae; id solum assecutus sum, ut me prsesente superiorem corporis sui partem enudaret mihique conce- deret os mammasque osculari, dum ipsa penem meum valde erectum in manum suam recepit eumque trivit.

"Quamquam violentissime coitum rogarem hoc solum concessit, ut genitalia ejus tangerem.

"After going to the university, I visited a brothel and succeeded without special effort.

"Then an event occurred which brought about a change in me. One evening I accompanied a friend home, and in a mild state of intoxication I grasped him ad genitalia.


He made but slight opposition. I then went up to his room with him, and we practised mutual masturbation. From that time we indulged in it quite frequently; in fact, it came to immissio penis in os, with resultant ejacu- lations. But it is strange that I was not at all in love with this person, but passionately in love with another friend, near whom I never felt the slightest sexual excitement, and whom I never connected with sexual matters, even in thought. My visits to brothels, where I was gladly re- ceived, became more infrequent; in my friend I found a substitute, and did not desire sexual intercourse with women.

"We never practised pederasty. That word was not even known between us. From the beginning of this rela- tion with my friend, I again masturbated more frequently, and naturally the thought of females receded more and more into the background, and I thought more and more about young, handsome, strong men with the largest pos- sible genitals. I preferred young fellows, from sixteen to twenty-five years old, without beards, but they had to be handsome and clean. Young labourers dressed in trousers of Manchester cloth or English leather, partic- ularly masons, especially excited me.

"Persons in my own position had hardly any effect on me ; but, at the sight of one of those strapping fellows of the lower class, I experienced marked sexual excitement. It seems to me that the touch of such trousers, the open- ing of them and the grasping of the penis, as well as kissing the fellow, would be the greatest delight. My sensibility to female charms is somewhat dulled ; yet in sexual intercourse with a woman, particularly when she has well-developed mammce, I am always potent without the help of imagination. I have never attempted to make use of a young labourer, or the like, for the satisfaction of my. evil desires, and never shall ; but I often feel a longing to do it. I often impress on myself the mental image of such a man, and then masturbate at home.

"I am absolutely devoid of taste for female work. I


rather like to move in female society, but dancing is repugnant to me. I have a lively interest in the fine arts. That my sexual sense is partly reversed is, I believe, in part due to greater convenience, which keeps me from entering into a relation with a girl; as the latter is a matter of too much trouble. To be constantly visiting houses of prostitution is, for aesthetic reasons, repugnant to me ; and thus I am always returning to solitary onanism, vvhich is very difficult for me to avoid.

"Hundreds of times I have said to myself that, in order to have a normal sexual sense, it would be neces- sary for me, first of all, to overcome my irresistible passion for onanism, a practice so repugnant to my aesthetic feeling. Again and again I have resolved with all my might to fight this passion; but I am still unsuccessful. When I felt the sexual impulse gaining strength, instead of seeking satisfaction in the natural manner, I preferred to masturbate, because I felt that I would thus have more enjoyment.

"And yet experience has taught me that I am always potent with girls, and that, too, without trouble and with- out the vision of masculine genitals. In one case, how- ever, I did not attain ejaculation because the woman it was in a brothel was devoid of every charm. I cannot avoid the thought and severe self-accusation that, to a certain extent, my inverted sexuality is the result of excessive onanism; and this especially depresses me, be- cause I am compelled to acknowledge that I scarcely feel strong enough to overcome this vice by the force of my own will.

"As a result of my relations for years with a fellow- student and pal, mentioned in this communication which, however, began while we were at the university, and after we had been friends for seven years the im- pulse to unnatural satisfaction of libido has grown much stronger. I trust you will permit the description of an incident which worried me for months :

"In the summer of 1882, I made the acquaintance


of a companion six years younger than myself, who, with several others, had been introduced to me and my ac- quaintances. I very soon felt a deep interest in this handsome man, who was unusually well-proportioned, slim, and full of health. After a few weeks of associa- tion, this liking ripened into friendship, and at last into passionate love, with feelings of the most intense jealousy. I very soon noticed that in this love sexual excitation was also very marked ; and, notwithstanding my determina- tion, aside from all others, to keep myself in check in relation to this man, whom I respected so highly for his superior character, one night, after free indulgence in beer, as we were enjoying a bottle of champagne in my room, and drinking to good, true and lasting friendship, I yielded to the irresistible impulse to embrace him, etc. "When I saw him next day, I was so ashamed that I could not look him in the face. I felt the deepest regret for my action, and accused myself bitterly for having thus sullied this friendship, which was to be and remain so pure and precious. In order to prove to him that I had lost control of myself only momentarily, at the end of the semester I urged him to make an excursion with me; and after some reluctance, the reason of which was only too clear to me, he consented. Several nights we slept in the same room without any attempt on my part to repeat my action. I wished to talk with him about the event of that night, but I could not bring myself to it; even when, during the next semester, we were separated, I could not induce myself to write to him on the subject ; and when I visited him in March at X., it was the same. And yet I felt a great desire to clear up this dark point by an open statement. In October of the same year I was again in X., and this time found courage to speak without reserve; indeed, I asked him why he had not resisted me. He answered that, in part, it was because he wished to please me, and, in part, owing to the fact that he was somewhat apathetic as a result of being a little intoxicated. I explained to him my condition, and


also gave him "Psychopathia Sexualis" to read, express- ing the hope that by the force .of my own will I should become fully and lastingly master of my unnatural im- pulse. Since this confession, the relation between this friend and me has been the most delightful and happy possible; there are the most friendly feelings on both sides, which are sincere and true; and it is to be hoped that they will endure.

"If I should not improve my abnormal condition, I am determined to put myself under your treatment; the more because, after a careful study of your work, I can- not count myself as belonging to the category of so-called urnings; and also because I have the firm conviction, or hope, at least, that a strong will, assisted and combined with skilful treatment, could transform me into a man of normal feeling."

Case 126.

lima S., 1 aged twenty-nine; single, mer- chant's daughter; of a family having bad nervous taint. Father was a drinker and died by suicide, as also did the patient's brother and sister. A sister suffered with con- vulsive hysteria. Mother's father shot himself while in- sane. Mother was sickly, and paralysed after apoplexy. The patient never had any severe illness. She was bright, enthusiastic and dreamy. Menses at the age of eighteen without difficulty ; but thereafter they were very irregular. At fourteen, chlorosis and catalepsy from fright. Later, hysteria gravis and an attack of hysterical insanity. At eighteen, relations with a young man which were not pla- tonic. This man's love was passionately returned. From statements of the patient, it seemed that she was very sensual, and after separation from her lover practised masturbation. After this she led a romantic life. In order to earn a living, she put on male clothing, and became a tutor ; but she gave up her place because her mistress, not knowing her sex, fell in love with her and courted her.

1 Cf. author's " Experimental Study in the Domain of Hyp- notism," third edition, 1893.

lloMK-M \f.\l 111! ..Til SEXES 20.")

she Iwvame a railway employee. In tin- eompa;

rompani'-ns, in order to conceal 1 -he was com-

pelled to visit hrothels with them, and hear the most vul- gar stories. This became so distasteful to her that she gave up her place, resumed the garments of a female, and again sought to earn her living. She was arrested for theft, and on account of severe hystero-epilepsy was sent to the hospital. There inclination and impulse toward the same sex were discovered. The patient became trouble- some on account of passionate love for female nurses and patients.

Her sexual inversion was considered congenital. With regard to this, the patient made some interesting state- ments :

"I am judged incorrectly, if it is thought that I feel myself a man toward the female sex. In my whole thought and feeling I am much more a woman. Did I not love my cousin as only a woman can love a man ?

"The change of my feelings originated in this, that, in Pesth, dressed as a man, I had an opportunity to observe my cousin. I saw that I was wholly deceived in him. That gave me terrible heart-pangs. I knew that I could neve'r love another man; that I belonged to those who love but once. Of similar effect was the fact that, in the society of my companions at the railway, I was compelled to hear the most offensive language and visit the most disreputa- ble houses. As a result of the insight into men's motives, gained in this way, I took an unconquerable dislike to them. However, since I am of a very passionate nature and need to have some loving person on whom to depend, and to whom I can wholly surrender myself, I felt myself more and more powerfully drawn toward intelligent women and girls who were in sympathy with me."

The antipathic sexual instinct of this patient, which < -learly acquired, expressed itself in a stormy and de- cidedly sensual way, and was further augmented by mas- turbation; because constant control in hospitals made sex- ual satisfaction with the same sex impossible. Character


and occupation remained feminine. There were no man- ifestations of viraginity. According to information lately received by the author, this patient, after two years of treatment in an asylum, was entirely freed from her neu- rosis and sexual inversion, and discharged cured.

Case 127.

Mr. X., aged thirty-five, single, civil servant; mother insane, brother hypochondriacal.

Patient was healthy, strong, of lively sensual tempera- ment. He had manifested powerful sexual instinct abnor- mally early, and masturbated while yet a small boy. He had coitus the first time at the age of fourteen, with en- joyment and complete power. When fifteen years old, a man sought to seduce him, and performed manustupra- tion on him. X. experienced a feeling of repulsion, and freed himself from the disgusting situation. At maturity he committed excesses in libido, with coitus; in 1880 he became neurasthenic, being afflicted with weakness of erec- tion and ejaculatio prcecox. He thus became less and less potent, and no longer experienced pleasure in the sexual act. At this period of sexual decadence, for a long time he still had what was previously foreign to him, still incomprehensible to him, an inclination for sexual inter- course with immature girls of the age of twelve or thir- teen. His libido increased as virility diminished.

Gradually he developed inclination for boys of thirteen or fourteen. He was impelled to approach them.

Quodsi ei occasio data est ut tangere posset pueros qui ei placuere, penis vehementer se erexit turn maxime quum crura puerorum tangere potuisset. Abhinc feminas non cupivit. Nonnunquam feminas ad coitum coegit sed erectio debilis, ejaculatio prsematura erat sine ulla voluptate.

Now only youths interested him. He dreamed about them and had pollutions. After 1882 he now and then had opportunity concwnbere cum juvenibus. This led to powerful sexual excitement, which he satisfied by mas- turbation. It was quite exceptional for him to venture touching his bed-fellow and indulging in mutual mas-


turbation. Ho shunned pederasty. For the most part, he was coiiiju 11. .1 to satisfy his sexual needs by means of solitary masturbation. In the act he called up the vision of pleasing boys. After sexual intercourse with such boys, he always felt strengthened and refreshed, but morally depressed; because there was consciousness of having performed a perverse, indecent and punishable act. He found it painful that his disgusting impulse was more powerful than his will.

X. thought that his love for his own sex had resulted from great excess in natural sexual intercourse, and be- moaned his situation. On the occasion of a consultation, in December, 1889, he asked me whether there were any means to bring him back to a normal sexual condition, since he had no real horror femince, and would very gladly marry.

This intelligent patient, free from degenerative signs, presented no abnormal symptoms except those of sexual and spinal neurasthenia in a moderate degree.

//. Degree: Eviration and Defemination.

If, in cases of antipathic sexual instinct thus developed, no restoration occurs, then deep and lasting transforma- tions of the psychical personality may occur. The process completing itself in this way may be briefly designated eviration (defemination in woman). The patient under- goes a deep change of character, particularly in his feelings

and inclinations, which thus become those of a female.


After this, he also feels himself to be a woman during the

sexual act, has desire only for passive sexual indulgence, and, under certain circumstances, sinks to the level of a prostitute. In this condition of deep and more lasting psycho-sexual transformation, the individual is like unto the (congenital) urning of high grade. The possibility of a restoration of the previous mental and sexual personality teems in such a case, precluded.


The following case is a classical example of this variety of lasting acquired antipathic sexual instinct:

Case 128.

Sch., aged thirty, physician, one day told me the story of his life and malady, asking for explana- tion and advice concerning certain anomalies for his vita sexualis. The following description gives, for the most part verbatim, the details of the autobiography; only in some portions it is shortened :

"My parents were healthy. As a child I was sickly; but with good care I thrived, and got on well in school. When eleven years old, I was taught to masturbate by my playmates, and gave myself up to it passionately. Until I was fifteen, I learned easily. On account of frequent pollutions, I became less capable, and did not get on well in school, and was uncertain and embarrassed when called on by the teacher. Frightened by my loss of capability, and recognising that the loss of semen was responsible for it, I gave up masturbation; but the pollutions became even more frequent, so that I often had two or three in a night. In despair, I now consulted one physician after another. None were able to help me.

"Since I grew weaker and weaker, by reason of the loss of semen, with the sexual appetite growing more and more powerful, I sought houses of prostitution. But I was there unable to find satisfaction; for, even though the sight of a naked female pleased me, neither orgasm nor erection occurred ; and even manustupration by the puella was not capable of inducing erection. Scarcely would I leave the house, when the impulse would seize me again, and I would have violent erections. I grew ashamed before the girls, and ceased to visit such houses. Thus a couple of years passed. My sexual life consisted of pollu- tions. My inclination toward the opposite sex grew less and less. At nineteen I went to the university. The theatre had more attractions for me: I wished to become an actor. My parents were not willing. At the metro- polis I was compelled now and then to visit girls with my


comrades. I feared such a situation; because I knew that coitus was impossible for me, and because my friends might discover my impotence. Then-fure, I avoided, as far as possible, the danger of becoming the butt of their jokes and ridicule.

"One evening, in the opera-house, an old gentleman sat near me. He courted me. I laughed heartily at the foolish old man, and entered into his joke. Exinopinato | genitalia mea prehendit, quo facto statim penis meus se erexit. Frightened, I demanded of him what he meant. He said that he was in love with me. Having heard of hermaphrodites in the clinics, I thought I had one before me, and became curious to see his genitals. The old man was very willing, and went with me to the water closet. Sicuti penem maximum ejus erectum adspexi, perterritus effugi.

"This man followed me, and made strange proposals which I did not understand, and repelled. He did not give me any rest. I learned the secrets of male love for males, and felt that my sexuality was excited by it. But I resisted the shameful passion (as I then regarded it) and, for the next three years, I remained free from it. During this time I repeatedly attempted coitus with girls in vain. My attempts to free myself of my impotence by means of medical treatment were also in vain. Once, when my libido scxualis was troubling me again, I recalled what the old man had told me : that male-loving men were accus- tomed to meet on the E. Promenade.

After a hard struggle, and with beating heart, I went there, made the acquaintance of a blonde man, and allowed myself to be seduced. The first step was taken. This kind of sexual love was satisfactory to me. I always pre- ferred to be in the arms of a strong man. The satisfaction consisted of mutual manustupration ; occasionally in oscuhim ad penem alterius. I was then twenty-three years old. Sit ti MI;, together with my comrades, on the beds of patients in the clinic during the lectures, excited me so intensely that I could scarcely listen to the lectures, In,


the same year I entered into a formal love-relation with a merchant of thirty-four. We lived as man and wife. X. played the man, and fell more and more in love. I gave up to him, but now and then I had to play the man. After a time I grew tired of him, became unfaithful and he* grew jealous. There were terrible scenes, which led to temporary separation, and finally to actual rupture. (The merchant afterwards became insane, and died by suicide.)

"I made many acquaintances, and loved the most or- dinary people. I preferred those having a full beard, who were tall and of middle age, and able to play the active role well. I developed a proctitis. The professor thought it was the result of sitting too much while preparing for examinations. I developed a fistula, and had to undergo an operation ; but this did not cure me of my desire to let myself be used passively. I became a physician and went to a provincial town, where I had to live like a nun. I developed a desire to move in ladies' society, and was gladly welcomed there; because it was found that I was not so one-sided as most men, and was interested in toilettes and such feminine things. However, I felt very unhappy and lonesome. Fortunately, in this town, I made the acquaintance of a man, a 'sister,' who felt like me. For some time I was taken care of by him. When he had to leave I had an attack of despair, with depression, which was accompanied by thoughts of suicide.

"When it became impossible for me to longer endure the town, I became a military surgeon in the capital. There I began to live again, and often made two or three acquaintances in one day. I had never loved boys or young people ; only fully developed men. The thought of falling into the hands of the police was frightful. Thus far I have escaped the clutches of the blackmailer. At the same time, I could not keep myself from the gratification of my impulse. After some months I fell in love with an official of forty. I remained true to him for a year, and we lived like a pair of lovers. I was the wife and was formally courted by the lover. One day I was transferred


to a small town. We were in despair. The last night was spent in e. -niinually kissing and caressing one another.

"In T. 1 was nn.-peakably unhappy, in spite of some 'sisters' whom I found. I could not forget my lover. In order to satisfy my sexual desire, whieli cried for satis- faction, I chose soldiers. Money obtained men ; but they remained cold, and I had no enjoyment with them. I was successful in being retransferred to the capital, where there was a new love relation, but much jealousy; because my lover liked to go into the society of 'sisters,' and was proud and coquettish. There was a rupture. I was very unhappy and very glad to be transferred from the capital. I now stayed in C., alone and in despair. Two infantry privates were brought into service, but with the same unsatisfactory results. When shall I ever find true love again ?

"I am over medium height, well developed, and look somewhat aged; and, therefore, when I wish to make conquests I use the arts of the toilet. My manner, move- ments and face are masculine. Physically I feel as youth- ful as a boy of twenty. I love the theatre, and especially art. My interest in the stage is in the actresses, whose every movement and gesture I notice and criticise.

"In the society of gentlemen I am silent and em- barrassed, while in the society of those like myself I am free, witty, and as fawning as a cat if a man is sympathetic. If I am without love, I become deeply melancholic; but the favours of the first handsome man dispel my depres- sion. In other ways I am frivolous and very ambitious. My profession is nothing to me. Masculine pursuits do not interest me. I prefer novels and going to the theatre. I am effeminate, sensitive, easily moved, easily injured and nervous. A sudden noise makes my whole body trem- ble, and I have to collect myself in order to keep from crying out."

Remarks: The foregoing case is certainly one of ac- quired antipathic sexual instinct, since the sexual instinct


and impulse were originally directed toward the female sex. Sch. became neurasthenic through masturbation.

As an accompanying manifestation of the neurasthenic neurosis, lessened impressionability of the erection-centre and consequent relative impotence developed. As a result of this, sexual sensibility toward the opposite sex de- creased, with simultaneous persistence of libido sexualis. The acquired antipathic sexual instinct must be abnormal, since the first touch by a person of the same sex is an adequate stimulus for the erection-centre. The perverse sexual feeling becomes complete. At first Sch. felt like a man in the sexual act; but more and more, as the change progressed, the feeling and desire of satisfaction changed to the form which, as a rule, characterises the (congenital) urning.

This eviration induces a desire for the passive role, and, further, for (passive) pederasty. It makes a creeper impress on the character. The character becomes femi- nine, inasmuch as Sch. now prefers to move in the society of actual females, has an increasing desire for feminine occupations, and indeed makes use of the arts of the toilet in order to improve his fading charms and make "con- quests".

The foregoing facts concerning acquired antipathic sexual instinct and effemination find an interesting con- firmation in the following ethnological data:

Herodotus already describes a peculiar disease which frequently affected the Scythians. The disease consisted in this: that men became effeminate in character, put on female garments, did the work of women, and even became effeminate in appearance. As an explanation of this insanity of the Scythians, 1 Herodotus relates the myth

l Cf. Sprengel, "Apologie des Hippokrates," Leipzig, 1792, p. 611; Friedreich, " Literargeschichte der psych. Krankheiten," 1830, p. 31; Lallemand, "Des pertes s^minales," Paris, 1836, L, p. 581; Nysten, 11 Dictlonn. de mfciecine," xi. edit., Paris, 1858, Art. " Eviration et


that the goddess Venus, angered by the plundering of the temple at Ascalon by the Scythians, had made women of these plunderers and their posterity.

Hippocrates, not believing in supernatural diseases, re- cognised that impotence was here a causative factor, and explained it, though incorrectly, as due to the custom of the Scythians to have themselves bled behind the ears in order to cure disease superinduced by constant horse-back riding. He thought that these veins were of great import- ance in the preservation of the sexual powers, and that when they were severed, impotence was induced. Since the Scythians considered their impotence due to divine punishment and incurable, they put on the clothing of females, and lived as women among women.

It is worthy of note that, according to Klaproth ("Reise in dem Kaukasus," Berlin, 1812, v., p. 285) and Chotom- ski, even at the present time impotence is very frequent among the Tartars, as a result of riding unsaddled horses. The same is observed among the Apaches and Navajos of the western continent who ride excessively, scarcely ever going on foot, and are remarkable for small genitals and mild libido and virility. Sprengel, Lallemand and Nysten recognise the fact that excessive riding may be injurious to the sexual organs.

Hammond reports analogous observations of great in- terest concerning the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. These descendants of the Aztecs cultivate so-called "mu- jerados," of which every Pueblo tribe requires one in the religious ceremonies (actual orgies in the spring), in which pederasty plays an important part In order to cultivate a "mujerado," a very powerful man is chosen, and he is made to masturbate excessively and ride constantly. Gradually such irritable weakness of the genital organs is engendered that, in riding, great loss of semen is induced. This condition of irritability passes into paralytic im-

Maladie dps Scythes"; Marandon, " De la maladie des Scythe*"; " Animl. me<Hco-psychol.," 1877, Mars, p. 161 ; Hammond, "American Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry," August, 1882.


potence. Then atrophy of the testicles and penis sets in, the hair of the beard falls out, -the voice loses its depth and compass, and physical strength and energy decrease. Inclinations and disposition become feminine. The "mu- jerado" loses his position in society as a man. He takes on feminine manners and customs, and associates with women. Yet, for religious reasons, he is held in honour. It is probable that, at other times than during the festivals he is used by the chiefs for pederasty. Hammond had an opportunity to examine two "mujerados". One had be- come such seven years before, and was thirty-five years old at the time. Seven years previous, he was entirely masculine and potent. He had noticed gradual atrophy of the testicles and penis. At the same time he lost libido and the power of erection. He differed in nowise, in dress and manner, from the women among whom Ham- mond found him. The genital hair was wanting, the penis was shrunken, the scrotum lax and pendulous, and the testicles were very much atrophied and no longer sensitive to pressure. The "mujerado" had large mamma} like a pregnant woman, and asserted that he had nursed several children whose mothers had died. A second "mu- jerado," aged thirty-six, after he had been ten years in the condition, presented the same peculiarities, though with less development of mammae. Like the first, the voice was high and thin. The body was plump.

///. Degree: Stage of Transition to Metamorphosis Sex- ualis Paranoia.

A further degree of development is represented by those cases in which physical sensation is also transformed in the sense of a transmutatio sexus. In this respect the following case is unique :

Case 129

Autobiography. "Born in Hungary in 1844, for many years I was the only child of my parents; for the other children died for the most part of general weakness. A brother of later birth is still living.

"I come of a family in which nervous and mental diseases have 'been numerous. It is said that I was very pretty as a little child, with blonde locks and transparent skin ; very obedient, quiet and modest, so that I was taken \\here in the society of ladies without any offence on my part.

"With a very active imagination my enemy through life my talents developed rapidly. I could read and write at the age of four; my memory reaches back to my third year. I played with everything that fell into my hands, with leaden soldiers, or stones, or ribbons from a toy-shop; but a machine for working in wood, that was given to me as a present, I did not like. I liked best to be at home with my mother, who was everything to me. I had two or three friends with whom I got on good-naturedly; but I liked to play with her sisters quite as well, who always treated me like a girl, which at first did not embarrass me. I must have already been on the road to become just like a girl; at least, I can still well remember how it was always said: 'He is not intended for a boy.' At this I tried to play the boy, imitated my companions in every- thing, and tried to surpass them in wildness. In this I succeeded. There was no tree or building too high for me to reach its top. I took great delight in soldiers. I avoided girls more, because I did not wish to play with their playthings ; and it always annoyed me that they treated me so much like one of themselves.

"In the society of mature people, however, I .was always modest, and, also, always regarded with favour. Fantastic dreams about wild animals which once drove me out of bed without waking me frequently troubled me. I was always very simple but very elegantly dressed, and thus developed a taste for beautiful clothing. It seems liar to me that, from the time of my school-days, I had a partiality for ladies' gloves, which I put on secretly as often as I could. Thus, when once my mother was iilmut to give away a pair of gloves, I made great opposi- tion to it, and told her, when she asked why I acted so, that I wanted them myself. I was laughed at ; and from that time I took good care not to display my preference for female things. Yet my delight in them was very great. I took especial pleasure in masquerade costumes i.e., only in female attire. If I saw them, I envied their owners. What seemed to me the prettiest sight was: two young men, beautifully dressed as white ladies, with masks on; and yet I would not have shown myself to others as a girl for anything ; I was so afraid of being ridiculed. At school I worked very hard, and was always among the first. From childhood my parents taught me that duty came first; and they always set me an example. It was also a pleasure for me to attend school; for the teachers were kind, and the elder pupils did not plague the younger ones. We left my first home; for my father was compelled, on account of his business, which was dear to him, to sepa- rate from his family for a year. We moved to Germany. Here there was a stricter, rougher manner, partly in teachers and partly in pupils; and I was again ridiculed on account of my girlishness. My schoolmates went so far as to give a girl, who had exactly my features, my name, and me hers ; so that I hated the girl. But I later came to be on terms of friendship with her after her marriage. My mother tried to dress me elegantly; but this was repugnant to me, because it made me the object of taunting. So, finally, I was delighted when 1 had correct trousers and coats. But with these came a new annoyance. They irritated my genitals, particularly when the cloth was rough; and the touch of tailors while measuring me, on account of their tickling, which almost convulsed me, was unendurable, particularly about the genitals. Then I had to practise gymnastics; and I simply could do nothing at all, or only indifferently the things that even girls can do easily. While bathing I was troubled by feeling ashamed to undress; but I liked to bathe. Until my twelfth year I had a great weakness in my back. I learned to swim late, but ultimately so well that I took long swims. At thirteen I had pubic hair, and

was about six fWt tall; l>ut my face was feminine until my eighteenth year, when my beard came in abundance and gave me rest from resemblance to woman. An inguinal hernia that was acquired in my twelfth year, a ixl cured when I was twenty, gave me much trouble, particularly in gymnastics. Besides, from my twelfth year on, I had, after sitting long, and particularly while working at night, an itching, burning and twitching, extending from the penis to my back, which the acts of Mtting and standing increased, and which was made worse by catching cold. But I had no suspicion what- ever that this could be connected with the genitals. Since none of my friends suffered in this way, it seemed strange to me; and it required the greatest patience to endure it; the more owing to the fact that my abdomen troubled me. "In sexualibus I was still perfectly innocent ; but now, as at the age of twelve or thirteen, I had a definite feeling of preferring to be a young lady. A young lady's form was more pleasing to me; her quiet manner, her deport- ment, but particularly her attire, attracted me. But I was careful not to allow this to be noticed ; and yet I am sure that I should not have shrunk from the castration-knife, could I have thus attained my desire. If I had been asked to say why I preferred female attire, I could have said nothing more than that it attracted me powerfully; per- haps, also, I seemed to myself, on account of my uncom- monly white skin, more like that of a girl. The skin of my face and hands, particularly, was very sensitive. Girls liked my society; and, though I should have pre- ferred to have been with them constantly, I avoided them when I could ; for I had to exaggerate in order not to ap- pear feminine. In my heart I always envied them. I was particularly envious when one of my young girl friends got l"ii<: dresses and wore gloves and veils. When, at the age of fifteen, I was on a journey, a young lady, with whom I was boarding, proposed that I should mask as a lady and go out with her; but, owing to the fact that she was not alone, I did not acquiesce, much as I should have liked it. While

on this journey, I was pleased at seeing boys in one city wearing blouses with short sleeves, and the arms bare. A lady elaborately dressed was like a goddess to me; and if even her hand touched me coldly I was happy and envi- ous, and only too gladly would have put myself in her place in the beautiful garments and lovely form. Never- theless, I studied assiduously, and passed through the Realschule and the Gymnasium in nine years, passing a good final examination. I remember, when fifteen, to have first expressed to a friend the wish to be a girl. In answer to his question, I could not give the reason why. At seventeen I got into fast society; I drank beer, smoked, and tried to joke with waiter-girls. The latter liked my society, but they always treated me as if I wore petti- coats. I could not take dancing lessons, they repelled me so ; but if I could have gone as a mask, it would have been different. My friends loved me dearly; I hated only one, who seduced me into onanism. Shame on those days, which injured me for life ! I practised it quite frequently, but in it seemed to myself like a double man. I cannot describe the feeling; I think it was masculine, but mixed with feminine elements. I could not approach girls; I feared them, but they were not strange to me. They im- pressed me as being -more like myself; I envied them. I would have denied myself all pleasures if, after my classes, at home I could have been a girl and thus have gone out. Crinoline and a smoothly-fitting glove were my ideals. With every lady's gown I saw I fancied how I should feel in it, i.e., as a lady. I had no inclination toward men. But I remember that I was somewhat lovingly attached to a very handsome friend with a girl's face and dark hair, though I think I had no other wish than that we both might be girls.

"At the high-school I finally once had coitus; hoc modo sensi, me libentius sub puella concubuisse et penem meum cum runno mutatum maluisse. To her astonish- ment, the girl had to treat me as a girl, and did it will- ingly; but she treated me as if I were she (she was still

quite inexperienced, and, therefore, did not laugh at me).

"When a student at times I was wild, but I always felt that I assumed this wildness as a mask. I drank and duelled, but I could not take lessons in dancing, because I was afraid of betraying myself. My friendships were close, but without other thoughts. It pleased me most to have a friend masked as a lady, or to study the ladies' costumes at a ball. I understood such things perfectly. Gradually I began to feel like a girl.

"On account of unhappy circumstances, I twice at- tempted suicide. Without any cause I once did not sleep for fourteen days, had many hallucinations (visual and auditory at the same time), and was with both the living and the dead. The latter habit of thought remains. I also had a friend (a lady) who knew my hobby and put on my gloves for me; but she always looked upon me as a girl. Thus I understood women better than other men did, and in what they differed from men; so I was always treated more feminarum as if they had found in me a female friend. On the whole, I could not endure obscenity, and indulged in it myself only out of bragga- docio when it was necessary. I soon overcame my aversion to foul odours and blood, and even liked them. Only some things I could not look at without nausea. I was want- ing in only one respect: I could not understand my own condition. I knew that 'I had feminine inclinations, but believed that I was a man. Yet I doubt whether, with the exception of the attempts at coitus, which never gave me pleasure (which I ascribe to onanism), I ever admired a woman without wishing I were she; or without asking myself whether I should not like to be the woman, or be in her attire. Obstetrics I learned with difficulty (I was ashamed for the exposed girls, and had a feeling of pity for them) ; and even now I have to overcome a feeling of fright in obstetrical cases; indeed, it has happened that I thought I felt the traction myself. After filling several positions successfully as a physician,


I went through a military campaign as a volunteer surgeon. Riding, which, while a -student, was painful to me, because in it the genitals had more of a feminine feeling, was difficult for me (it would have been easier in the female style).

"Still, I always thought I was a man with obscure masculine feeling; and whenever I associated with ladies, I was still soon treated as an inexperienced lady. When I wore a uniform for the first time, I should have much preferred to have slipped into a lady's costume, with a veil ; I was disturbed when the stately uniform attracted attention. In private practice I was successful in the three principal branches. Then I made another military campaign; and during this I came to understand my nature; for I think that, since the first ass ever made, no beast of burden has ever had to endure with so much patience as I have. Decorations were not wanting, but I was indifferent to them.

"Thus I went through life, such as it was, never satis- fied with myself, full of dissatisfaction with the world, and vacillating between sentimentality and a wildness that was for the most part affected.

"My experience as a candidate for matrimony was very peculiar. I should have preferred not to marry, but family circumstances and practice forced me to it I married an energetic, amiable lady, of a family in which female government was rampant. I was in love with her as much as one of us can be in love i.e., what we love we love with our whole hearts, and live in it, even though we do not show it as much as a genuine man does. We love our brides with all the love of a woman, almost as a woman might love her bridegroom. But I cannot say this for myself; for I still believed that I was but a depressed man, who would come to himself, and find him- self out by marriage. But, even on my marriage night, I felt that I was only a woman in man's form; sub femina locum meum esse mihi visum est. On the whole, we lived contented and happy, and for t^vo yers were child-


leas. After a difficult pregnancy, during which time I lay at the point of death in the enemy's own country, my wife gave birth to our first boy in a difficult labour, a boy still afflicted with a melancholy nature. Then came a second, who is very quiet; a third, full of peculiarities; a fourth, a fifth; and all have the predisposition to neuras- thenia. Since I always felt out of my own place, I went much in gay society; but I always worked as much as human strength would endure. I studied and operated; and I experimented with many drugs and methods of cure, always on myself. I left the regulation of the house t<> 1 1 iv \\ife, as she understood housekeeping very well. My marital duties I performed as well as I could, but without personal satisfaction. Since the first coitus, the masculine position in it has been repugnant, and also difficult for mo. I should have much preferred to have the other role. When I had to deliver my wife, it almost hroke my heart; for I knew how to appreciate her pain. Thus we lived long together, until severe gout drove me to various baths, and made me neurasthenic. At the same time, I became so anaemic that every few months I had to take iron for some time; otherwise I would be almost chlorotic or hysterical, or both. Stenocardia often troubled me; then came unilateral cramps of chin, nose, neck and larynx; hemicrania and cramps of the dia- phragm and chest muscles. For about three years I had a feeling as if the prostate were enlarged, a bearing-down feeling, as if giving birth to something; and also pain in the hips, con.-tant pain in the back, and the like. Yet, with the strength of despair, I fought against these com- plaints, which impressed me as being female or effeminate, until three years ago, when a severe attack of arthritis completely broke me down.

"lint In-fore this terrible attack of gout occurred, in

lir, to lessen the pain of gout, T had taken hot baths,

i> near the temperature of the Ixuly as possible. On one

of tl i-ion< it happened that I suddenly changed,

and seemed to be near death. I sprang with all my


remaining strength out of the bath ; I had felt exactly like a woman with libido. This happened when the extract of Indian hemp came into vogue, and was highly prized. In a state of fear of a threatened attack of gout (feeling perfectly indifferent about life), I took three or four times the usual dose of it, and almost died of hashish poison- ing. Convulsive laughter, a feeling of unheard of strength and swiftness, a peculiar feeling in brain and eyes, millions of sparks streaming from the brain through the skin, all these feelings occurred. But I could not force myself to speak. All at once I saw myself a woman from my toes to my breast; I felt, as before while in the bath, that the genitals had shrunken, the pelvis broadened, the breasts swollen out; a feeling of unspeakable delight came over me. I closed my eyes, so that at least I did not see the face changed. My physician looked as if he had a gigantic potato instead of a head; my wife had the full moon on her thorax. And yet, I was strong enough to briefly record my will in my note-book when both left the room for a short time.

"But who could describe my fright when, on the next morning, I awoke and found myself feeling as if com- pletely changed into a woman; and when, on standing and walking, I felt vulva and mammas I When at last I raised myself out of bed, I felt that a complete trans- formation had taken place in me. During my illness a visitor said: 'He is too patient for a man'. And the visitor gave me a plant in bloom, which seemed strange, but pleased me. From that time I was patient, and would do nothing in a hurry; but I became tenacious, like a cat, though, at the same time, mild, forgiving and no longer bearing enmity, in short, I had a woman's disposition. During the last sickness I had many visual and auditory hallucinations, spoke with the dead, etc. ; saw and heard familiar spirits ; felt like a double person ; but, while lying ill, I did not notice that the man in me had been extinguished. The change in my disposition was a piece of good fortune, for I had a stroke of paralysis which


would certainly have killed me had I been of my fonnor disposition ; but now I was reconciled, for I no longer recognized myself. Owing to the fact that I still often confounded neurasthenic symptoms with the gout, I took many baths, until an itching of the skin, with the feeling of scabies, instead of being diminished, was so increased that I gave up all external treatment (I was made more and more anaemic by the baths), and hardened myself as- best I could. But the imperative female feeling remained, and became so strong that I wear only the mask of a man, and in everything else feel like a woman ; and gradually I have lost memory of the former individuality. What was left of me by the gout, influenza ruined entirely.

"Present condition: I am tall, slightly bald, and the beard is growing gray. I begin to stoop. Since having influenza I have lost about one-fourth of my strength. Owing to a valvular lesion, my face looks somewhat red; full beard; chronic conjunctivitis; more muscular than fat. The left foot seems to be developing varicose veins, and it often goes to sleep; but it is not really thickened, though it seems to be.

"The mammary region, though small, swells out per- ceptibly. The abdomen is feminine in form; the feet are placed like a woman's, and the calves, etc., are feminine; and it is the same with arms and hands. I can wear ladies' hose and gloves 7/^2 to 724 in size. I also wear a corset without annoyance. My weight varies between 168 and 184 pounds. Urine without albumen or sugar, but it con- tains an excess of uric acid. But when there is not too much uric acid in it, it is clear, and almost as clear as water after any excitement. Bowels usually regular, but should they not be, then come all the symptoms of female consti- pation. Sleep is poor, for weeks at a time only of two or three hours' duration. Appetite quite good; but, on the whole, my stomach will not bear more than that of a strong woman, and reacts to irritating food with cutaneous eruption and burning in the urethra. The skin is white, and, for the most part, feels quite smooth ; there has been


unbearable cutaneous itching for the last two years; but during the last few weeks this has diminished, and is now present only in the popliteal spaces and on the scrotum.

"Tendency to perspire. Perspiration was previously as good as wanting, but now there are all the odious pecu- liarities of the female perspiration, particularly about the lower part of the body; so that I have to keep myself cleaner than a woman (I perfume my handkerchief, and use perfumed soap and eau-de-Cologne).

"General feeling: I feel like a woman in a man's form ; and even though I often am sensible of the man's form, yet it is always in a feminine sense. Thus, for example, I feel the penis as clitoris; the urethra as urethra and vaginal orifice, which always feels a little wet, even when it is actually dry; the scrotum as labia majora; in short, I always feel the vulva. And all that that means one alone can know who feels or has felt so. But the skin all over my body feels feminine; it receives all impressions, whether of touch, of warmth, or whether unfriendly, as feminine, and I have the sensations of a woman. I cannot go with bare hands, as both heat and cold trouble me. When the time is past when we men are permitted to carry sun-umbrellas, I have to endure great sensitiveness of the skin of my face, until sun-umbrellas can again be used. On awakening in the morning, I am confused for a few moments, as if I were seeking for myself; then the impera- tive feeling of being a woman awakens. I feel the sense of the vulva (that one is there), and always greet the day with a soft or loud sigh ; for I have fear again of the play that must be carried on throughout the day. I had to learn everything anew; the knife apparatus, everything has felt different for the last three years ; and with the change of muscular sense I had to learn everything over again. I have been successful, and only the use of the saw and bone-chisel are difficult; it is almost as if my strength were not quite sufficient. On the other hand, I have a keener sense of touch in working with the curette in the soft parts. It is unpleasant that, in examining ladies, I

IH>M<> srxi'Al I I I i.IWO IN BOTH SEXES. 3 1 r>

. frd ill. ir sensations; l>ut this, indeed, does- not r them. The most unpl-a<anf thing I experience is foetal movement. For a h'ULT time several months I was tmubled by reading the thoughts of both sexes, and I still have to fight against it. I can endure it better with women; with men it is repugnant. Three years ago I had not yet consciously seen the world with a woman's eyes; this chango in the relation of the eyes to the brain came almost suddenly, witli violent headache. I was with a lady whose sexual feeling was reversed, when sud- denly I saw her changed in the sense I now feel myself, -he as man, and I felt myself a woman in contrast, with her; so that I left her with ill-concealed vexation. At that time she had not yet come to understand her own condition perfectly.

"Since then, all my sensory impressions are as if they wen- feminine in form and relation. The cerebral system almost immediately adjusted itself to the vegetative; so that all my ailments were manifested in a feminine way. The sensitiveness of all nerves, particularly that of the auditory and olfactory and trigeminal, increased to a con- dition of nervousness. If only a window slammed, I was frightened inwardly ; for a man dare not tremble at such things. If food is not absolutely fresh, I perceive a cadav- erous odour. I could never depend on the trigeminus; for the pain would jump whimsically from one branch of it to another ; from a tooth to an eye. But, since my transformation, I bear toothache and migraine more easily, and have less feeling of fear with stenocardia. It seems to me a strange fact that I feel myself to be a fearful, weak hcinir, and yet, when danger threatens, I am rather <-o,,l aiul collected, and this is true in dangerous opera- tions. The stomach rebels against the slightest indiscre- tion (in female diet) that is committed without thought of the female nature, either by ructus or other symptoms; but particularly acainst alrnse of alcoholics. The indis- position after intoxication that a man who feels like a woman experiences is much \\.TSC thnn any a student


could get up. It seems to me almost as if one feeling like a woman were entirely controlled by the vegetative system.

"Small as my nipples are, they demand room, and I feel as though the pelvis were female; and it is the same puberty the nipples swelled and pained. On this account, the white shirt, the waistcoat and the coat trouble me. I feel as though the pelvis were female; and it is the same with the anus and nates. At first the sense of a female abdomen was troublesome to me; for it cannot bear trousers, and it always possesses or induces the feminine feeling. I also have the imperative feeling of a waist. It is as if I were robbed of my own skin, and put in a woman's skin that fitted me perfectly, but which felt everything as if it covered a woman ; and whose sensations passed through the man's body, and exterminated the masculine element. The testes, even though not atrophied or degenerated, are still no longer testes, and often cause me pain, with the feeling that they belong in the abdomen, and should be fastened there ; and their mobility often bothers me.

"Every four weeks, at the time of the full moon, I have the molimen of a woman for five days, physically and mentally, only I do not bleed ; but I have the feeling of a loss of fluid ; a feeling that the genitals and abdomen are (internally) swollen. A very pleasant period comes when, afterward and later in the interval of a day or two, the physiological desire for procreation comes, which with all power permeates the woman. My whole body is then filled with this sensation, as an immersed piece of sugar is filled with water, or as full as a soaked sponge. It is like this : first, a woman longing for love, and then, for a man ; and, in fact, the desire, as it seems to me, is more a longing to be possessed than a wish for coitus. The intense natural instinct or the feminine concupiscence overcomes the feel- ing of modesty, so that indirectly coitus is desired. I have never felt coitus in a masculine way more than three times in my life ; and even if it were so in general, I was always indifferent about it. But, during the last three years, I


have expcrii nrr.l it passively, like a woman; in fact, often- - with the feeling of feminine ejaculation; and I al- ways feel that I am impregnated. I am always fatigued as a woman is after it, and often feel ill, as a man never does. Sometimes it caused me such great pleasure that there is nothing with which I can compare it; it is the most blissful and powerful feeling in the world; at that moment the woman is simply a vulva that has devoured the whole person.

"During the last three years I have never lost for an instant the feeling of being a woman, and now, owing to habit, this is no longer annoying to me, though during this period I have felt debased; for a man could endure to feel like a woman without a desire for enjoyment; but Nvlirn desires come, the happiness ceases! Then come the burning, the heat, the feeling of turgor of the genitals (when the penis is not in a state of erection the genitals do not play any part). In case of intense desire, the feeling of sucking in the vagina and vulva is really terrible a hellish pain of lust hardly to be endured. If I then have opportunity to perform coitus, it is better; but, owing to defective sense of being possessed by the other, it does not afford complete satisfaction ; the feeling of ster- ility comes with its weight of shame, added to the feeling of passive copulation and injured modesty. I seem al- most like a prostitute. Reason does not give any help; the imperative feeling of femininity dominates and rules thing. The difficulty in carrying on one's occupa- tion, under such circumstances, is easily appreciated; but it is possible to force one's self to it. Of course, it is almost impossible to sit, walk, or lie down ; at least, any one of these cannot be endured long; and with the constant touch of the trousers, etc., it is unendurable.

"Marriage then, except during coitus, where the man has to feel himself a woman, is like two women living together, one of whom regards herself as in the mask of a man. If the periodical inoinnina fail to occur, then come the feelings of pregnancy or of sexual satiety, which


a man never experiences, but which take possession of the whole being, just as the feeling of femininity does, and are repugnant in themselves ; and, therefore, I gladly welcome the regular molimina again. When erotic dreams or ideas occur, I see myself in the form I have as a woman, and see erected organs presenting. Since the anus feels fem- inine, it would not be hard to become a passive pederast ; only positive religious command prevents it, as all other deterrent ideas would be overcome. Since such conditions are repugnant, as they would be to any one, I have a desire to be sexless, or to make myself sexless. If I had been single, I should long ago have taken leave of testes, scrotum and penis.

4 "Of what use is female pleasure, when one does not conceive ? What good comes from excitation of female love, when one has only a wife for gratification, even though copulation is felt as though it were with a man? What a terrible feeling of shame is caused by the feminine perspiration! How the feeling for dress and ornament lowers a man! Even in his changed form, even when he can no longer recall the masculine sexual feeling, he would not wish to be forced to feel like a woman. He still knows very well that, heretofore, he did not constantly feel sexually; that he was merely a human being unin- fluenced by sex. Now, suddenly, he has to regard his former individuality as a mask, and constantly feel like a woman, only having a change when, every four weeks, he has his periodical sickness, and in the intervals his insatiable female desire. If he could but awake without immediately being forced to feel like a woman ! At last he longs for a moment in which he might raise his mask ; but that moment does not come. He can only find amelioration of his misery when he can put on some bit of female attire or finery, an under-garment, etc. ; for he dare not go about as a woman. To be compelled to fulfil all the duties of a calling with the feeling of being a woman costumed as a man. and to see no end of it, is no trifle. Religion alone saves from a great lapse ; but it


does not prevent (ho pain when temptation affects the man who feels as a woman; and BO it must be felt and endured! When a respectable man who enjoys an un- usual degree of public confidence, and possesses authority, inii;-r go about with his vulva imaginary though it be; uli<-n one, leaving his arduous daily task, is compelled to examine the toilette of the first lady he meets, and criti- cise her with feminine eyes, and to read her thoughts in her face; when a journal of fashions possesses an interest equal to that of a scientific work (I felt this as a child) ; when one must conceal his condition from his wife, \\hose thoughts, the moment he feels like a woman, he can read in her face, while it becomes perfectly clear to her that he has changed in body and soul what must all this be? The misery caused by the feminine gentleness that must be overcome? Oftentimes, of course, when 'I am away alone, it is possible to live for a time more like a woman ; for example, to wear female attire, especially at night, to keep gloves on, or to wear a veil or a mask in my room, so that thus there is rest from excessive libido. But when the feminine feeling has once gained an entrance, it im- peratively demands recognition. It is often satisfied with a moderate concession, such as the wearing of a bracelet above the cuff; but it imperatively demands some con- cession. My only happiness is to see myself dressed as a woman without a feeling of shame; indeed, when my face is veiled or masked, I prefer it so, and thus think of myself. Like every one of Fashion's fools, I have a taste for the prevailing mode, so greatly am I trans- formed. To become accustomed to the thought of feeling only like a woman, and only to remember the previous manner of thought to a certain extent in contrast with it, and, at the same time, to express one's self as a man, requires a long time and an infinite amount of


' X- vertheless, in spite of everything, it will happen that I betray myself by some expression of feminine feeling, either in sexualibus, when I say that I feel so and


so, expressing what a man without the female feeling cannot know; or when I accidentally betray that female attire is my talent. Before women, of course, this does not amount to anything; for a woman is greatly flattered when a man understands something of her matters; but this must not be displayed to my own wife. How fright- ened I once was when my wife said to a friend that I had great taste in ladies' dress! How. a haughty, stylish lady was astonished when, as she was about to make a great error in the education of her little daughter, I described to her in writing and verbally all the feminine feelings! To be sure, I lied to her, saying that my knowledge had been gleaned from letters. But her confidence in me is as great as ever; and the child, who was on the road to insanity, is rational and happy. She had confessed all the feminine inclinations as sins; now she knows what, as a girl, she must bear and control by will and religion; and she feels that she is human. Both ladies would laugh heartily if they knew that I had only drawn on my own sad experience. I must also add that I now have a finer sense of temperature, and, besides, a sense of the elasticity of the skin and tension of the intestines, etc., in patients, that was unknown to me before; that in operations and autopsies, poisonous fluids more readily penetrate my (un- injured) skin. Every autopsy causes me pain ; examina- tion of a prostitute, or a woman having a discharge, a cancerous odour, or the like, is actually repugnant to me. In all respects I am now under the influence of antipathy and sympathy, from the sense of colour to my judgment of a person. Women usually see in each other the periodical sexual disposition; and, therefore, a lady wears a veil, if she is not always accustomed to wear one, and usually she perfumes herself, even though it be only with handker- chief or gloves; for her olfactory sense in relation to her own sex is intense. Odours have an incredible effect on the female organism; thus, for example, the odours of violets and roses quiet me, while others disgust me; and with Ylang-Ylang I cannot contain myself for sexual ex-


Contact with a woman seems homogeneous to me; coitus with my wife seems possible to me "because she is somewhat masculine, and has a firm skin ; and yet it is more an amor lesbicus.

"Besides, I always feel passive. Often at night, when I cannot sleep for excitement, it is finally accomplished, si femora mca distensa habeo, sicti jnu/i< / rum viro con- cumbens, or if I lie on my side; but an arm or the bed- clothing must not touch the mammce, or there is no sleep; and there must be no pressure on the abdomen. I sleep best in a chemise and night-robe, and with gloves on ; for my hands easily get cold. I am also comfortable in female drawers and petticoats, because they do not touch the genitals. I liked female dresses best when crinolines were worn. Female dresses do not annoy the feminine-feeling man ; for he, like every woman, feels them as belonging to his person, and not as something foreign.

"My dearest associate is a lady suffering with neuras- thenia, who, since her last confinement, feels like a man, but who, since I explained these feelings to her, coitu abstinet as much as possible, a thing I, as a husband, dare not do. She, by her example, helps me to endure my condition. She has a most perfect memory of the female feelings, and has often given me good advice. Were she a man and I a young girl I should seek to win her; for her I should be glad to endure the fate of a woman. But her present appearance is quite different from what it formerly was. She is a very elegantly dressed gentleman, notwithstanding bosom and hair; she also speaks quickly and concisely, and no longer takes pleasure in the things that please me. She has a kind of melancholy dissatis- faction with the world, but she bears her fate worthily and with resignation, finding her comfort only in religion and the fulfilment of her duty. At the time of the menses, she almost dies. She no longer likes female society and conversation, and has no liking for delicacies.

"A youthful friend felt like a girl from the very first,



and had inclinations towards the male sex. His sister had the opposite condition; an4 when the uterus demanded its right, and she saw herself as a loving woman in spite of her masculinity, she cut the matter short, and committed suicide by drowning.

"Since complete effemination, the principal changes I have observed in myself are:

"1. The constant feeling of being a woman from top to toe.

"2. The constant feeling of having female genitals.

"3. The periodicity of the monthly molimina.

"4. The regular occurrence of female desire, though not directed to any particular man.

"5. The passive female feeling in coitus.

"6. After that, the feeling of impregnation.

"7. The female feeling in thought of coitus.

"8. At the sight of women, the feeling of being of their kind, and the feminine interest in them.

"9. At the sight of men, the feminine interest in them.

"10. At the sight of children, the same feeling.

"11. The changed disposition and much greater pa- tience.

"12. The final resignation to my fate, for which I have nothing to thank but positive religion ; without it I should have long ago committed suicide.

"To be a man and to be compelled to feel that chaque femme est futuee ou elle desire d'etre is hard to endure."

The foregoing autobiography, scientifically so import- ant, was accompanied by the following no less interesting letter:

"SiR, I must next beg your indulgence for troubling you with my communication. I lost all control, and thought of myself only as a monster before which I myself shuddered. Then your work gave me courage again ; and I determined to go to the bottom of the matter, and examine my past life, let the result be what it might. It


seemed a duty of gratitude to you to tell you the result of my recollection and observation, since I had not seen any description by you of an analogous case; and, finally, I also thought it might perhaps interest you to learn, from the pen of a physician, how such a worthless human, or masculine, being thinks and feels under the weight of the imperative idea of being a woman.

"It is not perfect; but I no longer have the strength to reflect more upon it, and have no desire to go into the matter more deeply. Much is repeated; but I beg you to remember that any mask may be allowed to fall off, particularly when it is not voluntarily worn, but enforced.

"After reading your work, I hope that, if I fulfil my duties as physician, citizen, father and husband, I may still count myself among human beings who do not deserve merely to be despised.

"Finally, I wished to lay the result of my recollection and reflection before you, in order to show that one think- ing and feeling like a woman can still be a physician. I consider it a great injustice to debar woman from Medi- cine. A woman, through her feeling, gets on the track of many ailments which, in spite of all skill in diagnosis, re- main obscure to a man ; at least, in the diseases of women and children. If I could have my way, I should have every physician live the life of a woman for three months; then he would have a better .understand ing and more con- sideration in matters affecting the half of humanity from which he comes; then he would learn to value the great- ness of woman, and appreciate the difficulty of her lot."

Remarks: The badly tainted patient was originally psy- cho-sexually abnormal, in that, in character and in the sexual act, he felt as a female. The abnormal feeling remained purely a psychical anomaly until three years ago, when, owing to severe neurasthenia, it received over- mastering support in imperative bodily sensations of a transmutatio sexus, which now dominate consciousness. Then, to the patient's horror, he felt bodily like a woman; and, under the impulse of his imperative feminine sensa-


tions, he experienced a complete transformation of his former masculine feeling, thought and will ; in fact, of his whole vita sexualis, in the sense of eviration. At the same time, his "ego" was able to control these abnormal psycho- physical manifestations, and prevent descent to paranoia, a remarkable example of imperative feelings and ideas on the basis of neurotic taint, which is of great value for a comprehension of the manner in which the psycho-sexual transformation may be accomplished. In 1893 ; three years later, this unhappy colleague sent me a new account of his present state. This corresponded essentially with the former. His physical and psychical feelings were abso- lutely those of a woman ; but his intellectual powers were intact, and he was thus saved from paranoia (vide infra).

A counterpart to this case, which is of clinical and psychological moment, is that of a lady as given in :

Case 130

Case 130. Mrs. X., daughter of a high official. Her mother died from nervous disease. The father was un- tainted, and died from pneumonia at a good old age. Her brothers and sisters had inferior psychopathic dispositions ; one brother was of abnormal character, and very neuras- thenic.

As a girl Mrs. X. had decided inclinations for boys' sports. So long as she wore short dresses she used to rove about the fields and woods in the freest manner, and climbed the most dangerous rocks and cliffs. She had no taste for dresses and finery. Once, when they gave her a dress made in boys' fashion, she was highly delighted; and when at school they dressed her up in boys' clothes on the occasion of some theatrical performance, she was filled with bliss.

Otherwise nothing betrayed her homo-sexual inclina- tions. Up to her marriage (at the age of twenty-one) she could not recall to mind a single instance in which she felt herself drawn to persons of her own sex. Men were equally indifferent to her. When matured she had many


admirers. This flattered her greatly. However, she claimed that the difference of the sexes never entered her mind; she was only influenced by the difference in the dress.

When attending the first and only ball she felt interest only in intellectual conversation, but not in dancing or the dancers.

At the age of eighteen the menses set in without diffi- culty. She always looked upon menstruation as an un- necessary and bothersome function. Her engagement with a man who, though good and rich, yet possessed not the slightest knowledge of woman's nature, was a matter of utter indifference to her. She had neither sympathy for nor antipathy against matrimony. Her connubial duties were at first painful to her, later on simply loathsome. She never experienced sexual pleasure, but became tfce mother of six children. When her husband began to observe coitus irHerruptus, on account of the prolific conse- quences, her religious and moral sentiments were hurt. Mrs. X. grew more and more neurasthenic, peevish and unhappy.

She suffered from descensus uteri, erosions on the portio vaginalis, and became anaemic. Gynecological treat- ment and visits to watering-places procured but slight im- provements.

At the age of thirty-six she had an apoplectic stroke, which confined her to bed for two years, with heavy neu- rasthenic ailments (agrypnia, pressure in the head, palpi- tation of the heart, psychical depression, feelings of lost physical and mental power, bordering even on insanity, etc.). During this long illness a peculiar change of her psychical and physical feelings took place.

The small talk of the ladies visiting her about love, toilet, finery, fashions, domestic and servants' affairs dis- gusted her. She felt mortified at being a woman. She could not even make up her mind again to look in the mirror. She loathed combing her hair and making her toilet. Much to the surprise of her own people her hither-


to soft and decidedly feminine features assumed a strongly masculine character, so much so that she gave the impres- sion of being a man clad in female garb. She complained to her trusted physician that her periods had stopped, in fact, she had nothing to do with such functions. When they recurred again she felt ill-tempered, and found the odour of the menstrual flow most nauseating, but definitely refused the use of perfumes, which affected her in a similar unpleasant manner.

But in other ways she felt that a peculiar change had come over her entire being. She had athletic spells, and great desire for gymnastic exercises. At times she felt as if she were just twenty. She was startled, when her neurasthenic brain allowed of thought at all, at the flight and novelty of her thoughts, at her quick and precise method of arriving at conclusions and forming opinions, at the curt and short way of expressing herself, and her novel choice of words not always becoming a lady. Even an inclination to use curse words and oaths was noticeable in this otherwise so pious and correct woman.

She reproached herself bitterly, and grieved because she had lost her femininity, and scandalised her friends by her thoughts, sentiments, and actions.

She also perceived a change in her body. She was horrified to notice her breasts disappearing, that her pelvis grew smaller and narrower, the hones became more mass- ive, and her skin rougher and harder.

She refused to wear any more a lady's night-dress or a lady's cap, and put away her bracelets, earrings and fans. Her maid and her dressmaker noticed a different odour coining from her person; her voice also grew deeper, rougher, and quite masculine.

When the patient was finally able to leave her bed, the female gait had altered, feminine gestures and movements in her female attire were forced, and she could no longer bear to wear a veil over her face. Her former period of life spent as a woman seemed strange to her, as if it did not belong to her existence at all ; she could play no longer


the role of woman. She assumed more and more the acter of a rnun. Slie experienced strange feelings in IHT abdomen; and complained to the physician attending her that she could fed no longer the internal organs of generation, that her body was closed up, the region of her genitals enlarged, and often had the sensation of possessing a penis and scrotum. She showed, also, unmistakable symptoms of male libido. All these observations affected her deeply, filled her with horror, and depressed her so much that an attack of insanity was apprehended. But by incessant efforts and kind advice the family physician finally succeeded in calming the patient and piloting her safely over this dangerous point. Little by little she gained her equilibrium in this novel, strange and morbid physico- psychical form. She took pains in performing her duties as housewife and mother. It was interesting to observe the truly manly firmness of will which she developed, but her former softness of character had vanished. She as- sumed the role of the man in her house, a circumstance which led to many dissensions and misunderstandings. She became an enigma which her husband was unable to solve.

She complained to her physician that at times a "bestial masculine libido" threatened to overcome her, which made her despondent. Marital intercourse with the husband appeared to her most repulsive in fact, impossible. Periodically the patient experienced feminine emotions, but they became scarcer and weaker as time went by. At such periods she became conscious again of her female genitals and breasts, but these episodes affected IHT painfully, and she felt that such a "second trans- mutation" would be unbearable, and would drive her to insanity.

She now became reconciled to her iransmutaiio sexus, brought about by her severe illness, and bore her fate with resignation, finding much support in her religious con- victions.

What affected her most keenly was the fact that, like


an actress, she must move in a strange sphere i.e, in that of a woman (Status Prsesens," Sep^t, 1892).

IV. Degree: Metamorphosis Sexualis Paranoica.

A final possible stage in this disease-process is the de- lusion of a transformation of sex. It arises on the basis of sexual neurasthenia that has developed into neurasthe- nia universalis, resulting in a mental disease, paranoia.

The following cases show the development of the inter- esting neuro-psychological process to its height :

Case 131

Case 131. K., aged thirty-six, male, single, servant, received at the clinic on 26th February, 1889, typical case of paranoia persecutoria, resulting from neurasthenia sexualis, with olfactory hallucinations, sensations, etc.

He came of a predisposed family. Several brothers and sisters were psychopathic. Patient had a hydro- cephalic skull, depressed in the region of the right fon- tanelle; eyes neuropathic. He had always been very sensual ; began to masturbate at nineteen ; had coitus at twenty-three; begat three illegitimate children. He gave up further sexual intercourse on account of fear of begetting more children, and of being unable to provide for them. Abstinence proved very painful to him. He also gave up masturbation, and was then troubled with pollutions. A year and a half ago he became sexually neurasthenic, had diurnal pollutions, became thereafter ill and miserable, and, after a time, generally neurasthenic, finally developing paranoia.

A year ago he began to have paraesthetic sensations, as if there were a great coil in the place of his genitals; and then he felt that his scrotum and penis were gone, and that his genitals were changed into those of a female.

He felt the growth of his breasts; that his hair was that of a woman ; and that feminine garments were on his body. He thought himself a woman. The people in the street gave utterance, to corresponding remarks: "Look


at the woman! The old blowhard!" In a half-dreamy state, he had the feeling as if he played the part of a woman in coitus with a man, which caused him the most lively feelings of pleasure. During his stay at the clinic, a remission of the paranoia occurred, and, at the same time, a marked improvement of the neurasthenia. Then the feelings and ideas due to a developing metamorphosi* sexualis disappeared.

A more advanced case of eviration, on the way to a transformatio sexus paranoica, is the following:

Case 132

Case 132. Franz St., aged thirty-three; school- teacher, single ; probably of tainted family ; always neuro- pathic ; emotional, timid, intolerant of alcohol ; began to masturbate at eighteen. At thirty there were manifesta- tions of neurasthenia sexualis (pollutions with consequent fatigue, soon beginning to occur during the day; pain in the region of the sacral plexus, etc.). Gradually, spinal irritation, pressure in the head, and cerebral neurasthenia were added. Since the beginning of 1885 the patient had given up coitus, in which he no longer experienced pleas- urable feeling. lie masturbated frequently.

In 1888 he began to have delusions of suspicion. He noticed that he was avoided, and that he had unpleasant odours about him (olfactory hallucinations). In this way he explained the altered attitude of people, and their sneezing, coughing, etc.

. He could smell corpses and foul urine. He recognised the cause of his bad smells in inward pollutions. He recognised these in a feeling he had as if a fluid flowed up from the symphysis toward the breast. Patient soon left the clinic.

In 1889 he was again received in an advanced stage of paranoia masturbatoria persecutoria (delusions of physical persecution).

In the beginning of May, 1889, the patient attracted notice, in that he was cross when he was addressed as


"mister". He protested against it because he was a woman. Voices told him this. Jle noticed that his breasts were growing. Some weeks before, others had touched him in a sensual manner. He heard it said that he was a whore. Of late, dreams of pregnancy. He dreamed that, as a woman, he indulged in coitus. He felt the immissio penis, and, during the hallucinatory act, also a feeling of ejaculation.

Head straight; facial form long and narrow; parietal eminences prominent; genitals normally developed.

The following case, observed in the asylum at Illenau, is a pertinent example of lasting delusional alteration of eexual consciousness :

Case 133

Case 133. Metamorphosis sexualis paranoica. N. aged twenty-three, single, pianist, was received in the asy- lum at Illenau in the last part of October, 1865. He came of a .family in which there was said to be no hereditary taint! but there was phthisis (father and brother died of pulmonary tuberculosis). Patient, as a child, was weakly and dull, though especially talented in music. He was al- ways of abnormal character ; silent, retiring, unsocial, and sullen. He practised masturbation after fifteen. After a few years neurasthenic symptoms (palpitation of the heart, lassitude, occasional pressure in the head, etc.) and also hypochondriacal symptoms were manifested. During the last year he had worked with great difficulty. For about six months neurasthenia had increased. He complained of palpitation of the heart, pressure in the head, and sleeplessness; was very irritable, and seemed to be sexually excited. He declared that he must marry for his health. He fell in love with an artiste, but almost at the same time (September,,! 8 G5), fell ill with paranoia persecutors (ideas of enemies, derision in the street, poison in food; obstacles were placed on the bridge to keep him from going to his inamorata). On account of increasing ex- citement and conflicts with those about him that he con-


siden 1 inimical to him, ho was taken to the asylum. At first he presented the picture of a typical paranoia pcrse- rnlnrld with symptoms of sexual, and later general, neuras- thenia, though the delusions of persecution did not rest upon this neurotic foundation. It was only occasionally that the patient heard such sentences as this : "Now the semen will be drawn from him. Now the bladder will be cut out"

In the course of the years 1866-68, the delusions of persecution became less and less apparent, and were for the most part replaced by erotic ideas. The somatic and mental basis was a lasting and powerful excitation of the sexual sphere. The patient fell in love with every woman he saw, heard voices which told him to approach her, and beg to be allowed to marry, declaring that, if he were not given a wife, he would waste away. With continu- ance of masturbation, in 1869, signs of future effemination made themselves manifest. "He would, if he should get a wife, love her only platonically." The patient grew more and more peculiar, lived in a circle of erotic ideas, saw prostitution practised in the asylum, and now and then heard voices which imputed immoral conduct with women to him. For this reason he avoided the society of women, and only associated with them for the sake of music when two witnesses were with him.

In the course of the year 1872, the neurasthenic con- dition became markedly increased. Now paranoia perse- cutoria again came into the foreground, and took on a clinical colouring from the neurotic basis. Olfactory hallucinations occurred. Magnetic influences were at work on him "magnetic waves produced by striking an anvil" (false interpretation of sensations due to spinal asthenia). With continued and intense sexual excitement and excess in masturbation, the process of effemination constantly progressed. Only episodically was he a man and inclined toward a woman, complaining that the shameless prosti- tution of the men in the house made it impossible for a lady to come to him. He was dying of magnetically pois-


oned air and unsatisfied love. Without love he could not live. He was poisoned by lewd poison that affected his sexual desire. The lady whom he l6ved was surrounded here by the lowest vice. The prostitutes in the house had fortune-chains ; that is, chains in which, without moving, a man can indulge in lustful pleasure. He was ready now to satisfy himself with prostitutes. He was possessed of a wonderful ray of thought that emanated from his eyes, which were worth 20,000,000. His compositions were worth 500,000 francs. With these indications of delusions of grandeur, there were also those of persecution the food was poisoned by venereal excrements; he tasted and smelled poison, heard infamous accusations, and asked for appliances to close his ears.

From August, 1872, however, the signs of effemination became more and more frequent. He acted somewhat affectedly, declaring that he could no longer live among men that drink and smoke. He thought and felt like a woman. He must thenceforth be treated like a woman and transferred to a female ward. He asked for confections and delicate desserts. Occasionally, on account off tenes- mus and cystospasm, he asked to be transferred to a lying- in hospital and treated as a woman very ill in pregnancy. The abnormal magnetism of masculine attendants had an unfavourable effect on him.

At times he still felt himself to be a man, but in a way which indicated his abnormally altered sexual feeling. He pleaded only for satisfaction by means of masturbation, or for marriage without coitus. Marriage was a sensual institution. The girl that he would take for a wife must be a masturbator.

About the end of December, 1872, his personality be- came completely feminine. From that time he remained a woman. He had always been a woman, but in his baby- hood a French Quaker, an artist, had put masculine geni- tals on him, and by rubbing and distorting his thorax had prevented the development of his breasts.

After this he demanded to be transferred to the female


department, protection from men that wished to violate IUIM, and asked for female clothing. Eventually he also desired to be given employment in a toy-shop, with crochet- ing and embroidery work to do, or a place in a dressmaking establishment with female work. From the time of the transformatio sexus, the patient began a new reckoning of time. He conceived his previous personality in memory as that of a cousin.

He always spoke of himself in the third person, and called himself the Countess V., the dearest friend of the Empress Eugenie; asked for perfumes, corsets, etc., He took the other men of the ward for girls, tried to raise a head of hair, and demanded "Oriental Hair-Remover," in order that no one may doubt his gender. He took de- light in praising onanism, for "she had been an onanist from fifteen, and had never desired any other kind of sexual satisfaction". Occasionally neurasthenic symptoms, olfactory hallucinations, and persecutory delusions were observed. All the events up to the time of December, 1872, belonged to the personality of the cousin.

The patient's delusion that he was the Countess V. could no longer be corrected. She proved her identity by the fact- that the nurse had examined her, and found her to be a lady. The countess would not marry, because she hated men. Since he was not provided with female clothing and shoes, he spent the greatest part of the day in bed, acted like an invalid lady of position, affectedly and modestly, and asked for bon-bons and the like. His hair was done up in a knot as well as it allowed, and the beard was pulled out. Breasts were made of rolls of bread.

In 1874 caries began in the left knee-joint, to which pulmonary tuberculosis was soon added. Death on 2nd December, 1874. Skull normal. Frontal lobes atrophic. Brain anaemic. Microscopical (Dr. Schille). In the su- perior layer of the frontal lobe, ganglion cells somewhat shrunken; in the adventitia of the vessels, numerous fat- corpuscles; ganglia unchanged; isolated pigment particles and colloid bodies. The lower layers of the cortex normal,


Genitals very large; testicles small, lax, and showed no change microscopically on section.

The delusion of sexual transformation, displayed in its conditions and phases of development in the foregoing case, is a manifestation remarkably infrequent in the pathology of the human mind. Besides the foregoing cases, personally observed, I have seen such a case, as an episodical phenomenon, in a lady having sexual inversion (case 118, of the seventh edition of this work), one in a girl affected with original paranoia, and another in a lady suffering with original paranoia.

Save for a case briefly reported by Arndt 1 in his text- book, and one quite superficially described by Seriettx ("Recherches Clinique," p. 33), and the two cases known to Esquirol* I cannot recall any cases of delusion of sexual transformation in literature.

I have already mentioned the interesting relations ex- isting between the facts of delusional transformation of sex and the so-called insanity of the Scythians.

Marandon ("Annales medico-psychologiques," 1877, p. 161), like others, has erroneously presumed that with the ancient Scythians there was an actual delusion, and that the condition was not merely that of eviration. According to the law of empirical actuality, the delusion, so infre- quent to-day, must also have been very infrequent in an- cient times. Since it can only be conceived as arising on the basis of paranoia, there can be no thought of its en- demic occurrence ; it can only be regarded as a superstitious manifestation of eviration (the result of anger of the goddess), as is also evident from the statements of Hippo- crates.

The facts of the so-called Scythian insanity, as well as

1 An abstract of this may be found in case 103 of the ninth edition of this book.

  • Cf. Hid., cases 104 and 105.


the facts lately learned about the Pueblo Indians, are also worthy of note anthropologically, in so far as atrophy of the testes and genitals in general, and approximation to the female type, physically and mentally, were observed. This is the more remarkable, since, in men who have lost their procreative organs, such a reversal of instinct is quito as unusual as in women, mutatis mutandis, after the nat- ural or artificial climacteric.

B. Homo-Sexual Feeling as an Abnormal Congenital Manifestation. 1

The essential feature of this strange manifestation of the sexiial life is the want of sexual sensibility for the opposite sex, even to the extent of horror, while sexual inclination and impulse toward the same sex are present At the same time, the genitals are normally developed, the

1 Bibliography (besides works mentioned hereafter) : Tardieu, "Des attentats aux moeurs," 7 dit., 1878, p. 210. Bofmann, "Lehrb. d. ger. Med.," 6 Aufl., pp. 170, 887. Oley, "Revue philo- sophique," 1884, No. 1. Magnan, " Annal. med-paychol.," 1885, p. 458. Khaw and Ferra, " Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases," 1883, April, No. 2. Bernhardi, " Der Uranismus," Berlin (Volka- buchhamllung), 1882. Chevalier, " De 1'inversion de 1'instinct - uel," Paris, 1885. Ritti, " Gaz. hebdom. de medecine et de chirurg.," 1878, 4. Januar. Tamanaia, " Rivista sperim," 1878, ppl 97-117. Lombroto, " Archiv. di Psiehiatr.," 1881. Charcot et Magnan, " Archiv. de neurologic," 1882, Nr. 7, 12. Moll, " Die contrlre Sex- ualempfindung," Berlin, 3rd edit., 1899 (numerous bibliographic references). Chevalier, "Archives de 1'anthropologie criminelle," vol. v., No. 27; vol. vi., No. 31. Reu, "Aberrations du sens gnesique," " Annales d'hygiene publique," 1886. Saury, " Etude (Unique sur la folie hre<iitaire," 1886. Brouardel, "Gaz. des hop- itaux," 1880 and 1887. Tilier, " L'instinct sexucl che/. 1'honimc et chez les animaux," 1889. Carlier, " Les deux prostitutions^" 1887. Lacassagne, art. " Petterastie," in the " Diction. encyclopetlique." Vibert, art. " Pe<le>astie," in the " Diction, med. et de chirurgic." Coutagnc, " Lyon medical," 1880, Nos. 35, 36. Blunter, " Amcric. Journ. of Insanity," July, 1882. F. Krafft, " Zeitschr. f Psychiatric," No. 38. niumerutock, art. " Contrlre Sexualompfindung," " Realcn- cyclop. d. ge. Heilkunde," 2 Aufl. vi. Brouardel, " Gar. des hopiteaux," 1887. Krirtc, " Inaugural dissert.," WQrzburg, 1888. Wo/man, art. " Paederastie," " Realencyclop. d. ges. Heilkunde," 2


sexual glands perform their functions properly, and the sexual type is completely differentiated.

Feeling, thought, will, and the whole character, in

leases of the complete development of the anomaly, corre-

spond with the peculiar sexual instinct, but not with the

sex which the individual represents anatomically and

physiologically. This abnormal mode of feeling may not

infrequently be recognized in the manner, dress and

calling of the individuals, who may go so far as to yield

to an impulse to don the distinctive clothing corresponding

with the sexual role in which they feel themselves to be.

Anthropologically and clinically, this abnormal mani- festation presents various degrees of development :

1. Traces of hetero-sexual, with predominating homo- sexual, instinct (psycho-sexual hermaphroditism).

2. There exists inclination only toward the same sex (homo-sexuality) .

3. The entire mental existence is altered to correspond with the abnormal sexual instinct (effemination and viraginity ) .

4. The form of the body approaches that which corresponds to the abnormal sexual instinct. However actual transitions to hermaphrodites never occur, but, on the contrary, completely differentiated genitals; so that, just as in all pathological perversions of the sexual life,

Aufl. xv. Tarnowsky, " Die krankhaften Ercheinungen des Ge- schlechtsinnes," Berlin, 1886. Magnan, " Stance de I'acadfimie de m&iecine du 13 Janvier," 1885, idem, "Annales medico psychol.," 1886 ( " Anomalies du sens genital " ; " Discussion sur la f olie h6r6d- itaire"). Scrieux, " Recherches cliniques sur les anomalies de 1'instinct sexuel," Paris, 1886. Chevalier, " L'inversion sexuelle," Lyon, Paris, 1893. Ladame, " Revue de 1'hypnotisme," Sept., 1889. Peyer, ""Munch, med. Wochenschrift," 1890, No. 23. Lewin, " Neurolog. Centralblatt," 1891, No. 18. 7. Schrenck-Xotzing, " Die Suggestions-therapie," etc., Stuttgart. Eulenburg, op. cit., p. 66, " Homo-sexuelle Parerosie." Raffalovich, " Die Entwickelung der Homo-sexualitfit," Berlin, 1895, 4dem, " Uranisme et Unisexualite"," Paris, 1886. V. Schrenck-Notzing, " Klin. Zeit- und Streitfragen," ix. 1 (Wien, 1895). Laupts, "Perversion et perversity sexuelles," Paris, 1896. Legrain, " Des anomalies de 1'instinct sexuel," etc., Paris, 1896.


the cause must be sought in the brain (androgyny and gynandry).

The first definite communications 1 concerning this enigmatical phenomenon of Nature are made by Casper ("Ueber Nothzucht und Paderastie," Casper's "Viertel- jahrsschrift," 1852, i.), who, it is true, classes it with pederasty, but makes the pertinent remark that this anomaly is, in most cases, congenital, and, at the same time, to be regarded as a mental hermaphroditism. There exists here an actual disgust of sexual contact with women, while the imagination is filled with beautiful young men, and with statues and pictures of them. It did not escape Casper that in such cases emissio penis in anum (peder- asty) is not the rule, but that, by means of other sexual acts (mutual onanism), sexual satisfaction is sought and obtained.

In his "Clinical Novels" (1863, p. 33) Casper gives the interesting confession of a man showing this perver- sion of the sexual instinct, and does not hesitate to assert that, aside from vicious imagination and vice, as a result of over-indulgence in normal sexual intercourse, there are numerous cases in which "pederasty" has its origin in a remarkable, obscure impulse, which is congenital and inexplicable. About the middle of the "sixties" a certain assessor, Ulrichs, himself subject to this perverse instinct, declared, in numerous articles, under the nom-de-plume

1 Dr. Moll, of Berlin, called my attention to the fact that in Moritz'a " Magazin f. Erfahrungsseelenkunde," vol. viii., Berlin, 1791, references are made to antipathic sexual instinct in man. In fact, two biographies of men are there reported who manifested an enthusiastic love for persons of their own sex. In the second case, which is par- ticularly noteworthy, the patient himself explains his aberration by the fact that, as a child he was caressed only by grown persons, and as a boy of ten or twelve years only by his school-fellows. " This, and the want of association with persons of the opposite sex, in me caused the natural inclination toward the female sex to be entirely diverted to the male sex. I am still quite indifferent to women."

It cannot be determined whether such a case is one of con- genital (psycho-sexual hermaphrodisia?) or acquired antipathic sexual instinct.


"Numa Numantius, 1 that the sexual mental life was not connected with the bodily sex; tha.t there were male in- dividuals that felt like women toward men (anima mulie- bris in corpore virili inclusa). lie called these people "urnings," and demanded nothing less than the legal and social recognition of this sexual love of the urnings as congenital and, therefore, as right; and the permission of marriage among them. Ulrichs failed, however, to prove that this certainly congenital and paradoxical sexual feeling was physiological, and not pathological.

Griesinger ("Archiv f. Psychiatric," i., p. 651) threw the first ray of light on these facts, anthropologically and clinically by pointing out the marked hereditary taint of the individual in a case which came under his own observation.

We owe thanks to Westphal ("Archiv f. Psychiatric," ^ ii., p. 73) for the first systematic consideration of the manifestation in question, which he defined as "congenital reversal of the sexual feeling, with consciousness of the abnormality of the manifestation," and designated with the name, since generally accepted, of antipathic sexual instinct. At the same time, he began a series of cases, which up to this time has numbered about 200, those reported in this monograph not being included.

Westplial leaves it undecided as to whether antipathic sexual feeling is a symptom of a neuropathic or of a psychopathic condition, or whether it may occur as an isolated manifestation. He holds fast to the opinion that the condition is congenital.

From the cases published up to 1877 I have desig- nated this peculiar sexual feeling as a functional sign of degeneration, and as a partial manifestation of a neuro- (psycho-) pathic state, in most cases hereditary, a supposition which has found renewed confirmation in a

1M Vindex, Inclusa, Vindicta, Formatrix, Ara spei, Gladius furena" (Leipzig, H. Matthes, 1864 and 1865); Ulrtchs, " Kritische Pfeile," 1879, in Commission, by H. Cronlein, Stuttgart, Augusten- strasse, 5.


consideration of additional cases. The following pecu- liarities may bo given as the signs of this neuro- (psycho-) I>athic taint :

1. The sexual life of individuals thus organized mani- fests itself, as a rule, abnormally early, and thereafter with abnormal power. Not infrequently still other perverse manifestations are presented besides the abnormal method of sexual satisfaction, which in itself is conditioned by the peculiar sexual feeling.

2. The psychical love manifest in these men is, for the most part, exaggerated and exalted in the same way as their sexual instinct is manifested in consciousness, with a strange and even compelling force.

3. By the side of the functional signs of degeneration attending antipathic sexual feeling are found other functional, and in many cases anatomical, evidences of degeneration.

4. Neuroses (hysteria, neurasthenic, epileptoid states, etc.) co-exist. Almost invariably the existence of tem- porary or lasting neurasthenia may be proved. As a rule, this is constitutional, having its root in congenital condi- tions. It is awakened and maintained by masturbation or enforced abstinence.

In male individuals, owing to these practices or to congenital disposition, there is finally neurasthenia sex- ualis, which manifests itself essentially in irritable weak- ness of the ejaculation centre. Thus it is explained that, in most of the cases, simply embracing and kissing, or even only the sight of the loved person, induce the act of ejacu- lation. Frequently this is accompanied by an abnormally powerful feeling of lustful pleasure, which may be so in- tense as to suggest a feeling of "magnetic" currents pass- ing through the body.

5. In the majority of cases, psychical anomalies (bril- liant endowment, in art, especially music, poetry, etc., by the side of bad intellectual powers or original eccentricity) are present, which may extend to pronounced conditions of mental degeneration (imbecility, moral insanity).


In many urnings, either temporarily or permanently, insanity of a degenerative character (pathological emo- tional states, periodical insanity, paranoia, etc.) makes its appearance.

6. In almost all cases where an examination of the physical and mental peculiarities of the ancestors ahd blood relations has been possible, neurosis, psychoses, degenerative signs, etc., have been found in the families. 1

The depth of congenital antipathic sexual feeling is shown by the fact that the lustful dream of the male-loving urning has for its content only male individuals; that of the female-loving woman, only female individuals, with corresponding situations.

The observation of Westphal, that the consciousness of one congeni tally defective in sexual desires toward the opposite sex is painfully affected by the impulse toward the same sex, is true in only a number of cases. Indeed, in many instances, the consciousness of the abnormality of the condition is wanting. The majority of urnings are happy in their perverse sexual feeling and impulse, and unhappy only in so far as social and legal barriers stand in the way of the satisfaction of their instinct toward / their own sex.

The study of antipathic sexual feeling points directly to anomalies of the cerebral organisation of the affected individuals. The very fact that in these cases, with few exceptions, the sexual glands are found quite normal, anatomically and functionally, seems to favour this assumption.

This enigmatical manifestation in the nature of man has led to many attempts of explanation.

Among lay persons, it is called vice; in the language

1 Tarnowsky (op. cit., p. 34) records a case which shows that antipathic sexual feeling, as a concomitant manifestation with neurotic degeneration, may also affect the descendants of parents having no neurotic taint. In this instance, lues of the parents played a part, as in a similar case of Scholz (" Vierteljahrsschr. f. ger. Mod." ) , in which the perversion of the sexual desires stood in causal relation with an arrest of psychical development, caused by traumatism.


..f the law, crime. Those tainted with it, although recog- nising it as an abnormality, claim for it the same rights and privileges that are accorded to normal (hetero-sexual) love, on account of its being based upon a freak of nature. From Plato down to Ulrichs, in antipathic sexual circles, this standpoint is maintained. Plato's "Banquet," chap- ters viii. and ix., are quoted for that purpose, viz.: "There is no Aphrodites without an Eros. But there are two goddesses. The older Aphrodites came into existence without a mother; being the daughter of Uranos she is called Urania. The younger Aphrodites is the daughter of Zeus and Diana and is called Pandemos. The Eros of the former must, therefore, be Uranos, that of the latter Pandemos. With the love of Eros Pandemos the ordinary human beings love; Eros Uranos did not choose a female but a male; this is the love for boys. Whoever is inspired with this love turns to the male sex." From many other places in the classics the impression may be won that Uranic love attained a higher position even than her sister. More recent explanations of the homo- sexual instinct have emanated from philosophers, psycho- logists and natural scientists.

One of the most peculiar explanations is advanced by Schopenhauer ("Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"), who seriously contends that nature seeks to prevent old men (i.e., over fifty years of age) from begetting children, since experience teaches that these never turn out good. For this purpose nature in her wisdom has turned the sexual instinct in old men toward their own sex! The great philosopher and thinker evidently was not aware that sexual inversion, as a rule, exists ab origine, and that pederasty, occurring in the senium, is only sexual per- versity, but by no means proves the presence of perversion.

Binet attempts to explain these peculiar manifestations from a psychological standpoint, thinking (with Condillac) to reduce them together with other bizarre psychical phenomena to the law of association of ideas (i.e., association of ideas with sentiments in statu nascendi).


This clever psychologist assumes that the instinct not as yet sexually differentiated is determined by the coin- cidence of a vivid sexual emotion with the simultaneous sight or contact of a person of the opposite sex. In this manner a mighty association is created, which takes root by repeating itself, whilst the original associative process is forgotten or becomes latent. Even to-day v. Schrenck-Notzing and others lean to this opinion, in their efforts to explain the inverted sexual instinct (chiefly when acquired; ; but it cannot withstand serious criticism. Psychological forces are insufficient to explain manifesta- tions of so thoroughly degenerated a character (vide infra).

Chevalier ("Inversion Sexuelle," Paris, 1893) rightly demurs against Binet that these attempts at psychological explanations explain neither the precocity of homo-sexual impulses, i.e., such as have existed long before sexual feelings were associated with imagination, nor the aver- sion towards the opposite sex, nor early appearance of secondary psychico-sexual manifestations. Nevertheless, Binet's subtle remark that the lasting presence of such associations is only possible in predisposed (tainted) indi- viduals is worthy of note.

Neither do the explanations attempted by physicians and naturalists prove anything to satisfaction. Gley ("Revue philosophique," January, 1884) maintains that those afflicted with inverted sexual instinct have a female brain ( !) but masculine sexual glands, and that an existing morbid condition of the brain determines the sexual life, whilst e contra and normally the sexual glands influence the sexual cerebral functions. Magnan ("Annales med. psychol.," 1885, p. 458) also speaks of a female brain in the body of a man and vice versa. Ulrichs ("Memnon," 1868) comes closer to the point when he speaks of an anima muliebris virili corpori innati, and thus seeks to explain congenital effeminatio. According to Mantegazza (op. cit. 1886, p. 106), anatomical anomalies exist in such persons in so far as the natural plextts of the genital nerves terminates in the rectum, thus misdirecting thither all

0-8EXUAI >i;\!\[ l-ATION. 343

s. But surelv nadir is guilty of such

errors or "sallux". NYiiln-r does slit- burden a masculine body with a female brain. The author of this hypothesis, otherwise so acute, quite overlooks the fact that the individuals given to sexual inversion, as a rule, abhor the use of the anus viz., pederasty. Mantegazza, reverts, as a support for his hypothesis, to the communications which he received from a well-known prominent author, who assured him that he was not as yet satisfied in his own mind whether he derived greater pleasure from coitus than from defalcation. Even if we admit the correctness of this statement, it would only prove that its author was sexually abnormal, and that he derived but a minimum of pleasure from coitus. Moreover, one would come to the conclusion that the mucous membrane of his rectum was, in some abnormal manner, erogenous.

Bernhardi ("Der Uranismus," Berlin, 1882) casually found in five effeminati ("Pathici") absence of spermato- zoa, in four cases not even sperm crystals, and thought to find the solution of this "enigma of many thousand years" in the assumption that the pathicux was a "monster of the feminine sex, having nothing else in common with the male than the male genitals, which in some cases are even only imperfectly developed". This author could not even base his contention upon an autopsy, which, no doubt, would have eventually established a case of hermaphrodit- ism.

Those practising active viraginity and gynandry he styles as "monsters of masculine gender in opposition to which the passive tribade is as perfect a woman as the active paedicator is a perfect man".

The author of this book has made an attempt to utilise facts of heredity for an explanation of this anomaly. Proceeding from the experience that manifestations of sexual perversion are frequently found in the parents, he suspects that the various grades of congenital sexual inversion represent various grades of sexual anomaly inherited by birth, acquired by ascendency, or otherwise


developed. In this connection, the law of progressive heredity must also be considered.^

All attempts at explanation made hitherto on the ground of natural philosophy or psychology, or those of a merely speculative character are insufficient.

Later researches, however, proceeding on embryo- logical (onto- and phylogenetic) and anthropological lines seem to promise good results.

Emanating from Frank Lydston ("Philadelphia Med. and Surg. Recorder," September, 1888,) and Kiernan ("Medical Standard," November, 1888), they are based (1) on the fact that bisexual organisation is still found in the lower animal kingdom, and (2) on the supposition that mono-sexuality gradually developed from bisexuality. Kiernan assumes in trying to subordinate sexual inversion to the category of hermaphroditism that in individuals thus affected retrogression into the earlier hermaphrodisic forms of the animal kingdom may take place at least functionally. These are his own words: "The original bisexuality of the ancestors of the race, shown in the rudimentary female organs of the male, could not fail to occasion functional, if not organic reversions, when mental or physical manifestations were interfered with by disease or congenital defect. It seems certain that a feminily functionating brain can occupy a male body and vice versa.

Chevalier (op. cit., p. 408) proceeds from the original bisexual life in the animal kingdom, and the original bisexual predisposition in the human foetus.

According to him the difference in the gender, with marked physical and psychical sexual character, is only the result of endless processes of evolution. The psycho- physical sexual difference runs parallel with the high level of the evolving process. The individual being must also itself pass through these grades of evolution; it is originally bisexual, but in the struggle between the male and female elements either one or the other is conquered, and a monosexual being is evolved which corresponds with the type of the present stage of evolution. But traces of


the conquered srxualitv remain. Under certain circum- stances, these caracteres sexuels latcnts may gain Darwin's signification, i.e., they may provoke manifestations of

i-tecl sexuality. Chevalier does not, however, look upon such processes as a retrogression (atavism), in the sense of Lombroso's opinion and that of others, but rather considers them with Lacassagne as disturbances in the present stage of evolution.

If the structure of this opinion is continued, the fol- lowing anthropological and historical facts may be evolved :

1. The sexual apparatus consists of (a) the sexual glands and the organs of reproduction; (6) the spinal centres, which act either as a check or a stimulus upon (a) ; (c) the cerebral regions, in which the psychical processes of the vita sexualis are enacted.

Since the original predisposition of (a) is of a bisexual character, the same must be claimed for (6) and (c).

2. The tendency of nature in the present stage of evolution is the reproduction of monosexual individuals, and the law of experience teaches that that cerebral centre is normally developed which corresponds with the sexual glands ("Law of the Sexual Homologous Development").

3. This destruction of antipathic sexuality is at present not yet completed. In the same manner in which the processus vermiformis in the intestinal tube points to former stages of organisation, so may also be found in the sexual apparatus in the male as well as in the female residua, which point to the original onto- and phylogenetic bisexuality, not to speak of hormaphrodisic malformations, which may be looked upon merely as partial excesses of development, or disturbances in the formation of the sexual organisation, and especially of the external genitals.

The residua referred to are, in the male, the utriculus masculinus (remnants of the "Miillersche Gange") and the nipple, fn woman the paroophoron (remnants of the or i /r ;u<tl renal portions of the Wolffian bodies), and the


epoophoron (remnants of Wolff's ganglia, and analogous with the epididjrmifl in the male).\Bet^e^ Klebs, Fiirst and others have found in the human female suggestions of the Wolffian bodies in the shape of the so-called Gartnerian canals, which in the female ruminants are regularly present in the lateral wall of the uterus.

4. Besides, a long line of clinical and anthropological facts favour this assumption.

I will only call attention to the not infrequent cases of individuals with characters of mixed or (in the sense of sexual inversion) predominating physical and psychical sexuality ("female men and male women"), to the appearance of the female character (psychically and physically) in men, consequent upon castration (eunuclis)j and of the male character in woman after the removal of the ovaries in early youth, also to the manifestations of viraginity in climax prcecox, and even to the development of a second gender.

Professor Kalteribach gives a remarkable instance of such a second (antipathic) vita sexualis, developed upon climax praecox.

On the 17th of February, 1892, he consulted me about "a woman, thirty years of age, married two years, who formerly had irregular menstruations."

Since June, 1891, a sudden series of manifestations which corresponded with the process of masculine puberty, viz., full beard, hair of the head much darker, eyebrows and pubis strongly developed, chest and abdomen covered with hair as in man.

Increased activity of the sudoriparous and sabaceous glands. Upon chest, back and face strong miliary and acne developments, whilst formerly the tint was classically white and smooth. Change of voice formerly rich soprano, now a "lieutenant's voice". The entire facial expression changed. Complete change o f carriage: chest broad, waist gone, abdomen prominent with adipose tissue, short thick-set neck, masculine all over. l*/wer part of face broad, breasts flat and masculine.


changes: formerly mild and tractable, now enrrgetic, hard to control, even aggressive. From the beginning of marriage no adequate sexual desire, but no traces of inversion.

In the sexual organs also highly interesting changes may be found. "Thus this young woman has changed into a man, to all intents and purposes."

My explanation of the case :

"Climax prcecox, loss of former feminine sexuality. Physical and psychical development of male sexuality, hitherto latent. Interesting illustration of the bi-sexual predisposition, and of the possibility of continued existence of a second sexuality in a latent state, under conditions hitherto unknown."

Unfortunately, I could obtain no further information about the subsequent metamorphosis of this case, or the presence of probable hereditary taint.

Vide also cases 129 and 130. In these severe neuras- thenia was the causating element of transmutatio sexus, based upon heavy taint; the change, however, being only psychical, and not affecting the physical sexual character.

5. These manifestations of inverted sexuality are evidently found only in persons with organic taint. 1 In normal constitutions the law of mono-sexual development, homologous with the sexual glands, remains intact. That the cerebral centre is developed under other conditions, quite independent from the peripheral sexual organs (in- cluding the sexual glands), is evident from the cases of hermaphroditism (at least, so far as pseudo-hermaphrodi- tism is concerned), in which the law referred to above re- mains intact in the sense of mono-sexual development,

"The researches in zoology, by Klaus ("Zoology," 1891, p. 490) show that, in the lower grades of the animal world, not only hermaphroditism exists, but that also ( physiological T ) sexual ex- change in one and the same individual may take place. Klaus states that the cymothoidea" (classified under Crustacea) perform in the first part of their life the functions of the male, and in the second part under many, even secondary, changes of the sexual character iLc=e ot the female.


analogous to the sexual glands. In hermaproditismus verus, however, physically as well as psychically, a mutual influence of both centres obtains, and thus also a neutral- isation of the vita amoris, assuming even a state of asex- uality, and a tendency to physically and psychically com- bine and put into operation both these sexual characters.

But hermaphroditism and sexual inversion stand in no relation to each other. This is clear from the fact that the hermaphrodite (or, practically speaking, the pseudo- hermaphrodite) follows the law of evolution quoted above, and does not offer inverted sexuality, whilst, on the other hand, hermaphroditism has never been anatomically observed in cases of antipathic sexual instinct. This follows, without further argument, from the difference of the conditions under which they originate, for in sexual inversion we must look for the cause in central (cerebral) defects, and in hermaphroditism in the anomalies affecting the peripheral sexual apparatus.

The facts quoted seem to support an attempt of an historical and anthropological explanation of sexual inver-


It is a disturbance of the law of the development of the cerebral centre, homologous to the sexual glands (homo -sexuality), and eventually also of the law of the mono-sexual formation of the individual (psychical "hermaphroditism"). In the former case it is the centre of bi-sexual predisposition, antagonistic to the gender represented by the sexual gland, which in a paradoxical manner conquers that originally intended to be superior; yet the law of mono-sexual development obtains. 1

In the other case victory lies with neither centre; yet an indication of the tendency of mono-sexual development

  • A mono-sexual psychic apparatus of generation, in a mono-

sexual body which belongs to the opposite sex, does, of course, not mean a " feminine soul in a masculine brain," or vice versa this would simply contradict all monistic and scientific thought; neither a feminine brain in a masculine body this contradicts erery anatomical fact but only a feminine psycho-sexual centre in a masculine brain, and vice versa.


remains, in so far that one is predominant, as a rule the opposite. This is the more remarkable since it has not the support of a corresponding sexual gland in fact, not even a peripheral sexual apparatus, another proof that the cerebral centre is autonomous, and in its development independent of the sexual glands.

In the first case it must be assumed that the centre which by right should have conquered was too weak. This fact may be recognized in the subsequently weak libido in the sexual character, but feebly marked in the physical and psychical conditions.

In the second case both centres were too weak to obtain victory and superiority.

This defect of the natural laws must, from the anthro- pological and clinical standpoint, be considered as a man- ifestation of degeneration. In fact, in all cases of sexual inversion a taint of a hereditary character may be established. What causes produce this factor of taint and its activity is a question which cannot be well answered by science in its present stage. 1

There are plenty of analogous cases to be found in tainted individuals. For the symptoms of influences disturbing physical and psychical evolution, and plainly to be found in the germ of procreation, exhibit themselves in many other manifestations of a defective or perverse character (signs of anatomical, functional, somatic and psychical degeneration).

The antipathic sexual instinct is only the strongest

1 Joseph MUller, in a clever brochure ("Ueber Gamophagy," Stuttgart, 1892) offers an inducement for further research in this direction. He advances the opinion that by a certain law, established by necessity, and transcending in normal fashion, a union of the organs and their qualities is effected. This union would explain how, in the struggle of the development of mono- and bi-sexuality, those organs and their qualities suffer the common fate of conquest or defeat which belong together as a whole with regard to their functional capacity. The defect of the elements connecting the organs during the struggle for superiority in beings subject to organic taint could only be explained as a negative result of this hypothetical law.


mark left by a whole series of exhibitions of the partial development of psychical and physical inverted sexual characters (vide supra), and one may be easily permitted to say: The more indistinct the psychical and physical sexual characters appear in the individual, the deeper it is below the present level of perfect homologous mono- sexuality obtained in the evolution of manifold thousands of years.

The cerebral centre mediates the psychical and, in- directly, also the physical sexual characters. The various grades of congenital antipathic sexuality will be found to correspond with the intensity of various grades of taint.

The same holds good with regard to "acquired" sexual inversion, which exhibits itself only later in life. Un- tainted man will never become sexually inverted through onanism or seduction by persons of the same sex; for, as soon as the extrinsic influences cease, he returns to normal sexual functions. The tainted individual, however, whose psycho-sexual centre is originally weak, is in a different position. All possible psychical and physical deficiencies, especially neurasthenic, are able to impair his weakened sexuality, homologous though it may have been hitherto to the sexual glands. These evil influences may render him furthermost psychically bi-sexual, then invertedly mono-sexual, and eventually may effect even eviratio (de- feminatio), by way of producing physical and psychical characters of sexuality, in the sense of predominating antipathic, or the destruction of original, centres. On page 286, etc., I have tried to show in how far neurasthenia may give the impulse for the development of antipathic sexuality.

Congenital Antipathic Sexual Instinct in Man.

The sexual acts by means of which male urnings seek and find satisfaction are multifarious. There are indi- viduals of fine feeling and strength of will who sometimes satisfy themselves with platonic love, with the risk how-


<.f Ixvoiiiing nervous (neurasthenic) and insane as a result of this enforced ahstinence. In other in>taiices, fr the same reasons \\hieh may lead normal individuals to avoid coitus, onanism, fautc de mieux, is indulged in.

In urnings with nervous systems congenitally irritable, or injured by onauism (irritable weakness of the ejacu- lation centre), simple embraces or caresses, with or without contact of the genitals, are sufficient to induce ejaculation and consequent satisfaction. In less irritable individuals, the sexual act consists of manustupration by the loved person, or mutual onanism, or imitation of coitus between the thighs. In urnings morally perverse and potent, quoad ereciionem, the sexual desire is satisfied by pederasty, an act, however, which is repugnant to perverted individuals that are not defective morally, much in the same way as it is to normal men. The statement of urnings is remark- able, that the adequate sexual act with persons of the same sex gives them a feeling of great satisfaction and accession of strength, while satisfaction by solitary onan- ism, or by enforced coitus with a woman, affects them in an unfavourable way, making them miserable and increas- ing their neurasthenic symptoms.

As to the frequency 1 of the occurrence of the anomaly, it is difficult to reach a just conclusion, since those affected with it not often break from their reserve; and in criminal cases the urning with perversion of sexual instinct is usual- ly classed with the person given to pederasty for simply vicious reasons. According to Casper's and Tardieu's, as well as my own, experience, this anomaly is much more frequent than reported cases would lead us to presume.

'That inversion of the sexual instinct is not uncommon is proved, among other things, by the circumstances that it is frequently the subject in novels. The neuropathic foundation of this sexual perversion does not escape tlie writers. This theme is treated in m literature in " Fridolin's hcimliche Eho," by Wilbrand; in " Brick-a-Braek odcr Lie-lit im Schatton," by Emcrich Graf Stadion; also by Raldtiin Grnllrr, " Prinz Klotz." The oldest urning romance is probably that publish***! by 1'etroniut at Rome, under the Empire. under the title " Satyricon."


Ulrichs ("Kritische Pfeilc," p. 2, 1880) declares that, on an average, there is one person affected with antipathic sexual instinct to every 200 mature men, or to every 800 of the population; and that the percentage among the Mag- yars and South Slavs is still greater, statements

^ That inversion of the sexual instinct is not infrequent is proved, among other things, by the circumstance that it is frequently a subject in novels. Chevalier (op. cit.) points out in French literature, besides the novels of Balzac, like "La Passion au Desert" [1830] (treating of bestiality) and " Sarrazine" [1830] (treating of the love of a woman for a eunuch), Diderot's " La Religieuse " (a story of one given to amor lesbicus) ; Balzac's " La Fille aux Yeux d'Or " [1835] (amor lesbicus) ; Th. Gautier's " Mademoiselle de Maupin" [1835]; Feydeau's "La Comtesse de Chalis" [1867]; Flaubert's "Salammbo [1862]," etc. Belot's " Mademoiselle Giraud, ma Femme" [1870] may also be mentioned (now translated into English). It is interesting that the heroines of these (Lesbian) novels appear in the character and role of the husband of a lover of the same sex, and that their love is extremely passionate. Moreover, the neuropathic foundation of this sexual perversion does not escape the writers. This theme is treated in German literature in " Fridolin's heimliche Ehe," by Wilbrand ; in "Brick and brack, oder Licht in Schatten," by Emerich Graf Stadion ; also by Balduin Groller, " Prinz Klotz ". The oldest urning romance is probably that published by Petronius at Rome, under the Empire, under the title " Satyricon ".

which may be regarded as untrustworthy. The subject of one of my cases knows personally, at his home (13,000 inhab- itants), fourteen urnings. He further declares that he is acquainted with at least eighty in a city of 60,000 inhabi- tants. It is to be presumed that this man, otherwise worthy of belief, makes no distinction between the congen- ital and the acquired anomaly.

I. Psychical Hermaphroditism. 1

The characteristic mark of this degree of inversion of the sexual instinct is that, by the side of the pronounced sexual instinct and desire for the same sex, a desire toward the opposite sex is present; but the latter is much weaker and is manifested episodically only, while homo-sexuality is primary, and, in time and intensity, forms the most strik- ing feature of the vita sexualis.

The hetero-sexual instinct may be but rudimentary, manifesting itself simply in unconscious (dream) life; or (episodically, at least) it may be powerfully exhibited.

The sexual instinct toward the opposite sex may be strengthened by the exercise of will and self-control; by moral treatment, and possibly by hypnotic suggestion; by improvement of the constitution and the removal of neuroses (neurasthenia) ; but especially by abstinence from masturbation.

However, there is always the danger that homo-sexual feelings, in that they are the most powerful, may become permanent, and lead to enduring and exclusive antipathic

1 Cf. author's work, " Ueber psychosexuales Zwitterthum," in the " Internationales Centralblatt f. d. Physiologic u. Pathologic der Harn- und Sexualorgane," Bd. i., Heft 2.

PSYCHICAL !I1:>1>1TI8M. 353

sexual instinct. This is especially to be feared as a result of the influences of masturbation (JIM a- in ac<|iiired in- version of tin- sexual in.-iinct) and its neurasthenia and conseqm-nt exacerbations; and, further, it is to be found as a consequence of unfavourable experiences in sexual intercourse with persons of the opposite sex (defective feel- ing of pleasure in coitus, failure in coitus on account of \\( akness of erection and premature ejaculation, infection).

On the other hand, it is possible that aesthetic and ethical sympathy with persons of the opposite sex may favour the development of hetero-sexual desires. Thus it happens that the individual, according to the predomi- nance of favourable or unfavourable influences, experiences now hetero-sexual, now homo-sexual, feeling.

It seems to me probable that such hermaphrodites from constitutional taint are rather numerous. 1 Since they attract very little attention socially, and since such secrets of married life are only exceptionally brought to the knowl- edge of the physician, it is at once apparent why this in- teresting and practically important transitional group to the group of absolute inverted sexuality has thus far escaped scientific investigation.

Many cases of frigiditas uxoris and marili may possibly depend upon this anomaly. Sexual intercourse with the opposite sex is, in itself, possible. At any rate, in cases of this degree, no horror sexus alterius exists. Here is a fertile field for the application of medical and moral thera- peutics (v. infra).

The differential diagnosis from acquired antipathic sexual instinct may present difficulties; for, in such cases, so long as the vestiges of a normal sexual instinct are not absolutely lost, the actual symptoms are the same (v. infra) .

In the first degree, the sexual satisfaction of homo-

1 This idea ia supported by the statement* of an unmarried urning, which Dr. Moll, of Berlin, kindly communicated to me. He could report a number of cases of his acquaintance, in which married men had also " relations " with men.



sexual impulses consists in passive and mutual onanism and coitus inter femora.

Case 134

Case 134. Antipathic sexual instinct with sexual sat- isfaction in hetero-sexual intercourse. Mr. Z., aged thirty- six, consulted me on account of an anomaly of his sexual feelings, which had become a matter of anxiety to him in connection with an intended marriage. Patient's father was neuropathic, and suffered with nightmare and night- terrors. Grandfather was also neuropathic; father's brother an idiot. Patient's mother and her family were healthy and normal mentally. The patient had three sisters and one brother, the latter being subject to moral insanity. Two sisters were healthy, and enjoying happy married lives.

As a child, the patient was weak, nervous, and subject to night-terrors, like his father; but he never had any severe illness, except coxitis, as a result of which he limped slightly. Sexual impulses were manifested early. At eight, without any teaching, he began to masturbate. From his fourteenth year, ejaculation. He was mentally well endowed, and his principal interest was in art and literature. He was always weak muscularly, and had no inclination for boyish sports and later for manly occupa- tions. He had a certain interest for female toilettes, orna- ments, and occupations. From the time of puberty the patient noticed in himself an inexplicable inclination toward male persons. Youths- of the lowest classes were most attractive to him. Cavalry men especially excited his interest. He experienced a lustful desire to press him- self against such individuals from behind. Occasionally, in crowds, it was possible for him to do this; and in such an event an intense feeling of pleasure passed t>ver him. After his twenty-second year, on such occasions, he now and then had an ejaculation. From that time ejaculation occurred when a sympathetic man laid his hand on the patient's thigh. He was now in great anxiety lest he might sometime assault a man sexually. People of the


lower classes, wearing tight, brown trousers, were espec- ially dangerous for him. His greatest pleasure would be to embrace such a man and press himself to him; but, unfortunately, the morality of his country did not allow such a thing. Pederasty seemed disgusting to him.

It gave him great pleasure to gain a sight of the gen- itals of males. He was always compelled to look at the genitals of every man he met. In circuses, theatres, etc., only male performers interested him. Patient had never noticed any inclination for women. He did not avoid them, even danced with them on occasion, but he never felt the slightest sensual excitation under such circum- stances.

At the age of twenty-eight the patient was neuras- thenic as a result of his excessive masturbation:

Then frequent pollutions in sleep occurred, which weakened him very much. It was only occasionally that he dreamed of men when he had pollutions; and never of women. A lascivious dream-picture (pederasty) had occurred but once. He dreamed of death-scenes, of being attacked by dogs, etc. After these, as before, he suffered with great libido serualis. Often there came up before him such lascivious thoughts as gloating over the death of animals in the slaughter-house, or allowing himself to be whipped by boys; but he always overcame such desires, and also the impulse to dress in a military uniform.

In order to cure himself of masturbation, and to thor- oughly satisfy his libido, he determined to frequent broth- els. He first attempted sexual intercourse with a woman when twenty-one, after over-indulgence in wine. The beauty of the female form, and female nudity in general, made no impression on him. However, he was able to enjoy the act of coitus, and thereafter he visited brothels regularly for "purposes of health."

From this time he took preat pleasure in hearing men tell stories of their sexual relations with the opposite sex.

Ideas of flagellation would also occur 1 to him while in a brothel, but the retention of such fancies was not essential for the performance of coitus. He considered sexual intercourse with prostitutes only a' remedy against the desire for masturbation and men, a kind of safety-valve to prevent compromising himself with some man.

The patient wished to marry, but feared not only that he could have no love for a decent woman, but also that he might be impotent for intercourse with her. Hence his thought and need of medical advice.

The patient was very intelligent, and, in all respects, was of masculine appearance. In dress and manner he pre- sented nothing that would attract attention. Gait, voice and frame, the pelvis especially, masculine in character. Genitals of normal development. The normal growth of hair for a male was abundant. The patient's relatives and friends had not the slightest suspicion of his sexual anomalies. In his inverted sexual fancies he had never felt himself in the role of a woman toward a man. For some years he had been entirely free from neurasthenic troubles.

The question as to whether he considered himself a subject of congenital sexual inversion he could not answer. It seems probable that there was a congenital weak inclina- tion for the opposite sex, with a greater one for the same sex, which, as a result of early masturbation in conse- quence of the homo-sexual instinct, was still more weak- ened, but not reduced to nil. With the cessation of mas- turbation, the feeling for women became in a measure more natural, but only in a coarsely sensual way.

Since the patient explained that, for reasons of family and business, it was necessary for him to marry, it was impossible to eliminate this delicate point.

Fortunately, the patient confined himself to the ques- tion as to his virility as a husband; and it was necessary to reply that he was virile, and that he would probably be so in conjugal intercourse with the wife of his choice, at least, if she were to be in mental sympathy with him; moreover that he could at all times improve his power by exercising his imagination in the right direction.


The main object was to strengthen .the sexual inclina- tion for the opposite sex, which was defective, but not ab- solutely wanting. This could be done by avoiding and opposing all homo-sexual feelings and impulses, possibly with the help of the artificial inhibitory influences of hyp- notic suggestion, (removal of homo-sexual desires by sug- gestion) ; by the excitation and exercise of normal sexual desires and impulses; by complete abstinence from mas- turbation, and eradication of the remnants of the neuras- thenic condition of the nervous system by means of hydro- therapy, and possibly general faradisation.

Case 135

Case 135. V., age twenty-nine, official ; father hypo- chondriac, mother neuropathic; four other children nor- mal; one sister homo-sexual.

V. was very talented, learned easily and had a most excellent religious education. Very nervous and emo- tional. At the age of nine he began to masturbate of his own accord. When fourteen he recognised the danger of this practice and fought with some success against it; but he began to rave about male statuary, also about young men. When puberty set in, he took slight interest in women. At twenty, first coitus cum rauliere, but though potent, he derived no satisfaction from it^ Afterwards only faute de mieux (alxnit six times) hetero-sexual inter- course.

He admitted to have had very frequently intercourse with men (masturbatio mutua, coitus inter femora, inter- dum in os). He took either the active or passive role.

At the consultation he was in despair and wept bitterly. He abhorred his sexual anomaly, and said that he had des- perately battled against it, but without success. In woman he found only moderate animal satisfaction, psychical gratification being totally absent. Yet he craved for the happiness of family life.

Excepting an abnormally broad pelvis (100 cm.) there was nothing in his character or personal appearance that lacked the qualities of the masculine type.


Case 136

Case 136. K., age 30; in the family on his mother's side there were several cases of insanity.

Both parents were neurasthenic, irritable and excitable, and lived unhappily together.

K. had from his early childhood sympathy only for men, chiefly for male servants.

Pollutions at the age of fourteen, often coupled with homo-sexual dreams.

Descriptions of bullfights and tortures of animals greatly excited him sexually.

When fifteen he began, of his own accord, auto-mas- turbation. At the age of twenty-one, homo-sexual inter- course with men (only mutual masturbation). Off and on psychical onanism associated with thoughts of men.

His inclinations to women were of a transient nature. When pressed to enter wedlock he could not decide in its favour.

He never had coitus cum muliere partly because he had no confidence in his virility, and partly from fear of infection.

For years he was highly neurasthenic, which rendered him for whole periods psychically unfit for any kind of work. He was listless and devoid of energy, but in struc- ture and personal appearance masculine. Genitals normal.

Advice: Treatment for neurasthenia, energetic combat with homo-sexual desires, society of ladies, eventually coi- tus condomatus. Wedlock, when suited, as His station in life demanded it.

After four months K. returned. He had conscien- tiously acted upon the medical advice, was successful in coitus, dreamed of women, disdained the idea of sexual relations with men, but during the heated season still ex- perienced homo-sexual impulses (due to exacerbation of neurasthenia, superinduced by the hot weather).

He hoped to marry at an early date, and anticipated much happiness from the married state.

Case 137

Case 137. Psychical liermaphroditism. Hetero-sex-

.MAi'iiuoi.rr 359

ual feeling early interfere! with by masturbation, but epi- sodically vi TV intense. ll<m<> -sexual feeling ab orirjiiic erse (sexual excitation by men's boots). Mr. X., of high social position, aged twenty-eight, came to me in September, 1887, in a despairing mood, to con- sult me on account of a perversion of his vita scxualis, which made life seem almost unbearable to him, and which had repeatedly brought him near to suicide. The patient came of a family in which neuroses and psychoses had been of frequent occurrence. In the father's family there had been marriage between first cousins for three generations. The father was said to have been a healthy man, and to have lived morally in marriage. However, his father's preference for fine-looking servants seemed remarkable to the son. The mother's family was described as eccentric. The mother's grandfather and great-grandfather die.d mel- ancholic; her sister was insane; a daughter of the grand- father's brother was hysterical, and had nymphoraania. Only three of the mother's twelve brothers and sisters married. Of these, one brother was homo-sexual, and al- ways nervous as a result of excessive masturbation. The patient's mother was said to have been a bigot of small mental endowment, nervous, irritable, and inclined to mel- ancholia.

Patient had a sister and a brother. The brother was neuropathic and frequently melancholic; and, though mature had never shown the slightest trace of sexual inclinations. The sister was an acknowledged beauty, and nmeh sought by gentlemen. This lady was married, but ehildless, as reported, owing to the impotence of her hus- band. She had always been indifferent to the attentions shown her by men. but was charmed by female beauty, and actually in love with some of her female friends.

With respect to himself, the pntiont asserted that when four years old he dreamed of handsome jockeys wearing shining boots. He never dreamed of women when he grew older. His niirhtly pollutions were always induced by "boot-dreams". From his fourth year be had a peculiar


partiality for men, or, more correctly, for lackeys wearing shining boots. At first they only excited his interest, but with development of his sexual functions, the sight of them caused powerful erections and lustful pleasure. It was only servants' boots that affected him; the same kind of boots on persons of like social station were without effect on him. In a homo-sexual sense, there was no sexual impulse connected with these situations. Even the thought of such a possibility was disgusting to him. At times, how- ever, he had sensually coloured ideas such as being his servant's servant, and drawing off his boots; the idea of being stepped on by him, or of having to blacken his boots, was most pleasing. The pride of the aristocrat rose up against such thoughts. In general, these notions about boots were disgusting and painful to him.

Sexual instinct was early and powerfully developed. It first found expression in indulgence in sensual thoughts about boots, and, after puberty, in dreams accompanied by pollutions; otherwise, mental and physical development was undisturbed. Patient was well endowed mentally learned easily, finished his studies, and became an officer. On account of his distinguished, manly appearance and his high position, he was much sought in society.

He characterised himself as a clever, quiet, strong- willed, but superficial man. He asserted that he was a passionate hunter and rider, and that he had never had any inclination for feminine pursuits. In the society of ladies he had always been reserved; dancing always tired him. He never had an interest in any lady of high social position. As for women, only the buxom peasant girls, such as are the models of painters in Rome, had taken his fancy. He had, however, never felt any sexual interest even in such representatives of the female sex. At thb theatre and circus only male performers had attracted him ; but, at the same time, they caused him no sensual feelings As for men, only their boots excited him, and, indeed, only when the wearers belonged to the servant class and


were handsome men. Men of his own position, wearing ever so fine boots, were absolutely indifferent to him.

With reference to his sexual inclinations, the patient was still uncertain whether he felt these more toward the opposite sex or his own. He was inclined to think that originally he had more inclination for women, but that this sympathy was, in any case, very weak. He stated with certainty that the sight of a naked man made no impres- sion on him, and that the sight of male genitals was even repugnant to him. As for woman, this was not exactly the case; but even the most beautiful feminine form did not excite him sexually. When a young officer, he was now and then compelled to accompany his comrades to brothels. He was the more easily persuaded to this, since he hoped by this means to get rid of his vile partiality for boots; but he was impotent unless he brought the thought of boots to his aid. Under such circumstances, the act of cohabitation was normally performed, but without pleasur- able feeling. Patient felt no impulse to intercourse with women, always requiring some external cause i.e., per- suasion. Left to himself his vita sexualis consisted in rev- elling in ideas about boots, and in corresponding dreams coupled with pollutions. As the impulse to kiss his ser- vant's boots, to draw them off, etc., became more and more connected with these dreams and ideas the patient deter- mined to use every means to rid himself of this disgust- ing desire, which deeply wounded his pride. At that time, being in his twentieth year, and in Paris, he recalled a very beautiful peasant girl, who lived in his distant home. He hoped, with her assistance, to free himself of his sexual perversion. He went home, and tried to win the girl's favour. He asserted that at that time he was deeply in love with this person, and that the sight of her, or the touch of her dress, gave him sensual pleasure; and, when she once kissed him, he had a powerful erection. After about a year and a half, the patient succeeded in gaining his desires with this person.


He was potent, but ejaculated tardily (ten to twenty minutes), and never had a pleasurable feeling in the act.

After about a year and a half of sexual intercourse with this girl, his love for her grew cold, because he did not find her so "fine and pure" as he wished. From this time it was necessary for him to call upon ideas about boots for help, which had been latent, in order to be potent in sexual intercourse with her. In proportion as his power failed, these ideas arose spontaneously. Thereafter he had coitus with other women. Now and then, especially when the woman was in sympathy with him, the act took place without any assistance of imagination.

It once happened that the patient committed rape. It is remarkable that on this single occasion he had a pleas- urable feeling in the (forced) act. Immediately after the deed he had a feeling of disgust. When, an hour after the forced indulgence, he had coitus with the same woman, with her consent, he experienced no feeling of pleasure.

With the decline of virility i.e., when it was main- tained only with ideas about boots libido for the opposite sex decreased. The patient's slight libido and weak in- clination for women were evidenced by the fact that, while he still sustained sexual relations with the peasant girl, he began to masturbate. He learned the vice from "Rousseau's Confessions," the book accidentally falling into his hands. The boot-fancies immediately linked them- selves with corresponding impulses. He then had violent erections, masturbated, and ejaculation afforded him a lively feeling of pleasure, which was denied to him in coitus; and at first he felt himself mentally brighter and fresher, as a result of masturbation.

In time, however, symptoms of sexual, and later on of general neurasthenia, with spinal irritation, appeared. He then temporarily gave up masturbation, and sought his first love; but she was now more than ever indifferent to him. Since he finally became impotent, even when he called ideas of boots to his assistance, he gave up women entirely, and again practised masturbation, which pro-

PSYCHICAL 1 1 1: K M A P 1 1 Id iDITISlf.

<1 him from the impulse to kiss and blacken, etc., ser- vants' boots. At the saint- tim-, ho felt his sexual position keenly. He again occasionally attempted coitus, and was successful in it as soon as he thought of blackened boots. After continued abstinence from masturbation, he was at times successful in coitus without any artificial an I.

The patient said that his sexual needs wore intense. If no ejaculation had taken place for a long time, he be- came congestive, psychically much excited, and tormented by repugnant images of boots, so that he was forced to have coitus, or, preferably, to masturbate.

During the past year his moral position became most painfully complicated by the fact that, as the last of a wealthy line of high position, and at the importunate de- sire of his parents, he must marry. The bride was of rare beauty, and mentally in perfect sympathy with him; but, as a woman, she was as indifferent to him as any other. J'sthetically she satisfied him "as any work of art would" ; in his eyes, she was simply ideal. To honour her in a platonic way would be happiness worth striving for; but to possess her as a wife was a painful thought. He was certain beforehand that with her he would be impotent, save with the help of ideas of boots. To use such means, however, was in opposition to his respect and his moral and aesthetic feelings for the lady. Were he to soil her with such thoughts, she would lose, in his eyes, all her aesthetic value; and then he would become impotent for her, and she would become repugnant to him. The patient considered his position one of despair, and confessed that he had of late been repeatedly near suicide.

He was a man of much intelligence, and decidedly of masculine appearance, with abundant growth of beard, deep voice, and normal genitals. The eye had a neuro- pathic expression. No signs of degeneration. Symptoms of spinal neurasthenia. It was possible to reassure the patient, and give him hope of his future.

The medical advice consisted in means for combating the neurasthenia, and the interdiction of masturbation and


indulgence of the fancy in images of boots, in the hope that, with the removal of the neurasthenia, cohabitation without ideas of boots would become possible ; and that, in time, the patient would become morally and physically capable of marriage.

In the latter part of October, 1888, the patient wrote to me that he had resolutely resisted masturbation and his imagination. In the interval he had had but one dream about boots, and scarcely a pollution. He had been free from homo-sexual inclinations, but, in spite of this, there was often considerable sexual excitement, without any- thing like adequate libido for woman. In this deplorable situation, he was now compelled by circumstances to marry in three months.

2. Homo-Sexual Individuals, or Urnings.

In contradistinction from the preceding group of psycho-sexual hermaphrodites, there are here predominant, i ob origine, sexual desires and inclinations for persons of the same sex exclusively; but, in contrast with the follow- ing group, the anomaly is limited to the vita sexualis, and , does not more deeply and seriously affect character and mental personality.

The vita sexualis of these urnings, mutatis mutandis, is entirely like that in normal hetero-sexual love ; but, since it is the exact opposite of the natural feeling, it becomes a caricature, and the more so as these individuals, at the same time, and as a rule, are subject to hypercesthesia sex- ualis; for which reason, their love for their own sex is emotional and passionate.

The urning loves and deifies the male object of his affections, just as the normal man idealises the woman he loves. He is capable of the greatest sacrifice for him, and experiences the pangs of unhappy, often unrequited, love ; he suffers from the disloyalty of the beloved object, and is subject to jealousy, etc.

The attention of the male-loving man is given only to


male dancers, actors, athletes, statues, etc. The sight of

female charms i.-. indifferent t.. him, if not repulsive. A

naknl woman is disgusting to him, while the sight of male

hips, etc., affords him infinite pleasure.

I'.odily contact with a sympathetic man induces a thrill of delight; and, since such individuals are in most cases

illv neurasthenic (congenitally or from onanism or

enforced abstinence from sexual intercourse), under such circumstances ejaculation is very easily induced, which evm in the most intimate intercourse with women cannot be induced at all, or only by mechanical means. The sexual act with a man, in many instances, affords pleasure, and leaves behind a feeling of comfort. Should the urning be able to force himself to coitus, in which, as a rule, dis- gust has the effect of an inhibitory character, and makes the act possible, then his feeling is something like that of a man compelled to take disgusting food or drink. How- ever, experience teaches that not infrequently urnings be- longing to this group marry, either from ethical or social considerations.

Such unfortunates are relatively potent, in so far that in marital intercourse they incite their imagination, and, instead of thinking of their wives, they call up the image of some loved male person. But for them coitus is a great sacrifice, and no pleasure. It makes them, for days after, nervous and miserable. If such urnings, by means of powerful stimulation of their fancy, or under the influence of alcoholic drink, or by erections induced by an overfilled bladder, etc., are not enabled to overcome the inhibitory feelings and ideas, then they are entirely impotent; while the mere touch of a man may induce intense erection, and even ejaculation.

Dancing with a woman is unpleasant to an urning, but to dance with a man, especially one with an attractive form, is to him the greatest of pleasures.

The male urniiii?, if he possess higher culture, is not opposed to non-sexual intercourse with woman, when by


mind and refinement they make conversation charming. It is only woman in her sexual role that he abhors.

In this degree of sexual degeneration, character and occupation correspond with the sex which the individual represents. Sexual perversion remains an isolated anom- aly of the mental being of the individual, deeply affecting the social existence. In ace rdance with this, these indi- viduals feel themselves during the sexual act in the same role which would naturally be theirs in hetero-sexual inter- course.

However, transitions to group 3 occur, inasmuch as sometimes the passive role which corresponds with homo- sexual feeling is thought of or desired, or at least forms the subject of dreams. Moreover, leanings to occupations and tendencies of taste are manifested which do not cor- respond with the sex of the individual. In many cases one gets the impression that such symptoms are artificial, the result of educational influences; in other cases, that they represent deeper acquired degenerations of the orig- inal anomaly, superinduced by perverse sexual activity (masturbation), and analogous to the signs of progressive degeneration observed in acquired sexual inversion.

Regarding the manner of sexual satisfaction, it must be stated that with many male urnings, the mere embrace is sufficient to induce ejaculation, subject as they are to irritable weakness of the sexual apparatus. In cases of sexual hyperaesthesia, and of parsesthesia of the moral sense, great pleasure is afforded by intercourse with persons of the lowest condition.

On the same basis, desire to commit pederasty (active, of course) and other similar aberrations occur, though it is but seldom, and apparently only in cases of moral defect and by reason of libido mimia in individuals especially passionate, that active pederasty is indulged in.

The sexual desire of mature urnings, in contradistinc- tion to old and decrepit debauchees, who prefer boys (and indulge in pederasty by preference}, seems never to be directed to immature males. Only for want of better


material, and in case of violent passion, does the urning become dangerous to boys.

Case 138

Case 138. Z., age thirty-six, wholesale merchant; parents were said to have been healthy ; physical and men- tal development normal; irrelevant children's disease?; at fourteen onanism of his own accord; began to rave about boys of his own age when fifteen. Never took the slight- est notice of the opposite sex.

At twenty-four he went for the first time to a brothel, but took to flight when he saw the nude female figure.

At twenty-five sexual intercourse with men of his own stamp (fervent embraces with ejaculation, at times mutual masturbation).

For business reasons, and with a view to cure his abnor- mal passion, he married at the age of twenty-eight a lady endowed with many physical and mental charms. By the aid of imagination (thinking of intercourse with a hand- some young man), Z. succeeded in being potent with his wife, whom at heart he loved passionately. This strain, however, superinduced neurasthenia. When a child was 'born he gradually withdrew from his wife, who was any- how endowed with a frigid nature, chiefly because he was haunted by the fear of procreating offspring afflicted with Jiis own anomaly.

Homo-sexual feelings and thoughts began to sway him again, which he sought to eradicate by means of mastur- bation.

He fell in love with a handsome young man, but over- came the weakness at the cost of his own health as the severe struggle brought on a pronounced attack of cerebral neurasthenia. lie came to me for advice, as his homo- sexual tendency had become too powerful to be resisted any longer. He was afraid that his secret affliction might be discovered, thus rendering his position in society impossi- ble. Like many of his fellow-sufferers he had taken to drink. Although he found that alcohol relieved his nerv-


ou8 disorders (physical weakness, psychical inertness and depression), his libido was increased.

Z. was a man of refined thought, mentally well en- dowed, in appearance masculine and normal. He deeply deplored his position and loathed his weakness to auto- masturbation (at times also mutual).

Mutual kisses and embraces satisfied him. Morally, he said, he had sunk so low that he would feign abandon him- self to this perverse passion were it not for the considera- tion he had for his wife and child.

My advice was to strenuously combat these homo-sexual impulses, perform his marital duties whenever possible, eschew alcohol and masturbation, which increases homo- sexual feelings and kills the love for woman, and undergo treatment for neurasthenia. If he could not find relief and the situation became unbearable he must confine him- self to kisses and embraces with the male.

Case 139

Case 139. V., age thirty-six, merchant; mother psychopathic ; sister healthy ; brother neuropsychopathic.

V. was early drawn to persons of his own sex, at first to school- and playmates; with the advent of puberty to achilts ; never to persons of the opposite sex whose charms had no interest for him. At the age of six he felt annoyed at not being a girl. Dolls and girls' games he always pre- ferred.

At twelve a schoolmate seduced him to masturbate. His dreams (with pollutions when virile) were exclusively of an homo-sexual character. He practised mutual mas- turbation with men, coitus inter femora, exceptionally succio membri alterius. He had felt a pronounced position as to the active or passive role in the act. Rarely and only faute de mieux coitus cum muliere. He was potent when he thought during the act of a man, but never expe- rienced real pleasure. The sexual act with a woman ap- peared to him as a miserable substitute for the homo-sexual act. During recent years intimate relations with a young man.


V. acknowledged the abnormality of his vita sexualis. ituls normal. Secondary physical and psychical sexual characteristics thoroughly masculine. No patholog- ical conditions. Arrested for having committed mutual masturbation, he was tried, found guilty and sent to prison. He felt his sentence keenly, but only because it brought dishonour to him and his family. He could not help feeling and acting in his abnormal manner.

Case 140

Case 140. H., age thirty, member of high society; mother neuropathic.

When a boy he felt drawn 4o his schoolmates. At the age of fourteen a playmate older than himself committed paedicatio on him. He liked it, but nevertheless felt pangs of conscience and never allowed the act to be repeated again. Later on he practised mutual masturbation. As neurasthenia increased it sufficed when he embraced and pressed a companion to himself to produce ejaculation. He confined himself to this method when seeking satisfaction. He never had a liking for persons of the other sex and was unconscious of his anomaly. At twenty he made some at- tempts, apud puellas, in order to cure his vita sexualis. Up to that time he had looked upon his abnormal prac- tices merely as a youthful aberration. He was potent in coitus, but derived no gratification from it, for which rea- son he turned to man again. His weakness was for young men eighteen to twenty years of age. He had no sympathy for men older than that. He never played a well defined role in his relations with other men, but his social situa- tion affected him keenly. He was forever haunted by the fear of detection, and said he could never survive the shame of it. There was nothing in habits or behaviour Avhich betrayed antipathic sexual instinct. Genitals nor- mal. No signs of degeneration. He had no faith in ever changing his abnormal sexuality. For women he had no taste whatsoever.

Case 141

Case 141. Y., age forty, manufacturer; father neu-



ropatliic; died of cerebral apoplexy; mother's family with taint of insanity; two other children of the family, though sexually normal, were constitutionally neuropathic. At eight masturbation of his own accord. At fifteen he felt drawn to other handsome boys of his own age, of whom he seduced several to masturbation. With puberty he was attracted by youths seventeen to twenty years of age, but they must be beardless arid have pretty, soft and girl-like features. Girls had no charm for him.

He soon recognized the pathological character of his vita sexualis; but he considered his method of satisfying his abnormal needs as in accordance with nature and felt no remorse. To touch a woman was loathsome to him. He had twice attempted coitus, but without success. In like manner, he looked upon auto-masturbation as a filthy act. He averred that he had honestly striven to strip off this dreadful impulse, which made an outcast of him before the whole world. But all his efforts were in vain, for he felt forced by nature to seek satisfaction in his own manner. He always played the active rule and confined himself en- tirely to acts not proscribed by the law of the land. Yet he became involved in some affair, lost his position, which was one of confidence and good remuneration, became a vagabond until he decided to cross the ocean and begin a new life. Being clever and honourable he succeeded.

When first I met Y., he was in despair and firmly con- templated suicide, especially since a medical man had failed with hypnotic treatment, on account of Y. not reacting to suggestion.

He was inclined to neurasthenia. Penis small. No pathological symptoms. Masculine in every respect.

Case 142

Case 142. T., age thirty-four; merchant; mother neuropathic and weakly; father healthy. At the age of nine a schoolmate taught him how to masturbate. He practised mutual masturbation with his brother, who slept with him in the same bed; once receptio membri in os. On one occasion, when yet a boy, it happened quod Iambi t


locum quo prius mile* urinaverat At fourteen first love for a schoolmate of ten. At the age of seventeen lie took a dislike to handsome young men, and centred his affection in decrepid old nn n.

One night he heard his aged father "give a groan of sexual satisfaction." This excited him immensely as he imagined his father performing the marital act. Since that time the picture of old men performing the homo- sexual act enlivened his dreams (with pollution), and was

nt in his mind during masturbation. The older, the more decrepid and feeble the old man was, when he saw such, the stronger his sexual excitement would be even unto ejaculation. At twenty-three he sought a cure with a prostitute ; but erection failed him, and he made no other attempts. Young men and boys left him callous.

At twenty-nine he conceived a violent love for an old man whom he accompanied for years on his daily walks. Intimate relations were, however, precluded. But he often had ejaculations on these walks. To free himself of this humiliating situation he once more went to a prostitute, but it proved a fiasco. lie now fell upon the idea to hire a decrepid old man, take him along and make him have coitus whilst he looked on. This caused erection in him, and he was able to have coitus himself. The act, however, gave him no pleasure, but he felt psychically relieved, especially when he was potent in the absence of the old man. But this did not last long. He became sexually and generally neurasthenic, depressed, shy and impotent, and gave himself up to psychical onanism coupled with thoughts of old men in homo-sexual situations.

T. was masculine in appearance, and presented no special marks beyond his heavy sexual neurasthenia.

Case 143

Case 143. Z., age twenty-eight, merchant; father very nervous and irritable; mother hysteropathic. He was himself constitutionally nervous, suffered from enure- Bis to his eighteenth year, and was a frail boy. Proper physical development really began only when he waa


twenty years of age. The first sexual emotions he experi- enced when, a boy of eight, he witnessed other boys being caned ad podicem. Although he felt compassion for the boys, he yet had a feeling of lustful pleasure pervading his whole body. Some time afterwards he was late for school and on the way the anticipation of a caning ad podicem excited him so much that for a short time he could not move and had a violent erection.

At eleven he fell in love with a "beautiful, blond boy who had wondrously lovely, intelligent and lustrous eyes."

It gave him immense pleasure to see this boy home, and he often craved for kisses and caresses from him. But he recognized the unbecoming nature of this desire, and did not allow the boy to have an inkling of them.

At that time he met a girl once, two years his junior, who pleased him so much that he covered her with kisses. This, however, remained a solitary episode.

At thirteen he was seduced to onanism. But he did not cultivate the habit, as he found protection in his "more refined feelings for young men" and disdained to "drag his pure, divine love" in the gutter.

At seventeen he became desperately enamored with a companion "with lovely brown eyes, noble features and dark complexion". He suffered untold tortures through this unhappy love for two and one-half years, when he was separated from his companion. If ever he were to meet him again, the old fire would be certain to flare up anew. On two other occasions he fell in love with com- rades, but not so violently as in the first instance. At twenty he had coitus, but derived no pleasure from the act. He continued his relations with women for the purpose of avoiding masturbation, to appear potent and to mask his homo-sexual tendency.

Although he had no horror feminsp, women did not excite him. "A woman is a work of art, a statue."

Endowed with a strong will power he was able to mas- ter his abnormal inclination! But his sexual position ap- peared to him unsatisfactory, especially as he looked upon


coitus as a coarsely sensual enjoyment, and erection became difficult

In the n.iisultation no abnormal signs could be de- tected, lie app< an (1 to be virile and mentally sound.

Case 144

Case 144. P., age thirty-seven ; mother very nervous, suffered from migraine. As a boy he was subject to attacks of hysteria gravis. Was always drawn to handsome young men and became highly excited when he could see their genitals. With puberty he practised mutual masturbation with men; but they must be about twenty-five to thirty years old. He played the female role in the sexual act. He loved with the whole intensity of woman, and only posed as a man like an actor on the stage. Other boys sneered at him on account of his girlish ways and habits. In the hope of correcting his vita sexualis he married. He forced himself to coitus with the wife and produced po- tency by imagining her to be a young man. They had one child. But he himself became neurasthenic, his imag- ination waned and he became potent. For two years he avoided coitus, resumed his homo-sexual practices and was apprehended by the police in the act of mutual mas- turbation with a young man.

He pleaded that prolonged sexual abstinence had un- duly excited him when he saw the genitals of a man and in his confusion he had yielded to the impulse.

There was no amnesia. Thoroughly virile. Decent appearanee. Genitals normal. Short imprisonment.

Case 145

Case 145. N., aged forty-one, unmarried. Father and mother near relatives, but both psychically normal. An uncle on the father's side was insane. N.'s brothers \\( TO hyper- and hetero-sexual. At the age of nine he felt strong inclinations to other boys. At fifteen mutual mas- turbation and coitus inter femora.

At sixteen a love affair with a young man. His homo- sexual love developed, so he clailned, just as the love affairs between man and woman do in novels.


Only handsome young men of the age of twenty to twenty-four attracted him. His erotic dreams were solely homo-sexual. He played the female role, also in actual intercourse with men.

His soul was of feminine character, so he said. He never cared for boys' games, only for cooking and girls' work. Manly sports and smoking and drinking he dis- dained. He led a varied life, served as cook in a foreign country and gave great satisfaction; but he lost his place because he entered upon a love-affair with the son of his employer.

At twenty-two he recognized the abnormality of his sexual position. He became alarmed and began to fre- quent brothels to cure himself of his perverse habits, but erection absolutely failed him.

When his family discovered the true state of affairs he became confused with shame and made an attempt on his own life. But he recovered, went abroad (cast out by his family), disgusted with himself and his unhappy life. His only hope was that with old age relief would come. He came for medical advice to find "honour and rest." The secondary physical sexual characteristics were quite nor- mal and of the masculine type. Genitals normal. He thought of castration or entering a monastery.

Advice: Suggestive treatment.

Case 146

Case 146. On a summer evening, at twilight, X. Y., a physician of a city in North Germany, was detected by a watchman while committing a misdemeanour with a countryman in a field. He was practising masturbation on him, and then mentulam alius in os suum immisit. X. escaped legal prosecution by flight. The authorities dis- missed the complaint, because there had been no publicity, and because immissio membri in anum had not taken place. Among X.'s effects was found an extensive correspond- ence of a perverse sexual character, which showed that he had had perverse intercourse for years with all classes of people.


X. came of a neurotic family. Ilia paternal grand- father died by suicide while insane. Ilia father waa a weak, peculiar man. One brother masturbated at the age of two. A cousin was sexually perverse, and practised I ><T verse acts, similar to those of X., while a youth; he became weak-minded, and died of spinal disease. A pater- nal great-uncle was an hermaphrodite. His mother's sister was insane. His mother is said to have been healthy. X.'s brother is nervous and irascible.

X., likewise, was nervous as a child. The mewing of a cat would create great fear in him; and if one but imi- tated the voice of a cat he would cry bitterly, and run to others for protection. Slight physical disturbance caused violent fever. He was a quiet, dreamy child, of excitable imagination, but of slight mental capabilities. He did not indulge much in boyish games; he preferred feminine pursuits. It gave him especial pleasure to curl the hair of the housemaid or of his brother.

At thirteen X. went to an institute. There he prac- tised mutual masturbation, seduced his comrades, and his cynical conduct made him unmanageable; so that he had to be taken home. At that time the parents found love- letters with lascivious contents, showing perverse sexuality. From the age of seventeen he studied under the strict surveillance of a professor in a gymnasium. He made but sad progress in learning. He had only a talent for music.

After finishing his studies, the patient entered the uni- versity at the age of nineteen. There he attracted attention by his cynical character and his association with young persons who were thought to be given to masculine love. He began to be dandified; wore striking cravats, and low cut shirts; he forced his feet into narrow shoes, and curled his hair in a remarkable way. This peculiarity disappeared when he left school and returned home.

At the age of twenty-four he was for a long time neu- rasthenic. From that time until hia twenty-ninth year h<- was earnest and skilful in his profession; but he avoided


the society of the opposite sex, and constantly associated with men of doubtful character.

The patient would not allow a personal examination. In writing, he made the excuse that this would be of no use, because his impulse to his own sex had existed from his earliest childhood, and was congenital. He had always had horror femina?, and had never been inclined to avail himself of the charms of women. Toward men he felt himself in the role of a man. He recognised his impulse toward his own sex as abnormal, and excused his sexual indulgence as being the result of an abnormal natural con- dition.

Since his flight, X. lived out of Germany, in Southern Italy, and, as I heard from a letter, now, as before, he indulged in perverse love. X. was an earnest, stately man, of masculine features, well-grown beard, and normally de- veloped genitals. Dr. X. furnished me a short time ago with his autobiography, of which the following is worthy of mention:

"When, at the age of seven, I entered a private school, I felt very uncomfortable, and found very little sympathy with my companions. Only toward one of them, who was a very handsome child, did I feel attracted, and I loved him wildly. In childish games I always knew how to arrange it so that I could appear in feminine attire; and my greatest pleasure was to form intricate coiffures for our servant-girls. I often regretted that I was not a girl.

"My sexual instinct awakened when I was thirteen, and from the moment of its appearance it was directed toward youthful, strong men. At first I was not really certain that this was abnormal, but consciousness of it came when I saw and heard how my companions were charac- terized sexually. I began to masturbate at the age of thirteen. At seventeen I left home and went to the gym- nasium of a large capital, where I was put to board with a married professor of the gymnasium, with whose son I afterward had sexual relations. It was with him that I first had sexual satisfaction. Thereafter I made the ao-


<iuuintance of a young artist, who very soon noticed that I was abnormal, and confessed to me that be was in tbe same condition. I learned from him that tliir abnormality was very frequent; ami tlii> kimwlcdgo overcame the trouble that I had had in supposing that I was alone in my abnormality. This young man had an extensive ac- quaintance with persons in like condition, to which he introduced me. There I became the object of general attention, for on all sides I was declared to be very attract- ive physically. I soon became insanely loved by an old gentleman; but, not finding him to my taste, I endured him but a short time, and then gave ear to a young and handsome officer who lay at my feet He was really my first love.

"After passing my final examination, at the age of nineteen, free from the discipline of school I made the acquaintance of a great number of people like myself, and among them Karl Ulrichs (Numa Numantius).

"When, later, I took up the study of medicine, and associated with many normal youths, I was often in a posi- tion where I was compelled to visit public prostitutes. After having consorted to no purpose with various pros- titutes, some of whom were very beautiful, the opinion was spread among my acquaintances that I was impotent, and I strengthened this by telling of previous sexual excesses. At that time I had numerous external relations with per- sons who prized my physical peculiarities, which were considered very beautiful. The result of this was, that I was exciting somebody all the time; and I received such a mass of love-letters that I was often in embarrassment. The acme of this was reached later, when, as a physician, I lived in the hospital. There I moved about like a cele- brated person, and the scenes of jealousy that took place on my account almost led to the discovery of the whole thing. Shortly after this, I fell ill with an inflammation of my shoulder-joint, from which I recovered after three months. During this illness I received subcutaneous in- jections of morphine several times daily, which were sud-


denly discontinued, and which I practised thereafter secretly after my recovery. For the purpose of special study, I spent some months in Vienna, before entering into private practice, and there, by means of some recommen- dations, I gained entrance to various circles of people like myself. I there learned that the abnormality in question, in its various forms, is spread through the lower classes as well as the higher, and that those who are approachable for money are not infrequently met among the higher classes.

"When I established myself in the country, I hoped to cure myself of the morphine habit by means of cocaine; and then I became a victim of cocaine, of which, only after three relapses, I was able to rid myself (about two years ago). In my position, it was impossible for me to find sexual satisfaction, and I noticed with pleasure that the use of cocaine had overcome my desire. When, on the first occasion, at the urgent request of my aunt, I had emancipated myself from cocaine, I travelled for a few weeks in order to improve my health, the perverse im- pulses were again awakened in their old strength, and, one evening, while out in the fields by the city amusing myself with a man, I noticed that I had been detected by the authorities and advertised; but that the act of which I was accused was not punishable, in accordance with the opinion expressed by the highest court of the German kingdom. I had, therefore, to be careful; for already the announcement of the crime had been heralded on all sides. I saw that after this I should be compelled to leave Ger- many, and find a new home where neither the law nor public opinion would be opposed to that impulse, which, like all abnormal instincts, could not be overcome by the will. Since I was never deceived for a moment about the matter, in recognizing my impulses as opposed to social usages, I repeatedly attempted to become master of them ; but by these efforts they were increased in power. This same observation has been communicated to me by ac- quaintances. Since I was exclusively drawn toward strong,


youthful and masculine individuals, and they were very seldom inelim-d i vit 'Id to my wishes, 1 was compelled to buy them. Since my desire was limited to persons of the lower classes, I was always able to tiiul such as were purchasable with money. I hope that the following state- is will not awaken your repugnance. At first I in- tended to omit them; but, for the completeness of this communication, I may include them, since they serve to enrich the clinical material. I am compelled to perform the sexual act in the following way:

' T< -ne juvcnis in os recepto, ita ut commovendo ore meo effecerhn, ut is quern cupio, semen ejaculaverit, in periiui-um exspuo, femora comprimi jubeo et meuin adversus et intra femora compressa immitto. 1 him luec Hunt, necesse est, ut juvenis me, quantum potest, amplectatur. Quae prius me fccisse narravi, eandem mihi afferunt voluptatem, acsi ipse ejaculo. Ejaculationem in aiiuin iiuinittendo vel manu terendo assequi, mihi nequaquam amoenum est.

"Sed inveni, qui penem meum receperint atque ea facientes, quae supra exposui, effecerint, ut libidines mea plane sint saturate?.

"Concerning my person, I must still mention the fol- lowing: I am 180 centimetres tall, of masculine appear- ance, and with the exception of abnormal irritability of the skin, healthy. My hair and beard are black and thick. My genitals are of medium size and normally formed. I am able, without any trace of fatigue, to perform the sexual act from four to six times in twenty-four hours. My life is very regular. I use alcohol and tobacco very sparingly. I play the piano quite well, and some of my unpretentious compositions have been much applauded. I have lately finished a novel, which, as my first work, has very favourably critiei--ed by my friends. The story has several problems taken from the life of urn ings in the >ulject-matter.

"Aiiioni: the large number of fellow-sufferers that are personally known to me, I have naturally been in a poei-


tion to make observations concerning the condition and the degrees of abnormality; and, perhaps, the following communications may be of service to you :

"The most abnormal thing that I am acquainted with was the impulse of a gentleman who lived in Berlin. He preferred, above all others, young fellows with unwashed feet, which he would lick passionately. A gentleman in Leipzig was similar to him; who, where it was possible, would linguam in anum immittere, preferring the parts to be uncleaned. Several have assured me that the sight of riding-boots or of parts of military uniforms induced such excitement in them that spontaneous ejaculation resulted. A man in Paris compelled a friend ut in os ei mingat.

"With reference to the degree in which many feel themselves as women, which is with me not the case, two persons in Vienna are examples. They bore feminine names. One is a barber who calls himself 'French Laura ;' the other was formerly a butcher, who calls himself 'Sel- cher-Fanny'. Both of them never missed an opportunity during the carnival time, to show themselves in very fan- tastic feminine masks. In Hamburg there is a person that many people believe to be a woman, because he always goes about the house in feminine attire, and only occa- sionally leaves the house, and always in such clothing. This man wished to stand as godmother at a christening, and, as a result of it, gave rise to great scandal.

"Feminine timidity, frivolity, obstinacy and weakness of character are the rule in such individuals.

"Several cases of perverse sexuality are known to me in whom epilepsy and psychoses are present. Hernias are remarkably frequent. In practice many persons come to me to be treated for diseases of the anus, because of rec- ommendation by friends. I saw two syphilitic and one local chancre, and several fissures; and at present I am treating a gentleman for condylomata of the anus, which form a rounded tnmor as lanre as a fist. One case of primary affection of the soft palate I saw in Vienna, in a young man who used to frequent fancy-dress balls in girl's


attire, and entice young men; lie would then pretend that he was menstruating, and thus induce tin- others to use him per os. The assertion was made that in this way he had deceived fourteen men in one evening. Since, in none of the publications concerning antipathic sexuality that I have seen, I have found anything concerning the inter- course of pederasts among themselves, I venture to com- municate something concerning it in conclusion:

"As soon as individuals that are affected with inverted sexuality become acquainted, there is a detailed narration of their experiences, loves and seductions, as far as the social difference between them allows such entertainment. Only in very few cases is this amusement uncommon with new acquaintances. Among themselves, they call them- selves 'aunts'; in Vienna, 'sisters'; and two very mascu- line public prostitutes in Vienna, whom I accidentally became acquainted with, and who lived in a perverse sex- ual relation with each other, told me that for the corre- sponding condition in women the name 'uncle' was used. Since I became conscious of my abnormal instinct I have met thousands of such individuals.

"Almost every large city has some meeting-place, as well as a so-called promenade. In smaller cities there are relatively few 'aunts,' though in a small town of 2300 inhabitants I found eight, and in one of 7000 eighteen of whom I was absolutely sure, to say nothing of those ulmm I suspected. In my own town of 30,000 inhabitants I personally know about 120 'aunts'. The greater number of them, and I especially, possess the capability of judging another immediately as to whether they are alike or not, which, in the language of the 'aunts,' is called 'reason- able' or 'unreasonable'. My acquaintances are often as- tounded at the certainty of my judgment. Individuals that are apparently absolutely masculine I recognize as 'aunts' at the first sight. On the other hand, I am able to behave myself in such a masculine way that, in circles to which I have been introduced by acquaintances, there is


a doubt as to my genuineness. When I am in the mood, I can act exactly like a girl.

"Since the majority of 'aunts,' like myself, in no way regret their abnormality, but would be sorry if the condi- tion were to be changed ; and, moreover, since the congeni- tal condition, according to my own and all other experi- ence, cannot be influenced, all our hope rests upon the possibility of a change of the laws with reference to it, so that only rape or the commission of public offence, when this can be proved at the same time, shall be punishable."

3. Effemination.

There are various transitions from the foregoing cases to those making up this category, characterised by the degree in which the psychical personality, especially in general manner of feeling and inclinations, is influenced by the abnormal sexual feeling. In this group are fully developed cases in which males are females in feeling; and vice versa women, males. This abnormality of feeling and of development of the character is often apparent in childhood. The boy likes to spend his time with girls, play with dolls, and help his mother about the house; he likes to cook, sew, knit; he develops tastes in female toilettes, and even becomes the adviser of his sisters. As he grows older he eschews smoking, drinking and manly sports, and, on the contrary, finds pleasure in adornment of persons, art, belle-lettres, etc., even to the extent of giving himself entirely to the cultivation of the beautiful. Since woman possesses parallel inclinations, he prefers to move in the society of women.

If he can assume the role of a female at a masquerade it is his greatest delight. He seeks to please his lover, so to speak, by studiously trying to represent what pleases the female-loving man in the opposite sex modesty, sweet- ness, taste for aBsthetics, poetry, etc. Efforts to approach the female appearance in gait, attitude and attire are fre- quently seen.


With reference to the sexual feeling and instinct of these urnings, so thoroughly permeated in all their mental being, the men, without exception, feel themselves to be females. Thus they feel themselves to be antagonistic to persons of their own sex constituted like themselves, as of course, they are like them in form. But, on the other hand, they are drawn toward those of their own sex that are homo-sexual or sexually normal. The same jealousy wlu'ch occurs in normal sexual life also occurs here, when rivalry is threatened; and, indeed, since they are, as a rule, hvpersesthetic sexually, this jealousy is often boundless.

In cases of completely developed inverted sexuality, hetero-sexual love is looked upon as a thing absolutely in- comprehensible; sexual intercourse with a person of the opposite sex is unthinkable, impossible. Such an attempt brings on the inhibitory concept of disgust or even horror, which makes erection impossible. Only two of my cases transitional to the third category were able, with the aid of imagination which made the female in question assume the role of man, to have coitus for the time being; but the act, which yielded no gratification, was a great sacri- fice, and afforded no pleasure.

In homo-sexual intercourse effeminated man feels him- self in the act always as a woman. The means of indul- gence, where there is irritable weakness of the ejaculation centre, are simply succubus, or passive coitus inter femora; in other cases, passive masturbation, or ejaculaiio viri di- lecti in ore. Some have a desire for passive pederasty; occasionally a desire for active pederasty occurs. In one attempt of this kind, the man desisted because of the dis- gust which seized him when the act reminded him of coitus.

There was never inclination for immature persons (boy- love.) Not infrequently there were only platonic desires.

Case 147

Case 147. E., aged thirty-one, son of an inveterate drunkard. No other taint in the family. Grew up in a village. At the age of six he began to feel happy when


in the company of men with beards. At the age of eleven he began to blush whenever he met a handsome man, and dared not look at them. He was at ease when in the com- pany of women. He wore girl's garments up to his sev- enth year, and was very unhappy when he was deprived of them. Occupation in the kitchen and about the house he liked best. Ilis school time passed without events. Now and then he had intimate liking for a certain school- mate, but this wore off.

Dreams of men with beards clad in blue clothes became more frequent.

He joined an athletic society that he might converse with men, liked to go to balls, not on account of the girls, who were a matter of indifference to him, but to see the fine men, thinking all the time that he was in the embrace of one of them. He felt lonely, however, and dissatisfied, and gradually became conscious of being quite unlike the other young fellows. All his thoughts and aims were to find a man who could love him.

At seventeen he was seduced by another man to mutual masturbation. Delight, shame and fear were the reaction. He recognized the abnormality of his sexual feelings, be- came depressed, came near committing suicide. He finally became reconciled with his abnormal position and craved for men, but being shy by nature he found but little op- portunity. He felt uneasy when girls sought his company. When twenty-six he went to live in a large city and now found plenty of opportunities for homo-sexual intercourse. For some time he lived with another man of his own age as husband and wife. He felt happy in the role of woman. Sexual gratification was obtained by mutual masturbation and coitus inter femora.

He was a skilful workman, well liked, and in appear- ance and behaviour masculine. Genitals normal. No signs of degeneration.

His younger brother was also homo-sexual.

Two sisters, who both died young, avoided men, never


cared for work in the kitchen, but preferred that in the stable, and were skilful in all handicrafts of m< n.

Case 148

Case 148. C., age twenty-eight, gentleman of lei- sure; father neuropathic; mother very nervous. One brother suffered from paranoia, another was psychically degenerated. Three younger members of the family were normal.

C. was neuropathically tainted; slight convulsive tic. As long as he can remember he felt drawn to male per- sons, at first only to his schoolmates. When puberty set in he fell in love with male teachers, who used to visit at the house of his parents. He felt himself in the female role. His dreams, with pollutions, were always about men. He was gifted in music and poetry and loved the theatre. For science, especially mathematics, he had no talents and passed his final examinations only with difficulty. Psychic- ally, he declared, he was a woman. Loved to play with dolls and concerned himself by preference with woman's affairs, disdaining all the pursuits of men. He liked best the society of young girls, because they were sympathetic and had an affinity of soul. When in the company of men he was shy and confused like a maiden. He never smoked, and disliked alcoholic drinks. He feign would have liked to spend his time in cooking, knitting and em- broidering. He had no libido. Sexual intercourse with men only a few times, although his ideal was to play the role of the woman on such occasions. Coitus cum muliere he abhorred. After reading "Psychopathia Sexualis," he became alarmed, was afraid of coming in conflict with the police and avoided sexual relations with men. But pollu- tions became very frequent, and neurasthenia supervened. He came for medical advice.

C. had an abundant beard, and was of a decidedly mas- culine type, excepting soft features and a remarkably fine skin. (Irnitals normal, except a deficient dcscensus of one of the testicles. In his behaviour, gait, and appearance nothing unusual, though he had the illusion that everybody



noticed his abnormal sexual proclivity. He shunned soci- ety for that reason. Lascivious talk made him blush like a maiden. Once when someone turned the topic of con- versation on antipathic sexual instinct, he fainted. Music brought on a heavy perspiration all over his body. Upon. closer acquaintance he showed psychical femininity; he was as timid as a girl, and without a vestige of independ- ence. Nervous restlessness, convulsive tic, numerous neu- rasthenic complications put on him the stamp of a consti- tutionally tainted neuropathic individual.

Case 149

Case 149. B., waiter, forty-two years of age, un- married, was sent to me by his own physician (with whom he had fallen in love), as a case of sexual inversion. B. gave readily in modest language an account of his vita anteacta and especially sexualis. He seemed pleased to obtain at last an authentic explanation of his abnormal state which he had always considered a disease.

B. possessed no knowledge of his grandparents. The father was of an irascible, excitable nature, a drinker, and of strong sexual wants. After begetting twenty-four chil- dren with the same woman, he obtained a divorce, and after that had three children by his housekeeper. The mother was a healthy woman. Of the twenty-four children only six are now among the living, several of whom suffer from nervous affections, but are sexually nor- mal, except one sister who for ever runs after the men.

B. claimed to have always been delicate and sickly. His vita sexualis awoke at the age of eight. He began to masturbate and derived much pleasure from penem aliorum puerorum in os arrigere. At the age of twelve he began to fall in love with men, preferring those in the thirties and with moustache. His sexual needs at that period were extraordinary and erections and pollutions were frequent. He masturbated daily, thinking of some man whom he loved. His ambition was always penem viri in os arrigere, which thought caused ejaculation ac- companied by the utmost lust. But only twelve times


tnus far had he been successful in this. He never felt nausea at the penis of others if they were sympathetic; on the contrary. Active as well as passive pederasty dis- gusted him thoroughly and he never accepted such offers. During the perverse act he played the role of woman. His love for sympathetic men was boundless. He could do any- thing for the man whom he thus loved, and when beholding him he trembled with excitement and lustful feelings.

When nineteen he was several times lured by his com- panions to a brothel, but coitus did not please him and only at the moment of ejaculation did he experience a sort of gratification. lie could only be virile with woman when he thought of her during the act as the man whom he loved. He much rather would have preferred the woman to allow him immissio penis in os; but she refused. Faute de mieux he indulged in coitus; twice even he was a father. The younger of the two children, now a girl of eight, has already begun masturbation and mutual onan- ism, which fact troubled him very much. Was there no remedy for this?

Patient said that towards men he always felt himself to be of feminine type (this also during sexual intercourse). His idea was that this sexual perversion originated from the fact that his father when begetting him wished to beget a girl. The other children of the family always teased him on account of his girlish ways and manners. To sweep the rooms and wash the dishes were ever pleasant occupations for him. His housework was always much admired and praised because he was cleverer than the girls. Whenever he could he would don girl's attire. At the Mardi-cjras balls he always wore the female mask. He made a capital coquette on account of his female nature.

Drinking, smoking, manly sports and occupations never suited him, but he was passionately fond of sewing and was often upbraided on account of his weakness for dolls when a boy. When at the circus or the theatre his atten- tion was only drawn to the male performers. He had an


irresistible desire to loiter about W.C's. in order to get a look at the men's genitals.

Female charms never attracted him. Coitus was only possible when aided by the thought of a beloved man. Nocturnal pollutions were always produced by lascivious dreams about men.

Despite numerous sexual excesses B. had never suf- fered from neurasthenia sexualis; neither were there symp- toms of neurasthenia of any kind.

Features delicate ; sparse side whiskers and moustache, which began to grow only when he was twenty-eight. His external appearance, excepting a light, swinging gait, did not indicate female nature. He observed that he was often teased on account of his womanish carriage. His manners were highly modest. Genitals large, well devel- oped, quite normal, with abundance of hair; pelvis mas- culine. Cranium rachitic, slightly hydrocephalic ; parietal bones rather bulging. Countenance exceptionally small. Patient said he was easily provoked to wrath.

Case 150

Case 150. Taylor had occasion to examine a certain Eliza Edwards, aged twenty-four. It was discovered that she was of masculine sex. E. had worn female clothing from her fourteenth year, and had also been an actress. The hair was worn long, after the manner of females, and parted in the middle. The form of the face was feminine, but otherwise the body was masculine. The beard was carefully pulled out. The masculine, well-developed gen- itals were fixed in an upward position by an artful band- age. The condition of the anus indicated passive peder- asty (Taylor, "Med. Jurisp." 1873, ii., p. 473).

Case 151

Case 151. An official of middle age, who for some years had been happy in family life, and was married to a virtuous woman, presented a peculiar manifestation of anti- pathic sexual feeling.

One day, through the indiscretion of a prostitute, the following scandal became public: About once a week X.


would appear in a house of prostitution, and there dress himself up as a woman, always requiring, as a part of his costume, a coiffure. When his toilet was completed, he would lie down on the bed, and have the prostitute perform manustupration. But he very much preferred to have 4 male person (a servant of the house). This man's father was heriditarily tainted, had been insane several times, and was afflicted with hypercesthesia and parcesthesia sex- ualis.

4. Androgyny.

Forming direct transitions from the foregoing groups are those individuals of antipathic sexuality in whom not only the character and all the feelings are in accord with the abnormal sexual instinct, but also the frame, the feat- ures, voice, etc.; so that the individual approaches the opposite sex anthropologically, and in more than a psychi- cal and psycho-sexual way. This anthropological form of the cerebral anomaly apparently represents a very high de- gree of degeneration ; but that this variation is based on an entirely different ground than the teratological manifesta- tion of hermaphroditisrn, in an anatomical sense, is clearly shown by the fact that thus far, in the domain of inverted sexuality, no transitions to hermaphroditic malformation of the genitals have been observed. The genitals of these persons always prove to be fully differentiated sexually, though not infrequently there are present anatomical signs of degeneration (epispadiasis, etc.), in the sense of arrests of development in organs that are otherwise well marked.

There is yet wanting a sufficient record of cases belong- ing to this interesting group of women in masculine attire with masculine genitals. Every experienced observer of his fellow-men remembers masculine persons that were very remarkable for their womanish character and type (wide hips, form rounded by abundant development of adipose tissue, absence or insufficient development of beard, feminine features* delicate complexion, falsetto voice, etc.).


In persons belonging to the fourth group, and in cer- tain ones in the third, forming transitions to the fourth, there seems to be a feeling of shame (sexual) toward per- sons of the same sex, and not toward those of the opposite sex.

Case 152

Case 152. Androgyny. Mr. v. H., aged thirty, single; of neuropathic mother. Nervous and mental diseases were said not to have occurred in the patient's family, and his only brother was said to be mentally and physically completely normal. The patient developed tardily physically, and, therefore, spent much of his time at the seashore and climatic resorts. From childhood he was of neuropathic constitution, and, according to the statements of his relatives, unlike other boys. His disinclination for masculine pursuits and his preference for feminine amusements were early remarked. Thus he avoided all boyish games and gymnastic exercises, while doll-play and feminine occupations were particularly pleasing to him. Subsequently he developed well physically, and escaped severe illnesses, but he remained mentally abnormal, incapable of an earnest aim in life, and decidedly feminine in thought and feeling.

In his seventeenth year pollution occurred, became more frequent, and finally took place during the day; so that the patient grew weak, and manifested various ner- vous disturbances. Symptoms of neurasthenia spinalis made their appearance, and lasted for some years, but they became milder with the decrease in the number of pollu- tions. Onanism was denied, but was very probable. An indolent, effeminate, dreamy habit of thought had become more and more noticeable ever since puberty. All efforts to induce the patient to take up an earnest pursuit in life were in vain. His intellectual functions, though formally quite undisturbed, were never equal to the motive of an independent character, and the higher ideals of life. He remained dependent, an overgrown child; and nothing more clearly indicated his original abnormal condition than an actual incapability to take care of money, and his own confession that ho had no ability to use money reasonably ; that as soon as he had money he wasted it for curios, toilet-articles, and the like.

Incapable as he was of a reasonable use of money, the patient was no more capable of leading a social existence, indeed, he was incapable of gaining an insight into its significance and value.

He learned very poorly, spending his time in toilettes and artistic nothings, particularly in painting, for which he evinced a certain capability; but in this direction he accomplished nothing, since he was wanting in persever- ance. He could not be brought to take up any earnest thought; he had a mind only for externals, was always distracted, and serious things quickly wearied him. Pre- posterous acts, senseless journeys, waste of money and debts repeatedly occurred throughout the course of his later life; and even for these positive faults in his life he was wanting in understanding. He was self-willed and intracta- ble, and never did well when an attempt was made to put him on his feet and point out to him his own interests.

With these manifestations of an original abnormal and defective mind, 'there were notable indications of perverse sexual feeling, which were also indicated in the somatic habitus of the patient. Sexually, the patient felt like a woman toward men, and had inclinations toward people of his own sex, with indifference, if not actual disinclination, for females.

In his twenty-second year it was asserted that he had sexual intercourse with women, and was able to perform the act of coitus normally; but, partly on account of in- crease of neurasthenic symptoms which was occasional after coitus, and partly on account of fear of infection but really by reason of a want of satisfaction he soon ceased to indulge in such intercourse. Concerning his abnormal sexual condition, he was not quite clear; he was r..Tiv ( .j,,us of an inclination toward the male sex, but con- fessed, only in a shame-faced way, that he had certain pleasurable feelings of friendship for masculine individ- uals, which, however, were not accompanied by any sensual feelings. The female sex he did not exactly abhor; he could even bring himself to marry a woman who could have an attraction for him, by means of similarity in artistic tastes, if he could but be freed from conjugal duties, which were unpleasant to him, and the performance of which made him tired and weak. He denied having had sexual intercourse with men, but his blushing and embarrassment, and, still more, an occurrence in N., where the patient some time before provoked a scandal by at- tempting to have sexual intercourse with youths, gave him the lie.

His external appearance also, habitus, form, gestures, manners and dress were remarkable, and decidedly recalled the feminine form and characteristics. The patient, how- ever, was over middle height, but thorax and pelvis were decidedly of feminine form. The body was rich in fat; the skin was well groomed, delicate and soft. This im- pression of a woman in masculine dress was further in- creased by a thin growth of hair on the face, which was shaven, with the exception of a small moustache; by the mincing gait; the shy, effeminate mannel % ; the feminine features; the swimming, neuropathic expression of the eyes ; the traces of powder and paint ; the curtailed cut of the clothing, with the bosom-like prominence of the upper garments ; the fringed feminine cravat ; and the hair brushed down smoothly from the brow to the temples. The physical examination made undoubted the feminine form of the body. The external genitals were well developed, though the left testicle had remained in the canal ; the growth of hair on the mons veneris was thin, and the latter was unusually rich in fat and prominent. The voice was high, and without masculine timbre.

The occupation and manner of thought of v. H. were decidedly feminine. He had a boudoir and a well-supplied toilet-table, at which he spent many hours in all kinds of arts for beautifying himself. He abhorred the chase, practice with arms, and such masculine pursuits, and called himself an aesthete; spoke with preference of his paintings and attempts at poetry. He was interested in feminine occupations, in which e.g., embroidery he engaged, and called his greatest pleasure. He could spend his life in an artistic and esthetic circle of ladies and gentlemen, in conversation, music and aesthetics. His conversation was preferably about feminine things, fashions, needlework, cooking and household work.

The patient was well nourished, but anaemic. He was of neuropathic constitution, and presented symptoms of neurasthenia, which were maintained by a bad manner of life, lying abed, living in-doors, and efferainateness.

He complained of occasional pain and pressure in the head, and had habitual constipation. He was easily fright- ened ; complained of occasional lassitude and fatigue, and drawing pains in the extremities, in the direction of the lumbo-abdominal nerves. After pollutions, and regularly after eating, he felt tired and relaxed ; he was sensitive to pressure over the spinous processes of the dorsal vertebrae, as also to pressure along accessible nerves. He felt peculiar sympathies and antipathies towards certain persons, and, when he met people for whom he had an antipathy, he fell into a condition of peculiar fear and confusion. His pollutions, though later on they occurred but seldom, were pathological, in that they occurred by day, and were un- accompanied by any sensual excitement


1. Mr. v. H., according to all observations and reports, was mentally an abnormal and defective person, and that, in fact, ab origine. His antipathic sexual instinct repre- sented a part of his abnormal physical and mental condi- tion.

2. This condition, in that it was congenital, was in- curable. There existed defective organisation of the high- est cerebral centres, which rendered him incapable of leading an independent life, and of obtaining a position in life. His perverse sexual instinct prevented him from exercising normal sexual functions ; and this was attended by all the social consequences of such an anomaly, and the danger of satisfaction of perverse impulses arising out of his abnormal organisation, with consequent social and legal conflicts. Fear of the latter, however, could not be great, since the (perverse) sexual impulse of the patient was weak.

3. Mr. v. H., in the legal sense of the word, was not irresponsible, and neither fit for, or in need of, treatment in a hospital for the insane.

It was possible for him though but an overgrown child, and incapable of personal independence to live in society, even under the care and guidance of normal individuals. To a certain extent, it was possible for him to respect the laws and restrictions of society, and to judge his own acts; but, with respect to possible sexual errors and conflicts with criminal laws, it must be emphasised that his sexual instinct was abnormal, having its origin in organic pathological conditions; and this circumstance should have been eventually used in his favour. On ac- count of his notorious lack of independence, he could not be discharged from parental care or guardianship, inas- much as otherwise he would be ruined financially.

4. Mr. v. H. was also physically ill. He presented signs of slight anaemia and of neurasthenia spinalis.

A rational regulation of his manner of life and a tonic regimen, and, if possible, hydro-therapeutic treatment, seemed necessary. The suspicion that this trouble had its origin in early masturbation should be entertained, and the possibility of the existence of spermatorrhoea, that is of importance etiologically and therapeutically, was probable. (Personal case. Zeilschr. f. Psychiatric.) Science in its present stage has but few data to fall back on, so far as the occurrence* of homosexual instinct in woman is rono-rued as compared with man.

It would not be fair to draw from this the conclusion that sexual inversion in woman is rare, for if this anomaly is really a manifestation of functional degeneration, then degenerative influences will prevail alike in the female as well as in the male.

The causes of apparent infrequency in woman may be found in the following facts: (1) It is more difficult to gain the confidence of the sexually perverse woman; (2) this anomaly, in so far as it leads to sexual intercourse, inter feminas, does not fall (in Germany at any rate) under the criminal code, and therefore remains hidden from public knowledge; (3) sexual inversion does not affect woman in the same manner as it does man, for it does not render woman impotent; (4) because woman (whether sexually inverted or not) is by nature not as sensual and certainly not as aggressive in the pursuit of sexual needs as man, for which reason the inverted sexual intercourse

'Literature: Havelock Ellis, "Alienist and Neurologist," April, 1895 ; Moll, " Contriire Sexualempfindung," second edition, p. 322. Moll, Contrfire Sexualempfindung, 3rd ed., p. 504. Moraglia, Neue Forschungen aus d. Gehiet der weiblichen Criminalitat. v. Krafft, Jahrb. f. sexuclle Zwischenstufen, Hi., p. 20.

Observations: (1) Westphal, "Arch. f. Psych.," ii., p. 73; (2) Oock, op. cit., No. 1.; (3) Wite, "The Alienist and Neurologist," January, 1883; (4) Cantarano, "La Psichiatria, 1883," p. 201; (5) Berieux, op. cit., obs. 14; (6) Kiernan, op. cit.; (7) MAller, Friedreich't " Bliltter f. gor. Mt-d.," 1891, Heft 4.; (8-19) Moll, " ContrRre Sexualempfindung," 2 Aufl. Beob., 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23; (20) Meyhdfer, " Zeitsch. f. Medicinalbeamte," v., 16; (21 22) Zuccarelli, " Inversione congenita in due donne," Napoli, 1888; (23-33) it oil, " Untrrsuchungen liber Libido sexualis," Fftlle 10-12, 40-44, 47, 50, 57; (34-36) Uavelock Ellit, op. cit.; (37) Penta Vrto, " Ardiiv. delle psichopatie sexuali," p. 33; (38) Penta, ibid., p. 04. (39-40) Ftrc, 1'instinct sexuelle, observ. 15, p. 242, observ. 22, p. 291. (41) Case Urban of the 18th century, reported by Moll, Contr. Sexualempfindung, 3rd ed. p. 533. (42-43) v. Krafft, JahrbOdier fUr texuelle Zwischenstufen, iii., p. 27 and 29.

among women is less noticeable,, and by outsiders is considered mere friendship. Indeed, there are cases on record (psychical hermaphroditism, even homosexuality) in which the causes of frigiditas uxoris remain unknown even to the husband.

Certain passages in the Bible, 1 the history of Greece ("Sapphic Love"), the moral history of ancient Rome and of the Middle Ages, 2 offer proofs that congressus intersexualis feminarum took place at all times, the same as it is practised now-a-days in the harem, in female prisons, brothels and young ladies' seminaries (vide infra, amor lesbicus).

Still it must be admitted that many of these cases are to be reduced to causes of perversity and not perversion.

The chief reason why inverted sexuality in woman is still covered with the veil of mystery is that the homosexual act so far as woman is concerned, does not fall under the law.

I cannot lay sufficient stress upon the fact that sexual acts between persons of the same sex do not necessarily constitute antipathic sexual instinct. The latter exists only when the physical and psychical secondary sexual characteristics of the same sex exert an attracting influence over the individual and provoke in him or her the impulse to sexual acts.

1 Paul, Epist. ad Rom. * Ploss, op. cit.

' It is a remarkable fact that in fiction, lesbic love is frequently used as the leading theme, viz., Diderot, " La Religieuse " ; Balzac, " La fille aux yeux d'or " ; Th. Gautier, " Mademoiselle de Maupin " ; Feydeau, "La Comtesse de Chalis"; Flaubert, "Salammbo"; Belot, "Mademoiselle Giraud, ma femme"; Rachilde, "Monsieur Venus." The heroines of these (lesbic) novelles appear to the beloved persons of the same sex in the character and the role of a man; their love is most intense.

The oldest case of sexual inversion recorded thus far in Germany is one of viraginity dating as far back as the beginning of the eighteenth century. It is that of a woman who was married to another woman cohabiting with the consort by means of a leathern priapus. Vide Dr. Miiller in Friedreich'a " Blatter f. ger. Med.," 1891, Heft 4.


I have through long experience gained the impression that inverted sexuality occurs in woman as frequently as in man. But the chaster education of the girl deprives the sexual instinct of its predominant character; seduction to mutual masturbation is less frequent; the sexual in- stinct in the girl begins to develop only when she is, with the advent of puberty, introduced to the society of the other sex, and is thus naturally led primarily into hetero- sexual channels. All these circumstances work in her favour, often serve to correct abnormal inclinations and tastes, and force her into the ways of normal sexual in- tercourse. We may, however, safely assume that many cases of frigidity or anaphrodisia in married women are rooted in undeveloped or suppressed antipathic sexual instinct.

The situation changes when the predisposed female is also tainted with other anomalies of an hypersexual char- acter and is led through it or seduced by other females to masturbation or homosexual acts.

In these cases we find situations analogous to those which have been described as existing in men afflicted with "acquired" antipathic sexual instinct.

As possible sources from which homosexual love in woman may spring, the following may be mentioned:

1. Constitutional hypersexuality impelling to auto- masturbation. This leads to neurasthenia and its evil consequences, to anaplimdisia in the normal sexual inter- course so long as libido remains active.

2. Hypersexuality also leads faute de mieux to homo- sexual intercourse (inmates of prisons, daughters of the higher classes of society who are guarded so very care- fully in their relations with men, or are afraid of im- pregnation, this latter group is very numerous). Fre- quently female servants are the seducers, or lady friends with perverse sexual inclinations, and lady teachers in seminaries.

3. Wives of impotent husbands who can only sexually excite, but not satisfy, woman, thus producing in her


libido insatiata, recourse to masturbation, pollutiones fem- inw, neurasthenia, nausea for coitus/ and ultimately disgust with the male sex in general.

4. Prostitutes of gross sensuality who, disgusted with the intercourse with perverse and impotent men by whom they are used for the performance of the most revolting sexual acts, seek compensation in the sympathetic embrace of persons of their own sex. These cases are of very fre- quent occurrence.

Careful observation among the ladies of large cities soon convinces one that homosexuality is by no means a rarity. Uranism may nearly always be suspected in fe- males wearing their hair short, or who dress in the fashion of men, or pursue the sports and pastimes of their male acquaintances; also in opera singers and actresses, who appear in male attire on the stage by preference.

So far as the clinical aspect is concerned I may be brief, for this anomaly shows the same qualifications alike in man and woman, mutatis mutandis, and runs through the same grades. Psychico-hermaphrodisic and many homosexual women do not betray their anomaly by ex- ternal appearances nor by mental (masculine) sexual characteristics. Remarkable, however, it is that Dr. Flatau (Moll, op. cit., p. 334) in examining the larynx of twenty-three homosexual women found in several of them a decidedly masculine formation.

In the transition to the subsequent grade, i.e., that of viraginity (analogous to effeminatio in the male) strong preference for male garments will be found. In dreams, but also in the ideal or real homosexual function, the individual in question plays an indifferent sexual role.

Where viraginity is fully developed, the woman so acting assumes definitely the masculine role.

In this grade modesty finds expression only towards the same but not the opposite sex.

In such cases the sexual anomaly often manifests itself by strongly marked characteristics of male sexuality.

The female urning may chiefly be found in the haunts


of boys. She is (ho rival in their play, preferring the nx-kin^-horse, playing at soldiers, etc., to dolls and other girlish occupations. The toilet is neglected, and rough boyish manners are affected. Love for art finds a sub- stitute in the pursuits of the sciences. At times smoking and drinking are cultivated even with passion.

Perfumes and sweetmeats are disdained. The con- sciousness of being a woman and thus to be deprived of the gay college life, or to be barred out from the military career, produces painful reflections.

The masculine soul, heaving in the female bosom, finds pleasure in the pursuit of manly sports, and in manifestations of courage and bravado. There is a strong desire to imitate the male fashion in dressing the hair and in general attire, under favourable circumstances even to don male attire and impose in it Arrests of women in men's clothing are by no means of rare occurrence, A case of a woman who for years successfully posed as a man (hunter, soldier, etc.,) is related by Mutter in Friedreich's "Blatter"; another by Wise (op. cit.) and others.

The ideals of such viragines are certain female char- acters who in the past or the present have excelled by virtue of genius and brave and noble deeds.

Gynandry represents the extreme grade of degenerative homosexuality. The woman of this type possesses of the feminine qualities only the genital organs ; thought, senti- ment, action, even external appearance are those of the man.

Often enough does one come across in life such characters, whose frame, pelvis, gait, appearance, coarse masculine features, rough deep voice, etc., betray rather the man than the woman. Moll (op. cit. p. 331) has given many interesting items about the mode of life led by these men-women, and about the way in which they satisfy their sexual needs.

Mutatis mutandis, the situation is the same as with the man-loving man. These creatures seek, find, recognise,


love one another, often live together as "father" and "mother" in pseudo marriage. Suspicion may always be turned toward homosexuality when one reads in the advertisement columns of the daily papers: "Wanted, by a lady, a lady friend and companion".

Numerous psychical hermaphrodites of the female gender, and even homosexualists, enter upon matrimony with men partly on account of being ignorant of their own anomaly, and partly because they wish to be pro- vided for. Some of these marriages linger on in a way, the husband, perhaps, being psychically sympathetic, thui rendering the marital act possible to the unhappy wife. But in most cases, when one or two children have been born, she seeks under all kinds of pretexts to avoid the connubial duty.

More frequently, however, incompatibility wrecks these unions. Homosexual intercourse continues after marriage just the same as with the homosexual man.

When viraginity prevails marriage is impossible, for the very thought of coitus cum viro arouses disgust and horror.

The intersexual gratification among these women seems to be reduced to kissing and embraces, which seems to satisfy those of weak sexual instinct, but produces in sexually neurasthenic females ejaculation.

Automasturbation, faute de mieux, seems to occur in all grades of the anomaly the same as in men.

Strongly sensual individuals may resort to cunnilingus or mutual masturbation.

In grades 3 and 4 the desire to adopt the active role towards the beloved person of the same sex seems to in- vite the use of the priapus.

Case 153

Case 153. Psychical hermaphroditism. Mrs. X., twenty-six years of age, suffered from neurasthenia. She was hereditarily tainted, suffered periodically from delu- sions. She had been married seven years, had two healthy children, a boy of six and a girl of four years. Success in


gaining the confidence of the patient. She confessed that she always inclined more to persons of her own sex, and that, although she esteemed and liked her husband, sexual intercourse disgusted her. Since the birth of the younger of the two children she had prevailed upon him to give it up altogether. When at the seminary she interested her- self in other young ladies in a manner which she could only describe as love. At times, however, she also found her- self drawn to certain gentlemen, and especially of late her virtue had been sorely tried by an admirer to whose advances she was afraid she might succumb, for which reason she avoided being alone with him. But such episodes were only of a quite transient character as com- pared with her passionate liking for persons of her own sex. Her whole desire was to be kissed and embraced by them and have the most intimate intercourse with them. She suffered much from nervousness because she could not always realise these desires. The patient is not aware of this inclination to persons of the same sex being of a sexual character, for beyond kissing, embracing, or fondling them she would not know what to do with them. Patient thought herself to be of a sensual nature. It was likely that she was addicted to masturbation.

She considered her sexual perversion as "unnatural, morbid."

There was nothing in the behaviour or the manners or the external appearance of this lady which in the least betrayed her anomaly.

Case 154

Case 154. Psychical hermaphrodUism. Mrs. M., forty-iour years of age, claimed to be an instance illus- trating the fact that in one and the same human being, be it man or woman, the inverted as well as the normal di- rection of sexual life may be combined. The father of this lady was very musical, generally possessed considerable talents for art, was a great admirer of the gentle sex, and himself of exceptional beauty. He died, after repeated apoplectic attacks, with dementia in an asylum. His



brother was neuropsychopathic, as a child was afflicted with somnambulism, and later on with hypercesthesia sexualis. Although married and father of several married sons, he fell desperately in love with Mrs. M., then eighteen years of age, and attempted to abduct her.

Her grandfather (on the paternal side) was very ec- centric and a well known artist, who had originally studied theology, but for love of the dramatic art became a mimic and singer. He was given to excess in Baccho et Venere, extravagant and fond of splendour, and died at the age of forty-nine from apoplexia cerebri. Her mother's father and her mother both died of pulmonary phthisis.

She had eleven brothers and sisters, but only six sur- vived. Two brothers died at the age of sixteen and twenty of tuberculosis. One brother was suffering from laryngeal phthisis. Four living sisters the same as Mrs. M. were physically like unto the father, very nervous and shy. Two younger sisters were married and in good health, and both had healthy children. Another one, a maiden, was suffering from nervous affection.

Mrs. M. was the mother of four children, mostly deli- cate and neuropathic.

There was nothing of importance in the history of the patient's childhood. She learned easily, had gifts for poetry and aesthetics, was somewhat affected, loved to read novels and sentimental literature, was of neuropathic % constitution and very sensitive to changes of temperature, the slightest draught would make her flesh creep. It is noteworthy, however, that one day when ten years of age she fancied her mother did not love her. Thereupon she put a lot of sulphur matches in her coffee and drank it to make herself ill, in order to draw her mother's love to herself.

Puberty began without difficulty at the age of eleven, with subsequent regular menses. Even previous to that period sexual life had awakened, which ever since was very potent. The first sentiments and emotions lay in vthe homosexual direction. She conceived a passionate,


though platonie, affection for a young lady, wrote love- songs and sonnets to her, and never was happier than \\licn, upon one occasion, she could admire the "charms "f her beloved" in the bath, or when she could gaze upon the- neck, shoulders and breasts of this lady whilst dressing. She could resist only with difficulty the desire to touch these physical charms. When a girl she was deeply in love with Raphael's and Quido Reni's Madonnas. She was irresistibly impelled to follow pretty girls and ladies by the hour, no matter how inclement the weather might be, admiring their air of refinement and watching for a chance of showing them a favour, giving them flowers, etc. The patient asserted that up to her nineteenth year she had not the slightest knowledge of the difference of sexes, since she had been brought up by a prudish old maiden aunt like a nun in a cloister. In consequence of this crass ignorance she fell a victim to a man who loved her passionately and insidiously betrayed her virtue. She became the wife of this man, gave birth to a child, and led an "eccentrically" sexual life with him, but felt sat- isfied with the sexual intercourse. A few years later she became a widow. Since then her affections again turned to persons of her own sex, the principal reason for which was, the patient averred, the fear of the results of sexual intercourse with man.

At the age of twenty-seven she entered upon a second marriage with a man of infirm constitution. It was not a love match. Thrice she became a mother, and fulfilled all the conditions of maternity; but her health ran down, and during the latter years her dislike for coitus ever increased, chiefly on account of her husband's infirmity, although her desire for sexual gratification remained strong.

Three years after her second husband's death, she dis- covered that her daughter by the first husband, now nine years of age, was given to masturbation and going into decline. She read an article about this vice in the Ency- clopcedia, and now could not resist the temptation to try


it herself and thus became an onanist. She hesitated to give a full account of this period of .her life. She stated, however, that she became sexually so excited that she had to send her two daughters away from home in order to preserve them from something "terrible". The 'two boys could remain at home.

Patient became neurasthenic ex masturbatione (spinal irritation, pressure in the head, languor, mental constipa- tion, etc.) at times even dysthymic, with worrying tcedium vita.

Her sexual inclinations turned now to woman, now to man. But she controlled herself, suffered much from her abstinence, especially since she resorted to mastur- bation on account of her neurasthenic afflictions only at the last instance. At the age of forty-four still having regular periods the patient suffered from a violent pas- sion for a young man with whom, on account of her avoca- tion, she was bound to be in constant contact.

The patient did not offer anything extraordinary in her external appearance, though graceful of build, she was slight of form. Pelvis decidedly feminine, but arms and legs large, and of pronounced masculine type. Female boots did not really fit her, and she had quite crippled and malformed her feet by forcing them into narrow shoes. Genitals quite normal. Excepting a descensus uteri with hypertrophy of the vaginal portion, no changes were noticeable. She still claimed to be essentially homo- sexual, and declared that her inclination and desire for the opposite sex were only periodical and grossly sensual. Al- though she had strong sexual feelings towards the man aforementioned, yet her greatest and noblest pleasure she found in pressing a kiss upon the soft cheek of a sweet girl. This pleasure she enjoyed often, for she was the "favourite aunt" among these "dear creatures," to whom she rendered the services of the "cavalier" unstintingly, always feeling herself in the role of the man.

Case 155

Case 155. Homosexuality. Miss L., fifty-five years of age. No information about her father's family. The I >a rents of her mother were described as irascible, capricious and nervous. One brother of her mother was an epileptic, another eccentric and mentally abnormal.

Mother was sexually hypenesthetic, and for a long time a messalina. She was considered to be psychopathic and died at the age of sixty-nine of cerebral disease.

Miss L. developed normally, had only slight illnesses in childhood, and was mentally well endowed, but of a neuropathic constitution, emotional, and troubled with numerous fads.

At the age of thirteen, two years previous to her first menstruation, she fell in love with a girl-friend ("a dreamy feeling, quite pure of sensuality").

Her second love was for a girl older than herself who was a bride; this was accompanied by tantalising sensual desires, jealousy, and an "undefined consciousness of mys- tical impropriety". She was refused by this lady and now fell in love with a married woman, who was a mother and twenty years her senior. As she controlled her sensual emotions, this lady never even divined the true reason of this enthusiastic friendship which lasted for twelve years. Patient described this period as a veritable martyrdom.

Since she was twenty-five she had begun to mastur- bate. Patient seriously thought that, perhaps, by marriage she might save herself, but her conscience objected, for her children might inherit her weakness, or she might make a sincere husband unhappy.

At the age of twenty-seven she was approached with direct proposals by a girl who denounced abstinence as alisurd, and plainly described the homosexual instinct \\hich ruled her and was very impetuous in her demands. She suffered the caresses of the girl, but would not con- sent to sexual intercourse, as sensuality without love dis- gusted her.

Mentally and bodily dissatisfied the years fled by, leaving the consciousness of a spoiled life. Now and then she became enthusiastic about ladies of her acquaintance,


but controlled herself. She also rid herself from mastur- bation.

When she was thirty-eight years of age she became acquainted with a girl nineteen years her junior, of ex- ceptional beauty, who came from a demoralized family, and had been at an early age seduced by her cousins to mutual masturbation. It could not be ascertained whether this girl A. was a case of psychical hermaphrodism or of acquired sexual inversion. The former hypothesis seems the likelier of the two.

The following is taken from an autobiography of Miss Jj. '

"Miss A., my pupil, began to show me her idolatrous love. She was sympathetic to the highest degree. Since I knew that she was entangled in a hopeless love affair with a dissolute fellow and continued intimate intercourse with demoralised female cousins, I decided not to repulse her. Compassion and the conviction that she was surely drifting into moral decay determined me to suffer her advances.

"I did not consider her affection as dangerous, as I did not think it possible that (considering her love affair) in ONE soul two passions (one for a man and another for a woman) could exist simultaneously. Moreover, I was certain of my power of resistance. I kept, therefore, Miss A. about me, renewed my moral resolutions, and con- sidered it to be my duty to use her love for me for en- nobling her character. The folly of this I soon found out. One day whilst I lay asleep Miss A. took occasion to satisfy her lust on me. Although I woke up just in time, I did not have the moral strength to resist her. I was highly excited, intoxicated as it were and she pre- vailed.

"What I suffered immediately after this occurrence beggars description. Worry over the broken resolutions, which to keep I had made such strenuous efforts, fear of detection and subsequent contempt, exuberant joy at last to be rid of the torturing watcbings and longings of the


single state, unspeakable sensual pleasure, wrath against tin- evil companion, mingled with feelings of the deepest tenderness towards her. Miss A. calmly smiled at my excitement, and with caresses soothed my anger.

"1 accepted the situation. Our intimacy lasted for years. We practised mutual masturbation, but never to excess or in a cynical fashion.

"Little by little this sensual companionship ceased. Miss A.'s tenderness weakened; mine, however, remained as before, although I felt no longer the same sensual cravings. Miss A. thought of marriage, partly in order to find a home, but especially because her sensual desires had turned into the normal paths. She succeeded in finding a husband. I sincerely hope she will make him happy, but I doubt it. Thus I have the prospect before me to linger on the same joyless, peaceless life as it ever was in youthful days.

"It is with sadness that I remember the years of our loving union. It does not disturb my conscience to have had sexual intercourse with Miss A., for I succumbed to her seduction, having honestly endeavoured to save her from moral ruin and to bring her up an educated and moral being. In this I honestly think I have succeeded after all. Besides, I rest in the thought that the moral code is established only for normal humans, but is not binding for anomalies. Of course, the human being who is endowed by nature with sentiments of refinement, but whose constitution is abnormal and outside the conven- tionalities of society, can never be truly happy. But I experienced a sad tranquillity and felt happy when I thought Miss A. to be so too.

"This is the history of an unhappy woman who, by the fatal caprice of nature, is deprived of all joy of life and made a victim of sorrow."

The author of this woeful story was a lady of great refinement. But she had coarse features, a powerful but throughout feminine frame.* She passed through the climacterium without trouble, and since then had been


entirely free from sensual worry. Sexually she had never played a defined role towards the, woman she loved; for men she never felt the slightest inclination.

Her statements about the family relations and the health of her paramour, Miss A., establish a heavy taint beyond doubt. The father died in an insane asylum, the mother was deranged during the period of her climac- terium, neuroses were of frequent occurrence in the family, and Miss A. herself suffered at times heavily from hystero- pathy, with hallucinations and delirium.

Case 156

Case 156. Homosexuality. S. J., age thirty-eight, governess. Came to me for medical advice on account of nervous trouble. Father was periodically insane, and died from cerebral disease. Patient was an only child. She suffered early from anxiety and alarming fancies, e.g., that she would wake up in a coffin after it had been fastened down; that she would forget something when going to confession, and thus receive holy communion unworthily. Was often troubled with headaches, very excitable, easily startled, but notwithstanding had a great desire to see exciting things such as funerals, etc.

From the earliest youth she was subject to sexual excitement, and spontaneously practised masturbation. At the age of fourteen she began to menstruate. Her periods were often accompanied by colicky pains, intense sexual excitement, neuralgia and mental depression. With the age of eighteen she gave up masturbation successfully.

The patient never experienced an inclination towards a person of the opposite sex. Marriage to her only meant to find a home. But she was mightily drawn to girls. At first she considered this affection merely as friendship, but she soon recognised from the intensity of her love for girl friends and her deep longings for their constant society that? it meant more than mere friendship.

To her it is inconceivable that a girl could love a man, although she can comprehend the feeling of man toward woman. She always took the deepest interest in pretty


girls and ladies, the sight of whom caused her intense "input. Her desire was ever to embrace and kiss these dear creatures. She never dreamed of men, always of girls only. To revel in looking at them was the acme of pleasure. Whenever she lost a "girl friend" she felt in despair.

Patient claimed that she never felt in a defined role, even in her dreams, towards her girl friends. In appear- ance she was thoroughly feminine and modest. Feminine pelvis, large mammse, no indication of beard.

Case 157

Case 157. Homosexuality. Mrs. R., aged thirty-five, of high social position, was brought to me in 1886 by her husband for advice.

Father was a physician; very neuropathic. Paternal grandfather was healthy and normal, and reached the age of ninety-six. Facts concerning paternal grandmother are wanting. All the children of father's family were said to have been nervous. The patient's mother was nervous, and suffered with asthma. The mother's parents were healthy. One of the mother's sisters had melancholia.

From her tenth year patient had been subject to habitual headache. With the exception of measles, she had no illness. She was gifted, and enjoyed the best of training, having especial talent for music and languages. It became necessary for her to prepare herself for the work of a governess, and during her earlier years she was mentally overworked. She passed through an attack of melancholia sine delirio, of some months' duration, at seventeen. The patient asserted that she had always had sympathy only for her own sex, and found only an sesthetic interest in men. She never had any taste for female work, As a little girl, she preferred to play with boys.

She said she remained well until her twenty-seventh year. Then, without external cause, she became depressed and considered herself a bad, sinful person, had no plea- sure in anything, and was sleepless. During this time of illness she was also troubled with delusions: she must


think of her death and that of her relatives. Recovery after about five months. She then became a governess, was overworked, but remained well, except for occasional neurasthenic symptoms and spinal irritation.

At twenty-eight she mada the acquaintance of a lady five years younger than herself. She fell in love with her, and her love was returned. The love was very sensual, and satisfied by mutual masturbation. "I loved her as a god ; hers is a noble soul," she said, when she mentioned this love-bond. It lasted four years and was ended by the (unfortunate) marriage of her friend.

In 1885, after much emotional strain, the patient be- came ill with symptoms of hystero-neurasthenia (dyspep- sia, spinal irritation, and tonic spasmodic attacks; attacks of hemiopia with migraine and transitory aphasia; pruritus pudendi ei am). In February, 1886, these symp- toms disappeared.

In March she became acquainted with her present husband, whom she married without taking much time for reflection; for he was rich, much in love with her, and his character was in sympathy with her own.

On 6th April, she read the sentence, "Death misses no one." Like a flash of lightning in a clear sky, the former delusions of death returned. She was forced to meditate on the most horrible manner of death for herself and those about her, and constantly imagined death-scenes. She lost rest and sleep, and took no pleasure in anything. Her condition improved. Late in May, 1886, she was married, but was still troubled by painful thoughts at that time: that she would bring misfortune on her husband and those about her.

First coitus on 6th June, 1886. She was deeply de- pressed morally by it. She had no such conception of matrimony. The husband, who really loved his wife, did all he could to quiet her. He consulted physicians, who thought all would be well after pregnancy. The husband was unable to explain the peculiar behaviour of his wife. She was friendly toward him, and suffered


his caresses. In coitus, which was actually carried out, she was entirely passive, and after the act she was tired, exhausted all day long, nervous, and troubled with spinal irritation.

A bridal tour brought about a meeting with her old friend, who had lived in an unhappy marriage for three years. The two ladies trembled with joy and excitement as they sank into each other's arms, and became insepar- able. The husband saw that this friendly relation was a peculiar one, and hastened their departure. lie had an opportunity of ascertaining, through the correspondence of his wife with this friend, that the letters interchanged were like those of two lovers.

Mrs. R. became pregnant. During pregnancy the remains of depression and delusions disappeared. In September, during about the ninth week of pregnancy, abortion took place. After that, renewed symptoms of hystero-neurasthenia. In addition to this, there were anteflexio et latero-positio dextra uteri, anosmia, et atonia ventriculi.

At the consultation the patient gave the impression of a very neuropathic, tainted person. The neuropathic expression of the eyes cannot be described. Appearance entirely feminine. With the exception of a very narrow arched palate, there was no skeletal abnormality. With difficulty the patient could be brought to give the details of her sexual abnormality. She complained that she had married without knowing what marriage between men and women was. She loved her husband dearly for his mental qualities, but marital intercourse was a pain to her; she did it unwillingly, without ever finding any satisfaction in it. Post actum, all day long she was weary and exhausted. Since the abortion and the interdiction of sexual intercourse by tin- physicians, she had been better; but she thought of the future with horror. She esteemed her husband, and l<>\i<l him mentally; but she would do anything for him, if he would but avoid her sexually in the future. She hoped to have sexual feeling


for him in time. When he played the violin, she seemed to feel the beginning of an inclination for him that was something more than friendship; but it was only tran- sitory, and she could get no assurance for the future in it Her greatest happiness was in correspondence with her former lover. She felt that this was wrong, but she could not give it up ; for to do so made her miserable.

Case 158

Case 158. Homosexuality. Miss X., of the middle class in a large city. At the end of my observations she was twenty-two years of age.

She was considered a beauty; much admired by men; decidedly sensual; a born Aspasia; refused all proposals of marriage. She reciprocated, however, the advances of one admirer, a youthful scholar, entertained relations with him, that is to say, she allowed him to kiss her, but not as a lover. When on one occasion, Mr. T. thought he had obtained the aim of his attentions, she begged him under tears to desist, alleging that her refusal was not based upon moral principles, but rooted in deeper psychical reasons. Subsequently epistolary correspondence between the two disclosed the existence of sexual inversion.

Her father was given to drink, her mother hystero- pathic. She herself was of neuropathic constitution, had a large bust and the appearance of an exceptionally hand- some woman, but was strikingly mannish in her manners, had masculine tastes, loved gymnastics and horseback exercise, smoked, and had masculine carriage and gait, She would like to go on the stage.

Recently she caused much talk on account of her en- thusiastic friendships with young ladies. One young lady lived with her. They slept in the same bed.

Up to her puberty Miss X. claimed to have been sex- ually indifferent.

At the age of seventeen, whilst at a spa, she made the acquaintance of a young foreigner whose "royal" appear- ance fascinated her. She was happy when, on a certain occasion, she could dance with him the whole evening.


The next evening at twilight she happened to witness the revolting scene of this charming young man right opposite from her window in the shrubbery of the gardens futuare more bestiarum inulierem quondam inter menstruationem. Aspect u sanguinis currentis et libidinis quasi bestialia viri Miss X. was horrified, almost annihilated, and felt it difficult to recover her mental balance. For a long time she lost her sleep and appetite, and from that time she saw in man only the embodiment of coarse vulgarity.

Two years later, in a public park, she was approached by a young lady who smiled and looked upon her in such a peculiar fashion that she felt a thrill through her soul.

The day after, Miss X. was irresistibly impelled to go to the park again. The young lady was already there, and seemed to be waiting for her. They greeted each other like old acquaintances; talked and joked together, made fresh appointments, and when the weather became too inclement they met at the boudoir of the young lady.

"One day," Miss X. relates in her confidential revela- tions, "she led me to her divan, and whilst she was seated I knelt down at her feet She fastened her timid eyes upon me, stroked away the hair from my forehead, and said, 'Ah ! if I only could love you once really ! May I ?' I consented, and whilst we thus sat together, gazing into each other's eyes, we drifted into that current which al- lows of no retreat. . . . She was enchantingly beauti- ful. All I wished was to possess the power of the artist to immortalise that form upon the canvas. To me it was a novel experience. I was intoxicated. We abandoned ourselves to each other without restriction, drunk with the ravages of sensual feminine pleasure. I do not believe that man can ever grasp the exuberance of such piquant tenderness; man is not sufficiently refined; he is much too coarse. . . . Our wild orgy lasted until I sank down exhausted, powerless, unnerved. I fell asleep on her bed. Suddenly I awoke with an unspeakable thrill, hitherto unknown to me, running through my whole being. She was upon me cunnilingum perficiens the highest plea-


sure for her, tandem mihi non licebat altnim quam osculos dare ad mammas, which caused her to quiver convulsively.

"This intercourse lasted for a whole year, when the removal of her father to another city separated us."

Miss X. admitted that in this homosexual intercourse she always felt in the role of man towards the woman, and that on one occasion, faute de mieux, she granted cunnilingus to one of her male admirers.

Case 159

Case 159. Homosexuality. Mrs. C., aged thirty-two wife of an official, a large, not uncomely woman, feminine in appearance, came of a neuropathic and emotional mother. A brother was psychopathic, and died of drink. Patient was always peculiar, obstinate, silent, quick-tem- pered, and eccentric. The brothers and sisters were ex- citable people. Pulmonary phthisis had been frequent in the family. When only a girl of thirteen, with signa of great sexual excitement, she attracted attention by enthusiastic love for a female friend of her own age. Her education was strict, though the patient secretly read many novels, and wrote innumerable poems. She married at eighteen to free herself from unpleasant circumstances at home.

She said she had always been indifferent toward men. In fact, she avoided balls. Female statues pleased her. Her greatest happiness was to think of marriage with a beloved woman. She was not aware of her sexual peculiarity until marriage, and the thing had remained inexplicable to her. Patient did her marital duty, and bore three children, two of whom were subject to con- vulsions. She lived pleasantly with her husband, but she esteemed him only for his moral qualities. She gladly avoided coitus. "I should have preferred intercourse with a woman."

Until 1878 she had been neurasthenic. On the occa- sion of a sojourn at a watering-place she made the ac- quaintance of a female urning, whose history I have reported as case 6, in the "Irrenfreund," No. 1, 1884.


The patient came home a changed person. Her husband said: "She was no longer a woman, no longer had any love for me and the children, and would have no more of marital approaches. She was inflamed with passionate love for her female friend, and had taste for in >tliing else." After the husband forbade her lover the house, there was interchange of letters with such expres- sions in them as "My dove! I live only for you, my soul." There were meetings and frightful excitement when an expected letter did not come. The relation was in nowise platonic. From certain indications it was pre- sumable that mutual masturbation was the means of sexual satisfaction. This relation lasted until 1882, and made the patient decidedly neurasthenic.

She absolutely neglected the house, and her husband hired a woman of sixty years as a housekeeper, and also a governess for the children. The patient fell in love with both, who, at least, allowed caresses, and profited ma- terially through the love of their mistress.

In the latter part of 1883, on account of developing pulmonary tuberculosis, she had to go south. There she became acquainted with a Russian lady of forty years, and fell passionately in love with her; but she did not meet with a return of love in her sense. One day insanity be- came manifest She thought the Russian lady a nihilist; that she was magnetised by her; and she presented formal persecutory delusions. She fled, was caught in an Italian city, and placed in a hospital, where she soon became quiet. Again she worried the lady with her love, felt herself very unhappy, and planned suicide.

When she returned home she was greatly depressed because she did not have the lady, and was harsh toward her family. A delusive, erotic state of excitement came on about the end of May, 1884. She danced, shouted, and called herself a man ; demanded her former lover, and said she was of royal blood. She escaped from the house in male attire, and was taken to the asylum in a state of eroto-maniacal excitement. After a few days the exalta-


tion disappeared. The patient became quiet, and made a desperate attempt at suicide; after it she was in great an- guish of mind with toedium vitce. The perverse sexual feeling grew less and less noticeable as tuberculosis pro- gressed. The patient died of phthisis in the beginning of 1885.

The examination of the brain presented nothing unu- sual so far as architecture and arrangement of convolu- tions were concerned. Weight of brain 1150 grammes. Skull slightly asymmetrical. No anatomical signs of de- generation. External and internal genitals without anom- aly.

Case 160

Case 160. (Homo-sexuality in Transition to Vira- ginity.) Mrs. v. T., wife of a manufacturer; age twenty- six; married only a few months; was brought by her husband for consultation because after a banquet she had fallen upon the neck of a lady guest, covered her profusely with kisses and caressed her like a lover, thus causing a scandal.

Mrs. T. said that she had before their marriage ex- plained to her husband her antipathic sexual feelings, and had told him that she esteemed him solely for his mental qualities. She accepted her conjugal duties merely as a matter of unavoidable necessity. Her only condition was that she should be incubus. In this position she obtained a sort of gratification, for she imagined his body to be that of a beloved woman in succubus.

Her brother was neuropathic, of feminine type, suf- fered from hysteria, and was very weak in his sexual needs; one of his sisters, it was said, bought her conjugal rights from her husband for a sum of money, giving him full liberty to find sexual satisfaction elsewhere. The mother was hyper-sexual, and known as a Messalina. She made her daughter sleep in the same bed with her till she reached the age of fourteen. At fifteen v. T. was sent to a girl's school. Being extraordinarily bright, she learned quickly and soon dominated over all the other girls in her form.


At the ago of seven she IKK! a iv<-ltieul trauma when a friend of the family exhibits! him.-eh' l.rfuiv lier.

Menses began at twelve, were regular and without in rvoiiv enm-omitants. At that age she began already to be powerfully drawn to other girls. Although for several years she never associated these yearnings with sexual feel- ings, she yet looked upon them as an anomaly. She only felt bashful when undressing in the presence of persons of her own sex. At twenty the sexual instinct awoke. At once she turned to girls for gratification, avoiding men entirely. She had sensual love affairs with girls by the scores. When she returned home from school, having no Mipervision and plenty of money, she found it easy to give her passion full sway. She always felt like a man towards woman. Masturbatio feminro dilectae was the common occurrence in her orgies, until a female cousin taught her the mysteries of Lesbian love. She now coupled the act with etinuiliugus. She always played the active role, and never allowed others to satisfy themselves on her own body. Homo-sexual woman she disdained. She gave preference to unmarried women of high standing endowed with men- tal gifts, of voluptuous, Diana-like figure, but of modest and retiring disposition. (Sensual women she did not care for.) Whenever she met such a woman, she would be- come erotically so excited that she fell upon her person like a hungry wild beast. She said that at such momenta everything appeared to her in a reddish gleam, and con- sciousness was obliterated for the time being. Her nerves were easily unstrung, and she could not master her feel- ings.

At the age of twenty-three she became acquainted with a young woman who, to all appearances, was not homo- Mi, but very hypersexual, and could not find sexual satisfaction on account of impotence in her husband. The relations with this woman stimulated T.'s homo-sexuality to a very high pitch and increased her sexual needs. She furnished an apartment away from home, where she had regular orgies cum digito et lingua, sometimes for hours,



until she herself collapsed in a state of exhaustion. She had a love affair with a dressmaker's model with whom she had herself photographed in man's attire, visited, in the same costume, with her places of amusement and was finally arrested on one of these occasions. She escaped with a warning and gave up male attire out-of-doors.

A year before her marriage she had a period of melan- cholia. At that time she meditated suicide, and wrote a farewell letter to an intimate lady friend, a sort of con- fession, from which a few passages are given:

"I was born a girl, but a misdirected education forced my fiery imagination early into the wrong direction. At twelve I had a mania to pose as a boy and court the atten- tion of ladies. I recognised this abnormal impulse as a mania, but, like fate, it grew with the years. The power to rid myself of it was lost. It was my hashish, my happi- ness, and grew into an overpowering passion. I felt like a man, forced to play the active role. My exuberant dis- position, tierce sensuousness and deep-rooted perverse in- stinct gradually forged me into the chains of Lesbian love. I took a certain interest in man, but a single touch by a woman made my whole nervous system tremble. I have suffered untold tortures in the bane of this passion.

"The reading of French novels and lascivious compan- ions taught me all the tricks of perverse erotics, and the latent impulse became a conscious perversity. Nature has made a mistake in the choice of my sexuality and I must do a life-long penance for it, for the moral power to suffer the unavoidable with dignity is lost. Irresistibly I have been drawn into the maelstrom of passion and shall be swallowed up by it

"I languished for your sweet body. I was jealous of your Victor as one rival is of the other. In my jealousy I suffered the tortures of hell. I hated that man unto death. I cursed my fate that made me a woman. I was satisfied to play a stupid comedy before you, to endow you with an artificial membrum. It only increased the heat of my passion. Courage failed me to tell you the


(ruth, because it would have been so miserable and ludi- crous. Now you know all. You will not despise me, though; you will only feel what I have suffered. All my joys resemble more a momentary intoxication than the real gold of happiness. It was all but an illusion. I have fooled life and life has fooled me. We are quits. I say good-bye. Think sometimes in the hour of happiness of your poor, comical fool who loved you truly and so well . . .

The vita sexualis of this woman contained also traces of masochism and sadism. If the woman whom she wor- shipped had chided or even struck her, it would have been a delight, so she claimed and at the time of sex^ial ex- citement she felt more like biting than kissing the object of her love.

She was highly cultured and intellectual, felt her false position painfully, but rather on account of her family than her own self. She looked upon it all as fate, over which she had no control. She bewailed it and declared herself ready to do anything to rid herself of this perversion and become a true wife and good mother, for she would take good care that her child were brought up in the right way. She would do everything to reconcile her husband and perform her marital duties, but she could not bear his moustache, and she must first rid herself of her un- fortunate impulsive passion.

The physical and psychical secondary sexual charac- teristics were partly masculine, partly feminine. Her love for sport, smoking and drinking, her preference for clothes cut in the fashion of men, her lack of skill in and liking for female occupations, her love for the study of obtuse and philosophical subjects, her gait and carriage, severe features, deep voice, robust skeleton, powerful mus- cles and absence of adipose layers bore the stamp of the masculine character. The pelvis also (small hips), dis- tantia spinarum 22cm., cristarum 26, trochanterum 31, ap- proached the masculine figure. Vagina, uterus, ovaries normal, clitoris rather large. Mammae well developed, hair on mons veneris female.


I sent her to an hydropathic establishment, where an experienced colleague succeeded in a few months to free this patient by means of hydro- and suggestive treatment, from her homo-sexual affliction. She became a decent, sexually at least, neutral person. The relatives with whom she lived afterwards for a considerable time found her be- haviour absolutely correct.

Case 161

Case 161. Viraginity. Miss N"., twenty-five years of age. Parents supposed to be healthy. Her brothers and sisters were all neuropathic. Three of her sisters were married. She was very talented, especially in the fine arts. Even in her earliest childhood she preferred playing at soldiers and other boys' games; she was bold and torn- boyish, and tried even to excel her little companions of the other sex. She never had a liking for dolls, needle- work or domestic duties. Puberty at fifteen. She soon foil in love with young ladies, but only in a platonic fash- ion, for she was a "respectable girl." For several years since then her libido was very strong. She could hardly restrain herself. Her dreams were of a lascivious character, only about females, with herself in the role of man. She was desperately in love with a woman of forty, whom she tor- mented with her jealous conduct.

Miss N. was indifferent to men. She could safely live with a man in the same room, whilst towards persons of her own sex she was most bashful.

She was quite conscious of her pathological condition.

Masculine features, deep voice, manly gait, without beard, small mammse; cropped her hair short, and made the impression of a man in woman's clothes.

Case 162

Case 162. Viraginity. C. R., maid-servant, aged twenty-six, suffered from the time of her development with original paranoia and hysteria. As a result of her delusions, her life had been somewhat romantic, and in 1884, in Switzerland, where she had gone on account of delusions of persecution, she came under the observation


of tbe authorities. On this occasion it was ascertained that R. was affected with sexual inversion.

Concerning her parents and relatives, there was no in- formation at hand. R. asserted that, with the exception of an inflammation of the lungs at the age of sixteen, she had never been severely ill.

First menstruation at fifteen, without any difficulties; thereafter it was very often irregrtlar and abnormally ex- cessive. The patient declared that she never had had inclinations toward the opposite sex, and had never allowed the approach of a man. She never could understand how her friends could describe the beauty and amiability of men. But it was charming and inspiring for her to im- print a kiss on the lips of a beloved female friend. She had a love for girls that was incomprehensible to her. She had passionately loved and kissed some of her female friends, and she would have given up her life for them. Her greatest delight would have been to have constantly lived with such a friend and absolutely possessed her.

In this she felt toward the beloved girl like a man. Even as a little child she had an inclination only for the play of boys, and she loved to hear shooting and military music, was always much excited by them, and would gladly have gone as a soldier. The chase and war have been her ideals. In the theatre only feminine performers interested her. She knew very well that the whole of this inclination was unwomanly, but she could not help it. It had always been a great pleasure for her to go about in male clothing, and in the same way she had always pre- ferred masculine work, and had shown unusual skill in it; while with reference to feminine occupations, especially handiwork, she had to say the contrary. The patient had also a weakness for smoking and spirits. On account of persecutory delusions, in order to rid herself of her per- secutions, the patient had often gone about in male attire and played the part of a man. She did this with such (natural) skill that, as a rule, she was able to deceive peo- ple concerning her sex.


It is authoritatively established that in 1884 for a long time the patient went about in male attire, now in the garments of a civilian, now in the uniform of a lieu- tenant ; and in August of the same year, dressed as a male servant, she fled to Switzerland through delusions of per- secution. There she found service in a merchant's family and fell in love with the daughter of the house, "the beau- tiful Anna," who, on her side, not recognising the sex of R., fell in love with the handsome young man.

Concerning this episode the patient made the follow- ing characteristic statement: "I was madly in love with Anna. I don't know how it came about, and I cannot put myself right concerning this impulse. In this fatal love lies the reason why I played the role of a man so long. I have never yet felt any love for a man, and I believe that my love is for the female and not the male sex. I can in nowise understand my condition."

From Switzerland R. wrote letters home to her friend Amelia, which were produced at the examination. They are letters showing passionate love, which goes beyond the bounds of friendship. She apostrophises her friend: "My flower, sun of my heart, longing of my soul". ' She was her greatest happiness on earth; her heart was hers. And in her letters to her friend's parents she wrote : "You, too, should watch my 'flower/ for if she should die I also would be unable to endure life".

For the purpose of investigating her mental condition, R. remained for some time in an asylum. On one occa- sion, when Anna was allowed to pay R. a visit, there was no end of passionate embraces and kisses. The visitor acknowledged freely that they had before secretly em- braced and kissed in the same way.

R. was a tall, slim, stately person, of feminine form in all respects, but masculine features. Cranium regular; no anatomical signs of degeneration. Genitals normal and indicative of virginity. R. made the impression of a mor- ally pure and modest person. All the circumstances in- dicated that she had only indulged in platonic love. Eye


and appearance were indicative of a neurasthenic person. Severe hysteria, occasional cataleptoid attacks, with vision- ary and delirious states. The patient was very easily brought into a state of somnambulism by hypnotic influ- ence, and in this condition was susceptible to all possible suggestions. (Personal case. "Friedreich's Blatter," 1881, Heft i.)

Case 163

Case 163. Viraginity. Miss O., twenty-three years of age. Mother constitutionally and heavily hysteropathic. Mother's father insane. Father's family untainted.

Father died early of pneumonia. Patient was brought to me by her trustee because she ran away recently from home in male attire in order to rove through the world and become an "artiste". Very gifted in music.

For several years she attracted much attention by her bold, mannish behaviour, and by wearing her hair and attire in male fashion. Since she was thirteen she was demonstrative in her love for girl friends, whom she often wearied with fervent embraces.

She did not seek to conceal her passionate fondness for persons of her own sex. Claimed that since her thir- teenth year she was fully conscious of the fact that she could love only women. She felt as a man towards woman ; though she looked like a man, and would much rather wear men's clothes.

A short time ago she seriously asked a relative who was in the police department to obtain permission for her to go about in male attire.

Her erotic dreams dealt only with intimate intercourse with female friends. She never took the slightest interest in men, and never thought of marriage.

She felt quite happy in her abnormal sexual condi- tion, and did not recognise it as pathological. She could not comprehend that her sexual instinct differed from that of other women.

The circumference of the head was 51 cm. Frame quite feminine; but the feet were exceptionally large and


more of masculine type. Carriage, attitude and gait quite masculine. Female voice. Monthly periods regular since her thirteenth year.

Case 164

Case 164. (Viraginity.) On the 5th of October, 1898, the police brought to my clinic W., age thirty-six, a charwoman, for examination as to her sanity. She had engaged herself to a young girl under the pretext that she was a man and belonged to an aristocratic family. Exam- ination proved this to be a classical case of original para- noia. When she was five she imagined that the couple with whom she lived were only her foster parents, at eighteen that she came from a distinguished family, at twenty-nine that her father was a king, her mother a countess. Circumference of cranium 53 cm., parietal bones slightly bulging. Ears abnormally small, of uneven size, misformed, the right lobe joined groin-like to the cheek, the left properly developed. Palate very narrow and steep. Teeth carious, many missing (Rachitis). Stat- ure medium size, willowy. Chest strongly arched. Waist and region of hips smaller than in the normal. A promi- nent gynecologist examined the pelvic regions and found a small pelvis, narrow at the inferior outlet, in form almost typically masculine. Ilium less inclined than in the nor- mal.

The hard lines and severe features of the face gave it a rather masculine appearance. Her hair was cut short. Gait and bearing masculine. Skin very rough, adipose layers sparse, mamma stunted. Genitals normal, hymen intact. She was loath to speak of her vita sexualis, but wanted an explanation why she had no desire for men and only for persons of her own sex. "Her genitals could not be right." Menses from the age of sixteen, but the flow of blood came but seldom, and even then very sparsely. With the advent of puberty inclinations to persons of her own sex. She never was sensual. Her sexual ideas were always about the female sex in general, never concentrated on an individual. In this wise she had lived with another girl of her own age; but their relations had been those of sisters; sexual acts had never taken place between them. She felt towards other women as a man does; she loathed the idea of sexual intercourse with a man. When a child she preferred playing with boys. "When playing at "rob- bers" she would be the captain and chose a girl for her wife, but without any sexual moment. At sixteen she thought she possessed the qualities of a man. She was then in a convent and there learned from a woman mas- turbation. The thought of this woman was always pres- ent when she masturbated, and acted as a sexual stimulus. Later on she thought of other females during the act, but without decided individuality.

At thirty-three she became neurasthenic, gave up the practice successfully. She bewailed the fact that she was not born a man, as she hated feminine things and dress generally. "Would much, rather have been a soldier. Sweetmeats she disdained, preferring a cigar. She was a bright, intelligent person. Larynx and voice feminine. She became convinced that she could not marry a woman and upon promise to conquer her perverse sexual inclina- tions she was dismissed.

Case 165

case 165

Case 165. Miss X., aged thirty-eight, consulted me late in the fall of 1881, on account of severe spinal irritation and obstinate sleeplessness, in combatting which she had become addicted to morphine and chloral. Her mother and sister were nervous sufferers, but the rest of the family were healthy. The trouble dated from a fall on her back in 1872, at which time the patient was terribly frightened, though, when a girl, she had been subject to muscular cramps and hysterical symptoms. Following this shock, a neurasthenic and hysterical neurosis developed, with predominating spinal irritation and sleeplessness. Episodically, hysterical paraplegia, lasting as long as eight months, and hysterical hallucinatory delirium, with convulsive attacks, occurred. In the course of this, symptoms of morphinism were added. A stay, of some months in the hospital relieved the latter, and considerably improved the neurasthenic neurosis, in the treatment of which general faradisation exerted a remarkably favourable influence.

Even at the first meeting, the patient produced a remarkable impression by reason of her attire, features and conduct. She wore a gentleman's hat, her hair closely cut, eye-glasses, a gentleman's cravat, a coat-like outer garment of masculine cut that reached well down over her gown, and boots with high heels. She had coarse, somewhat masculine features; a harsh, deep voice; and made rather the impression of a man in female attire than that of a lady, if one but overlooked the bosom and the decidedly feminine form of the pelvis. During the long time that she was observed, there were never signs of erotism. When questioned concerning her attire, she would only respond that the style she chose suited her better. Gradually it was ascertained from her that, even when she was a small girl, she had had a preference for horses and masculine pursuits, and never any interest in feminine occupations. Later she developed a particular pleasure in reading, and prepared herself to be a teacher. Dancing had never pleased her; it had always seemed silly to her. The ballet had never interested her. Her greatest pleasure had always been in the circus. Until her sickness, in 1872, she had neither had inclination for persons of the opposite nor of those of her own sex. From that time she had, what was remarkable to herself, a peculiar friendship for females, particularly for young ladies; and she had a desire, and satisfied it, to wear hats and coats of masculine style. Since 1869, she had worn her hair short, and parted it on the side, as men do. She asserted that she was never sexually excited in the company of men, but that her friendship and self-sacrifice for sympathetic ladies was unbounded; while from that time she also experienced repugnance for gentlemen and their society.

Her relatives reported that, before 1872, the patient had a proposal of marriage, which she refused ; and that when she returned from a sojourn at a watering place, in 1874, she was sexually changed, and occasionally showed that she did not regard herself as a female.

Since that time she would associate only with ladies, had a kind of love-relation with one or another, and made remarks which indicated that she looked upon herself as a man. This predilection for women was decidedly more than mere friendship, since it expressed itself in tears, jealousy, etc.

When, in 1874, she was stopping at a watering place, a young lady, who took her for a man in disguise, fell in love with her. When this lady married, later, the patient was for a long time depressed, and spoke of unfaithfulness. Moreover, since her illness, her relatives were struck by her desire for masculine attire, her masculine conduct, and disinclination for feminine pursuits ; while, previously, at least sexually, she had presented nothing unusual.

Further investigation showed that the patient had a love-relation, which was not purely platonic, with the lady described in case 159; and that she wrote her affectionate letters like those of a lover to his beloved. In 1887 I again saw the patient in a sanatorium, where she had been placed on account of hystero-epileptic attacks, spinal irritation, and morphinism. The inverted sexual feeling existed unchanged, and only by the most careful watching was the patient kept from improper advances toward her fellow patients.

Her condition remained quite unchanged until 1889. Then the patient began to fail, and she died of "exhaustion," in August, 1889. The autopsy showed, in the vegetative organs, amyloid degeneration of the kidneys, fibroma of the uterus, and cyst of the left ovary. The frontal bone was much thickened, uneven on the inner surface, with numerous exostoses; dura adherent to vault of cranium. Long diameter of skull, 175 millimetres; lateral diameter, 148 millimetres; weight of the oedematous, but no atrophied brain, 1175 grammes. The meuinges delicate, easily removed. Cortex pale. Convolutions broad, not numerous, regularly arranged. Nothing abnormal in cerebellum and great ganglia.

Case 166

Case 166. Gynandry. 1 History: On 4th November, 1889, the father-in-law of a certain Countess V., com- plained that the latter had swindled him out of 800f., under the pretence of requiring a bond as secretary of a stock company. It was ascertained that Sandor had entered into matrimonial contracts and escaped from the nuptials in the spring of 1889; and, more than this, that this ostensible Count Sandor was no man at all, but a woman in male attire Sarolta (Charlotte), Countess V.

S. was arrested, and, on account of deception and forgery of public documents, brought to examination. At the first hearing S. confessed that she was born on the 6th Sept., 1866; that she was a female, Catholic, single, and worked as an authoress under the name of Count Sandor V.

From the autobiography of this man-woman I have gleaned the following remarkable facts that have been independently confirmed :

S. came of an ancient, noble and highly respected family of Hungary, in which there had been eccentricity and family peculiarities. A sister of the maternal grand- mother was hysterical, a somnambulist, and lay seventeen years in bed, on account of fancied paralysis. A second great-aunt spent seven years in bed, on account of a fancied fatal illness, and at the same time gave balls. A third had the whim that a certain table in her salon was bewitched. When anything was laid on this table, she would become greatly excited and cry, "Bewitched! bewitched!" and run with the object into a room which she called the "Black Chamber," and the key of which she never let out of her hands. After the death of this lady, there were found in this chamber a number of shawls, ornaments, bank-notes,

1 Cf. the expert medical opinion of this case, by Dr, in " Friedreich't Blatter f. ger. Med.," 1891, Heft 1.


A fourth great-aunt during two years did not leave In r room, and neither washed herself nor combed her hair; ilicn she again made her appearance. AH these ladies were, nevertheless, intellectual, finely educated and amiable.

>.'s mother was nervous, and could not bear the light of the moon.

She inherited many of the peculiarities of her father's family. One line of the family gave itself up almost entirely to spiritualism. Two blood relations on the father's side shot themselves. The majority of her male relatives were unusually talented; the females were de- cidedly narrow-minded and domesticated. S.'s father had a high position, which, however, on account of his eccen- tricity and extravagance (he wasted over a million and a half), he lost.

Among many foolish things that her father encouraged in her was the fact that he brought her up as a boy, called her Sandor, allowed her to ride, drive and hunt, admiring her muscular energy.

On the other hand, this foolish father allowed his second son to go about in female attire, and had him brought up as a girl. This farce ceased when the son was sent to a higher school at the age of fifteen.

Sarolta-Sandor remained under her father's influence till her twelfth year, and then came under the care of her eccentric maternal grandmother in Dresden, by whom, when the masculine play became too obvious, she was placed in an institute and made to wear female attire.

At thirteen she had a love-relation with an English girl, to whom she represented herself as a boy, and ran away with her.

Surolta returned to her mother, who, however, could do nothing, and was- compelled to allow her daughter to again become Sandor, wear male clothes, and, at least once a year, to fall in love with persons of her own sex.

At the same time S. received a careful education and made long journeys with her father, of course always as a


young gentleman. She early became independent and visited cafes, even those of doubtful character, and, indeed, boasted one day that in a brothel she had had a girl sitting on each knee. S. was often intoxicated, had a passion for masculine sports and was a very skilful fencer.

She felt herself drawn particularly toward actresses, or others of similar position, and, if possible, toward those who were not very young. She asserted that she never had any inclination for a young man, and that she had felt, from year to year, an increasing dislike for young men.

"I preferred to go into the society of ladies with ugly, ill-favoured men, so that none of them could put me ill the shade. If I noticed that any of the men awakened the sympathies of the ladies, I felt jealous. I preferred ladies who were bright and pretty; I could not endure them if they were fat or much inclined toward men. It delighted me if the passion of a lady was disclosed under a poetic veil. All immodesty in a woman was disgusting to me. I had an indescribable aversion for female attire, indeed, for everything feminine, but only in as far as it concerned me; for, on the other hand, I was all enthu- siasm for the beautiful sex."

During the last ten years S. had lived almost con- stantly away from her relatives, in the guise of a man. She had had many liaisons with ladies, travelled much, spent much, and made debts.

At the same time she carried on literary work, and was a valued collaborator on two noted journals of the capital.

Her passion for ladies was very changeable; con- stancy in love was entirely wanting.

Only once did such a liaison last three years. It was years before that S., at Castle G., made the acquaintance of Emma E., who was ten years older that herself. She fell in love with her, made a marriage contract with her, and they lived together as man and wife for three years at the capital.

A new love, which proved fatal to S., caused her to


sever her matrimonial relations with E. The latter would not have it so. Only with the greatest sacrifice was S. able to purchase her freedom from E., who still looked upon herself as a divorced wife, and regarded herself as the Countess V.! That S. also had the power to excite passion in other women was shown by the fact that when she (before her marriage with E.) had grown tired of a Miss D., after having spent thousands of guldens on her, she was threatened with shooting by D. if she should be- come untrue.

It was in the summer of 1887, while at a watering- place, that S. made the acquaintance of a distinguished official's family. Immediately she fell in love with the daughter, Marie, and her love was returned.

Her mother and cousin tried in vain to break up this affair. During the winter the lovers corresponded zealously. In April, 1888, Count S. paid her a visit, and in May, 1889, attained her wish; in that Marie who, in the meantime, had given up a position as teacher became her bride in the presence of a friend of her lover, the ceremony being performed in an arbour, by a pseudo- priest, in Hungary. S., with her friend, forged the mar- riage certificate. The pair lived happily, and, without the interference of the father-in-law, this false marriage, probably, would have lasted much longer. It is remark- able that, during the comparatively long existence of the relation, S. was able to deceive completely the family of her bride with regard to her true sex.

S. was a passionate smoker, and in all respects her tastes and passions were masculine. Her letters and even legal documents reached her under the address of "Count S." She often spoke of having to drill. From remarks of the father-in-law it seems that S. (and she afterward confessed it) knew how to imitate a scrotum with handkerchiefs or gloves stuffed in the trousers. The father-in-law also, on one occasion, noticed something like an erected member on his future son-in-law (probably a priapus). She also occasionally remarked that she was


obliged to wear a suspensory bandage while riding. The fact is, S. wore a bandage around- the body possibly as a means of retaining a priapus.

Though S. often had herself shaved pro forma, the servants in the hotel where she lived were convinced that she was a woman, because the chambermaids found traces of menstrual blood on her linen (which S. explained, how- ever, as haemorrhoidal) ; and, on the occasion of a bath which S. was accustomed to take, they claimed to have convinced themselves of her real sex by looking through the key-hole.

The family of Marie make it seem probable that she for a long time was deceived with regard to the true sex of her false bridegroom. The following passage in a letter from Marie to S., 26th August, 1889, speaks in favour of the incredible simplicity and innocence of this unfortunate girl : "I don't like children any more, but ' if I had a little Bezerl or Patscherl by my Sandi ah, what happiness, Sandi mine!"

A large number of manuscripts allow conclusions to be drawn concerning S.'s mental individuality. The chirography possesses the character of firmness and certainty. The characters are genuinely masculine. The same peculiarities repeat themselves everywhere in their contents wild, unbridled passion; hatred and resistance to all that opposes the heart thirsting for love; poetical love, which is not marred by one ignoble blot, enthusiasm for the beautiful and noble; appreciation of science and the arts.

Her writings betray a wonderfully wide range of reading in classics of all languages, in citations from poets and prose writers of all lands. The evidence of those qualified to judge literary work shows that S.'s poetical and literary ability was by no means small. The letters and writings concerning the. relation with Marie are psychologically worthy of notice.

S. speaks of the happiness there was for her when by M.'s side, and expresses boundless longing to see her


beloved, if only for a moment. After such a happiness she could have but one wish to exchange her cell for the grave. The bitterest thing was the knowledge that now Marie, too, hated her. Hot tears, enough to drown herself in, she had shed over her lost happiness. Whole quires of paper are given up to the apotheosis of this love, and reminiscences of the time of the first love and acquaintance.

S. complained of her heart, that would allow no reason to direct it; she expressed emotions which were such as only could be felt not simulated. Then, again, there were outbreaks of most silly passion, with the declara- tion that she could not live without Marie. "Thy dear, sweet voice; the voice whose tone perchance would raise me from the dead; that has been for me like the warm breath of Paradise! Thy presence alone were enough to alleviate my mental and moral anguish. It was a magnetic stream; it was a peculiar power your being exercised over mine, which I cannot quite define; and, therefore, I cling to that ever-true definition: I love you because I love you. In the night of sorrow I had but one star the star of Marie's love. That star has lost its light; now there remains but its shimmer the sweet, sad memory which even lights with its soft ray the deepening night of death a ray of hope."

This writing ends with the apostrophe: "Gentlemen, you learned in the law, psychologists and pathologists, do me justice! Love led me to take the step I took; all my deeds were conditioned by it God put it in my heart

"If he created me so, and not otherwise, am I then guilty; or is it the eternal, incomprehensible way of fate? I relied on God, that one day my emancipation would come; for my thought was only love itself, which is the foundation, the guiding principle, of His teaching and His kingdom.

"O God, Thou All-pitying, Almighty One! Thou seest my distress; Thou knowest how I suffer, Incline



Thyself to me; extend Thy helping hand to me, deserted by all the world. Only God is just. How beautifully does Victor Hugo describe this in his 'Legendes du Siecle* ! How sad do Mendelssohn's words sound to me : 'Nightly in dreams I see thee' !"

Though S. knew that none of her writings reached her lover, she did not grow tired writing of her pain and delight in love, in page after page of deification of Marie. And to induce one more pure flood of tears, on one still, clear summer evening, when the lake was aglow with the setting sun like molten gold, and the bells of St. Anna and Maria-Worth, blending in harmonious mel- ancholy, gave tidings of rest and peace, she wrote: "For that poor soul, for this poor heart that beats for thee till the last breath".

Personal examination: The first meeting which the experts had with S. was in a measure, a time of embarrass- ment to both sides; for them, because perhaps S.'s some- what dazzling and forced masculine carriage impressed them; for her, because she thought she was to be marked with the stigma of moral insanity. She had a pleasant and intelligent face, which, in spite of a certain delicacy of features and diminutiveness of all its parts, gave a decidedly masculine impression, had it not been for the absence of a moustache. It was even difficult for tho experts to realise that they were concerned with a woman, despite the fact of female attire and constant association; while, on the other hand, intercourse with the man Sandor was much more free, natural, and apparently correct. The accused also felt this. She immediately became more open, more communicative, more free, as soon as she was treated like a man.

In spite of her inclination for the female sex, which had been present from her earliest years, she asserted that in her thirteenth year she first felt a trace of sexual feeling, which expressed itself in kisses, embraces, and caresses, with sexual pleasure, and this on the occasion of her elopement with the red-haired English girl from the Dres-


den institute. At that time feminine forms exclusively appeared to her in dream-pictures, and ever since, in sensual dreams, she felt herself in the situation of a man, and occasionally, also, at such times, experienced ejacu- lation.

She knew nothing of solitary or mutual onanism. Such a thing seemed very disgusting to her, and not conducive to manliness. She had, also, never allowed herself to be touched ad genitalia by others, because it would have revealed her great secret. The menses began at seventeen, but were always scanty and without pain. It was plain to be seen that S. had a horror of speaking of menstruation; that it was a thing repugnant to her masculine consciousness and feeling. She recognised the abnormality of her sexual inclinations, but had no desire to have them changed, since in this perverse feeling she felt both well and happy. The idea of sexual intercourse with men disgusted her, and she also thought it would be impossible.

Her modesty was so great that she would prefer to sleep among men rather than among women. Thus, when it was necessary for her to answer the calls of nature or to change her linen, it was necessary for her to ask her companion in the cell to turn her face to the window, that she might not see her.

When occasionally S. came in contact with this com- panion, a woman from the lower walks of life, she experienced a sexual excitement that made her blush. Indeed, without being asked, S. related that she was overcome with actual fear when, in her cell, she was compelled to force herself into the unusual female attire, HT only comfort was that she was at least allowed to keep a shirt. Remarkable, and what also speaks for the significance of olfactory sensations in her vita sexualis, is hf-r statement that, on the occasions of Marie's absence, she had sought those places on which Marie's head waa accustomed to repose, and smelled them, in order to ex- perience the delight of inhaling the odour of her hair.


Among women, those who were beautiful, or voluptuous, or quite young, did not particularly interest her. The physical charms of women she made subordinate. As by magnetic attraction, sli3 felt herself drawn to those between twenty-four and thirty. She found her sexual satisfaction exclusively in corpore femincs (never in her own person), in the form of manustupration of the beloved woman, or cunnilingus. Occasionally she availed herself of a stocking stuffed with oakum as a priapus. These admissions were made only unwillingly by S., and with apparent shame; just as in her writings immodesty or cynicism are never found.

She was religious, had a lively interest in all that is noble and beautiful, men excepted, and was very sensi- tive to the opinion others entertained of her morality.

She deeply regretted that in her passion she made Ma- rie unhappy, and regarded her sexual feelings as perverse, and such a love of one woman for another, among normal individuals, as morally reprehensible. She had great literary talent and an extraordinary memory. Her only weakness was her great frivolity and her incapability to manage money and property reasonably. But she was conscious of this weakness, and did not care to talk about it.

She was 153 centimetres tall, of delicate build, thin, but remarkably muscular on the breast and thighs. Her gait in female attire was awkward. Her movements were powerful, not unpleasing, though they were somewhat masculine and lacking in grace. She greeted one with a firm pressure of the hand. Her whole carriage was decided, firm and somewhat self-conscious. Her glance was intelligent ; mien somewhat diffident. Feet and hands remarkably small, having remained in an infantile stage of development. Extensor surfaces of the extremities remarkably well covered with hair, while there was not the slightest trace of beard, in spite of all shaving experi- ments. The hips did not correspond in any way with those of a female. Waist wanting. Pelvis so slim and


so little prominent, that a line drawn from the axilla to the- corresponding knee was straight not curved inward by a waist or outward by the pelvis. The skull slightly oxycephalic, and in all its measurements below the aver- age of the female skull by at least one centimetre.

Cireu inference of the head 52 centimetres; occipital half circumference, 24 centimetres; line from ear to ear, over the vertex, 23 centimetres; anterior half-circumfer- ance, 28.5 centimetres; line from glabella to occiput, 30 centimetres; ear-chin line, 26.5 centimetres; long diam- eter, 17 centimetres; greatest lateral diameter, 13 centi- metres; diameter at auditory incut i, 12 centimetres; zygo- matic diameter, 11.2 centimetres. Upper jaw strikingly projecting, its alveolar process projecting beyond the under jaw about 0.5 centimetre. Position of the teeth not fully normal ; right upper canine not developed. Mouth remark- ably small; ears prominent; lobes not differentiated, pass- ing over into the skin of the cheek. Hard palate, narrow and high ; voice rough and deep ; mammre fairly developed, soft and without secretion. Mons veneris covered with thick, dark hair. Genitals completely feminine, without trace of hermaphroditic appearance, but at the stage of development of those of a ten-year-old girl. The labia majora touching each other almost completely ; labia minora having a cock's-comb-like form, and projecting under the labia majora. Clitoris small and very sensitive. Frenulum delicate; perineum very narrow; introitus vaginae narrow ; mucous membrane normal. Hymen want- ing (probably congenitally) ; likewise the carunculsc myrti- formes. Vagina so narrow that the insertion of a mem- brum virile would be impossible, also very sensitive; cer- tainly coitus had not taken place. Uterus felt, through the rectum, to be about the size of a walnut, immovable and retroflected.

Pelvis generally narrowed (dwarf -pelvis), and of de- cidedly masculine type. Distance between anterior su- perior spines 22.5 centimetres (instead of 26.3 centi- metres). Distance between the create of the ilii, 26.5


centimetres (instead of 29.3 centimetres) ; between the tro- chanters, 27.7 centimetres (31) ; the external conjugate diameter, 17.2 centimetres (19 to 20); therefore, the in- ternal conjugate, presumably, 7.7 centimetres (10.8). On account of narrowness of the pelvis, the direction of the thighs not convergent, as in a woman, but straight.

The opinion given showed that in S. there was a congenitally abnormal inversion of the sexual instinct, which, indeed, expressed itself, anthropologically, in ano- malies of development of the body, depending upon great hereditary taint; further, that the criminal acts of S. had their foundation in her abnormal and irresistible sexuality.

S.'s characteristic expressions "God put love in my heart. If He created me so, and not otherwise, am I, then, guilty; or is it the eternal, incomprehensible way of fate?" are really justified.

The court granted pardon. The "countess in male attire," as she was called in the newspapers, returned to her home, and again gave herself out as Count Sandor. Her only distress was her lost happiness with her beloved Marie.

A married woman, in Brandon, Wisconsin, whose case is reported by Dr. Kiernan ("The Medical Standard," 1888, November and December), was more" fortunate. She eloped, in 1883, with a young girl, married her, and lived with her as husband undisturbed.

An interesting "historical" example of androgyny is a case reported by Spitzka ("Chicago Medical Review," 20th August, 1881). It was that of Lord Cornbury, Governor of New York, who lived in the reign of Queen Anne. He was apparently affected with moral insanity; was terribly licentious, and, in spite of his high position, could not keep himself from going about in the streets in female attire, coquetting with all the allurements of a prostitute.

In a picture of him that has been preserved, his narrow brow, asymmetrical face, feminine features, and sensual


mouth at onco attract attention. It is certain that he r actually regarded himself as a woman.

Complications of Antipathic Sexual Instinct.

Moreover, in individuals afflicted with sexual inver- sion, in themselves, the perverse sexual feeling and inclina- tion may be complicated with other perverse manifesta- tions. Thus here, with reference to the activity of the in- stinct, there may be acts quite analogous to acts indulged in by individuals in perverse satisfaction of the instinct, but who, at the same time, have a natural inclination toward persons of the opposite sex.

Owing to the circumstance that abnormally increased sexuality is almost a regular accompaniment of anti- pathic sexual feeling, acts of lustful sadistic cruelty in the satisfaction of libido are easily possible. A remarkable example of this is the case of Zastrow (Casper-Liman, 7. Auflage, Bd. i., p. 160; ii., p. 487), who bit one of his victims (a boy), tore his prepuce, slit the anus, and strangled the child.

Z. came of a psychopathic grandfather and melan- cholic mother. His brother indulged in abnormal sexual pleasures, and committed suicide.

Z. was a congenital urning, and in habitus and occupa- tion masculine. There was phimosis. Mentally, he was a weak, perverse, socially useless man. He had horror femince, and, in his dreams, he felt himself like a woman toward a man. He was painfully conscious of his want of normal sexual feeling and of his perverse instinct, and sought satisfaction in mutual onanism, with frequent desire for pederasty.

Similar sadistic feelings of this kind, in those afflicted

with antipathic sexual instinct, are found in some of the

roing histories (rf. oases 128 and 129 of this edition,

and case 96 of the sixth edition; also Moll, "Contr. Sex-

ualempfindung," second edition, p. 189; v. Krafft, "Jahrb.


f. Psychiatric," xii., pp. 357 and 389; Moll, "Unter- siichungen iiber Libido sexualis," clases 26 and 27).

As examples of perverse sexual satisfaction dependent on antipathic sexual instinct, may be mentioned the Greek, who, as Athenaus reports, was in love with a statue of Cupid, and defiled it, in the temple of Delphi ; and besides the monstrous cases reported by Tardieu ( " Attentats," p. 272), the terrible one reported by Lombroso ("L'uomo delinquente," p. 200), of a certain Artusio, who wounded a boy in the abdomen, and abused him sexually by means of the incision.

Cases 92, 110 and 115 (eighth edition) show that fetichism may also occur with antipathic sexual instinct ; moreover a case of shoe-fetichism related by me in "Jahrbiicher f. Psychiatric," xii., 1 ; Moll, op. cit., second edition, p. 179 ; Gamier, "Les Fetichistes," p. 98.

The following case, taken from Gamier, is a classical example of boot-fetichism. At times masochism forms a complication of sexual inversion Cf. Moll, second edition, p. 172 (case 12) and p. 190; Hem, "Internat. Centralbl. f. d. Physiol. and Pathol. der Harn- und Sexualorgane," iv., Heft 5 (homosexuality in a woman with passive flagel- lantism and koprophagia) ; v. Krafft, case 43 in sixth edition of this book, also case 137 of this edition and 114 of eighth edition; ditto "Jahrbiicher fur Psychiatric," xii., p. 3