Cesare Lombroso  

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The Count is a criminal and of criminal type. Nordau and Lombroso would so classify him."--Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker

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Cesare Lombroso, born Ezechia Marco Lombroso (6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, early eugenics, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic.

Psychiatric art

Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity. In order to support this assertion, he began assembling a large collection of "psychiatric art". He published an article on the subject in 1880 in which he isolated thirteen typical features of the "art of the insane." Although his criteria are generally regarded as outdated today, his work inspired later writers on the subject, particularly Hans Prinzhorn.


  • Ricerche sul cretinismo in Lombardia, (1859)
  • Genio e follia, (1864)
  • Studi clinici sulle mallatie mentali (1865)
  • Sulla microcefala e sul cretinismo con applicazione alla medicina legale (1873)
  • L'uomo delinquente, (1876)
  • L'amore nel suicidio e nel delitto, (1881)
  • L'uomo di genio in rapporto alla psichiatria, (1889, English translation, Man of Genius, London, 1891)
  • Sulla medicina legale del cadavere, (second edition, 1890)
  • Palimsesti del carcere, (1891)
  • Trattato della pellagra, (1892)
  • La donna delinquente, la prostituta e la donna normale (1893)
  • Le più recenti scoperte ed applicazioni della psichiatria ed antropologia criminale, (1894)
  • L'antisemitismo e le scienze moderne, (1894)
  • Genio e degenerazione, (1897)
  • Les Coquêtes récentes de la psychiatrie, (1898)
  • Le crime; causes et remédes, (1899, English translation, Crime, its Causes and Remedies, Boston, 1911)
  • Lezioni de medicina legale, (1900)
  • Delitti vecchi e delitti nuovi, (1902)
  • After Death-What? (English Translation, Boston, 1909)
  • Hans Kurella, Cesare Lombroso, a Modern Man of Science, translated from German by M. E. Paul, (London, 1911)

A collection of papers on Lombroso was published under the title L'opera di Cesare Lombroso nella scienza e nelle sue applicazioni, (Turin, 1906).

See also

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Cesare Lombroso" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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