Carl Jung  

From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

"There is no question but that Hitler belongs in the category of the truly mystic medicine man. As somebody commented about him at the last Nürnberg party congress, since the time of Mohammed nothing like it has been seen in this world. This markedly mystic characteristic of Hitler’s is what makes him do things which seem to us illogical, inexplicable, curious and unreasonable. . . . So you see, Hitler is a medicine man, a form of spiritual vessel, a demi-deity or, even better a myth." --Carl Jung, January 1939, Hearst’s International-Cosmopolitan, Jung, “Diagnosing the Dictators,” C. G. Jung Speaking, 115–135.

Related e



Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875, KesswilJune 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology.

Jung's unique and broadly influential approach to psychology has emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life, much of his life's work was spent exploring other realms, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype, the collective unconscious, and his theory of synchronicity.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. Jungian ideas are not typically included in curriculum of most major universities' psychology departments, but are occasionally explored in humanities departments.



Works arranged by original publication date if known:

  • Jung, C. G. (1902–1905). Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.
  • Jung, C. G. (1903) "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena.¨ His dissertation.
  • Jung, C. G. (1904–1907) Studies in Word Association. London: Routledge & K. Paul. (contained in Experimental Researches, Collected Works Vol. 2)
  • Jung, C. G. (1907). The Psychology of Dementia Praecox. (2nd ed. 1936) New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publ. Co. (contained in The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease, Collected Works Vol. 3. This is the disease now known as schizophrenia)
  • Jung, C. G. (1907–1958). The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. (Collected Works Vol. 3)
  • Jung, C. G. (1912). Psychology of the Unconscious : a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido, a contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. trans. Hinkle, B. M. (1916), London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (revised in 1952 as Symbols of Transformation, Collected Works Vol.5 ISBN 0-691-01815-4)
  • Jung, C. G., & Long, C. E. (1917). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (2nd ed.). London: Balliere Tindall & Cox. (contained in Freud and Psychoanalysis, Collected Works Vol. 4)
  • Jung, C. G. (1917, 1928). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1966 revised 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol. 7). London: Routledge.
  • Jung, C. G., & Baynes, H. G. (1921). Psychological Types, or, The Psychology of Individuation. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (Collected Works Vol.6 ISBN 0-691-01813-8)
  • Jung, C. G., Baynes, H. G., & Baynes, C. F. (1928). Contributions to Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G., & Shamdasani, S. (1932). The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga: notes of a seminar by C.G. Jung. 1996 ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G. (1933). Modern Man in Search of a Soul. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner, (1955 ed. Harvest Books ISBN 0-15-661206-2)
  • Jung, C. G., (1934–1954). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. (1981 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol.9 Part 1), Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01833-2
  • Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and Religion The Terry Lectures. New Haven: Yale University Press. (contained in Psychology and Religion: West and East Collected Works Vol. 11 ISBN 0-691-09772-0).
  • Jung, C. G., & Dell, S. M. (1940). The Integration of the Personality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G. (1944). Psychology and Alchemy (2nd ed. 1968 Collected Works Vol. 12 ISBN 0-691-01831-6). London: Routledge.
  • Jung, C. G. (1947). Essays on Contemporary Events. London: Kegan Paul.
  • Jung, C. G. (1947, revised 1954). On the Nature of the Psyche. 1988 ed. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
  • Jung, C.G. (1949). Foreword, pp. xxi-xxxix (19 pages), to Wilhelm/Baynes translation of The I Ching or Book of Changes. Bollingen Edition XIX, Princeton University Press.(contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G. (1951). Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (Collected Works Vol. 9 Part 2). Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01826-X
  • Jung, C. G. (1952). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. 1973 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01794-8 (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
  • Jung, C. G. (1952). Answer to Job. 1958 Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G. (1956). Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy. London: Routledge. (2nd ed. 1970 Collected Works Vol. 14 ISBN 0-691-01816-2) This was Jung's last book length work, completed when he was eighty.
  • Jung, C. G. (1957). The Undiscovered Self (Present and Future). 1959 ed. New York: American Library. 1990 ed. Bollingen ISBN 0-691-01894-4 (50 p. essay, also contained in collected Works Vol. 10)
  • Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1958). Psyche and Symbol: A Selection from the Writings of C.G. Jung. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
  • Jung, C. G. (1959). Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies. London: Routledge & Paul, [1959]. 184 p. : illus. ; 19 cm.
  • Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1959). Basic Writings. New York: Modern Library.
  • Jung, C. G., & Jaffe A. (1962). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Collins. This is Jung's autobiography, recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffe, ISBN 0-679-72395-1
  • Jung, C. G., Evans, R. I., & Jones, E. (1964). Conversations with Carl Jung and Reactions from Ernest Jones. New York: Van Nostrand.
  • Jung, C. G., & Franz, M.-L. v. (1964). Man and His Symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, ISBN 0-440-35183-9
  • Jung, C. G. (1966). The Practice of Psychotherapy: Essays on the Psychology of the Transference and other Subjects (Collected Works Vol. 16). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G. (1967). The Development of Personality. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. Collected Works Vol. 17 ISBN 0-691-01838-3
  • Jung, C. G. (1968). Analytical Psychology: Its Theory and Practise (a.k.a. "The Tavistock Lectures")
  • Jung, C. G. (1970). Four Archetypes; Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 9 part 1)
  • Jung, C. G. (1974). Dreams. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (compilation from Collected Works Vols. 4, 8, 12, 16), ISBN 0-691-01792-1
  • Jung, C. G., & Campbell, J. (1976). The Portable Jung. a compilation, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-015070-6
  • Jung, C. G., Rothgeb, C. L., Clemens, S. M., & National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information (U.S.). (1978). Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office.
  • Jung, C. G., & Antony Storr ed., (1983) The Essential Jung. a compilation, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02455-3
  • Jung, C. G. (1986). Psychology and the East. London: Ark. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G. (1987). Dictionary of Analytical Psychology. London: Ark Paperbacks.
  • Jung, C. G. (1988). Psychology and Western Religion. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
  • Jung, C. G., Wagner, S., Wagner, G., & Van der Post, L. (1990). The World Within C.G. Jung in his own words [videorecording]. New York, NY: Kino International : Dist. by Insight Media.
  • Jung, C. G., & Hull, R. F. C. (1991). Psychological Types (a revised ed.). London: Routlege.
  • Jung, C. G., & Chodorow, J. (1997). Jung on Active Imagination. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G., & Jarrett, J. L. (1998). Jung's Seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra (Abridged ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, C. G., & Pauli, Wolfgang, C. A. Meier (Editor). (2001). Atom and Archetype : The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01207-5
  • Jung, C. G., & Sabini, M. (2002). The Earth Has a Soul: the nature writings of C.G. Jung. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.
  • Jung, C. G., & Victor White. (2007). The Jung-White Letters. Philemon Series.
  • Jung, C. G. (2007). Children’s Dreams. Philemon Series.
  • Jung, C. G., & Sonu Shamdasani (Editor). (2009). The Red Book. Liber Novus, Philemon Series & W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06567-1

Influences on culture

  • Jung had a 16-year long friendship with author Laurens van der Post from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life.
  • Jung influenced much of Joseph Campbell's thought.
  • The Aura-Soma color divination system relates many of its bottles to Jungian archetypal constructs.


  • Herman Hesse, author of works such as Siddhartha and Steppenwolf, was treated by a student of Jung, Dr. Joseph Lang. This began for Hesse a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis, through which he came to know Carl Jung personally, and was challenged to new creative heights: During a three-week period during September and October 1917, Hesse penned his novel Demian.
  • James Joyce in his Finnegans Wake, asks "Is the Co-education of Animus and Anima Wholly Desirable?" his answer perhaps being contained in his line "anama anamaba anamabapa." The book also ridicules Carl Jung's analytical psychology and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, by referring to "psoakoonaloose." Jung had been unable to help Joyce's daughter Lucia, who Joyce claimed was a girl "yung and easily freudened." Lucia was diagnosed as schizophrenic and was eventually permanently institutionalized.* In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Tom Wolfe describes the classic experiment in which Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, under the influence of LSD, explore manifestations of synchronicity by listening to a recording of a drug-induced monologue while watching the Ed Sullivan Show. Also, the central goal of the psychedelic movement, opening the doors of perception, is repeatedly associated with Jungian concepts throughout the book.
  • Jung's differentiation between sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling inspired the categorization of two of the four delineating factors in their personality test. These are the "I" vs. "S" and "T" vs. "F" groupings.
  • Jung's influence on noted Canadian novelist Robertson Davies is apparent in many of Davies's fictional works. In particular, The Cornish Trilogy and his novel The Manticore base their designs on Jungian concepts.
  • Ted Hughes's 1970 collection 'Crow' shows Hughes's interest in Jungian theory.
  • Jung is one of the main characters in Timothy Findley's novel, Pilgrim.
  • Jungian ideas make up a large part of the intellectual foundations of the Earthsea stories, the classic fantasy series written by Ursula K. Le Guin.
  • The concept of the collective unconscious is one of the main topics in the Dune novel series.
  • Jung appears as a major character as a ghost in the novel Between the Bridge and the River by Scottish TV personality Craig Ferguson. He appears as an hallucination to one of the main characters in various parts of the novel.
  • Jung's theories about the collective unconscious are a tool used by the character Peter Wilmot to get to know Misty in the Chuck Palahniuk novel Diary.
  • Jung appears as a character in the novel "Possessing the Secret of Joy" by Alice Walker. He appears as the therapist of Tashi, the novel's protagonist. He is usually called "Mzee," but is identified by Alice Walker in the afterword.
  • Jung appears as a major character in the 2006 novel "The Interpretation of Murder" by Jed Rubenfeld.

Television and film

  • George Lucas relied a good deal on the Jung-inspired writings of Joseph Campbell when crafting the original Star Wars Trilogy. Most of the major characters in the film can be seen as Jungian Archetypes.
  • Jung's writing was introduced to Italian film maker Federico Fellini in the 1950s and had an effect on the way Fellini incorporated dreams into films after La dolce vita.
  • Stanley Kubrick's 1987 film Full Metal Jacket features an underlying theme about the duality of man throughout the action and dialogue of the film. One scene plays out this way: A Colonel asks a soldier, "You write 'Born to Kill' on your helmet and you wear a peace button. What's that supposed to be, some kind of sick joke?" To which the soldier replies, "I think I was trying to suggest something about the duality of man, sir... The Jungian thing, sir."
  • The plot of James Kerwin's scifi noir film Yesterday Was a Lie is said to contain multiple Jungian references, and press interviews with the cast and crew confirm that Jung's work in alchemy and dream analysis played a pivotal role in the development of the screenplay.
  • In the Emmy award-television show Northern Exposure the radio D.J. Chris Stevens made continual references to Jung's ideas. The show often let the audience into the characters' unconscious by weaving their dreams into the plot. In one episode, Jung appears in a dream and says "while I know about the collective unconscious, I do not know how to drive a truck." He sits in the drivers seat of a semi-tractor.
  • Dr. Niles Crane on the popular television sitcom Frasier is a devoted Jungian psychiatrist, while his brother Dr. Frasier Crane is a Freudian psychiatrist. This is mentioned a number of times in the series, and from time to time forms a point of argument between the two brothers. One memorable scene had Niles filling in for Frasier on Frasier's call-in radio program, in which Niles introduces himself as the temporary substitute saying, "...and while my brother is a Freudian, I am a Jungian, so there'll be no blaming Mother today."
  • Episode "Urgo", of Season 3 of sci-fi TV series Stargate SG-1 explores the Jungian theory of the duality and the shadow.
  • J. Michael Straczynski's Babylon 5 television series used many of Jung's concepts throughout the series.
  • In the movie Batman Begins, the character of Jonathan Crane, aka "The Scarecrow", is a Jungian psychiatrist and at the same time personifies one of man's primal archetypes (the Scarecrow).
  • Independent film director Tom Laughlin not only makes frequent references to Jung's concepts in his Billy Jack film series, but has also written several books about the man's theories of psychoanalysis.
  • Francis Ford Coppola's film Apocalypse Now references Jungian philosophy. In a scene where the widow of a fallen French Soldier comforts Martin Sheen's character, she says "there are two of you, one that loves, and one that kills."
  • On a lighter note, in Love at First Bite (1979), the psychiatrist hesitates as he moves to set ablaze the coffin of Dracula in a N. Y. City luxury hotel: "Wait! Would a Jungian do this? No! But I'm not a Jungian --- I am a Freudian!"
  • On the new NBC show Raines, Jeff Goldblum's character, Raines discovers his therapist, Dr. Samantha Kohl played by Amanda Stowe, is a Jungian psychiatrist.
  • An episode during Season 8 of the TV series Charmed is based on Jung's ideas. The episode is named, The Jung and the Restless. During the episode, witches Piper, Phoebe and Paige are magical knocked unconscious by a potion. While unconscious, neophyte witch, Billie, explores their dreams to find out what are the sisters' true hopes and desires through the symbolism and signs in their dreams.


  • Many parallels are drawn and personified from Jung's theories in the Sega Saturn NiGHTS into Dreams. Each level takes place within parts of the collective unconscious and each boss represents a phycological problem that dwells within each aspect of the mind.
  • Jung's theory of the shadow is of central importance in the modern horror roleplaying game Kult, in which reality as humanity knows it is merely an illusion, built to deprive us of our natural divinity. The act of merging with one's shadow is the ultimate step on the path to transcending this spiritual prison.
  • The various Jungian ideals and archetypes heavily influenced the modern philosophical, surreal roleplaying game Persona and are one of the reasons cited for its strong, intriguing plot.
  • The video games Xenogears and Xenosaga utilize many of the ideas proposed by Carl Jung as major storyline components of the game, and even create physical manifestations of his notions within actual characters, Albedo, Nigredo, Rubedo, etc. The "The Collective Unconscious" is also used in Xenosaga series.
  • In the video game Eternal Darkness Jung is mentioned by Edward Roivas, one of the playable characters in the game. Edward tries to compare Jung's collective unconscious to the machinations of Ulyaoth (one of the three ancients).
  • In the video game Psychonauts the various levels of the game are inside the minds of certain characters of the game, and, once visited for the first time, can be accessed from a hub known as "The Collective Unconscious".
  • In the video game Skate or Die 2 for the NES, the character Lester quotes Jung, saying: "Knowledge rests not upon truth alone, but upon error also."


  • Peter Gabriel's song "Rhythm Of The Heat" (Security , 1982), deals about psychologist Carl Jung's visit to Africa where he had joined a group of tribal drummers and dancers and became overwhelmed with the fear of losing control of himself. At the time Jung was exploring the concept of what he defines as the Collective Unconscious, and was afraid he would come under control of the music, as the drummers and dancers let the music control themselves in fulfillment of their ritual objectives. Gabriel learned about it from Jung's essay Symbols And The Interpretation Of Dreams (ISBN 0-691-09968-5). Gabriel tries to capture this powerful feeling in his song with intense use of tribal drumbeats. The original song title was Jung in Africa.
  • Another Peter Gabriel song, "Blood of Eden" (1992), contains references to darkness, reflection and other Jungian concepts. The animus/anima are referenced in the main chorus as follows, "In the blood of Eden lie the woman and the man With the man in the woman and the woman in the man."
  • Jung appears in the last row of the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band cover, on Edgar Allan Poe's right. Portrayed in this modern pantheon of the collective unconscious, Jung's presence is a tribute to his thought about mass-communication and mass-desire.
  • The Police made references to Carl Jung in their album Synchronicity.
  • The progressive rock band, Tool, have incorporated ideas from Jung's work into their albums, especially Ænima. Songs such as "Forty Six & 2" and "Ænema" (the title of this song and the title of the album both being derived from Jung's anima) are particularly fraught with references.
  • Blue Man Group's "Rock Concert Movement #237" is "Taking the audience on a Jungian journey into the collective unconscious by using the shadow as a metaphor for the primal self that gets repressed by the modern persona and also by using an underground setting and labyrinth office design to represent both the depths of the psyche and the dungeon-like isolation of our increasingly mechanistic society which prevents people from finding satisfying work or meaningful connections with others."Template:Who
  • Singer/Songwriter Steve Taylor satirizes modern psychiatry in "Jung and the Restless" on his I Predict 1990 album.
  • In The Irony Of It All by The Streets, the character Terry states that he likes to "get deep" and think about Carl Jung.
  • Hey Rosetta's "Becky, I Keep Singing This Song" says "Becky, I keep having this dream in the night where is seems I can fly. But only when no one's around, when the people appear I came tumbling down. Jung, Carl tell me what can that mean? I swear I'm not scared I'm just happy to be here. How can you tell me these beautiful things are holding me back before I even begin... Pull me out of my body and into the black."
  • Name appears in lyrics of the song "I love you" by Saigon Kick.
  • Jungian concepts are employed throughout the philosophy and lyrics of Jim Morrison, in particular with reference to the collective unconscious ('Universal Mind'), transcendence ("Break on through"), Apollonian-Dionysiann duality ("Day destroys the night, night divides the day..."), alchemy and individuation (The End), and the shamanistic experience of suffering, death and spiritual rebirth as a way to connect with and draw out the repressed unconscious of the audience, as a 'mediator' to guide them through the transcendence process. The Jungian references to the unconscious individuation & transcendence process in the 11 miniute 'The End' spiel are numerous, and the symbolic Oedipous complex of killing the father/re-entering the mother that Morrison so controversially inserted into the song ('Father-yes son- I want to kill you. Mother, I want to ...')references Jung's take on the Oedipus Complex - symbolic for inner freedom, spiritual rebirth and transcendent self-liberation.
  • Bob Dylan has employed a lot of Jungian concepts such as individuaton and alchemy in his lyrics.
  • The rather famous song used in the "Synchronicity" Volkwagen commercial is titled "Jung at Heart."

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Carl Jung" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

Personal tools