From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Napoléon III, born Charles Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 10 December 1848 to 2 December 1851, then again from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852. He became the second Emperor of the French (although he was the third person named Napoleon) under the name Napoléon III, from 2 December 1852 to 4 September 1870. He holds the unusual distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.
Most of the royal families of Europe were unwilling to marry into the parvenu Bonaparte family, and after rebuffs from Princess Carola of Sweden and from Queen Victoria's German niece Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Napoleon decided to lower his sights somewhat and "marry for love", choosing the Countess of Teba, Eugénie de Montijo, a Spanish noblewoman of partial Scottish ancestry who had been brought up in Paris. In 1856, Eugénie gave birth to a legitimate son and heir, Louis Napoléon, the Prince Impérial.