One Thousand and One Nights  

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== Plot == == Plot ==
[[Shahryar]] (or Schriyar) (meaning king in [[Persian]]), king of an unnamed island "between [[India]] and [[China]]" (in modern editions based on Arab transcripts he is king of India and China), is so shocked by his [[wife's infidelity]] that he kills her and, believing all women to be likewise unfaithful, gives his [[vizier]] (meaning minister in Persian) an order to get him a new wife every night (in some versions, every third night). After spending one night with his bride, the king has her executed at dawn. This practice continues for some time, until the vizier's clever daughter [[Scheherazade ]] (meaning City-born in Persian) forms a plan and volunteers to become Shahryar's next wife. Every night after their marriage, she spends hours telling him stories, each time stopping at dawn with a [[cliffhanger]], so the king will commute the execution out of a desire to hear the rest of the tale. In the end, she has given birth to three sons, and the king has been convinced of her faithfulness. [[Shahryar]] (or Schriyar) (meaning king in [[Persian]]), king of an unnamed island "between [[India]] and [[China]]" (in modern editions based on Arab transcripts he is king of India and China), is so shocked by his [[wife's infidelity]] that he kills her and, believing all women to be likewise unfaithful, gives his [[vizier]] (meaning minister in Persian) an order to get him a new wife every night (in some versions, every third night). After spending one night with his bride, the king has her executed at dawn. This practice continues for some time, until the vizier's clever daughter [[Scheherazade ]] (meaning City-born in Persian) forms a plan and volunteers to become Shahryar's next wife. Every night after their marriage, she spends hours telling him stories, each time stopping at dawn with a [[cliffhanger]], so the king will commute the execution out of a desire to hear the rest of the tale. In the end, she has given birth to three sons, and the king has been convinced of her faithfulness.
-==Versions==+==History and editions==
 +===Early influences===
 +The tales in the collection can be traced to the ancient and medieval Arabic, [[Literature of Egypt|Egyptian]], Persian and [[Indian literature|Indian]] storytelling traditions. Many stories from Indian and Persian folklore parallel the tales as well as [[Jew]]ish sources. These tales were probably in circulation before they were collected and codified into a single collection. This work was further shaped by [[scribes]], [[storyteller]]s, and [[scholar]]s and evolved into a collection of three distinct layers of storytelling by the 15th century:
 + 
 +#Persian tales influenced by [[Folklore of India|Indian folklore]] and adapted into Arabic by the 10th century.
 +#Stories recorded in [[Baghdad]] during the 10th century.
 +#Medieval [[Culture of Egypt|Egyptian folklore]].
 + 
 +Indian folklore is represented by certain animal stories, which reflect influence from ancient [[Sanskrit literature|Sanskrit fables]]. The influence of the ''[[Panchatantra]]'' and ''[[Baital Pachisi]]'' are particularly notable. ''[[Jataka tales|The Jataka Tales]]'' are a collection of 547 [[Buddhist texts|Buddhist stories]], which are for the most part moral stories with an ethical purpose. ''The Tale of the Bull and the Ass'' and the linked ''Tale of the Merchant and his Wife'' are found in the frame stories of both the ''Jataka'' and the ''Nights''.
 + 
 +The influence of the folklore of Baghdad is represented by the tales of the [[Abbasid Caliphate|Abbasid]] [[caliph]]s; the [[Cairo|Cairene]] influence is made evident by ''Maruf the cobbler''. Tales such as ''Iram of the columns'' are based upon the [[Pre-Islamic Arabia|pre-Islamic]] legends of the [[Arabian Peninsula]]; [[Motif (narrative)|motifs]] are employed from the ancient [[Mesopotamia]]n tale, the ''[[Epic of Gilgamesh]]''. Possible [[Greek literature|Greek]] influences have also been noted.
 + 
 +===Versions===
The first European version of the ''Book of the Thousand and One Nights'' was translated into French by [[Antoine Galland]] from an Arabic text and other sources. This 12-volume book, ''Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français'' ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French"), included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. He wrote that he heard them from a [[Demographics of Syria|Syrian]] [[Christian]] storyteller from [[Aleppo]], a [[Maronite]] scholar whom he called "Hanna." The first European version of the ''Book of the Thousand and One Nights'' was translated into French by [[Antoine Galland]] from an Arabic text and other sources. This 12-volume book, ''Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français'' ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French"), included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. He wrote that he heard them from a [[Demographics of Syria|Syrian]] [[Christian]] storyteller from [[Aleppo]], a [[Maronite]] scholar whom he called "Hanna."
Line 21: Line 33:
<blockquote>"Another fact is undeniable. The most famous and eloquent [[encomium]]s of ''The Thousand and One Nights'' - by [[Samuel Taylor Coleridge|Coleridge]], [[Thomas de Quincey]], [[Stendhal]], [[Alfred Lord Tennyson|Tennyson]], [[Edgar Allan Poe]], [[Cardinal Newman|Newman]] - are from readers of Galland's translation. Two hundred years and ten better translations have passed, but the man in Europe or the Americas who thinks of the ''Thousand and One Nights'' thinks, invariably of this first translation. The Spanish adjective ''[[milyunanochesco]]'' [thousand-and-one-nights-esque] ... has nothing to do with the [[erudite]] [[Obscenity|obscenities]] of [[Sir Richard Burton|Burton]] or [[J. C. Mardrus|Mardrus]], and everything to do with Antoine Galland's [[bijoux]] and [[sorceries]]." --Jorge Luis Borges, "The Translators of ''The Thousand and One Nights''" <blockquote>"Another fact is undeniable. The most famous and eloquent [[encomium]]s of ''The Thousand and One Nights'' - by [[Samuel Taylor Coleridge|Coleridge]], [[Thomas de Quincey]], [[Stendhal]], [[Alfred Lord Tennyson|Tennyson]], [[Edgar Allan Poe]], [[Cardinal Newman|Newman]] - are from readers of Galland's translation. Two hundred years and ten better translations have passed, but the man in Europe or the Americas who thinks of the ''Thousand and One Nights'' thinks, invariably of this first translation. The Spanish adjective ''[[milyunanochesco]]'' [thousand-and-one-nights-esque] ... has nothing to do with the [[erudite]] [[Obscenity|obscenities]] of [[Sir Richard Burton|Burton]] or [[J. C. Mardrus|Mardrus]], and everything to do with Antoine Galland's [[bijoux]] and [[sorceries]]." --Jorge Luis Borges, "The Translators of ''The Thousand and One Nights''"
</blockquote> </blockquote>
 +===Timeline===
 +[[File:Arabian nights manuscript.jpg|thumb|[[Arabic]] Manuscript of The Thousand and One Nights dating back to the 1300s]]
 +Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of ''The Nights'':<ref>Dwight Reynolds. "The Thousand and One Nights: A History of the Text and its Reception." ''The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period''. Cambridge UP, 2006.</ref><ref>{{citation|title=The Arabian Nights: A Companion|first=Robert|last=Irwin|publisher=[[I.B. Tauris|Tauris Parke Palang-faacks]]|year=2003|isbn=1860649831}}</ref><ref>“The Oriental Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century”, by Martha Pike Conant, Ph.D. Columbia University Press (1908)</ref>
 +
 +* Oldest Arabic manuscript fragment (a few handwritten pages) from [[Syria]] dating to the early 800s discovered by scholar Nabia Abbott in 1948.
 +
 +* 900s AD &mdash; Mention of ''The Nights'' in [[Ibn Al-Nadim]]'s "Fihrist" (Catalogue of books) in [[Baghdad]]. He mentions the book's history and its Persian origins.
 +
 +* 900s &mdash; Second oldest reference to ''The Nights'' in Muruj Al-Dhahab ([[The Meadows of Gold]]) by Al-[[Masudi]].
 +
 +* 1000s AD &mdash; Mention of the original Arabic name of the ''One Thousand and One Nights'' by [[Qatran Tabrizi]] in the following couplet in [[Persian language|Persian]]:
 +هزار ره صفت هفت خوان و رويين دژ </br>
 +فرو شنيدم و خواندم من از ''هزار افسان'' </br>
 +
 +A thousand times, accounts of ''Rouyin Dezh'' and ''Haft Khān'' </br>
 +I heard and read from ''Hezār Afsān'' (literally Thousand Fables)
 +
 +* 1300s &mdash; Existing Syrian manuscript in the [[Bibliotheque Nationale]] in [[Paris]] (contains about 300 tales).
 +
 +* 1704 &mdash; [[Antoine Galland]]'s French translation is the first European version of ''The Nights''. Later volumes were introduced using Galland's name though the stories were written by unknown persons at the behest of the publisher wanting to capitalize on the popularity of the collection.
 +
 +* 1706 &mdash; An anonymously translated version in English appears in Europe dubbed the "[[Grub Street]]" version.
 +
 +* 1714 &mdash; ''The Thousand and One Days: Persian Tales'' by Ambrose Philips. The earliest English translation with an attributed author.
 +* 1775 &mdash; Egyptian version of ''The Nights'' called "ZER" ([[Hermann Zotenberg]]'s Egyptian Recension) with 200 tales (no surviving edition exists).
 +
 +* 1814 &mdash; Calcutta I, the earliest existing Arabic printed version, is published by the [[British East India Company]]. A second volume was released in 1818. Both had 100 tales each.
 +
 +* 1825-1838 &mdash; The Breslau/Habicht edition is published in [[Arabic]] in 8 volumes. Christian Maxmilian Habicht (born in [[Breslau]], [[Germany]], 1775) collaborated with the Tunisian Murad Al-Najjar and created this edition containing 1001 stories. Using versions of ''The Nights'', tales from Al-Najjar, and other stories from unknown origins Habicht published his version in Arabic and German.
 +
 +* 1842-1843 &mdash; Four additional volumes by Habicht.
 +
 +* 1835 Bulaq version &mdash; These two volumes, printed by the Egyptian government, are the oldest printed (by a publishing house) version of ''The Nights'' in Arabic by a non-European. It is primarily a reprinting of the ZER text.
 +
 +* 1839-1842 &mdash; Calcutta II (4 volumes) is published. It claims to be based on an older Egyptian manuscript (which was never found). This version contains many elements and stories from the Habicht edition.
 +
 +* 1838 &mdash; Torrens version in English.
 +
 +* 1838-1840 &mdash; [[Edward William Lane]] publishes an English translation. Notable for its exclusion of content Lane found "immoral" and for its [[anthropology|anthropological]] notes on Arab customs by Lane.
 +
 +* 1882-1884 &mdash; [[John Payne (poet)|John Payne]] publishes an English version translated entirely from Calcutta II, adding some tales from Calcutta I and Breslau.
 +
 +* 1885-1888 &mdash; [[Richard Francis Burton|Sir Richard Francis Burton]] publishes an English translation from several sources. His version accentuated the sexuality of the stories ''vis-à-vis'' Lane's [[bowdlerized]] translation.
 +
 +* 1889-1904 &mdash; J. C. Mardrus publishes a French version using Bulaq and Calcutta II editions.
 +
 +* 1984 &mdash; Muhsin Mahdi publishes an Arabic translation he says is faithful to the oldest Arabic versions surviving.
 +
 +* 1990s &mdash; [[Husain Haddawy]] publishes an English translation of Mahdi.
== Psychpopathological aspects == == Psychpopathological aspects ==

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milyunanochesco

The Book of One Thousand and One Nights or the Arabian Nights is a collection of Middle Eastern stories compiled over thousands of years by various authors. Their roots are traced back to somewhere between AD 800-900. The first European version of the Book of the Thousand and One Nights was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text and other sources. Galland's "translation" included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. Galland's version of the Nights were immensely popular throughout Europe, a well-known English translation is that by Sir Richard Francis Burton, entitled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885).

From a genre-theoretical point of view, Todorov places the tales within the realm of the marvelous rather than the fantastic.

Well known stories from The Nights include "Aladdin," "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves," and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor."

The story was adapted for film by Pier Paolo Pasolini in 1974.

Contents

Plot

Shahryar (or Schriyar) (meaning king in Persian), king of an unnamed island "between India and China" (in modern editions based on Arab transcripts he is king of India and China), is so shocked by his wife's infidelity that he kills her and, believing all women to be likewise unfaithful, gives his vizier (meaning minister in Persian) an order to get him a new wife every night (in some versions, every third night). After spending one night with his bride, the king has her executed at dawn. This practice continues for some time, until the vizier's clever daughter Scheherazade (meaning City-born in Persian) forms a plan and volunteers to become Shahryar's next wife. Every night after their marriage, she spends hours telling him stories, each time stopping at dawn with a cliffhanger, so the king will commute the execution out of a desire to hear the rest of the tale. In the end, she has given birth to three sons, and the king has been convinced of her faithfulness.

History and editions

Early influences

The tales in the collection can be traced to the ancient and medieval Arabic, Egyptian, Persian and Indian storytelling traditions. Many stories from Indian and Persian folklore parallel the tales as well as Jewish sources. These tales were probably in circulation before they were collected and codified into a single collection. This work was further shaped by scribes, storytellers, and scholars and evolved into a collection of three distinct layers of storytelling by the 15th century:

  1. Persian tales influenced by Indian folklore and adapted into Arabic by the 10th century.
  2. Stories recorded in Baghdad during the 10th century.
  3. Medieval Egyptian folklore.

Indian folklore is represented by certain animal stories, which reflect influence from ancient Sanskrit fables. The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi are particularly notable. The Jataka Tales are a collection of 547 Buddhist stories, which are for the most part moral stories with an ethical purpose. The Tale of the Bull and the Ass and the linked Tale of the Merchant and his Wife are found in the frame stories of both the Jataka and the Nights.

The influence of the folklore of Baghdad is represented by the tales of the Abbasid caliphs; the Cairene influence is made evident by Maruf the cobbler. Tales such as Iram of the columns are based upon the pre-Islamic legends of the Arabian Peninsula; motifs are employed from the ancient Mesopotamian tale, the Epic of Gilgamesh. Possible Greek influences have also been noted.

Versions

The first European version of the Book of the Thousand and One Nights was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text and other sources. This 12-volume book, Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French"), included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo, a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna."

Galland's version of the Nights were immensely popular throughout Europe, and later versions of the Nights were written by Galland's publisher using Galland's name without his consent.

A well-known English translation is that by Sir Richard Francis Burton, entitled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885). Unlike previous editions his ten-volume translation was not bowdlerized. Though printed in the Victorian era it contained all the erotic nuances of the source material replete with sexual imagery and pederastic allusions added as appendices to the main stories by Burton. Burton circumvented strict Victorian laws on obscene material by printing a private edition for subscribers only rather than publicly publishing the book. His original ten volumes were followed by a further six entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night, which were printed between 1886 and 1888.

Comparing Antoine Galland's and Richard Burton's translations, Jorge Luis Borges wrote:

"Another fact is undeniable. The most famous and eloquent encomiums of The Thousand and One Nights - by Coleridge, Thomas de Quincey, Stendhal, Tennyson, Edgar Allan Poe, Newman - are from readers of Galland's translation. Two hundred years and ten better translations have passed, but the man in Europe or the Americas who thinks of the Thousand and One Nights thinks, invariably of this first translation. The Spanish adjective milyunanochesco [thousand-and-one-nights-esque] ... has nothing to do with the erudite obscenities of Burton or Mardrus, and everything to do with Antoine Galland's bijoux and sorceries." --Jorge Luis Borges, "The Translators of The Thousand and One Nights"

Timeline

[[File:Arabian nights manuscript.jpg|thumb|Arabic Manuscript of The Thousand and One Nights dating back to the 1300s]] Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights:<ref>Dwight Reynolds. "The Thousand and One Nights: A History of the Text and its Reception." The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period. Cambridge UP, 2006.</ref><ref>Template:Citation</ref><ref>“The Oriental Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century”, by Martha Pike Conant, Ph.D. Columbia University Press (1908)</ref>

  • Oldest Arabic manuscript fragment (a few handwritten pages) from Syria dating to the early 800s discovered by scholar Nabia Abbott in 1948.
  • 900s AD — Mention of The Nights in Ibn Al-Nadim's "Fihrist" (Catalogue of books) in Baghdad. He mentions the book's history and its Persian origins.
  • 1000s AD — Mention of the original Arabic name of the One Thousand and One Nights by Qatran Tabrizi in the following couplet in Persian:

هزار ره صفت هفت خوان و رويين دژ </br> فرو شنيدم و خواندم من از هزار افسان </br>

A thousand times, accounts of Rouyin Dezh and Haft Khān </br> I heard and read from Hezār Afsān (literally Thousand Fables)

  • 1704 — Antoine Galland's French translation is the first European version of The Nights. Later volumes were introduced using Galland's name though the stories were written by unknown persons at the behest of the publisher wanting to capitalize on the popularity of the collection.
  • 1706 — An anonymously translated version in English appears in Europe dubbed the "Grub Street" version.
  • 1714 — The Thousand and One Days: Persian Tales by Ambrose Philips. The earliest English translation with an attributed author.
  • 1775 — Egyptian version of The Nights called "ZER" (Hermann Zotenberg's Egyptian Recension) with 200 tales (no surviving edition exists).
  • 1814 — Calcutta I, the earliest existing Arabic printed version, is published by the British East India Company. A second volume was released in 1818. Both had 100 tales each.
  • 1825-1838 — The Breslau/Habicht edition is published in Arabic in 8 volumes. Christian Maxmilian Habicht (born in Breslau, Germany, 1775) collaborated with the Tunisian Murad Al-Najjar and created this edition containing 1001 stories. Using versions of The Nights, tales from Al-Najjar, and other stories from unknown origins Habicht published his version in Arabic and German.
  • 1842-1843 — Four additional volumes by Habicht.
  • 1835 Bulaq version — These two volumes, printed by the Egyptian government, are the oldest printed (by a publishing house) version of The Nights in Arabic by a non-European. It is primarily a reprinting of the ZER text.
  • 1839-1842 — Calcutta II (4 volumes) is published. It claims to be based on an older Egyptian manuscript (which was never found). This version contains many elements and stories from the Habicht edition.
  • 1838 — Torrens version in English.
  • 1838-1840 — Edward William Lane publishes an English translation. Notable for its exclusion of content Lane found "immoral" and for its anthropological notes on Arab customs by Lane.
  • 1882-1884 — John Payne publishes an English version translated entirely from Calcutta II, adding some tales from Calcutta I and Breslau.
  • 1885-1888 — Sir Richard Francis Burton publishes an English translation from several sources. His version accentuated the sexuality of the stories vis-à-vis Lane's bowdlerized translation.
  • 1889-1904 — J. C. Mardrus publishes a French version using Bulaq and Calcutta II editions.
  • 1984 — Muhsin Mahdi publishes an Arabic translation he says is faithful to the oldest Arabic versions surviving.

Psychpopathological aspects

King Shahryar discovers his wife's infidelity and has her executed, without conscience or recognizing any defect in his own psyche, declaring all women to be unfaithful. He marries a succession of virgins only to have Scheherazade's father, the vizier, execute each one the next morning until finally he comes to Scheherazade herself, after three years of ordering the death of his brides after each wedding night. Scheherazade survives because she tells the king a story on each of the 1001 nights, which end in a cliffhanger at dawn. Shahryar's brother had earlier discovered his own first wife in bed with a cook and he butchers them both and then continued a pattern of marriage and murder like Shahryar.

The stories in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights likely began in the oral tradition before the fifth century AD. Though Shahrya was not then a stock psychopathic character the Book and its many characters, has had wide influence on writers, not only in the sex and serial murder genre. Edgar Allan Poe, for example wrote "A Thousand and Second Night", where in the story of Sinbad, Poe's king kills Scheherazade in disgust at the story she tells him.

Literature

The influence of the versions of the Nights on World Literature is immense. Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the work by name in their own literature.

Examples of this influence include:

  • Edgar Allan Poe wrote a "Thousand and Second Night" as a separate tale, called "The Thousand and Second Tale of Scheherazade." It depicts the 8th and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor, along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story. While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime. The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.
  • The Book of One Thousand and One Nights has an estranged cousin: The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, by Jan Potocki. A Polish noble of the late 18th century, he traveled the Orient looking for an original edition of The Nights, but never found it. Upon returning to Europe, he wrote his masterpiece, a multi-leveled frame tale.
  • It also greatly influence famed horror and science fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft in his early years as a child in which he would imagine himself living the adventures of the heroes in the book. It also inspired him to come up with his famed Necronomicon.

Film and television

There have been many adaptations of The Nights for both television and cinema.

The atmosphere of The Nights influenced such films as Fritz Lang's 1921 Der müde Tod, the 1924 Hollywood film The Thief of Bagdad starring Douglas Fairbanks, and its 1940 British remake. Several stories served as source material for The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926), the first surviving feature-length animated film.

One of Hollywood's first feature films to be based on The Nights was in 1942, with the movie called Arabian Nights. It starred Maria Montez as Scheherazade, Sabu Dastagir as Ali Ben Ali and Jon Hall as Harun al-Rashid. The storyline bears virtually no resemblance to the traditional version of the book. In the film, Scheherazade is a dancer who attempts to overthrow Caliph Harun al-Rashid and marry his brother. After Scheherazade’s initial coup attempt fails and she is sold into slavery, many adventures then ensue. Maria Montez and Jon Hall also starred in the 1944 film Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.

In 1959 UPA released an animated feature about Mr. Magoo, based on 1001 Arabian Nights.

Osamu Tezuka worked on two (very loose) feature film adaptations, the children's film Sinbad no Bōken in 1962 and then Senya Ichiya Monogatari in 1969, an adult-oriented animated feature film.

The most commercially successful movie based on The Nights was Aladdin, the 1992 animated movie by the Walt Disney Company, which starred the voices of Scott Weinger and Robin Williams. The film led to several sequels and a television series of the same name.

"The Voyages of Sinbad" has been adapted for television and film several times, most recently in the 2003 animated feature Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas, featuring the voices of Brad Pitt and Catherine Zeta-Jones. Perhaps the most famous Sinbad film was the 1958 movie The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, produced by the stop-motion animation pioneer Ray Harryhausen.

A recent well-received television adaptation was the Emmy award-winning miniseries Arabian Nights, directed by Steve Barron and starring Mili Avital as Scheherazade and Dougray Scott as Shahryar. It was originally shown over two nights on April 30, and May 1, 2000 on ABC in the United States and BBC One in the United Kingdom.

Other notable versions of The Nights include the famous 1974 Italian movie Il fiore delle mille e una notte by Pier Paolo Pasolini and the 1990 French movie Les 1001 nuits, in which Catherine Zeta-Jones made her debut playing Scheherazade. There are also numerous Bollywood movies inspired by the book, including Aladdin and Sinbad. In this version the two heroes meet and share in each other's adventures; the djinn of the lamp is female, and Aladdin marries her rather than the princess.




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "One Thousand and One Nights" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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