Substance abuse  

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Morphine (1894) by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine (1894) by Santiago Rusiñol

"It has dawned on me that masturbation is the one major habit, the ‘primal addiction’ and that it is only as a substitute and replacement for it that the other addictions – for alcohol, morphine, tobacco, etc., – come into existence." (Freud, 1897:272)

L'Absinthe (1876) by Edgar Degas
L'Absinthe (1876) by Edgar Degas

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Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods that are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical, and criminal justice contexts. In some cases, criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long-term personality changes in individuals may also occur.

Drugs most often associated with this term include alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, methaqualone, and opioids. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, but there are two predominant theories: either a genetic predisposition or a habit learned from others, which, if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease.

See also

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Substance abuse" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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