Intellectual virtue  

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Intellectual virtues are character traits necessary for right action and correct thinking. They include: a sense of justice, perseverance, integrity, humility, empathy, intellectual courage, confidence in reason, and autonomy.


Aristotle analyzed virtues into moral and intellectual virtues (or dianoetic virtues, from the Greek aretai dianoetikai). In the Posterior Analytics and Nicomachean Ethics he identified five intellectual virtues as the five ways the soul arrives at truth by affirmation or denial. He grouped them into three classes:

  • Theoretical
    • Sophia - wisdom of the eternal and unchangeable, philosophical wisdom.
    • Episteme - scientific knowledge, empirical knowledge.
    • Nous - intuitive understanding.
  • Practical
  • Productive
    • Techne - craft knowledge, art, skill.

Subjacent intellectual virtues in Aristotle are:

  • Euboulia - deliberating well, deliberative excellence; thinking properly about the right end.
  • Sunesis - understanding, sagacity, astuteness, consciousness of why something is as it is. For example, the understanding you have of why a situation is as it is, prior to having phronesis.
  • Gnomê - judgement and consideration; allowing us to make equitable or fair decisions.
  • Deinotes - cleverness; the ability to carry out actions so as to achieve a goal.


See also

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Intellectual virtue" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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