Sociobiology: The Human Animal  

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Sociobiology: The Human Animal (1977) is a film written and produced by Peter Jones, a collaboration of BBC and WGBH. It thanks Rettenmeyer and Hölldobler, research by Veronica-Jane Birley.

From the Nova series Things to Come.

The film features interviews with E. O. Wilson and Lewontin.


See also


Part 1

Ocr Most. Of us experience at some time in our lives the close knit the existence of family life. A shared home and taken by parents but they're all spring is a basic feature. Also the relationship between the members of co-operative rather more. And that might apply to widen that work of kin living nearby. Most of us wouldn't question this but scientists a recently sought to lay the foundations and biology of a new way of looking at the social behavior. Zoologist Edward Wilson the poverty University and one of the world's leading authorities on the insect has outlined a new science based on evolutionary ideas but it is so controversial that scientists a deeply divided as to the scientific and social implications the criticism which has been led by a senior member of Wilson's own department has first animal behavior is masterly. When he discusses human behavior however he has outlined the provocative you with human nature not take claims it is a view that I'm no longer be ignored by anyone wishing to understand human social behavior. Sociobiologists the seeds of as a feasible approach to development general laws of the evolution of social behavior which then might be applied to the study of human social behaviour and were in effect taking advantage of thought that the great blessing we have of living on the planet with the so many other social species of which man is only one. A. Colony of army ants on the move this highly regimented move by hundreds of thousands of individuals is a typically impressive achievement of the social insects no leaders take them on a chemical trail substance led by an advance party of workers guides the column for within the selfless rushing procession. Edward Wilson regards the social insects as a pinnacle of social organization and from them he believes we can I'm cover universal features of social life. Yet most of us would question the possibility of such an approach. In fact society there are based on the greed of cooperation and I'll truest of behavior which is almost beyond the imagining of most human beings. The societies are often the extreme Lee are complex and sophisticated in their overall workings but the individual behavior of the members of the societies remain relatively simple example is the weaver rant colony that's in the potted citrus tree in front of me. We've ran store dominant and a mold is in the tree tops in Africa and Asia and their colonies have tens of thousands of individuals if you watch just one individually. Follower for awhile you'll find that it's really a simple minded creature it doesn't have much of a behavioral repertoire the not very many things it does it doesn't show much that the billet the as an individual so and yet the colony as a whole is an extraordinary creation. They get about to some extent from one tree to the next. By forming a living chains made out of their own bodies I'm. These ants have seen the edge of this container and they the individual the begin to come down on the tips of this leaf and linking there. And they are to gather very well in the fact that we give them the opportunity to reach the end you this and other answer unless colony when pour over the living bridge to escape to the Alps in their natural habitat. We've got and use this technique to move into a neighboring tree and find a new nest site. The process of constructing a mess the players of the highly coordinated operation requiring skill and subtlety. Leads have to be pulled together by teams of dozens perhaps even hundreds of individual workers. Want takes place appears as a wonder of group action. Yet the individual and so little more than automaton highly organized robots who are specialized in just a small number of tasks if we were doing something comparable We would however know that we were cooperating and do not each individual is just a bearing its own genes. These. Two labs are linking up with Arjun anyway communicating about the job to be done a second an even more remarkable phase of nest building occurs at about the time the leaves touch. The few workers appear each with a half grown and will love it and its jaws at the knees edged a lover's prodded by the workers antenna in response it touches a leaf with it's head producing a thin thread of silk the worker then moves the lava backwards and forwards from leaf to leave so that his exact words took weeds a continuous sheet an astonishing product of joint action between two and. Now we can at least appreciate Professor Wilson's progression from such remarkable creatures to his attempt at producing general Knowles of social behavior. The cohesion of a colony can be astonishing. Army absent that small visible acts are composed of up to seven hundred thousand interlocking individuals a living structure we can almost regard such a colony is a single super organism in which the individuality of the Chance has been lost but if this is the case then what kind of relationships could exist in such a society. Insect society is characterized by what one could call them personal intimately and this is a course in members in the society are just packed together all the time they were constantly in communication. They are intimate and told me interdependent every minute of their lives and yet this isn't personal. There's no evidence the vast majority of cases as any individual recognition among the members of the society they simply recognize members of a single class but they have no personal relationship with any other member at dawn the big black breaks up the amazing thing about this activity is that all the animals involved a style and cannot produce any offspring this is a problem which interests biologists been nor mostly the question is how can the genes for such selfless behavior be passed on to future generations. The answer is that the queen alone. Same here been a thumb attentive workers is replicating the genes of the colony on its behalf. Queen and workers a very closely related. This means that a proportion of each individual's genes are in each egg or not of these workers then are not just selflessly looking after the queen and her offspring but actually ensuring the future of their own genes. Meanwhile other workers who are equally close relatives can specialize in Father Jim for food in the surrounding habitat. Any living creature or insects that can be species is broken up and brought back to feed the colonnade. It's this specialisation based on the division of labor that makes the insect societies so efficient in its organization. Honey. Bee that is capable of that. Of achieving a high degree of social organization and cooperation and for similar reasons of particularly close relatedness. But from time to time within the hive we begin to see a little small individual selfishness and conflict. At one stage in the light cycle of a colony new queens are produced they are related but not closely. Conflict is inevitable since each one will selfishly wish to pass on its own genes. Surrounded by workers they will fight until one of them dies of. Selfishness and conflict of the risen almost as an exception however to the social insects rule of high degrees of cooperation there's a remarkable paradox that has become apparent in the studies. Namely that the qualities that we intuitively associate with social life. Cooperation among individuals all altruism on long individuals the willingness of individuals and sacrifice themselves for the benefit of others on the group with the whole cohesion those qualities are actually because we go from the symbolism of the most complex. Honestly say hundreds of kids who waits gathered for the few months in which they breed these birds returned year after year to the rocky ledges which they find so convenient for nest building in stark contrast to the social insects there's little cooperation between the individual birds. Almost none of the important features of insect social behavior can be found here. Yet each kid to wait is in its anatomy brain and individual adaptability much more complex than any single social insects. Unlike you and all the BE However the I don't pick your weight was evolved to survive alone. True it may derive some benefit from others in searching for food or in warning against predators but it is survived in the world by looking after itself and its own offspring of course it has to mate with another individual to produce offspring and occasionally both sexes will share in the care of a young but unlike the social insects that is no efficient division of labor or specialization. Because each individual is not as plosive related to its neighbor a good Samaritan among Kitty waves devoted to a neighbor's offspring would simply failed to pass on this on the selfish gene and the trade could not survive. There seems to be a real barrier to the evolution of true cooperation in higher animals since sexual selfishness becomes an anti social force. Each seal is of course an individual green machine so it's in the mails interest to compete aggressively to become the dominant animal on the beach and thereby to be the only one to make the females. Does not match the female can do about this male strategy but she doesn't least know that her male offspring will benefit from having the most aggressive father. This is scientist is in a sense a temporary one of individuals competing and conspiring to pass on many genes as possible to to two generations. In the Malian society the rule is less important than the individual members in their personal relationships are there other software a long memory all all vents that have occurred with individuals in the Society's Bhangra horror and jealousies and rivalries are characters stink and the whole thing is based on personal recognition. This dominant male gelada the Buddha knows each of his female companions personally is reproductive strategy is based upon keeping his harem together for as long as he can that he watches them constantly to ensure that all the offspring of the group by his alone. Raising younger boozes a lengthy business goes in the interests of everyone in the group to maintain some degree of cohesion. Frequent grooming helps to do this by establishing gone. However this group exist side by side with other similar groups in a large heard so there's always the possibility of sexual strife and jealousy. A dominant male will vigorously defend his position but conflict can be reduced by suitable signal of the piece and in fact a lot of communication in mammals and primates seems especially designed to overcome competition rather than fostering active cooperation that is in the social insects. By regarding life and of the boom group as a strategy to Rio as many of one's own offspring is possible if you want to just have begun to see why the boom social behavior takes a particular form of the question now remains can a similar approach be applied to humans social behaviour it's essential to remember that man is a mammal and he still has a heritage you all are completely mad mailing and physiology and anatomy and he also has a residue all the old my mailing and social crates and most important of all all the society is a construction of the individual that they are concerned with their own welfare and reproduction than that of their immediate again. Three children helping their father on the Scottish calm mom meanwhile is getting at me already. It all seems rather ordinary but it is a very human this is a way of behaving that the specific to humans. We do not like is it plausible though to regard the human family in the same way that a biologist but examine the social organization of nonhuman animals. In the way that they organize their lives could we regard high the patterns as maximizing the genes. Raising children as any parent knows requires an investment of parental time and energy but how much investment and to how many children. When it streams strategy adopted by many animals would be to have as many children as possible even though it might mean cutting back on parental care and thereby losing some of the children the other extreme strategy is to are have only a small number of offspring but to invest a great deal in the welfare of those raising them carefully and making sure that they have a high survival rate and in the case of social species but they fit nicely into the society in which they are being raised in order to do that successfully you have to limit yourself very quickly in the number of offspring the emphasis now gold on individual sure why have all of the parent of the offspring and the way the offspring are train or train that is the strategy of the war the eagle and the human being. But the human being doesn't stick to a single strategy throughout the world we find a variation in for example manage patterns in this African village polygamy is an accepted form of marriage. Each has been may have several wives but does this sort of the strategy makes sense it's easier to see the advantage to the husband's genes but what's in it for his wives sociobiology is with say that polygamy mail our women to have less children and in societies where protein is in short supply that allows them to devote more food to each individual child. Among the Pahari hill men of North India. Men may share a single wife to farmers for example may share the same property and the same wife it often turns out that their brothers the social biologists would see this is an eminently sensible strategy where the facilities which one brother could supply alone are poor. Since brothers have genes in common with all the offspring of their wives will in turn pass on some of their genes so each brother by investing time and effort in the farm and feeding the family is in the biologist who successfully passing on his jeans. Each marriage seems to be a different strategy for adjusting to the local environment but the fact that we have manages a toll may be rooted in our genes. A few anthropologists are now prepared to take the strong view that human mating and the way in which can relate do in fact have a genetic basis. Professor Deval Yes human kinship systems are almost as if they were designed by a geneticist all indeed it's interesting that the native so to speak of him telling anthropologist for over a century that the most important thing to them in their social organization is can ship and indeed many anthropologist cannot even begin to work in a tribe and tell a been given a kinship turn and developed a set of of sort of expected behaviors to go with being incorporated into the kinship system of the group is. How many days. Whenever visiting a village of the Yanomamo people of South America. Anthropologist the Polian Shan Young was incorporated into the village kinship system as a brother in law of the head man the villagers knew how to treat him. I home. Now. In his studies of kinship and genealogies Jan Your found that the larger villages were made up of tightly related to families and he asked himself if this degree of close kinship in the good teaching that provided might be an important influence on the size to which villages could grow. Situated as they weren't virgin jungle with ample food supplies he felt that it was difficult to see what other limitation might apply. He disagreed with some of his fellow anthropologists that competition for resources was a consideration. Yet the evidence showed clearly that the villagers had evolved by a process of growth and spitting from a single ancestral village and furthermore no village and grown larger than one hundred fifty or so members. Can your I wondered if there was a biological factor at work why the splitting relationships between the individual villages were poor to say the least and as a defensive precaution the i dont males of each village were encouraged to be aggressive. Often through seemingly violent content. This is a formal deal intended to resolve a village called. This was a pattern of behavior that the villages also in college than the young but Channel has suggested that this could be the seed of destruction for the village especially when that village was so large that its families had lost the ties of close kinship. Quatorze between families happen in any small community but in the Yanomamo they can escalate into a violent confrontation in which relatives take their respective sides with the Green Party. The breakdown a village cohesion and social order him to go hand in hand with the breakdown of the bonding achieved by close kinship. This Karl had begun earlier when a male from one family had insulted a female from another. The blows appear lethal but I knew the size of a blade is used or the blunt edge of an axe. Nevertheless it's difficult to see how these families can remain together. The out. On a wing such a fight one group of vintage departed the village respected. Head of the departing families lay the problems of establishing a new village but the small numbers meant that they would now be in real danger of grades from other villages. The Yama mama illustrates the importance of the larger community for defense and protection but also the large sized can lead to a selfish breakdown the village cohesion along the lines of kinship. Here then two strategies interact. Humans have lived in small face to face groups for millions of years surely and in these groups. You're often surrounded by very close relatives so acts that you perform that benefit them are a direct benefit but often they're not such close relatives This doesn't mean however that as intelligent foresightful creature you can't come up with mutual obligations. Value systems which emphasizes sharing which is sort of preeminent human trait that occurs in other animals but in a certain sense human society and originally was based upon the whole notion of sharing your fine as an undergrad other societies around the world. Yanomamo village playing host to a neighboring village the outcome may be a peaceful political alliance but to achieve it the sense of mutual trust has to be achieved through an exchange of gifts to the point. The visitors of being fed by their posts but already there voicing that the months. Now the idea. That. You know. When the return visit is made then of course the host will expect that offer of gifts to be reciprocated. The social biologists believe that if there is a foundation of essentially selfish behavior in humans or at least so fishnet in the interests of close pins then an exchange of gifts like this demonstrates that people everywhere can escape from that limitation if they wish. To the development of language by speaking to other groups and establishing verbal and other long term contracts with them. Professor Wilson believes that our mammalian had a charge of selfishness has been overcome. But he also proposes that a society such as the Young No mamma provide us with a basis for looking at human society in other ways that are equally useful to an evolution and. These are the society is of our living in the kinds of economy which existed for hundreds of thousands or millions of years during which biological evolution was taking place so the proposition here is that by studying in detail the way these societies are organized we can get a much cleaner insight into the are a biological advantage given to certain forms of social behavior. Wilson has best to find the features that he sees as biologically advantageous male specialisation in hunting and making war. Females that flies ation in gathering fruits and vegetables in the prolonged Carolyn of the children this is a highly contentious argument. In describing this division of labor. Biologically advantageous Professor Wilson is implying that it is based on genetic predispositions in the same way that might also be genes for altruism and cooperation within the family. Such genes would be biologically advantageous because they would confer on the better increase chances of survival and reproduction. Here the Yanomamo father Washington children does this imply a genetic predisposition towards parental care and the human males. According to social biologists The answer is yes the potential for this behaviour is in the father's genes and an individual with such a gene is likely to be more successful in raising offspring than one without. In that way the gene becomes more widespread in the population this is what we mean by natural selection. The patches on these maps show how the distribution of a particular gene changes in the course of hundreds of generations in a population made up of several thousand small groups the present changes because of migration and also because in each mating the gene has only a fifty percent chance of survival even if it's not very useful game perhaps it's bicolor the pattern of its distribution goes on changing but the essential point is that it never becomes more common. Suppose however a really useful mutant gene occurs in the population from time to time. Say a gene for corporation in hunting from which each member benefits reproductively sometimes it will die out but it's possible once relative share it for them to derive such a reproductive advantage that it will be replicated in the past throughout the population. This is the fundamental principle of social biology the genes for particular social behaviors exist and that they have spread by natural selection but this argument contrast startlingly with the views of the critics of social biology.

Part 2

At the present time not a vestige of evidence that any of the characteristics it's mostly about just or indeed human evolutionists in general talk about have any genetic basis we know nothing about why some people are more aggressive than others some people are more entrepreneurial indeed why some people have more musical ability than others there is no evidence at all. That such individuals differ in their genes that may be entirely the result of their early experiences of developmental accidents in the formation of the nervous systems of the different societies in which they live with no genetic differences being involved with all. The human cells that is about to divide. Slowly the genetic material is drawn into long threads. If individuals do differ in their genes then these differences will exist here on the chromosomes. Each thread like chromosome carries thousands of genes not one gene has been conclusively shown to influence any single feature of normal human social behaviour it Professor Wilson doesn't doubt the correctness of his view even though it may be prone to a common misconception is a common misconception about the inheritance of behaviour especially social behavior that there has to be one gene one basic unit on the ready for each behaviour this would be the extreme form of genetic determinism that is say a gene somewhere down there in the chromosomes that causes aggression another gene that causes all twisted behavior and so on it isn't that simple. What really occurs. Concert taken the what Kurt with the that there are many genes affecting each one of these major categories of the year and that in fact they are not as a rule. Programming that behavior. So that whenever you get a certain set of genes you always get that behavior what they program really is an array of potential of this idea of potential and is based on the zoo ologists observations of animals in their natural habitat and a view of animal behavior that there is a range of behaviors specific to a particular species in this family group of North American moments the male on the left is playing his part as a good parent. This potential is in his genes. Yet in a neighbouring colony films at the same time of the year the males many of them father and not being such a good dance. Instead they are furiously interacting with each other. The social biological view is that this too is a potential in their genes but is only call upon in circumstances of the overpopulation. Then it seems an individual moment is better off or his genes are by reducing another male chances of success by being a good parent. The genes provide the potential for either behavior so giving the animal a built in flexibility it's a range of potentials. This gives the individual animal the choice of responding to its environment in the most advantageous way. That this is being criticized because it almost makes it impossible for an explanation of this kind of a failed. It's just once more the critics say these observations a deeply embedded in the all too common tendency to see animal behavior in human terms one of the problems that sociobiologists clearly have not thought about is that the very words they use to describe our behavior are derived from human behavior and human social experience metaphorically What does it mean to talk about aggression and animal. They have begun to talk about aggression as if it were a phenomenon of lower animals but in fact aggression is something we get out of human history. Aggression has been a stark one political mean. Our ideas about aggression about war on indeed based upon history possibly even personal experience but what about the individual soldiers experience of war. Couldn't this be where the social biologist will find aggression in the individual in a biological sense. But could this also lead to confusion in our attempt to understand war which is after all a conflict between nations rather than individuals. People talk about aggression in many different ways and slip back and forth between them all they're very different sects. For example people are trying to explain why we're there are a war and they try to do that by saying all other wars because people are naturally aggressive. What they're doing is confusing the political phenomenon war with the individual phenomenon of my taking a poke at you if you insult the fact of the matter is as any of you are who's been in the war knows you don't go to war you don't go on fight other people because you feel aggressive toward them you go either because of ideology or because you were drafted and you had to go. You thrown in jail if you didn't or because of social pressure has been such that you've done what you had to do or for economic reasons are wars are economic social and political phenomenon which really have nothing to do with the meaning of aggression and second the vigils. That nevertheless there is in these individual conscripts the capacity to cooperate. Conform and perhaps make a sacrifice. This has to be mobilized for the benefit of the nation at war. For the social about a just our genes predisposes for this the alternative view is that training culture and learning on no create a possibility. Answer probably just Marvin had it's about people fail to realize is that the culture is relive again. In talking about human culture and the prophecies by which human culture changes through time we're talking about physical phenomena we're not talking about some abstract spiritual lives. Concept we're talking about something very concrete a mode of life which organisms transmit. The behavioral adaptations which they have made I wonder interaction across to the succeeding generation and this mode of transmission of learned behavior. Is as important in the universe as the beginning of life. Because they are learning features of culture that are transmitted across the generations are not fix they can change dramatically. These New Guinea tribes seen changes in their style of life that couldn't possibly occur to changes in gene frequencies it would take many generations. In the last twenty five years. Thuch tribesmen have driven their first tractor thing mastered the skill of flying an aeroplane thing ever cried and practiced totally new medical skills and from the background of isolated village life that created a parliament expresses its like this have gone on for that. Apps hundreds of thousands of your social life of human being must have a history in which the impact about jeans long ago been replaced or at least greatly modified my culture. Social biologists however seem undetected in their confidence and their biological a print. Biologists are aware of that. Although there is an enormous diversity among human groups all that is culturally determined nevertheless this doesn't expand infinitely these human societies are not evolving away from one another like stars in an expanding universe there are general universal or near universal qualities of human behavior which need explanation. The problem nevertheless for socially about legit is to probe the needs the surface of a culture and to reveal a biology only a few human societies have experimented with this social lives so as to make this a possibility. The Israeli kibbutz is one and has revealed a startling feature of human social life. Here that cross how to show several hundred people live a collective life based mainly on from NG as on most other key would seem the children are raised by the collective rather than within their own families. This group of seven year olds have lived together from six months of age in the care of children's nurses and teachers. Each peer group that is children of a particular age lives in his own house but they spend most of their time together. Learning. Eating taking showers and sleeping. The feeling within one of the children's house is of the intimacy of family life the children though I'm related I like brothers and sisters and in a very deep sense this has an influence on the lives lost into their adult lives in particular it will influence the choice of a marriage partner. Thought stranger that makes team it has been known for many years the children brought up together like this. Found never to into manatee despite the fact that they will have every opportunity and every encouragement. Now. In this particular set of money as in many cases she manages a young person from the kibbutz has chosen to Matt a someone from outside the kibbutz altogether. Function to say. Oh you based on a lot of my daily valid. Still mourning. Value value. Dennis Lehane amazed nor leave North by beasts like the group was born and raised on the Kibbutz the bride is from outside the nearby town three will now have to accept the collective ideology which is part and parcel of living on the kibbutz. Back in return and then the ship of the kibbutz will make her the social and economic equal of everyone else. You know and God You mean the sun like water box it's not about me it's being set up with the log a lot of but I'm glad I got out about M.L.K.. I got that the government bus money money money and marriage of some kind no is a universal feature of human communities in the various rules governing who can or cannot marry whom has long been of interest to answer apologists. In particular every human society has a set of rules that involve the taboo on incest the avoidance of managed between mother and son father and daughter and of particular interest to social biologists between brother and sister. Generally answer apologists have considered these roads as part of human culture because the way in which they are expressed seems to vary from culture to culture. Only map the room making animal has created rules of this kind. So that here in the institution of marriage it is believed that we can see what distinguishes man from other animals if you like it distinguishes creatures of culture from creatures of nature. Later limits and. Now the fact that no one brought up in a kibbutz as ever married a member of the same peer group because he or she feels they cannot even when there is no prohibition means that we cannot maintain so rigid a distinction between what is natural and what is cultural it is as if the members of a kibbutz who have been brought up together are in fact brothers and sisters and have a natural inhibition to avoid incest if he's in this apparent avoidance of insists that social biologists see the possibility of an explanation that the level about genes the socio biological explanation notes that the interest of ointment is a very widespread phenomenon throughout the animal kingdom where it serves in large part of the function of the ultimate function of avoiding intensive inbreeding which in turn brings together genes which in combination cause the exact And what is fascinating is that part of this seems to be solved in the human case by the simple avoidance of even sexual attraction to a person with whom you have been living and about amounts to a family relationship. It has been suggested then that the children of a peer group will later of void matting one another because of their family like upbringing. Between the ages of three and six they are learning to have a special kind of relationship with one another that of brothers and sisters with whom it is advantages to later. Avoid in marriage. Thirteen biologists would suggest that the capacity to learn in this way and hence restrict our choice of future mates is laid down in our genes because it offered in the earlier evolutionary history of the human family the great advantage of avoiding genetic in rating. But the children in the bath together and not brother and sister in fact they're not even related on the keyboards the genes have been fooled. Now if these children were to be rate separately on the kibbutz this specially between the crucial ages of three and six there would be no development of this predisposition. This biological insight in effect present the keyboards with a choice rather than the limitations of these insights on many of the work of Professor Joseph Schaffer though. That thirty years ago he was a tractor driver and now he's professor of anthropology at the University of Haifa. That he believes that it is very important to remember that a new biological understanding need not limits us nor needed simply suggest that what is biological is necessarily right through he sees this from the point of view of someone who's own community has itself achieves a dramatic transformation in his own lifetime. If I recall where my friends and then scribbled came from. Capitalistic individualistic comforted to have. A central Europe right everybody off. Has been educated to be as individualistic I've asked combine to do got to code. And we wanted to be a professional have reruns after be America chance and here we embedded Riad a caller to farm out. And evolves that I really just run them longer. Became Mark Gnostic. And this time around us change. Has to be and calls by a powerful ideology but even so I've par for I they are ideology called on only for a while. Change So basically assist them in the human animal. Not only is the kibbutz experiment about childrearing but it is also about the relationship between the sexes. The founders of the keep it seemed wanted to break down the sexual division of labor in the human family. Women were to be fraid of the domestic chores of tie them to the house this would allow them to go off to work and buy their work become independent of men but what do we find in the present thank you both in the collective laundry it is the women who do the work that they would otherwise have done at home and generally the same applies in the kitchen and clothing stores the kibbutz has recently been described as a place in which men and women seem to live as if in two separate communities This may seem a harsh view but there is without doubt a division of labor within the cable team on a sexual basis. Now since ticket would seem a community that have so successfully achieved the other ideals of creating collective farms and sharing equally their labour and income why should they fail in this one respect for males don't just do the farming jobs which are often physically odd they also are more likely to take up managerial and political posts to their genes predispose them to do these things and are their genes which influence women in some other way. Thor is it the case says many people would like to believe that men and women are interchangeable. Thought for the influence of coercive customs and prejudices. I got up. On. The kibbutz and experiment on a scale that no social scientist could ever have devised may provide an answer at the moment there is still such a state of flux in response to both internal and external pressures that a conclusive answer would be premature. But that women have had to work alongside the men in some jobs. Lows of the kibbutz prescribe that. He has. Yet to women have felt the need to be more with their children and they have fought and won the right to do so each morning mother's maid leave their work so they can join their children and their houses for watches sadhana kick old the out of love. Despite the quality of work opportunity women have preferred to return to a family row of men have not shown this need. As a further step. Women also wish to bring to an end the completely separate sleeping arrangements of the children. It's as though they feel that the social system of the kibbutz has moved to Fox or perhaps too quickly from the basic family structure of the human species and are taking steps to correct it. And who is the end of the our long visit can deny the potency of basic human motivations as mom goes back to work. That. Influence and impact of even so I apologise for ideologically is limited to us after next pent. Up be could. Implement and remember several rules and defense they have supplies but in the span of. These I'm not solve successful. And that's means that man can change can modify his own fate. Back from not the south and their limits. But the limits experienced by the people of the kibbutz have been political and social as well as biological and we have to ask whether social biologists have blurred this distinction in their desire to provide universal explanations. Consider the apple is a product of an evolutionary process that we wish to understand why it has a waxy skin then it is to evolutionary biology to the theory of natural selection that we can look for an answer. And that's why the apple is also a symbol for a regional since that is a social fact part of culture and history. Thin so much of a controlled by this cultural information can any biological principle derived from animals that have no such a Mason ever provide a useful that human life in fact the necessity to distinguish social from biological is a warning sounded by this of social biology professor Lewington when it is asserted the biological truth tellers asked some political true over and over again when that's happened we have seen the consequence we have seen the way in which assertions about the biological nature of man and the causes of differences between and. Are the justification for a series of political and social acts when in fact the closer examination shows that it is a misuse of a kind of pseudo scientific application to social and political questions. We began by considering the socialist cheat Ment's events here. A colony of honey pot and says in a tight a total conflict with a neighbouring colony none of these creatures can really choose to solve the conflict in any other way and sound political nor do they create codes of behaviour but unlike ants we are free to choose and we are political and ethical animals as a consequence. Nevertheless Professor Wilson reduces even these features of our humanity to a biological basis. Ethical philosophers have a way of starting with certain premises which they take is a self-evident or given and then consider whether or not these are valid by the consequence is that they have they say for example there are certain inalienable individual human right there are certain. Duties which a citizen has toward his society there are certain relationships. Among societies which are permissible and others which are not permissible. These are given out of the almost deep unconscious feelings of of a philosopher. Who is not able to divine his own for the logical process these any more than the. The average layman considering the same. Problems now what a biological explanation or mode of analysis. Promises to do is if to the extent is it successful is to explain the ethical philosopher. To show by evolutionary analysis why ethical philosophers like everybody else have certain gut feelings about what is right and what is wrong in human social relationships. Suppose human evolution could begin all over again without any influence from existing societies. According to social biology it would repeat itself almost exactly. It is a belief that our G. is prescribe the ground rules of our lives and that our future lies in our knowledge of them. The. The.

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