2nd millennium  

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The second millennium is a period of time that, according to official sources, such as the United States Naval Observatory, began on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000, of the Gregorian calendar. It encompassed the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Early Modern Age, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World Wars and nuclear bombs) were offset by growing peace movements from the United Nations, the Peace Corps, religious campaigns warning against violence, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.

Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the Internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to educate, entertain, and alert billions of people by the end of the 20th century.

The 15th century saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa and Asia to The Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.

The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium, (from 310 million in AD 1000 to 600 million in AD 1700), and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding to 6 billion in AD 2000.


The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Civilizations of the 2nd millennium AD
Africa The Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Significant people of the 2nd millennium AD
  Africa The Americas Asia Europe Oceania
11th century Humai ibn Salamna
Eze Nri Ìfikuánim
Yahya ibn Ibrahim
Eight Deer Jaguar Claw Shen Kuo
Omar Khayyám
Su Sung
William the Conqueror
Basil II
William IX of Aquitaine
12th century Abd al-Mu'min
Dunama I
Manco Cápac Minamoto no Yoritomo
Bhaskara II
Genghis Khan
Richard I of England
Henry II of England
Hildegard of Bingen
13th century Sundiata Keita
Dunama Dabbalemi
Mansa Uli
    Marco Polo
Pope John XXII
William Wallace
Thomas Aquinas
Roy Mata<ref name=Oceania1100/>
14th century Kato Kintu
Ibn Khaldun
Muhammad Ture
Acamapichtli Yongle Emperor
Jan Hus
Geoffrey Chaucer
Guillaume de Machaut
15th century Ilunga Tshibinda
Sonni Ali
Zara Yaqob
Moctezuma I Hongxi Emperor
Guru Nanak Dev
Nicolaus Copernicus
Leonardo da Vinci
Mehmed II
Johannes Gutenberg
Henry VII of England
Ferdinand Magellan
Joan of Arc
  Africa The Americas Asia Europe Oceania
16th century Idris Aloma
Ahmad al-Mansur
Atahualpa Xu Guangqi
Shah Jahan
William Shakespeare
Christopher Columbus
Galileo Galilei
Suleiman I
Martin Luther
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
Elizabeth I of England
Francis Drake
Henry VIII of England
Otto Brunfels
Desiderius Erasmus
17th century Wegbaja
Osei Tutu
Okomfo Anokye
Roger Williams
John Winthrop
Anne Hutchinson
Matsuo Basho
Sir Isaac Newton
Peter the Great
Thomas Hobbes
Louis XIV of France
James I of England and James VI of Scotland
Charles I of England and Scotland
Charles II of England and Scotland
James II of England or James VII of Scotland
Otto von Guericke
18th century Usman Dan Fodio
Opoku Ware I
Dossou Agadja
Benjamin Franklin
Thomas Jefferson
George Washington
Samuel Adams
Paul Revere
John Adams
John Hancock
Phillis Wheatley
Abagail Adams
Deborah Sampson
Qianlong Emperor
Louis XVI of France
Catherine the Great
Johann Sebastian Bach
Antonio Vivaldi
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
James Watt
Adam Smith
William Herschel
Kamehameha I
19th century Moshoeshoe I
Menelik II
Thomas Edison
Simón Bolívar
Abraham Lincoln
Francisco de Paula Santander
George Washington Carver
Grover Cleveland
Empress Dowager Cixi
Mangal Pandey
Swami Vivekananda
Jose Rizal
Charles Darwin
Marie Curie
Nikola Tesla
Michael Faraday
Alfred Nobel
Alexander Graham Bell
Vincent van Gogh
Frédéric Chopin
Victoria I
Karl Marx
Te Kooti
20th century Mo Ibrahim
Nelson Mandela
Desmond Tutu
Franklin D. Roosevelt
John F. Kennedy
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Ronald Reagan
Mao Zedong
Mahatma Gandhi
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Albert Einstein
Vladimir Lenin
Joseph Stalin
Adolf Hitler
Winston Churchill
Michail Gorbatsjov
Werner Heisenberg
Max Planck
Max Born
Paul Dirac
Pablo Picasso
The Beatles

See also

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