Huns  

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"The Burgundians, when defeated by the Huns, resolved, as a last resource, to place themselves under the protection of the Roman God whom they vaguely believed to be the most powerful, and the whole nation in consequence embraced Christianity."--A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne (1869) by William Edward Hartpole Lecky


"I reached the main land before day-break, and took a post-chaise to carry me to Trieste. I turned not out of my road to visit Aquileia; I felt no temptation to examine the breach by which the Goths and Huns penetrated into the native country of Horace and Virgil, or to seek the traces of those armies which were the executors of the wrath of the Almighty. On the 29th, at noon, I entered Trieste. This city is regularly built, and seated in a very fine climate, at the foot of a chain of sterile mountains; it contains no monument of Antiquity. The last breeze of Italy expires on this shore, where the empire of barbarism commences."

--Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary (1811) by Chateaubriand

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A post-chaise is a fast carriage for traveling post built in the 18th and early 19th centuries. It usually had a closed body on four wheels, sat two to four persons, and was drawn by two or four horses.

A postilion rode on the near-side (left, nearest the roadside) horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to the post-chaise leaving passengers a clear view of the road ahead.

Contents

Purpose

Hired when long-distance travel at speed was very important, a post chaise would be taken with its own postilions and horses. At the next posting station the postilions would most likely return to their base with their own horses but might continue the journey with fresh horses.

Private posting was expensive and passengers — particularly if the only passenger was a woman — would be accompanied by one or two of their own footmen riding above and behind the body of the post chaise. The footmen would be responsible for making all travel arrangements.

Private individuals did own their own post chaises; some had their light chariots made with the coachman's seat removable. Designed to withstand rapid long-distance travel, the post chaise should have been utilitarian, but private vehicles might be extravagantly decorated and finished.

Posting

In a 1967 article in The Carriage Journal, published for the Carriage Association of America, Paul H Downing recounts that the word post is derived from the Latin postis which in turn derives from the word which means to place an upright timber (a post) as a convenient place to attach a public notice. Postal and postage follow from this. Medieval couriers were caballari postarus or riders of the posts. The riders mounted fresh horses at each post on their route and then rode on. Post came to be applied to the riders then to the mail they carried and eventually to the whole system. In England regular posts were set up in the 16th century.

The riders of the posts carried government messages and letters. The local postmasters delivered the letters as well as providing horses to the royal couriers. They also provided horses to other travellers.

Post chaise

The system of ‘’posting’’ was common in France. An artillery officer, John Trull, entered business in England in 1743 hiring out travelling carriages. At first these carriages had two wheels but they were soon replaced by four wheel carriages given the same name, Post-chaise.

The original French design was amended, a conventional pole was fitted, no driver was provided for — leaving a view through the front window for the passengers — and the horses were ridden by postilions or post-boys. The postilions went from post to post, stayed with their own horses and took them back home at the end of that stage.

America

At that time there was no perfected posting system in America. George Washington’s tour of the South in 1791 had a target (when there were no other commitments) of an average 35 miles a day whereas in England an average speed of 8 or 10 miles an hour might be achieved right round the clock.

A true chaise is an open two wheeled carriage with a bench seat for two passengers drawn by one or two horses. Given two more wheels it would have been, if the name had been used then, a phaeton. A phaeton was for the owner to drive and generally drawn by one or two horses. A four-wheeled chaise would be drawn by at least four horses.

Around the time Trull was introducing post-chaises to England Americans began to use the same name for what had been called a four-wheeled chaise.



Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Huns" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 4th century AD and the 7th century AD. As per European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe.

In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no scholarly consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Priscus, a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian, mentions that the Huns had a language of their own; little of it has survived and its relationships have mainly been considered the Turkic or Mongolic languages. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila the Hun's rule, including very many speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire.Template:Sfn Their main military technique was mounted archery.

The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed a unified empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453; after a defeat at the Battle of Nedao their empire would quickly disintegrate over the next 15 years. Their descendants, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south, east and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia approximately from the 4th century to the 6th century. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Huns" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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