De Sanctorum Martyrum Cruciatibus
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
De Sanctorum Martyrum Cruciatibus (1591) is a book on the Christian martyrs by Antonio Gallonio. It was published with 44 detailed full-page engravings by Antonio Tempesta from the designs of Giovanni de Guerra of Modena (painter to Pope Sixtus V) in 1659. The book was published in Paris by Raphaël Trichet du Fresne.
The tortures are classified and divided into categories.
The book was translated by Alfred Richard Allinson and published in 1903 by Charles Carrington as Tortures and Torments of the Christian Martyrs and in 1904 in French as Traité des instruments de martyre.
It was republished in English by the Fortune Press with the following product description:
- "Repellent and fascinating at the same time, the terrible tortures of Christian martyrs evidence a sort of evil creativity and gleeful bloodlust on the part of their tormentors. This book, originally published in 1989 in a limited edition, captures the gruesomeness of torture and provides an intellectual examination of it - with an awareness of the visceral thrill that such images provide. It includes a reproduction of the 1591 book of the same title, with engravings and descriptions of Christian tortures; segments from The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (1824), by an Augustinian nun (which helped inspire Mel Gibson's film Passion); the article "On the Physical Death of Jesus," by William D. Edwards, describing the forensic realities of the crucifixion (which also impacted the film); and 24 illustrations by a variety of well-known artists, performers, and infamous criminals including Daniel Clowes, Joe Coleman, Raymond Pettibon, and Kaz. "
Table of contents
Of Crosses and Stakes
A. Martyrs suspended by one foot.
B. Suspended by both feet.
C. Raised on the cross, head uppermost.
D. nailed to the cross, head downwards.
E. Hung up by both arms, heavy weights being attached to the feet.
F. Christian woman suspended by the hair.
G. Martyrs hung up by one arm only, ponderous stones being fastened to their feet.
Divers Modes of Suspension
A. Martyr suspended by both feet, and a great stone fastened
to his neck.
B. Sometimes the Blessed Martyrs, after being smeared with honey
were bound to stakes fixed in the ground, and so exposed to the
rays of the sun to be tortured by the stings of flies and bees.
C. Martyr suspended by one foot; one leg is bent at the knee,
which is constricted by means of an iron ring, the other being
weighted with a heavy mass of iron.
A. Martyr suspended by the feet, and his head at the same
tim pounded with hammers.
B. Martyr suspended by the hands, which are tied behind
his back, heavy weights being fastened to his feet and
around his neck.
The Great Wheel
A. Sometimes martyrs were bound to the circumference of great wheels,
and so hurled from a height over stony places.
Wheels of a Second Sort
A. Martyr whose limbs are interwoven in the spokes of a wheel,
on which he is left exposed for days, till he dies.
B. Martyr bound to a narrow wheel, which is revolved, so that
his body is horribly mangled on iron spikes fixed underneath.
Wherein Bodies were Racked and Stretched
A. A pulley.
B. martyrs racked at the pulleys.
C. Crushed in the press, just as grapes and olives are
pressed in making wine and oil.
D. Capstan or windlass.
Raised on a Pulley
A. Martyr, with his hands tied behind his back, hoisted in the air
by a rope.
C. Spikes, or sometimes, sharp flints, on to which the Martyr
was let fall.
On the use of Cudgels
A. Martyr bound to four stakes and beaten with cudgels.
B. Martyr laid naked on iron spikes and violently beaten with
C. Martyr bound hand and foot and similarly beaten
with a cudgel.
Buffeted, Stoned and Crushed
A. Martyr buffeted, kicked, and pounded with the fists.
B. Martyr being stoned.
C. Martyr whose face and jaws are bruised and broken with a stone.
D. Martyr crushed under a huge stone.
Of Currycombs and Pincers
A. Martyr tortured by means of the iron claw or pincers.
B. Torn with the hooks.
C. Mangled with the iron currycombs.
Scorched on the Wooden Horse
A. Martyr hung from the wooden horse and scorched with the
flame of torches.
B. Martyr suspended by his feet from a pulley and tortured in
a like fashion.
Frying-pans and Pots
A. Martyr thrown head-first into a caldron full of
molten lead or boiling oil.
B. Martyr in a hot frying-pan.
C. martyr plunged into a boiling pot.
The Brazen Bull and Iron Bed
A. Martyr's dismembered limbs put in a frying-pan.
B. Martyr in the brazen bull.
C. Laid on the iron bed and broiled.
Other Instruments of Martyrdom
A. Martyr whose hand is filled with incense mingled with live coals,
and who being constrained by the pain to scatter the incense, is
said to have made sacrifice to the idol.
B. Martyr clad in the iron tunic and shod with the red-hot shoes,
which consume the flesh off his bones.
C. Martyr seated in the iron chair, while a red-hot helmet,
or morion, is set on his head.
Burning Coals, Molten Substances
A. Martyr compelled to walk over burning coals, while molten lead,
boiling pitch, or like substances, are poured over his head.
Some Uses of Fires
A. Martyr cast into a burning fiery furnace.
B. Martyrs set in a tun, or cask, and burned therein.
C. Martyr burned in a room, or chamber, that hath been
set on fire.
D. Bound hand and foot and set on a blazing pile.
E. Bound to four pegs fixed in the ground, with a
fire burning underneath.
F. Bound with ropes drenched in oil and consumed by a
fire lighted under him.
G. Thrown into a pit full of live coals.
H. Iron shovel for stirring and rousing the fire.
Stabbed by Styles, and Amputated
A. Martyr stabbed to death by boys with their writing styles.
B. Martyr whose limbs are amputated one by one.
Beating and Piercing
A. Martyr stabbed in the throat with a dagger.
B. Short to death with arrows.
C. Beaten over the head with an axe.
D. Beheaded with a sword.
E. Transfixed with a spear.
Sawn in Two
A. Martyr struck with a club or cudgel.
B. Sawn in two with an iron saw.
C. Hands and feet cut off.
Piercing the Inwards
A. Martyr pierced through with a sharp-pointed stake.
B. Martyr whose belly has been cut open and the liver torn out,
which the heathen used sometimes to eat.
Martyrs being Flayed Alive
A. Martyrs being flayed alive.
Legs Torn, and Sharp Reeds
A. Martyr bound by either leg to the tops of two neighboring trees,
which have been bent down and forcibly drawn together, and will
presently be suddenly let go again.
B. Martyr tortured by having sharp reeds stuck under his finger
and toe nails.
Condemned to the Wild Beasts
A. Martyr imprisoned in a net, and so exposed to be tossed by a wild
B. Thrown down naked to be devoured by wild beasts.
C. Wrapped in a wild beast's hie, and so left to be torn by animals.
D. His feet fixed in a great stone, and with red-hot brad-awls
stuck under his fingernails, the martyr is gibven over to be
worried by starving dogs.
Cast Down from a Height
A. Martyrs cast down headlong from a height.
B. Thrown into a lime kiln.
Shut Up in a Box and Drowned
A. Martyr shut up in a leaden box and drowned in a river.
B. Sewn up in a bag, together with a cock, a viper, an ape,
and a dog, and thrown into the nearest sea or stream.
Trophy of Divers Sorts of Instruments