From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
"The exotic and the erotic ideals go hand in hand, and this fact also contributes another proof of a more or less obvious truth - that is, that a love of the exotic is usually an imaginative projection of a sexual desire. "--The Romantic Agony (1930) by Mario Praz, p. 207
Exoticism (from 'exotic') is a trend in art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations since the late 19th-century. In music exoticism is a genre in which the rhythms, melodies, or instrumentation are designed to evoke the atmosphere of far-off lands or ancient times (e.g. Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé and Tzigane for Violin and Orchestra, Debussy's Syrinx for Flute Solo or Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio espagnol). Like orientalist subjects in 19th century painting, exoticism in the decorative arts and interior decoration was associated with fantasies of opulence.
Exoticism, by definition, is "the charm of the unfamiliar." Scholar Alden Jones defines exoticism in art and literature as the representation of one culture for consumption by another. An archetypical example is the artist and writer Paul Gauguin and his representations of Tahitian people and landscapes for a French audience.
History of exoticism
The word 'exotic' is rooted in the Greek word exo ('outside') and means, literally, 'from outside'. It was coined during Europe's Age of Discovery, when 'outside' seemed to grow larger each day, as Western ships sailed the world and dropped anchor off other continents. The first definition of 'exotic' in most modern dictionaries is 'foreign', but while all things exotic are foreign, not everything foreign is exotic. Since there is no outside without an inside, the foreign only becomes exotic when imported – brought from the outside in. From the early seventeenth century, 'exotic' has denoted enticing strangeness – or, as one modern dictionary puts it, "the charm or fascination of the unfamiliar".
First stimulated by Eastern trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, interest in non-western (particularly "Oriental", i.e. Middle Eastern or Asian) art by Europeans became more and more popular with the rise of European colonialism.
The influences of Exoticism can be seen through numerous genres of this period, notably in music, painting, and decorative art. In music, exoticism is a genre in which the patterns, notes, or instrumentation are designed to feel like the audience is in exotic places or old times. (e.g., Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé and Tzigane for Violin and Orchestra, Debussy's Syrinx for Flute Solo or Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio espagnol). Like orientalist subjects in 19th-century painting, exoticism in the decorative arts and interior decoration was associated with fantasies of opulence.
Exoticism, by one definition, is "the charm of the unfamiliar". Scholar Alden Jones defines exoticism in art and literature as the representation of one culture for consumption by another. Victor Segalen's important "Essay on Exoticism" reveals Exoticism as born of the age of imperialism, possessing both aesthetic and ontological value, while using it to uncover a significant cultural "otherness". An important and archetypical exoticist is the artist and writer Paul Gauguin, whose visual representations of Tahitian people and landscapes were targeted at a French audience. While exoticism is closely linked to Orientalism, it is not a movement necessarily associated with a particular time period or culture. Exoticism may take the form of primitivism, ethnocentrism, or humanism.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. The revival of ancient Greek and Roman art left behind the Academy's emphasis on naturalism, and incorporated an idealism not seen since the Renaissance. As classicism progressed, Ingres identified a newfound idealism and exoticism in his work. Grand Odalisque, finished in 1814, was created to arouse the male view. The notion of the exotic figure furthers Ingres' use of symmetry and line by enabling the eye to move cohesively across the canvas. Although Ingres' intention was to make the woman beautiful in his work, his model was a courtesan, which aroused debate.
Édouard Manet’s Olympia, finished in 1863, was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino. Olympia was a popular play about a courtesan of that name. The painting diverged scandalously from the accepted academic style by outlining the figure and flattening space to draw the viewer in: Olympia seems provocatively naked rather than classically nude. Looking out boldly, she puts the viewer in the position of a man coming to a prostitute, although the placement of her hand suggests coyness. The African servant, unheard of in France but evoking race-based slavery in foreign lands, furthers the work's exotic nature.
- Cultural appropriation
- Exotic dancer - a type of dancer or stripper
- Exotic painting - a 19th and 20th century art genre
- Exotica (disambiguation)
- Exotic Romanticism
- Noble savage
- Other (philosophy)
- Outsider art
- Romantic racism
- Racial fetishism
- World music