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Congruence (≅) is the state achieved by coming together, the state of agreement. The Latin congruō meaning “I meet together, I agree”. As an abstract term, congruence means similarity between objects. Congruence, as opposed to approximation, is a relation which implies a species of equivalence.


  • In Carl Rogers' personality theory, the compliance between ideal self and actual self. See Carl Rogers #Incongruence.
  • In psychology and NLP (Neuro-linguistic programming), congruence could be defined as rapport within oneself, or internal and external consistency, perceived by others as sincerity or certainty.
  • Mood congruence between feeling or emotion (in psychiatry and psychology)


  • In cladistics, congruence is a test of homology (biology), or shared, derived character states, in which the distributions of supposed homologies among taxa are compared for consistency

See also

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