W. E. B. Du Bois  

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"It must be remembered that the white group of laborers, while they received a low wage, were compensated in part by a sort of public and psychological wage. They were given public deference and titles of courtesy because they were white. They were admitted freely with all classes of white people to public functions, public parks, and the best schools. The police were drawn from their ranks, and the courts, dependent upon their votes, treated them with such leniency as to encourage lawlessness. Their vote selected public officials, and while this had small effect upon the economic situation, it had great effect upon their personal treatment and the deference shown them. White schoolhouses were the best in the community, and conspicuously placed, and they cost anywhere from twice to ten times as much per capita as the colored schools. The newspapers specialized on news that flattered the poor whites and almost utterly ignored the Negro except in crime and ridicule."--Black Reconstruction in America (1935) by W. E. B. Du Bois

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William Edward Burghardt Du Bois February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a black civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. He became a naturalized citizen of Ghana in 1963 at the age of 95.

David Levering Lewis, a biographer, wrote, "In the course of his long, turbulent career, W. E. B. Du Bois attempted virtually every possible solution to the problem of twentieth-century racismscholarship, propaganda, integration, national self-determination, human rights, cultural and economic separatism, politics, international communism, expatriation, third world solidarity."

Works published

Du Bois wrote and published over 4,000 articles, essays and books over the course of the 95-year life. Most of these are out of print and hard to find even in their original publications. No edition of his complete works has yet been published. In 1977, Paul G. Partington published a bibliography of Du Bois' published works, titled W. E. B. Du Bois: A Bibliography of His Published Writings. (Whittier, CA: c.1977, 1979 (rev. ed.)) (privately published). ISBN: 0960253815. A supplement was published in 1984, titled W. E. B. Du Bois: A Bibliography of His Published Writings—Supplement. (Whittier, CA: c. 1984). 20pages. The supplement represented Partington's research in the Du Bois' papers owned by the University of Massachusetts Amherst.


  • Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 by W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, with introduction by Du Bois biographer David Levering Lewis. 768 pages. (Free Press: 1995 reissued from 1935 original) ISBN 0684856573. This is the longest work by Du Bois.
  • The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America: 1638–1870 PhD dissertation, 1896, (Harvard Historical Studies, Longmans, Green, and Co.: New York) Full Text]
  • The Study of the Negro Problems (1898)
  • The Philadelphia Negro (1899)
  • The Negro in Business (1899)
  • The Evolution of Negro Leadership. The Dial, 31 (July 16, 1901).
  • The Talented Tenth, second chapter of The Negro Problem, a collection of articles by African Americans (September 1903).
  • Voice of the Negro II (September 1905)
  • John Brown: A Biography (1909)
  • Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans (1909)
  • Atlanta University's Studies of the Negro Problem (1897-1910)
  • The Quest of the Silver Fleece 1911
  • The Negro (1915)
  • Darkwater (1920)
  • The Gift of Black Folk (1924)
  • Dark Princess: A Romance (1928)
  • Africa, its Geography, People and Products (1930)
  • Africa: Its Place in Modern History (1930)
  • Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (1935)
  • What the Negro has Done for the United States and Texas (1936)
  • Black Folk, Then and Now (1939)
  • Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept (1940)
  • Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace (1945)
  • The Encyclopedia of the Negro (1946)
  • The World and Africa (1946)
  • Peace is Dangerous (1951)
  • I take my stand for Peace (1951)
  • In Battle for Peace (1952)
  • The Black Flame: A Trilogy
  • The Ordeal of Mansart (1957)
  • Mansart Builds a School (1959)
  • Africa in Battle Against Colonialism, Racialism, Imperialism (1960)
  • Worlds of Color (1961)
  • An ABC of Color: Selections from Over a Half Century of the Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois (1963)
  • The World and Africa, An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa has Played in World History (1965)
  • The Autobiography of W. E. Burghardt Du Bois (International publishers, 1968)

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