An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language  

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"It were exceedingly desirable that the names of things might consist of such sounds as should bear in them some analogy to their natures; and the figure and character of their names should bear some proper resemblance to those sounds that men might easily guess at the sense or meaning of any name or word, upon the first hearing or sight of it. But how this can be done in all the particular species of things I understand not, and therefore shall take it for granted that this character must be by institution".--An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (1668) by John Wilkins

"tis agreed upon as most probable, that the lower story [of Noah's Ark] was assigned to contein all the species of beasts, the middle story for their food, and the upper story, in one part of it, for the birds and their food, and the other part for Noah, his family and utensils."--An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (1668) by John Wilkins

{{Template}} An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (London, 1668) is a text by John Wilkins in which he expounds a new universal language, meant primarily to facilitate international communication among scholars, but envisioned for use by diplomats, travelers, and merchants as well.

Unlike many universal language schemes, it was meant merely as an auxiliary to — not a replacement of — existing "natural" languages.

The book was the object of "The Analytical Language of John Wilkins" (1942), a text by Borges.


Wilkins' scheme

Wilkin's "Real Character" is an ingeniously constructed family of symbols corresponding to an elaborate classification scheme developed at great labor by Wilkins and his colleagues, which was intended to provide elementary building blocks from which could be constructed the universe's every possible thing and notion. The Real Character is emphatically not an orthography in that it is not a written representation of oral speech. Instead, each symbol represents a concept directly, without (at least in the early parts of the Essay's presentation) there being any way of vocalizing it at all; each reader might, if he wished, give voice to the text in his or her own tongue. Inspiration for this approach came in part from (partially mistaken) accounts of the Chinese writing system.

Later in the Essay Wilkins introduces his "Philospophical Language," which assigns phonetic values to the Real Characters, should it be desired to read text aloud without using any of the existing national languages. (The term philosophical language is an ill-defined one, used by various authors over time to mean a variety of things; most of the description found at the article on "philosophical languages" applies to Wilkins' Real Character on its own, even excluding what Wilkins called his "Philosophical Language")

For convenience, the following discussion blurs the distinction between Wilkins' Character and his Language. Concepts are divided into forty main Genera, each of which gives the first, two-letter syllable of the word; a Genus is divided into Differences, each of which adds another letter; and Differences are divided into Species, which add a fourth letter. For instance, Zi identifies the Genus of “beasts” (mammals); Zit gives the Difference of “rapacious beasts of the dog kind”; Zitα gives the Species of dogs. (Sometimes the first letter indicates a supercategory— e.g. Z always indicates an animal— but this does not always hold.) The resulting Character, and its vocalization, for a given concept thus captures, to some extent, the concept's semantics.

The Essay also proposed ideas on weights and measure similar to those later found in the metric system. The botanical section of the essay was contributed by John Ray; Robert Morison's criticism of Ray's work began a prolonged dispute between the two men.

Related efforts, discussions, and literary references

The Essay has received a certain amount of academic and literary attention, usually casting it as brilliant but hopeless.

One criticism (among many) is that "words expressing closely related ideas have almost the same form, differing perhaps by their last letter only...[I]t would be exceedingly difficult to remember all these minute distinctions, and confusion would arise, in rapid reading and particularly in conversation." (Umberto Eco notes that Wilkins himself made such a mistake in the Essay, using Gαde (barley) where apparently Gαpe (tulip) was meant.)

George Edmonds sought to improve Wilkins' Philosophical Language by reorganizing its grammar and orthography while keeping its taxonomy. More recent a priori languages (among many others) are Solresol and Ro.

Jorge Luis Borges discusses Wilkins' philosophical language in his essay El idioma analítico de John Wilkins (The Analytical Language of John Wilkins), comparing Wilkins’ classification to the fictitious Chinese encyclopedia Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge and expressing doubts about any attempt at a universal classification.

In Neal Stephenson's Quicksilver, character Daniel Waterhouse spends considerable time supporting the development of Wilkins' classification system.

See also

Full text

Monday 13 th * of Ajril 1 6 6 8.

At a Meeting of the Couhcil of the ROYAL SOCIETY.


That the Difcourfe prefented to the Royall So- ciety, Entituled , An Eflay towards a Real Chara&er, and Philofophical Language, he Printed by the Printer to the Royal Society.


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Towards a


■' • And a



By John Wilkins D.D. Dean a^Ripon, And Fellow of the ROYAL S 0 CIETY.

If LYO i i


Printed for S a : Geuibkind, and for JOHN MARTTN Printer to the R 0 TA L SOCIETT, 1668 ,

To the Right Honourable





Together with the reft of the C OZJ NC I L and FELLOWS of the ROYAL SOCIETY .

My Lord ,

NOW at length prefent to your Lordjhip thofe Papers I had drawn up concerning a Real Chara&er, and a Philolbphicall Language, which by fever all Orders of the So- ciety hdve been required of Me. I have been the longer about it, partly becaufe it required fome confiderahle time to reduce the ColleBions I had by me to this purpofeynto a tolerable or- der ; and partly becaufe when this wor\ was done in Writing, and the Impreffion of it well nigh finijhed, it hapned f amongfe many other better things J to be burnt in the late dreadfull Fire ; by which, all that was Print- ed f excepting only two Copies J and a great part of the unprinted Original was deferoyed: The repairing of

which, hath tafyn up the greatefl part of my time ever fence . I mention this by way of Apology for that flacl £

nefs and delay, I may feem to be guilty of in my obedience to your Orders.

d I dm


I am not jo vain as to thinly that I have here com- pletely finijhed this great undertaking , with all the ad- vantages of which fuch a defgn is capable. Nor on the other hand , ami fo diffident of this EflTay, as not to be- lieve it fufficient for the bufinefs to which it pretends, Hamely the difiintf expreffion of all things and notions that fall under difcourfe.

1 am fenfible of fundry defeBs in the fever all parts of this Bool^: And therefore would makg it my humble mo- tion to your Lordjhip and this Society , that you would by your Order appoint fome of our number , thoroughly to examin confider the whole, and to offier their thoughts concerning what they judge fit to be amended in it. P ar- ticular ly in thofe Tables that concern the jpecies o/" Na- tural bodies ; which, if they were ( fo far as they are yet hpown and dij covered ) difiin&ly reduced and defer ibed. This would very much promote and facilitate the Iptow- ledg of Nature, which is one great end of your Inflitu- tion. And befides , the ranging of thefe things into fuch an order as the Society jhall approve, would afford a very good method for your Repofitory, both for the difpolal of what you have already , and the fupplying of what you want, towards the comp leafing of that CoUeBion, fo gerteroufiy begun of late, by the bounty of M r * Daniel Collwal, a worthy Member of this Society. And by this means, I Jhould not doubt, but that in a very jhort face , you would have the mofi ufefull Repofitory in the World.

It is no eafie undertaking to Enumerate all fuch mat- ters as are to be provided for in fuch a defign ; But the bufinefs. of Defining , being amongfi all others the mofi nice and difficult , mufi needs render it a very hard tas \ for any. one to attempt the doing of this, for all kfinde of'*



£ D I C A T 6 R Y.

Things, Notions, and W or dsywhichyet is necejfary to the defign here propofed.

ZJpon which account I may he excufed for being fo follicitous about the affifiance of others in thefe matters , ( bee aufe of their great difficulty and 'importance. The compleating of fuch a defign, being rather the worl^of a College and an Age, then of any (ingle Perfion : I mean, the combined Studies of many Students , amongfi whom the fever all Jhares of fuch a Worl^fhould be difiributed; And that for fo long a courfe of time , wherein fufficient experiments might be made of it by practice.

It has been fayd concerning that famous Italian Aca- demy fiyled de la Cru fca.,confifiing of many choice Men of great Learning , that they beftowed forty years in fi- nifhing their Vocabulary, And *tis well enough fnown, that tbofe great Wits of the French Academy , did begin their Dictionary in the year 1639. And for the hafi- ning of the W ort^, did diflribute the parts of it amongfl fever all Committees ; and yet that undertaking is (~ for ought I can under (land ) far enough from being finifhed.

Now if tbofe famous Ajfemblies confi fling of the great Wits of their Age and Nations, did judge this WorJ^of DiCtionary-making, for the polifhing of their Language , worthy of their united labour and fiudies ; ■ Certainly then , the Defign here pr op ofe drought not to be thought unworthy of fuch affi fiance ; it being as much to be preferred before that , as things are better then Words, as real knowledge is beyond elegancy of fpeech, as the general good of mankind, is beyondthat of any particu- lar Countrey or Nation.

I am very fenfible that the mofi ufefull inventions do at their fir fi appearance , make but a very flow progrefs in the World, unlefs helped forward by fome particular ad- vantage


The Epistle

1 vantage . Logarithms were an Invention of excellent Art and ufefulnefs ; And yet it was a confiderable time, before the Learned Men in other parts, did fo farr tafye notice of them , as to bring them into nfe. The Art of Shorthand r is in its bfnd an Ingenious device , and of confiderable ufefulnefs, applicable to any Language , much wondered atbyTravailers,that have feen the experience of it in England : And yet though it be above T hree - fcore years , fince it was firft Invented , 'tis not to this day f for ought I can learn ) brought into common pra- llice in any other Nation . And there is reafon enough to expeff the libg Fate for the defign here propofed .

The only expedient I can thinf^of againfl it, is. That it be fent abroad into the World, with the reputation of having bin confidered and approved of, by fuch a Soci- ety as this ; which may provoke , at leaft , the Learned part of the World, to talf notice of it, and to give it fuch encouragement, as it /ball appear to deferve.

And if upon fuch an amendment and recommen- dation by this Society, the defign here propofed, fhould happen to come into common ufe. It would requite the Honour you befiow upon it,, with abundant Interefi. The being Infirumental in any fuch discovery as does tend to the ZJniverfal good of Manbfnd, being fujficient not only to maJ^e the Authors of it famous, but alfo the Times and Places wherein they live .

He that Jpaows how to eflimate, that judgment infi- xed on Mankind in the Curfe of the Confufion with all the unhappy confequences of it , may thereby judge , what great advantage and benefit there will be, in a re- medy againfl it. Men are content to befiow much time and pains in the Study of Languages, in order to their

with thofe of other Nations. *T is


more eafy converfing

in the fever al Provinces' under his Dominion : Which, tho it were a very extraordinary attainment , yet how port a remedy was it again ft the Curfe of the C on f up on, conpdering the vaft multitude of Languages that are in the World.

Bepdes that mop obvious advantage which would enfue, of facilitating mutual Commerce^ amongft the fe- t veral Nations of the World , and the improving of all Natural knowledge ; It would litywife very much con- duce to the jpr ending of the knowledge of Religion/ Next to the Gift of Miracles , and particularly that of Tongues, powred out upon the Apofles in the prf plant- ing of Chriftianity , There is nothing that can more effe- ctually conduce to the further accomplipment of thofe Promifes , which concern the diffupon of it, through all Nations, then the depgn which is here propofed.

To which it will be proper for me to add. That this depgn will hi^ewife contribute much to the clearing of fome of our Modern differences in Religion, by unmask- ing many wild errors , that pelter themfelves under the dtfguife of affelied phrafes ; which being Philofop hie ally unfolded, and rendered according to the genuine and na- tural importance of Words, will appear to be inconpfen- cies and contradictions. And fever al of thofe pretended , rnyferious , profound notions , expreffed in great fwelling words, whereby fome men fet up for reputation, being this way examined,will appear to he, either nonfence, or very fat and jejune .

And tho it fhould be of no other ufe but this, yet were

it in thefe days well worth a mans pains and fudy , con - pdering the Common mifehiefthat is done, and the many

b impoflurei


The E^istLe, &c>

impoftures and cheats that are put upon men , under tbt difguife of affeBed infignificant Phrafes .

But what ever may be the ijfue of this attempt , as to the efiablijhing of a real CharaBer, and the bringing of it into Common ufe , amongfi fever al Nations of the World f i of which I have hut very fender expeBations; J yet this I Jhall ajfert with greater confidence , T hat the reducing of all things and notions .to fuch bfnd ofT ables 9 as are here propofed f were it as compleatly done as it might be J would prove the jhortefi and plaineft way for the attainment of real Knowledge 9 that hath been yet of fered to the World. And I Jhall add further yhat thefe very Tables f as now they are J do feem to me a much better and readier courfe 9 for the entring and training up of men in the knowledge of things 9 then any other way of Inftitution that I fnow of ; which I Jhould not prefume to ajfert, before fuch able judges as thofe of this Society, were it not a thing I had well confidered and were con- vinced of

I have not king further to add , but only the declaring myfelf to be mofl Zealoufly devoted to the Honour and Welfare of the Royal Society ,

And particularly f My Lord, )

Your Lordlhipsrnoft

Humble Servant,

J O. VV l LK.I NS.



I T may perhaps beexpeUed by fame, that I fijould give an account of my engaging in a Work^ cf this nature fo unfuitablt to my Calling and Eufi- nefs.

For the fit isf a3 ion of fitch, they may pleafe to take notice, that this • Work, was firfi undertaken, during that vacancy and leafitre which I formerly enjoyed in an Academical! jlation , to which the endeavours cf promo- ting all kind of ufefull knowledge , whereby Learning may he improved , k a very fisitable employment. In the time of that daily and intimate converfa which / then injoy ed, with that moft Learned and excellent Perfon Dr. Seth Ward ,the prefint Bifhop of Salisbury. I had frequent occafion of conferring with him , concerning the various Defiderata, propofid by Learned men , or fuch things as were conceived yet wanting to the advancement of fever al parts cf Learnings amongjl which, this of the liniver fid Character, was one of the principal, moji of which he had more deeply conftdered, than any other Perfon that I knew. And in reference to this particular, he would fay. That as it was ont of the moji ufefull, Jo he judged it to be one of the moft fealible, amongft all the reft , if pro- fecuted in a regular wa y. But for all fich attempt to this purpofi , which he had either feen or beard of, the Authors of them did generally miftakg in their ftrft foundations', wbilft they did propofi to themfilves the framing cffacbaChz - raster, from a Di&ionary of Words, according to fame particular Language, without reference to the nature of things, and that common notion of them, wherein Mankind does agree , which mkft chiefly be refpeHed , before any attempt of this nature could fignifie any thing , as to the main end of it.

It was from thk fiuggeftion of his , that I ftrft bad any diftinft apprehenfion of the proper courfa to be obfirvedfin fitch an undertaking 5 having in a Treatifi t hadpublijbed fame years before, propofid the Hebrew Tongue as confifting of fewefi Radicals , to be the fitteft ground work, fir fichadejign.


The Epistle

Befides the many Private conferences to this purpofe , I mujl not for yet to mention , that Publique account which he hath given to the World, of his thoughts upon this JubjeB , in that Learned and Ingenious difeourfe flyled Vindicia» Academiarum 3 wherein he endeavours to Vindicate thofe Ancient and famous Schools of Learning , from fuch reproaches , whereby feme Ig- norant and ill-natured men ( taking the advantage of thofe bad Times ) would have expojed them to contempt and mine. In which Treat's ft there is mention made of fame conftdcrable preparations , towards the Dejign here propofed , which if his other necejjary imployments would have permitted him to have profecuted , would without doubt , long ere this , have been ad- vanced to as great a Perfection , as the firfi Ejjay info difficult a matter could have attained.

It was fome conjiderable time after this , before I had any thought of attempting any thing in this kind : The firfi occajion of it was , from a,

defire I had , to give fome ajjiflance to another perjon , who was willing to ingage in this dejign of framing a real Cha rafter , from the Natural no- tion of things 3 for the helping of whom in Jo worthy an undertaking. ,

I did offer to draw up for him , the Tables of Subftance , or the Jpecies

Natural Bodies, reduced under their fever al Heads 3 which I did accord '- ingly perform, much after the fame Method , as they are hereafter Jet down : I hough in the doing of it , I found much more labour and difficulty , then I expelled, when I undertook, it. But he for whom I had done this, not liking this method , as being of too great a Compafs , conceiving that be could fifficiently provide for all the chief Radicals , in a much briefer and more eafy way , did not think fit t0 ma k? uje of thrfe Tables. Vpon which, being my felf convinced , That this which I had begun , was the only courfe for the effeBing of fuch a work., and being withal unwilling to loofe Jo much pains as I had already taken towards it, I refolved ( as my leajure would permit ) to go on with the other Tables of Accidents. And when after many reviews and changes I had reduced (” as well as I could ) into thefe Tablet , all ftmple things and notions , by a Considera- tion of them a Priori , I then judged it necejjary to attempt the redu- & ion of all other Words in the Di&ionary to thefe Tables , either as they were Synonymous to them , or to be defined by them, which would be a means to try the fulnefs of thefe Tables , and confequently to fupply their defeBs 3 And befidet a great help to Learners, who without fuch a dire&ion , might not perhaps at firfi be able to find out the true place and notion of many Words.

For the farther compleatiug of this Work., I found it necejjary to take into confideration , the framing of fuch a Natural Grammar, as might he Jisited to the Philofophy of Speech, abjlrading from thofe many unnecejjary rules belonging to injlituted Language 3 which proved a matter of no J mall difficulty , confidering the little help to be had for it , from thofe few Authors who had before undertaken to do any thing in this kind.

. In the doing of thefe things , I have not. negle&ed any help that I could procure from others , and mujl acknowledge my felf much ingaged to Juh- dry Learned Men of my acquaintance , for their direQions , and furtherance in fuch matters , as were ntojl fuitable to their fever al Studies and Prqfcfi fions.

Amongjl the rejl , I mujl not forget to make particular mention of the Jpecial ajjiflance ‘ I have received , in drawing up tie Tables of Animals


j from that m oil Learned and Inquifitive Gentleman , a worthy Member of the Royal Society, Mi*. Francis Wjlloughby, who hath made it his particular bufiuefs, in hit late travails through the mofi confiderable parts of Europe , to inquire after and underfiand the fiver al fifties of Aqimals, and by his own obfirvatioris is able to advance that part of Learning , and to add many things , to what hath been formerly done, by the mofi Learned Authors in thiv kfisd.

And as for thofi mofi difficult Tables of Plants, I have received the like ajfifiance , from one of his Companions in Travail , Mr. John. Wray, Late fellow of Trinity Colledge in Cambridge , who befides his other general * Knowledge y hath with great ficcefi apply ed himfilf to the Cultivating, of that part of Learning.

Andos for the principal difficulties , which 1 rHe^with in any other part of this* Wor^ lynufi acknowledge my filf obliged to the continual ajfifiance I have bad, from my mofi Learned and worthy Friend , Dr. William Lloyd , then whom ( fifar as lam able to judge, j this Nation could not. have afforded d fitter Perfon , either for that great Induftry , or Accurate judgment , both in Philological, and Philofophical matters , required to fitch a Works dnd particularly I mufi wholy aferibe to him that tedious and difficult tasks of fitting the Tables to the Diftipnary , and the drawing up of the Di&ionary it filf, which upon try aft doubt not , will be found to be the mofi perfeS , that was ever yet made for the Englifh Tongue.

And here I think it prpoer to give notice that there are fever al Words / mentioned in the Di&ionary , and frequently ufed amongfi fiome Authors, which are yet very quefiionable as to their fitnefs and propriety : Each of thefi ■ were in the Original Coppy marked with an Afterisk , for the better difiin&jon of them'-, but by feme overfight, thefi marks have been omitted in the Ins. prejfion.

if any Jbalt figgefi , that fome of thm Enquiries here infified upon ( as par- ticularly thofi about the Letters of the Alphabet') do fiem too minute and trivial , for any prudent Man to befiow. his firious thoughts and time a- bout. Such Perfons may know, that the difiovery of the true nature and baufiof any the mofi minute thing, doth promote real Knowledge, and there- fore cannot be unfit for any Mans endeauours , who is Willing to contri- bute to the advancement of Learning. Vpon which A f count fome of the mofi eminent Perfons , in fever al Ages , who were Men of bufinefs , have not difdained to befiow their ‘pains about the Firfi Elements of Speech . v ,

Julius Cxfar, is laid to have written a Book de Analogia- And the Emperour Charles the Great,, to have made a Grammar of his vulgar Tongue.

So did St, Bafil for the Greek ; and St Auftin for the Latin-, both extant in their Workp * ’

Befides divers of great reputation both Ancient and Modern , who have Written whole Books on purpofi, concerning the jufl Number of the Letters in the Alphabet 's Others have applyed their difquijitions to fome particular Let- ters t Meflala CorVinus’, a Great Man, -and a famous Orator ampngfi the Romans, Writ a Book concerning the Letter S. Adatfiantius Martyr, was the Author of another Book, concerning the Letters.V. and B., Our Learned Gataker has Tublijhed a Book concerning Dipthongs. And Jovianus Ponta- nus efieemed a Learned Man fiat h Iwo Books de Adfpiratione,or the Letter

c Mr .




■ - " ■ ■ ■ ■ ^

The Firft Part Containing the Prolegomena. ‘chapter, l

l. npHE Introduction* II. The Original of Languages til The X Firft Mother Tongues. IV.TheirfcveralOffiprii^s. Pagegi


I* Concerning the various Changes and Corruptions, to which all vul* gar languages are obnoxious. II. Partfciilarly concerning the Change of the EngUjh Tongue. Ill* Whether any language for* tnerly in ufc, be now wholly loft* IV. Concerning the firft rift

meriy in ufe, be now wholly loft* IV. Concerning' the fTrft rife and occaGonof New Languages. I>ag*6

. , CHAP* in*

I» The Original of Letters sad W^ing. II. That all Letters were denved from the Hebrew* III. The ufe of Letters is left Anticnt^ndi the Kinds of them left numerous, than of Languages themfelves.’ IV. Of Notes for fecrecy or brevity. V. Of a Real Charader VI* Of Alphabets in General* pdJ»*io


I. Of the defers in Common* Alphabets, as to the true Order of the Letters, II. Their juft Number, ; III* Determinate Powers, V. Fitting Names, V. Proper Figures. VI. .Of the ImperfedHons belonging to the Words of Languages, as ta their Equivocalnefi, Variety of $jjrrtonyffious Wordij Uncertain Phraleologie$, a Improper way' of

ntlng V chap. v* pag * 14

L. That neither Letters nor Languages, have been regularly eftablilhed by the Rules of Art. II. The Natural ground or Principle pf the fc- veral ways of Communication aflfongft Men. Hi. The firft thing to be provided for, in the eftabliflnng of a Philofbphical Character or Language, is a juft enumeration of all iuch Things and Notions, to which Names arc to be affigned. . •* pag>19

ions, to

7 be Second Part Containing tlniveflal Philofbphy.


I. r h H E Scheme of Gfenus s. II. Concerning the more General No-. 1 tions of Things, The difficulty of Eftablifhing thefe aright. III. Of Tranfcendcntals General. IV. Of Tragfcendentals Mixed.

V. Of

The Contents 6f the Cha.ptirs.


V. Of Tranfcendflftal Relations of A&ion. VI. Of the feveral No-

Wons belonging to Grammar, or Logic. Page, a %


1 . Concerning God. II. Of the feveral Things and Notions reducible under that Collective Genus of the World. * pag 51 « 


I. Of Elements and Meteors* II* Of Stones* III. Of Metals. pag.56

CHAP. IV. • *

I. Of Plants,The difficulty of enumerating and deferibingthefe. II. The more general diftribution of them. Ill*' Of Herbs conlidered ac- . cordirig to their Leaves* IV. Of Herbs conlidered according to their • flowers. V. Of Herbs conlidered according to their Seed Veflels.

' VI. Of Shrubs; VII. Of Trees* pag* 67

C H A P. V.

I. Concerning Animals, The General diftribution of them. II. Of Exan- guious Animals. Ill* Of Fijhes. IV* Of Birds. V. Of Beafis.

VI. A Digreffion concerning the capacity of Noah’s Ark* pag. 12*


I. Of Parts of Animate Bodies, whether I. Peculiar jot II. General, p. 168


I* Concerning the Predicament of guaptitie* I. Of Magnitude. IL Of Space. Ill* Of Meajute. pag. 181

  1. " C H A’P. VIII.

Concerning the Predicament of Sualitp^ and the feveral Genus's belong- ing to it. I. Of Natural Power .if. Of Habit. III. Of Manners > IV* Of Senjtble Quality. V. Of Dijiaje 5 with the various differences and fpe- cies under each of thefe. pag* 194.

C H A P. IX.

Of the Predicament of A&ion • The feveral Genus’s under it. viz. l.spi- ritual ASion. ll.COrforeal ASioni III; Motion. IV. Operation. p *325

C H A P. X.

Concerning Relationtnorc private, namely I. Oeconomical \ or Family Re- lation 5 together with the feveral kinds of things belonging to thole In that capacity, either as ll.PeJJeflionr, or III, Provijious. * pag, 249


Concerning Relation more Publike,* whether I* Civil. II. Judiciary. HI. Naval. IV. Military. V* Ecclejiaftical. pag, 265

  • C H A f . XII.

I. A General Explication of the defigrt of the fore-going Tables. IT* Par- ticular Inftances in the fix principal Genus’s of it. lll.Something to be noted concerning Oppojiter and Synonymds. J 1 V* An Account of what

■ kind of things ought not to be provided for in fuch Tables, p. 289

• • The

The Contents bf the Chapters;

T be Third Tart Containing Philofophical


chapter, t.

t. /Concerning the feveral Kindt and Parti of Grammar. H. (jf V j Etymologic , The more general Scheme of Integrals and Parti- cles. III. Of Nouns in General. IV. Of Subjlantives common^ denoting either things , Actions, or Perjbnt. V. Rule* concerning Nouns of Alt ion. VI. Of Subjlantiiies AbftraSs. VII. Of Adje&ivet according to the true Philofophical notion of them. V iff. The true notion of a Verb. IX. Of derived Adverbs. X. A general Scheme of the forementioned Derivations. page, 297


I. Of Particles in General. II. Of the Copnld. III. Of Pronouns more generally. IV. More particularly. V. Of inter jeUions more gene- rally. VI* More particularly. p, 304


I. Of Prepofitions in general, ll. The particular kinds of them enu- merated. III. An Explication of the four lad Combinations of them, relating to Place or Time. p. 3C>9i


I. Of Adverbs in general, ll. The particular kinds of them. III. Of Coniun&ions. p. 31a

chap. V.

I. Of Articles. II. Of Modes. III. OfTenles. IV. The thoftdiftin& way of exprefling the differences of Time. p. 31 j


1 . Of Tranfcendental particles, The end and uleof them. II. The ufual ways for inlarging the fonfe of Words in inftituted Languages. IIL The general Heads of Tranfcendental Particles. p. 3 1

chap. vn.

Inftancesof the great ufefulnefs of thefe Tranfocndental Particles, with' dire&ions how they are to be applyed. p. 323

chap. vm.

Of the Accidental differences of Words. 1 . Inflexion. It Derivation. III. Compofition. p. 352


Of the fccond part of Grammar called Syntax. ^ p. 354


Of Orthography. I. Concerning Letters. The Authors Who have treat* ed of this Subjeft. If. A brief Table of all fuch kinds of Simple found, which can be framed by the mouths of Men. III. A fur- ther Explication of this Table, as to the Organs of Speech, and as to the Letters framed by thefe Organs. P'3 5/



The Contents of the C h a p t e r s .

chap* Xl.

Of Vowels. p. 36?

CHAP. XI 1 .

Of Confonants* p. 266


Of Compound Vowels, and Confonants* p. 370


I* Of the Accidents of Letters, I. Their Names. II. Their Order. III. Affinities and Oppofitions. IV. Their Figures, with a twofold Inftance of a more regular Character for the Letters, The later of which may be ftyled Natural. V.Of Pronunciation* VI.The feveral Letters difufed by feveral Nations. p. 347.

The Fourth Tart Containing a Real Chara&er, and a Philolophical Language.

chapter, i*

Thepropofalof one kind of Real Character ( amongft many other which might be offered) both for all Integrals , whether Genus' s^ Dif- ferences or Species^ together with the derivations and Inflexions be- longing to them , as likewife for all the feVeral kinds of Particles.

• page, 385


An Infiance of this Real Character , in the Lord’s Prayer and the Creed. P’395


How this Real Character may be made effable in a diftind Language, and what kind of Letters or Syllables may be conveniently affigned to each Character. p. 414


Inftance of this Philofohical Language, both in the Lord’s Prayer and the Creed : A companion of the Language here propofed, with fifty others, as to the facility and Euphonicalnefs of it. p.42 1


Dire&ions for the more eafy learning of this Character and Language, with a brief Table containing the Radicals, both Integrals and Particles 3 together with the Character and Language, by which each of them are to be exprefted. p* 439


The Appendix containing a Companion betwixt this Natural Pbilofi - phical Grammar and that of other Instituted Languages, particu- larly the Latin , in rcfpe<£t of the multitude of uunceceffarj Rules and of Anomalijhss, concerning the China Character .* The leveral Attemps and Propolals made by others, towards a new kind of Character 'and Language. The advantage in refpeft of facility, which this Philolophical Language hath above the Latin . p.44 r


  • £* eg*


cjz2£&uz£2z^zsaz%^z^z*z&£izat&2 et



P A G Etf.L1nci7.Rcad Infltuted by Art. p.!$j.p.r. 3JBJ a/}j^f»i^,&C.p.ltf.l.ll. (y) p-. *7- l«3p. deler##f/. p.32.1.43 # delep00r. z8. r. dtftr. p. 4i.l.2i,2X. add idmitu&eri difperfe, distribute Token >P air mg Jto the preceding line. p.7Gul*38.r Jryer.p.y^A.^.v^taeini*. p. pl.l. 7 , 8 .r.o / this Trike, p.p r expand. p.pyA 11,3 i.r. Chickling, p. 133.1.3 i.r. Oxyrhynchou p. lot#. p.i3p.l.i8.CfoMwi*. p. 1 4 7 . 1 . xo.rnCbr ior p • i $ 0 . 1 . 20 * 2 1 *r . Coccotkrau&es.p.

153.0/ Bkds.p.i$6A.i%.AvofeSM»p.i§^A.4%.StrepJtcer6s.p.i$p.h5'.t.$hrewmotefe.p. 177.I.IO,

I. More properly Organic al ; Whether fetch parts m are External ; ujed for the tenfes,Bcc.

Internal >• ujed for Tailing, Speaking, or Eating.

Change . pzp%A.xz.r.Arts.p.zppA 3?.r.I#*.p.3pi.l.i4 38.r. jabber .p 345. 1.2p. r.Plat. p^tf 8. 1. 12. uThin. p, below.

rag.^i.lio.i^.^-cTS p.395. number, 7 i. 4 n n - 74 - L T 5 J P-J99*n. 33 -' t 6 ^P-+ DO - n - 37 3 45 * 3 * Q ^ p404.U3.r1.23.-e3i n. 37-°^r^

n.109; pH> p.413.1.20. r^b p4.22.U3. CU. p.427.11 37iC«ab^s* p. 428.

J.2.dclc 86 . 1 . 6 . p 429 U19. for tf. r.f.

h tk Margin.

T)Age 70. Read Mu fetes. p.jz.Oryza. p.7<5. Petafiies. p.8tf. Conyza. p.8p. Perfidiata. Eryngmm » 1 Sphondylimm. p.pO .Ckarephyion. p. pl.Thyffelmttm . Cham* dr ys. p .pz.Chanuepitis. p.p^.Stacbu. Bttgula. p. pp. Scorpioidts. Bupleurijolio. p.102. CarjophyUms.Ajcymm. p.103. Chsnueirys. p.104. F.ofo. Hyofcyamus. p.iotf. Ebetlns . p.107. Grojfularia. p.108. Mahaleb.p.jop. Philyrbea. Pyracantha. Thymelaa . p. 1 1 5 . Laurocera jits, p.i 16 PiShacia. Corylus . p.XZ^.ProJcarabans. ,p. 1 42,. Ltucift us. 148. R.*jfa.Corylontm. p.i$Q. Aland*. Genchramns. p. 15** Troglodytes. P.15I.


p. 18 1. 1.40. after f«pcrfirie» add imyply* iteg a refpeft to the tides or limits of it. p.20 i.l. 4p . dele * & , 1. 5o.r. the word • r *^Jf«h7.p.3©p .1. 1 p.r. tW/. p.324 .1; 3PO*ft ,p.r. upward , downward, above.


Chap. I.



I. 7 he introduQion. 1 1. The Original of Languages. Mother-longues •, I V. 7 heir fever al Off-jprings.

1 1 1 . The firfi

N the handling of that fubjeCi , I have here I. propofed to tredt of, I (hall digeft the things which to me feem moft proper and material to be (aid upon this occafion, into four parts 5 according to this following Method.

In the firft Part I (hall prerpife fome things as Prdcognita , concerning fuch Tongues and Letters as are already in being , particularly concerning thofe various defe&s and imperfe- S ions in them, which ought to be fupplyed and provided againji , in any fuch Language or Chara&er, as is to be invented according to the rules of Art.

The fecond Part (hall coritein that Mich is the great foundation of the thing here defigned , nataely a regular enumeration and defeription of all thofe things and notions, to which marks or names ought to be afligned according to their refpettive natures , which may be ftyled the Scientifical Part, comprehending Vniverfal Philofipbp. It being the pro- per end and de(ign of the feveral branches of Philofbphy to reduce all things and notions unto fuch a frame, as may exprefs their natural order, dependence, and relations.

The third Part (hall treat concerning fuch helps and Infti;uments , as are requifite for the framing of thele more Gmple notions into continued Speech or Di(cour(e, which may therefore be ftiled the Organical or In- Jlrumental Part, and doth comprehend the Art of Natural or Philofo - phical Grammar.

In the fourth Part I (hall {hew how thefe more generall Rules may be applyed to particular kinds of Chara&ers, and Languages^ giving an inftance of each. To which (hall beadjoyned by way of Appendix, a Difcouf (e (hewing the advantage of (iich a kind of Philofophical Chara- cter and Language, above any of thole which are now known, more par- ticularly-above that which is of mod: general ufe in thefe parts of the Worlds namely, the Latine.

Laltly, There (hall be added a Di&idnary of the Englifh* tongue, in Which (hall befhown how ail the words of this Language, according to

B the



. The Original of Languages. Book I.

the various equivocal fenfes of them, may be fufliciently exprefled by the Philofophical Tables here propofed.

I begin with the firft of thefe.

$. II. The defignof this Treatife being an attempt towards a nets kind of CharaSer and Language , it cannot therefore be improper to pretnife fottie- what concerning thofe already in being \ the firft Original of them, their feveral kinds , the various changes and corruptions to which they are ly- able , together with the manifold defeSs belonging to. them. This 1 (hall endeavour to do in the former part of this Dilcourfe.

There is fearce any fubjeft that hath been more throughly (canned and debated amongft Learned men , than the Original of Languages and Letters. ’Tis evident enough that no one Language is natural to mankind, becaufe the knowledge which is natural would generally re- main amongft men, notwithftanding the fuperindu&ion of any other particular Tongue, wherein they might be by Art. Nor is it much to be wondred at, that the ancient Heathen, who knew nothing of Scri- pture-revelation , (hould be inclined to believe, that either Men and Languages were eternal 5 or, that if there were any particular time when men did (prine out of the Earth , and after inhabit alone and difperfedly in Woods and Caves , they had at firft no Articulate voice, but only (uch rude (bunds as Beads have 5 till afterwards particular Families increafing, or feveral Families joyning toge^er for mutual fafety and defence, under Government and Societies, they began by degrees and long pra&iceto confent in certain Articulate (bunds , whereby to communicate their thoughts, which in feveral Countries made feveral Languages, according to that in the Poet,

Cutos prorepjerunt primis anintalia terris ,

Mutum&turpe pectts } glaudem atque cubilia propter Vnguibtts & pHgttif, deinfujlibus, atque it a porr'o Pugnabant at mis, qp£ poft fabric aver at ujus i Donee verba quibus voces fenfujque notarent Nowtindque invenire j dehinc abjijiere bello,

Oppidq ceperunt munire , & ponere leges y Ne quit fur e£et t neulatro, neu quis adulter, 8iC.

But to us, who have the revelation of Scripture, thefe kind of ferti- ples and conje&ures are fufliciently dated. And ’tis evident enough that the firft Language was con- created with our firft Parents, they immedi- ately understanding the voice of God fpeaking to them in the Garden. And how Languages came to be multiplied , is llkewife manifefted in the Gcn.n. 1,6. Sfory of the Confufiou of Babel. How many Languages, and which they were that fprang up at that Condition, is altogether uncertain 5 whe- ther many of them that were then in being, be not now wholly loft 5 and many others, which had not the fame original, have not fince arifen in the world, is not (I think) to be doubted.

The moft received Conje&ure is, that the Languages of theConfufi- on were according to the feveral Families from Noah , which were 70 or 73. though there be very ftrong probabilities to prove that they were not (o many, and that the firft Difpcrfion did not divide mankind into (o


H&TMU lih. i«  Sat. 3»


Chap. 1.

The firfl Mother-tortgues.

pany Colonies. But now the feveral Languages that are ufed in the World dofarre exceed this number, Pliny and Strabo do both make Nat.Hift. lib. mention of a great Mart-Town in Colchos named Diofivria,to which men si™^,b : b.i i. of three hundred Nations, and of fo many feveral Languages, were wont to refort for Trading. Which, confidermg the narrow campafi of Traf- fick before the invention of the magnetic Needle, n\uft needs be but a fmall proportion , in coinparifon to thofc many of the remoter and yftr known parts of the world.

Some of the America* Hiftories relate, that in every fourlcore mjles Ut.camUnts of that vaft Country, and almoft in every particular Valley of Fern, the Rcmains ‘ Inhabitants have a diftin& Language. And one who for feveral years pttrchM pil travelled the Northern parts of America about Florida, and could /peaK fix feveral Languages of thofe people, doth affirm, that he found, upon chap. j. his enquiry and converfe with them, more than a thoufand differeqt Lan- guages amongft them:

As for thofe Languages 'which feem to hate no derivation from, of de- pendance upon, or affinity with one another,' they are ftyjed Lingua ma- trices ^ or Mother-tongues. Of thefc JoJcph Scaliger affirms there are Cle- veland not more, ufed in Europe ; whereof four are of more general and large extent,and the other feven of a narrower compais and ufe* Qf the more general Tongues.

1. The Greek, was anciently of very great extent, hot oqelyio Europe, but in Apa too, and Afric , where feveral Colonies of that Nation wepe planted ; by which difperfion and mixture with other people it did de- generate into feveral Diale&s. Betides thofe four that are coipWQUly noted, the Doric, Ionic , JEolic . , Attic , Herodotus doth mention four feveral Diale&s of the Ionic , The inhabitants of Rhodes, Cyprus, Crete , had each of them fotne peculiarity in their Language. And the pfefenr Coptic or ^Egyptian feeins, both from the words and the character, to be a branch of this family , and was probably fpred amongft that people iq the days of Alexander the Great, upon his conquering of them : Though Ibrne conceive that there were at leaft 30600 families of Greeks planted in that Country long before his time.

2. The Latin , though this be much of it a derivation from the Greek., (of which the now French, Spanijh, sad Italian are feveral pff-fpriqgs and derivations ) had anciently four feveral Dialers, as Petrus CriyitMs fljews out of Varro.

3. The Teutonic or German is now diftinguiflbed into Vpper and leva- tor. TheVpper hath two notable Diale&s. 1. The Daxifb, S candid**, or perhaps the Got hie, to which belongs the Laoguagcufed in Denmark, Norway, S wedeland, and Ijland. 2. The Saxon, to which appertain the feveral Languages of the Englijh, the Scots, the Frijiahs 5 and thofe on the North of Five.

4. The Slavonic is extended, though with feme variation* through many large Territories, Mufiotia, Rjnjjia,PoUnd, Bohemia, Fandalio, Croa- tia, Lithuania, Dalmatia 5 and is faid to be the vulgar Language ufed a- tnongft 60 feveral Nations.

TheLanguagceof lefler extent are, 1 . The Alhanefe, or old Rpirotic, now ufed in the mountainous parts of Epirus.

2. The European Tartar, pr Scythian, fbopi Wbkbjfome conceive our • ' B x Irijh


Diatribe de



Brerrto9od 9 s Enguiric?^ chap. i.

De honefa

chap. 7.

Gefier. thridates, cap. 1 u

The firfi Mother-Tongues , Book L

Irijh to have had its original. As for the Turhjjb Tongue, that is original- ly no other but the Jjiatic Tartar , mixed with Armenian and Petjian, feme Greets , and much Arabic.

3. The Hungarian,\xkA in the greateft part of that Kingdom.

• 4. The Finnic , ufed in Finland and Lapland.

5. The Cantabrian , uled amongft the Bifcainert , who live near the Ocean on the Tyrene hills, bordering both upon France and Spain. v 6 . The Irijh jn Ireland , and from thence brought over into fome parts of Scotland. Though Mr. Camden would have this to be a derivation from th elVelJh.

7. The old Gaulijh or Britijh, which is yet preferved in Wales ^ Corn- wall \ and Britain in France.

Enquiries , 1 o this number Mr. Brerewood doth add four others, viz.

chap. 4. 1. The Arabic , now ufed in the fteep mountains of Granata$ which

yet is a Dialed from the Hebrew , and not a Mother-tongue.

3. The Cauchian , in Eajl-Frifeland.

3* The Illyrian , in the Ifle of Veggia.

4. The Jazygian , on the North fide of Hungary.

I V. Befides this difference of Languages in their firft derivation , every particular T opgue hath its feveral Diale&s. Though J udsea were a re- gion of a very narrow compafs, yet was it not without its varieties of this Rind : witnefs the (lory concerning shibboleth and Sibboleth 5 and that judges it. of the LevitCy who was difeovered by his manner of fpeech ; and S. Pc- ^s,Sl, 2A%. ,ers feeing known fora GaliUan. Tisfb generally in other Countries,

  • and particularly with us in England, where the Northern andWeftern

inhabitants doobfervea different dialed from other parts of the Nati- on, as may appear from that particular inftance mentioned by Verjlegan. Whereas the inhabitants about London would fey, I would eat more cheeje if I had it. A Northern man would (peak it thus. Ay Jud eat mare cheeje gyn ay had et. • And a Weftern man thus , Chud eat more cheeje an chad it.

Everyone of thefe reputed Mother- tongues, except th e Arabic, (and perhaps the Hungarian') was ufed in Europe during the time of the Ro- man Empire. But whether they were all of them fo ancient as the COn- fufion of Babel, doth not appear 5 there wants not good probability to the contrary for feme of them.

ct'trg'Htruii It hath been the opinion of feme , particularly Boxhornius , that the ffillpOriT Sc y t ^ ian Tongue was the common mother from which both the Greedy net Gallic. 61 1 atinfierman and Perjian were derived, as fo many Dialed* 5 - and *tis feid that Salmajius did incline to the feme judgment. And Philip Cluverint cenje&ures, that both Germans , Gauls, Spaniards , Britans , Swedes and Norwegians , did anciently ufe one and the feme Language. One princi- pal argument ufed for this is , the agreement of thole remote Nations in fome radical words. J ojepb Scaliger obferves that the words , Father , Mother, Brother, Bond, etc. are ufed in the Perjian tongue, with feme lit- tle variety, in the fame fenfe and fignificatioo as they are ufed with us.

In Epift. ' And Busbequiur relates, that the inhabitants of Taurica Cberfonejits have divers words in the fame fenfe common with us, as Wine, silver , Com , Salt, Fijhy Apple , &c. But this might be merely cafual, or elfe occafioned by a mixture of Colonies , and will not argue a derivation of one from


Chap. I. And their Off- faring' 5

another. - So there are leveral words common to the Turks , Germans, 9 ri ‘ Greeks , French , lometimes of the fame, and lometimes of feveraJ fignifi- cations 3 which is not diffident to argue that all thele were of the lame Original.

Befidts thele European, there is likewile great variety of Languages in other parts of the world. As for the Hebrew Tongue , which is by many learned men luppoled to be the lame that Abraham learnt when he came into Canaan , to which that expreffion ifai. 19. 1 8. The language of Ca» naan , is thought to allude 3 this is luppoled to be the firft Mother tongue amongft all thole that are now known in the world , from which there are lundry derivations , as the Chaldee, Syriac , Funic, Arabic, Ferjian,


When the Jews were in Captivity at Babylon, mixed with the Chalde- Brtrraooi’s ans for 7© years, in that trad of time they made up a Language diftind Enquiries, from both, which is lometimes called Syriac, and fometimes Chaldee, and cha P*?* lometimes Hebrew. Thole pafiages in the Gofpel, which are laid to be in the Hebrew tongue, as Talitha Kami 3 Elohi , Elobi, Lamms fabacbtbani , John 5. 2- ft arc properly Syriac 3 onely they are called Hebrew , becaule that was the Language which the Hebrews then uled. A great part of this Syriac Btcban.GcoQi tongue is for the JubJlance of the words Chaldee , and Hebrew for the fa- »• ca P- **• fiion , lo degenerating much from both. After the Captivity the pure Hebrew ceaied to be vulgar, remaining onely amongft learned men , as appears by that place in Nehem. 8. 7, 8. where we find the Priefts, upon reading of the the people after their coming out of Balylon, were fain to expound it diftindly to them, and to make them underftand the meaning out 3 the common people, by long difuie, being grown ftrangers to the Language wherein ’twas written. So in our Sa- viour's time, the unlearned jews, whole vulgar Tongue the Syriac was, could not underftand thofe parts of Mofes and the Prophets read to them in Hebrew every Sabbath-day. Which was the realbn of thole public fpecches and .declarations of any learned men , whooccalionaily catrie into the Synagogues, after the reading of the Law: though neither luke 4. 1 j, Priefts, nor Levites, nor Scribes, yet was it ordinary for them to expound **: ,

unto the people the meaning of thole portions of Scripture that were * 3 ‘ 1 * appointed to be read out of th e Hebrew, which the people did not un- derftand 3 and to render their meaning in Syriac , which was their vul- gar Tongue*

As for lo much of the pure tiebrew as is now in being, which is onely that in the old Te (lament , though it be fufficient to exprels what is there intended, yet it is lo exceedingly defective in many other words requi- fite to humane dilcourle , that the Rabbins are fain to borrow \yords from many other Languages, Greek., Latin, Spanijh s &c. a? may appear at large in Buxtorf’s Lexicon Rabbinicum , and a particular DifcOurfe written to this very purpole by David Cohen de Lara*. And, from the leveral defeats and imperfe&ions which feem to be in this Language , it may be guefted not to be the fame which was con-created with our firft Parents, and fpoken by Adam in Paradije.

What other varieties of Tongues there have been, or are, in Afa } Afric, or America, 1 (hall not now enquire,




The Alteration of Languages. Book



I. Concerning the various changes and corruptions to which all vulgar Languages are obnoxious. II. Particularly concerning the changes of the EngIKh tongue. III. Whether any Language , formerly in ujc, be tsoio wholly kfi. IV. Concerning the firfirife and occajion of new Languages.

x I ' r '| Here are three Queres which may deferve fome farther difquifiri-

J on. i. Whether the pureft of thofc Mother-tongues , which yet remain, be not now much changed from what they were at the firft Con- fufion. 2. Whether and how any of the Mother-tongues have been quite loft fince the Confofion. 3. Wh ether and how other new Langua- ges have fince arifen in the world. •

1. To the firftjBefides the common fate and corruption to which Lan- guages as well as all other humane things are fubjeft , there are many other particular caules which may occafion fuch a change : The mix- ture with other Nations in Commerce $ Marriages in Regal Families, which doth ufually bring fome Common words into a Court fafhion 5 that affe&ation incident to iome eminent men in all ages, of coining new words, and altering the common forms of fpeech, tor greater elegance 5 the neceffity of making other words , according as new things and in- ventions are difeoverea. Befides,the Laws of forein Conquefts ufually extend to Letters and Speech as well as Territories 5 the Viftor com- monly endeavouring to propagate his own Language as farre as his Dominions 5 which is the reafon why the Greeks and Latin are fo uni- verfally known. And when a Nation « overfpread with feveral Colo- nies of foreiners, though this do not a lwaies prevail to abplifh the former Language, yet if they make any long abode, this muft needs make fuch a considerable change and mixture of fpeech as will very much alter it from its original Purity.

Th ok learned Languages which have now ceafed to be vulgar , and remain onely in Books , by which the purity of them is regulated, may, whHft thole Books are extant and ftudied , continue the fame without change. But all Languages that are vulgar, asthofe learned ones for- merly were, are upon the fore-mentioned occafions, fubjc&tofbmany alterations, that in traft of time they will appear to be quite another thing then what they were at firft.

EnquTric£ S 1 Liturgies of S. Bajil and S. Chyfojlom , which are yet uled in the

chap. 2. & 6. Greeks Churches in their publick worth ip, the one for folemn > the other for common days, have been a long rime unintelligible to that people 5 fo much is the vulgar Greeks degenerated fro m its former purity.

Hiftor. lib. 3. And Polibisfs teftifies , that the Articles of truce betwixt the Romans and Carthaginians could fcarce be underftood by the moft learned Ra- man Antiquaries 3 50 years after the time of their making.

^it^GiUL If any Englifh man fhould now write or fpeak as our forefathers did gonom. An^* about fix or feven hundred years paft, we fhould as little underftand him gtican. Pre- as if he were aforiinerj c£ which it were eafie to give feveral proofs



Chap. II. T be Alterations of Languages.

by inftance, if it were not inconfiftent with my prefent defign of brevity.

What the Saxons Language was at their firft arrival into England about the year 440, doth not appear 5 but ’tis moft probable that the changes and differences jof it, have been fomewhat proportionable in feveral Ages.

About the year of Chrift 700 the Lord’s Prayer in Englijh was thus rendred: *

Uren fader thic arth in heofnas , fie gehalgud thin noma : to cymeth c »mUm's thin ric: fic thin willalue is in heofnas and in eortho. Urenhlafofer Rcmains »

  • wirtlic fel us to daeg ; and forgef us fey Id a urna, lue we forgefen fey Id- pas ' a3 ‘

gum urum , and no inlead ufith in cufinung. Ah gefrig urich from ifle.


About 200 years after, it Was changed thus :

Thu ure fader the eart on heofenum. Si thin nama gehalgod. Cum Lj -, s gaxoa thin ric. Si thip willa on eorthen fiva, fwa on heofenum. Syle us to daeg Monuments! 1 urn dxgthanlican hlaf. And forgif us ure gyltas fwa, fwa we forgifath tham the with us agyltath. And ne led the us on coftnung. Ac aly9 us from yfie. Si it fwa. *

About the fame time it was rendred in the Saxon Gofpels , laid to be Tranflated by King Alfred , after this manner.

Faeder ute thu the earth on heofenum, fi thin nama Gehalgod to be cume thin Rice, Gewurthe thin willa on eorthan fwa fwa on heofnum, urne ge daeghwanlican hlaf fyle us to daeg. And forgyf us ure gyltas, iwa fwa we forgivath urum gyltendum. And ne gelaedde thu us on coft- nung. AcAlyfeusof yfle.

About 260 years after, in the time of King Henry the a d , it was ren- dred thus, and lent over by Pope Adrian, an Englijh' man, turned into' teeter, that the people might more eafily learn and remember it. fate ftisp? in btaben tfeb,

Chp name he ballpen ehet Itch,

Chou tying m tbp mfcbeilbifffe x 91)3 hit fn beabenpdioe,

Chat fn peattb heene ft alfo.

Chat boip tyean that lafteth ap,

Chou fetth ft ou0tftf0 flfte hap, jfo^gtoe 0110 all that me babe non,

90 toe fo?gthetuch otbet man :

Be let otto fall Into no founhtng,

9c fljfein ou 0 fto the fotole thing* 9mem

And about a hundred years after, in the time of Hatty the third , it was rendred thus;

Jfahet that att f n heahfn blUTe,

Chuthefge nam fttoutth the bUire>

Ctimen ana mot tijp fctnsbom,

Chin hoip mill ft be ail bon,

3ttbeabeu anb fir etbh alio, ft (hall bin full fioell 3lc tto.

Clf uo all tyean on thfo hap,

9no ftyglf uo ute finneo,

90 foe ho ute toinee totimeo ; let uo not fn fanning fall,

®ac fco’ehflthufpihuoall. 9men. Aboot

Di ' tized by l^.OOQLe


Book I.

The Alterations of Languages ,

About two hundred years after this in the time of Henry the VI. ( as appears by a large manufcript Velume Bible in the Oxford- Library, laid to have been this Rings , and by him to have been given to the Carthuji- ans in London 5 ) It was rendred thus.

Oure fadir that art in hevencs, halewid be thi name, thi kingdom come to thee, be thi wil don in eerthe, as in hevcne, give to us this day oure breed over othre fubftanc, and forgive to us oure dettis , as we forgiven oure dettouris, and lede us not into temptation, butdelivere us from ivel. Amen.

In another M.S. of Wickliffes Tranflation, who lived in Richard , the a d$ time, it is rendred with very fmall difference from this.

About a hundred years after this , In a Bible let forth with the Kings licens,tranllated by Thomas Mathew, and printed in the year 1 5 47, it was rendered thus :

O oure father which arte in hevfn halowed be thy name. Let thy kingdomecome. Thy will be fulfilled, as well in erth, as it is in heven, Ceve us this daye oure day ly bred. And fbrgeve us our treafpafes, even as we forgeve oure trefpacers. And lead us not into temptacion, but de- ly ver us from evyll. Amen.

After the fame manner it is rendered in the Tranflation of William Tyndall , with fome little differences in the fpelling.

This one inflance may fufficiently manifeft by what degrees this Lan- guage did receive its feveral Changes, and how much altered it is now from what it hath been , and confequently what is to be expe&ed in fu- ture times. Since Learning began to flourifh in our Nation, there have been more then ordinary Changes introduced in our Language : partly by new artificial Compofttions * partly by enfranchijing ftrange fbrein words, for their elegance and fignificancy, which now make one third part of our Language 5 and' partly by refining and mollifying old Words, for the more eafie and graceful found : by which means this laft Centu- ry may be conje&ured to have made a greater change in our Tongue, then any of the former, as to the addition of new words.

And thus , in all probability , muff it have been with all other vulgar Languages. So that ’tis not likely that any of thefe Mother-tongues now in being, are the fame that they were at the firft Confufion. So true is that of the Poet:

Hor*t. de arte T)t Jylvte foliis pronos mutantur in annos ,

P°* tic *‘ Prima cadunt 5 ita verborum vetus interit <etas 3

' Et, juvenum ritu 3 florent modo nata vigintque.

Debemur ms&i nos nojlrdque —

And a little after,

Mult a renafcentur qua jam cecidere 3 cadintquc Qua nunc junt in honore vocabula, fi volet ujits; guem penes arbitrium ejl 3 & vis 3 if- norma loquendi.

d. III. 2 * As to the fecond C^uere, Whether any of the Ancient Languages be now quite lojl 5 it may be ^nfwered, That if in fome few hundreds of years a Language may be fo changed as to be fcarce intelligible } then, in a much longer trad; of time it may be quite abolijhed, none of the mod; radical and fubflantial parts remaining.* For every change is a gradual corruption.

• Before


Chap. 1 1.

Of new Languages #

Before the flour ifhing of the toman Empire , there were feveral native YlVtt

Languages nfed in Italy > France, Spain* In Italy we read of the Meffapi- am- am, the Hetrufcan, the Sabine, the Ojcan, the Hetrurian or Tufcan Langua- ges 5 which are now thought by Learned men to be utterly loft, and no- i;.’ where to be found in the World.

Tis probable that there was not onely one Language in lb vaft a Ter- Bmewood’s ritoryas France, but that feveral Provinces fpake feveral Languages.* ’

But what thofe Languages were, or whether yet extant, is uncertain As P * for the Ct/fcf, who, inhabiting the inner paxt of the Country, were lefe fub- jeft to forein mixtures, ’tis moft probable that their Language might fee the Britijh or VFelJb, which is yet fpoken in feme parts of France. Cajar Vc Bello Gai- re ports that the Cauls were wont often to pals over into Britain , to be 1,co ' ^ inftrti&ed by the Druids, amoogft whom there was then no ufe of Books or Writing , and therefore they muft communicate by Qifcourle, And Tacitus affirms that the Speech of the Britijh and Gauls, differed but. little.

It is conceived that one of the ahcicot Tongues of Spain was the Cantabrian , which doth now there remain in the more barren mountain- ous, inacceffible parts, where Conquerors are willing to purfee, or defirous to plant 5 as our Britijh doth in ffWe/.But tis probable that there might be feveral cither Languages befides this 10 fo great* Continent, as well as in Italy, which are now wholly loft and unknown-

3. As to the third Quere , concerning the firfl Rife and occafion of £ j V; new Languages , that maybe fufficiently ahlwered by what was before fuggefted , concerning thofe many particular emergencies which may contribute to the introducing a change in Languages.

Somethink that the Italians , Spaniards and French, after they were to- tally fubdued by the Romans , and planted with their Colonies, did, after, a certain fpace of time , receive the Latin Tongue as their moft vulgar Speech, and retained it 5 till afterwards, being feveral times overrun by the Northern barbarous Nations, the Goths and Vandals, and other Tribes of the Germans , who mixed with them, and after feveral Conquefts refi- ded amongft them, fometimes 20, 60, 200 years together 5 this afford- ed time enough for fiich a thorough coalition betwixt them and the Na- tives , as could not but introduce a great change in the common Lan- guage , whilft the Nations were forced to attemper their Speech for the mutual underftanding of one another.

Others conceive that thofe Countries did not at firft pcrfe&ly receive the Latin from the Romans Jbut did onely make ufe of the jnoft principal radical words $ negle&ing the Grammatical rules of compejition and in*

Jte&ion , and withal! varying, the way of pronunciation, according to the unufualnels and difficulty of feveral founds to feveral Countries ; And that this was the firft and chief occafion of thofe various Medleys or fe- veral Dialc&s now in ufe 5 which were afterwards fomewhat farther changed from their Original , by thofe feveral Inundations of the Bar * barians.

’Tis not much material to difpute, which of thefe caufes had the prut* cipal influence in the extra&ion of thefe modern Tongues, fo fong as "tis granted that both of them might contribute and fiiffica for tins effirft.

As for our prefent EngliJI), this feems to be a mixture of the Britijh, Re-

C man i

i o The Original of Letters, Book I.

cambists man, Saxon, Danijh , Norman, according to the.fcveral viciffitudcs of Remains. Plantations and Conquefts, that this Nation hath undergone. And ac- cording as fuch Conqucfts have been more or lefs compleat and abfo- lute , k> have the Languages been more or lefs generally altered : which is the reafon why the Saxon Tongue was by our progenitors more fully introduced in England, then either that of the Franks amongft the Cauls, or that of the Goths or Lumbards in Italy, or that of the Goths fandals or Moors in Spain,

Z *^ i **ha That which feems to be the ne weft Language in the World, is the Ma- ▼oiage, p. i d j an ^ which ^ now as general ana common atnongft the Natives of the Eafl- Indies , as Latin or French is in thefe parts of the World. 'Tis (aid to be but of late invention, occafioned by the concourfe of Filhermen from Pqgu, Siam , Bengali, and feveral other Nations, who meeting toge- ther at a place convenient for Filhiag, and finding that it was by fituati- on exceeding commodious for Traffick from feverid parts , did agree to fettle there a Plantation 5 and accordingly built the Town of Malacca, which hath fince, for many years, been governed by the Portuguez, and is now under the power of the Hollander . And, for the more fadl con- verge with one another, they agreed upon a diftind Language, which pro- bably was made up by (eleding the moft foft and eafy words belonging to each (everal Nation. Ana this is the oncly Language ( for ought I know) that hath ever been at once invented 5 if it may properly be ftyled a diftind Language, and not rather a Medley of many. But this being invented by rude Fithermen , it cannot be expeded that it (hould have all thole advantages, with which it might have been furniflied by the rules of Philolbphy.

Add^n- . I know that the Learned Golins doth affirm $e China Language to be 1 invented by Art but, upon the bed difcovery to be made of it at this diftance, from thofe who nave lived many years in that Country, and pre- tend to underftand the Language, it appears to be (b exceedingly equivo • cal, and in many refpeds (b very imperfeS , that there is little reafon to be- lieve it had any foch Original.


I. 7, be Original of Letters and Writing. II. That all Letters were de- rived frops the Hebrew. III. 7be ufe of Letters is lefs ancient, and the kinds of them lefs numerous, then of the Languages themjelves. IV. Of Notes for Secrecy or Brevity . V. Of real Characters. VI. Of Alphabets in general.

b. I. T lAving laid down this brief and general View of Languages, ’tisre-

  • ,, JL J quilite that fomething (hould be alfo premifod concerning Letters,

the Invention of which was a thing of fo great Art and exquifitenels, Tufcul. Qu. that Tally doth from hence inferr the divinity and (pirituality of the hu- 1. mane foul, and that it mud needs be of a farr more excellent and abftraft-

cdEfience then mere Matter or Body, in that it was able to reduce all articulate (bunds to 34 Letters,



Chap. III. All Letters from the Hebrew.


Though the Scripture doth not mention any thing concerning the in- vention of thefe ; yet ’tis moft generally agreed, that Adam , { though not immediately after his Creation, yet; in procefe of time, upon his ex- perience of their great neceffity and uiefulnels, did firft invent the anci- ent Hebrew Character : whether that which we now call the Hebrew, at elfe the Samaritan , is a queftion much debated by ieveral Learned men, which 1 ftiall not now inquire into, or offer to d et ermine.

As for thofe particular Alphabets which are by fome efcrihed to Adam , caelum Ori- Enoch and N04&, mentioned by feveral Authors, and in a late Difcourfe by entis. •

Thomas Pangius , they have fo little foundation in any probable reafon or ftory, that I ftiall not ib much as make any farther mention of them.

  • It hath been abundantly cleared up by many Learned men , that the y. y j.

ancient Hebrew Character hath the priority before day other now known 5 which is confirmed by the concurrent teftimony of the beftand moft an- cient Heathen Writers. And 'tis amongft rational arguments none of rhe <3 r»», j e leaft, for the Troth and Oivine Authority of Scripture, toeonfider the ▼eritatcRc. general concurrence of ail manner of .evidence for the Antiquity of the ilg * b ‘ *• Hebrew, and the derivation * of all other Letters from it.

Pliny affirms in one place, that the firft invention of Letters ought to Nat.Hift.L7. be aferibed unto the Adrians 5 and in another place ihe faith, that under SS./.cap.ia. the name of Syria he underftands the Regions which were ftyled Pale* fi we, Jude a and Phoenicia • and in the feme Chapter he aferibes the inven- tion of Letters to the Phoenicians. So doth Lucan ;likcwifc $ Bell. Pharfal.

lib. 3.

Phanices primi (fama f credimus ) aujl A/anfuram rudjbus vocemjtgvare figuris.

With thefe agree • Herodotus, Strabo, b Plutarch , c Curtins , Mdajky c. a TerpGcho- who all confent, that the Grecians did firft receive their Letters from the re. Phoenicians by Cadmus , who lived about the time of J ojhua. And that 1 * b S £ mpoCac ' the Punic at Phoenician Tongpe was the Canaatritifts or the Hebrew , t Hiftor Jib.4. though fomewhat altered from ks original pronunciation,. ( as is wont StaUm. Ap- ia tra ft of time to befall Colonies planted far from home, amongft ftran- <e e- .

gers,) is Efficiently manifefted from the remainders of it that are ex- “empf* rant in Plautus and other prophaae Authors , as they are cited by the pnrtmoi’% learned Bochart. And that the Phoenicians were Canaanites hath proof alfo in Scripture, becaufe the fame woman who in Mark, 7. 26. is ftyled a Geograph;

Syr opheeni cion, is laid Matth. 1 5. 22. to be a Canaanite. Li.

That the ancient Greeks Chara&cr was of very near affinity to the Samaritan , and that the Latin Letters were of iuch an affinity to the Greeks, and derived from them, being in a manner thefeinewkh the an- dent Ionic Letters , is made very plain by Scaliger , and owned by Pliny m Eafaufa, and Diouyfius Ha/icarnaffenjis. And Tacitus doth acknowledge chat the Nat^Hift^ib ancient Latin Characters were in their fhape and hgure aimoft the lame 7. cap. 55/ * with the Greek. And as for the other Letters that qre known , namely, Hifton lib, u the Syriac, Arabic, AEtbiopic, Armenian, Coptic, lUyric, Georgian, Gothic, Anna * ir * there is this cogent Argument to prove them to be of the feme Origi- nal, becaufe their Alphabets do generally obferve the feme order of Let- ters, which, being in it felf exceedingly irrational, cannot probably have , any other xeafonout imitationJExccpt onely that of the Arabs faith Her - mannusHugo , who, that they might not feem to have borrowed Letters cap. 5. *’

C a from



Notes for Secrecy or Brevity Book I.


Enquiries , chap. 5.


Vid. f Urdus book 5. chap 7'fe& 1 .

from others, did purpofely difturb the order of the Alphabet 5 to which he might have added the JEthiopic and Armenian.

There are two general things to be obferved concerning thefe deri- ved Letters. 1. That they are not of lb great Antiquity. 2. That they are not lb numerous as Languages are.

1. They are not lo ancient , many Nations remaining a long while be- fore they grew fo far civilized as to underftand the ufe of Letters, which to this day are not known amongft many of the American Nations, nor the Inhabitants of Lapland: and after they have been known, and of fome public ule, it hath been yet a confiderable fpace, before perlons have written any Difcourle in their own Language. ’Tis obferved by Tfibudas of the German, and by Genebrard of the French Tongue, ('faith Mr. Brerewood ) that ’tis not much above 400 years, lince Books began to be written in thole Languages.

2. And becaufe the ule of Letters m particular Countries is not lb an- cient as Language, therefore are they not of fo numerous kinds 5 fcveral Nations taking up the ule of Letters from their neighbours, and adapting them to their own Tongue. Thus the Spanijh , French , Italian , German , Britijh , Englijh , Irijb , &c. do all of them life the lame Latine Chara&er, it being probable that they had none of their own, before they learnt this of the Romans. The Coptic or Egyptian Chara&er , ever lince Egypt came under the Dominion of Macedon, hath been the Greeks , excepting only feven Letters proper to their Tongue,which the Greek. Alphabet did not Efficiently exprefi 5 The Mufiovites likewife and th e Ruffians, the Georgians and Jacobins , do ule the Greek. Character 5 the Ferfians and Turks ufe the Arabick. • though the Letters of any Tongue do not al- waies remain the lame, but are fubjed to' the like fate and mutability, to which Languages are expofed.

Belides this common way of Writing J>y the ordinary Letters, the An- cients have fbmetimes uled to communicate by other Notes , which were either for Secrecy, or Brevity.

1. For Secrecy : fuch were the Egyptian Hieroglyphic^, ( as they are commonly efteemed ) being the reprefentation of certain living Crea- tures, and other Bodies , whereby they were wont to conceal from the vulgar the Myftcries of their Religion. But there is realbn to doubt whether there be any thing in thefe worth the enquiry, the difeoveries that have been hitherto made out of them being but very few and in- fignificant. They feem to be but a flight, imperfect invention, futable to thofe firft and ruder Ages ; much of the lame nature with that Mexi- can way of writing by Pi&ure , which was a mere fhift they were put to for want of the knowledge of Letters. And itfeemsto me quefHonable, whether the Egyptians did not at firft ule their Hieroglyphic kf upon the lame account, namely, for the want of Letters.

Thofe waies of writing treated of by the Abbot Tyrithemins , were likewife for occult or Jecret communication : And though lome Learn- ed men have fufpe&ed and accufed him to have thereby delivered the Art of Magic , or Conjuring j yet he is fufiiciently cleared and vindicated from any fuch prejudice in that very learned and ingenious Difcourle de Crypt ograpbia , under the feigned name of Gufiavtst Sclents* 9



Chap. III. Of a Rzall Character.

by which the noble Author, the Duke of Lunenburg,did dilguife his true name of Augufius Lunuburgicus.

2. For Brevity : There were fingle Letters or marks, whereby the Ro- mans were wont to exprefe whole words, Ennius is faid to have inven- ted i ieo of thefe; to which number Tullius Tyro , Cicero s Libert us, (o- r T kbemius de thers fey Cicero himfelf, ) added diver9 others, to fignifie the particles of Polygraphia, fpeech ; after whom Thilargyrus the Samian and Mecunas , added yet more. After thefe Annum Seneca is (aid to have laboured in the regu- lating and digelting of thofe former notes -; to which adding many of his own, he augmented the whole number to 5000 , publiihed by jf anus Cruterus ; though amongft his there are divers of a later invention , re- lating to Chriftian inftitutions, which have been added lince ( as ’tis faid) by S. Cyprian the Martyr. The way of writing by thefe did require a vaft memory and labour ; yet it was far fliort of expreffing all things and Notions , and betides , had no provifion for Grammatical varia- tions.

Of this nature is that short- hand- writing by Characters (o fre- quent with us in England , and much wondered at by Foreiners; which hath a great advantage for fpeed and fwiftnels in writing ; thbfe who are expert in it being able this way to take any ordinary difcourfe verbatim.

Belides thefe, there have been fome other propofals and attempts a- a y bout a Real universal Char after, that fhould not fignifie words, but things Y and notions , and confequeutly might be legible by any Nation in their own Tongue ; which is the principal defign of this Treatife. That fuch a Real Character is poffible , and hath been reckoned by Learned men amongft the Dejiderata , were eafie to make out by abundance of Tefti- monies. To this purpofe is that which Pife mentions to be (omewhere Hiftor Nat the wifh of Galen, That fome way might be found out to reprefen t indue, iib.4." things by fuch peculiar figns and names as fhould expreis their natures’, c * 3 - ut Sophiftk eriperetur decertandi & calumniandi occajio. There are fe- veral other paflages to this purpofe in the Learned Verulam, in Vojjius , in ®*^ u s™ ent - Hermannus Hugo, &c. befides what is commonly reported of the men of Or'ig.VcrTen- China, who do now, and have for many Ages ufed fuch a general Chara- d >» cap. 4, der,by which the Inhabitants of that large Kingdom , many of them of different Tongues , do communicate with one another , every one underftanding this common Character , and reading it in his own Lan- guage.

It cannot be denied , but that the variety of Letters is an appendix to the Curie of namely, the multitude and variety of Languages. And

therefore, for any man to go about to add to their number, will be, but like the inventing of a Difeafe, for which he can expert but little thanks from the world. But this Confideration ought to be no^ifcourage- ment : For fuppofing (uch a thing as is here propofed, could be well eftablifhed , it would be the fur eft remedy that could be againft the Curie of the Confufion , by rendring all other Languages and Char afters ufeleis.

It doth not appear that any Alphabet now in being, wa $ invented at ^ y 1. once or by the rules of Art ; but rather that all, except the Hebrew , were



Of A If h abet f.


Book I.

taken up by Imitation, and paft by degrees through feveral Changes $ which is the reafon that they are leu complete , and liable to feveral ex* ceptions. The Hebrew Character, as to the (hape of it, thoughit appear (olemn and grave , yet hath it not its Letters lufficiently diftinguilhed from one another , and withall it appears iomewhat haiih and fugged. The Arabic Character, though it (hew beautiful, yet is it too elaborate, and takes up too much room , and cannot well be written (mail. The Cree^ and the Latin are both of them graceful and indifferent eafie, though not without their feveral imperfections.

As for the AEthiopic , it hath no lels then 203 Letters in its Alphabet 5 namely, 7 Vowels, which they apply to every one of their 26Con(o- nants, to which they add toother alpirated Syllables. All their Cha* rafters are exceedingly complicated and perplexed, and much more dif- ficult then thofe propofed in this following Difeourfe for the expreffiog of things and notions.

Martimi At- . This is (aid likewife of the Tartarian, that every Charafter with them smmju. * s a Syllable,havingeach of the Vowels joyned to its Confenant, as La, Le, Li, &c. which mull needs make a long and troubtefomc Alphabet.

But it is not my purpofe to animadvert upon thefe Tongues that are lels known,(o much as thofe with which thefe parts of the world are bet- ter acquainted.

CHAP. rv.

I. The Dtfetfs in the common Alphabets, as to their true Order. II. Number. III. Determinate Powers. I V. Fitting Names. V. Pro- per Figures of the Letters. V I. The Imperfections belonging to the Words of Language , as to their Equivocalnejt , variety of Synonymous words, uncertain Pbrajeotogies , improper way of Writing.

j /^vNe fpecial Circumftance which adds to the Curfe of is that \^J difficulty which there is in all Languages , arifing from the various Imperfections belonging to then^both in relpeft of 1. their firft Elements or Alphabets, a. their Words.

1. For Alphabets, they are all of them, in many refpefts, liable to juft exception.

1. As to the Order of them, they are inartificial and confnjed , without any fuch methodical diftribution as were requifite for their particular na- tures and differences s the Vowels and Confonants being promifeuoufly huddled together,without any diftiaftion : Whereas in a regular Alpha- bet, the Vowels and Confonants fhould be reduced into ClaJJes , according to their feveral kinds, with Inch an order of precedence and (ubfequence as their natures will bear 5 this being the proper end and defign of that which we call Method, to feparate the Heterogeneous, and put theHomo* geneous together, according to feme rule of precedency.

The Hebrew Alphabet, (the order of which is obferved in feveral Scriptures, PjaL 1 19. and in the Book of Lamentations ) from whence the others are derived, is not free from this Imperfeftion.

2. For


Chap. IV. Defe&s in Alphabets .

  • 5

i. For their Number, they are in feveral refpetts both Redundant, and 6 M Deficient. '* w *

i. Redundant and ihperfluous; either i. By allotting feveral Let- ters to the fame power and found. So in the Hebrew ( d V© ) an d r Q

r f % i\V? C?*",? Soi»,l*ordb»y£^

, J.”’ ( F&W -) Of 2- by reckoning doable Letters among!)

tie moftfirapleelemaitsof Speech.- asinthe H,krcwt\ in the Greek l and + j .d th eXjtttf &_Ch) (*. ) and jlConfonant or Jod which

is made up of {dzb ) by affignmg feveral Letters to represent one fim- ple power, as w 5 Jh, &c. So that none of thefe can regularly be rec- koned amongft the Ample elements of Speech. J

a. Deficient in iother ^fpefts, efpecially in tegardof Vowels, , of which there are 7 or 8 feveral kinds commonly ufed, fas Khali fhew after- wards ) though the Latin Alphabet take notice but of five whereof two,namely (/ and lu.J according to our inglijh pronunciation of them, ar^otproperiy Vowels but Diphthongs. And befides, that gradual djfferefice amongft Vowelsof longandjhort is not fuffidently provided £f* J he Ancients Were wont to exprefs a long Vowel by doubling the Character of it j as Amaabam , , Nadta, Rue, Seedes^anSifimin, Martin* ‘ "jJW. though oftentimes the Vowel/, inftead of being doubled, was onely />/•*- longed id the figure of it} as itoltis, Mso, virus. Forthe ways ufed by us Engbjhfor lengthnmg and abbreviating Vowels, viz. by- adding Equiefcent to the end of a word for prolonging a Syllable, and doubling the following Confonant for the fhortnmg of a Vowel a5 Wane '

Wann * Ware Warr , &c. orelfe by inferting feme other Vowel, forthe lengtbning of it, as Meat,Met h Read, Red , &c. both thefe are upon this account improper, becaufe the fign ought to be where the found C Nor would it be fo fit to exprefs this by a diftinftcW^becaufe it denotes onely an accidental or gradual difference, as by an Accent h thechief ufe of for which they are neceflary in ordinary fpeecb, being to fig-

nine Quanuttti and Elections of voice* & 6

3 . Fortheir Towers, they are very uncertain jaot alwaies fixed and de- termined to the fame figmfication: which as to our pronunciati-

on may be made to appear by abundance of Inftances both in the Vow- els and Confonants. *VYW>V

i. As to the Vowels : It is generally acknowledged that each of them

fe. VCF f S * V0C * le i om " es pl*rifin* 9 faith Lipftus. And the learn- ed doth afore thatthe Ancientsdid ufe their Vowels ih very

tfdiofino*^*' * bqMand ° te * Mi ' US exili *h*<* nunc crafts, nunc inter-

The power of the Vowel (,) treated of afterwards, is expreffed in writing no lefs then fix feveral waies 5 by * ■

e. He , me , Jhe, ye. ee. Thee, free, wee. ie. Field, yield, Jhietd, chief ea. Hear, dear, hear, eo. People, i. Privilege.

So is the Power of the Vowel (a-,) as in Ad, aul , aw, fault , caught,

brought .

If I.

De Pronunc. cap. $. Grammat. lib.t. cap. iz.- Jof.Scal.DtaX. Uc variapro-

1 6 Defetfs in Alphabets. Book L

brought. Thefeare all various waiesof writing the fame long Vowel 3 befides which there are other diftinft waits of cxprcffing the lame Vowel when it is ufed fhort, as in the words of, for , &c.

And for the Power of the Vowel ( «) that is likewife written five fe- veral waies.

o. To, who, move, oe. Doe.

00. ' Shoo , moon, noon, ou. Could, would, wo. Two.

And as for the Power of the Vowel (a ) this alio is written five fevc- ral waies 3 namely, by the Letters

1. Sir, jtrr, ’firmament, 8tc.

o. Houy, many, come,Jome, love , &c.

00. Blood, flood, u. Turn , burn, burthen, ou. Country , couple.

2. As to the Conjbnants , thefe likewile are of very uncertain Powers : witnefi the different pronunciation of the letter (C) in the word Circo, and ( G ) in the word Negligence. I know ’tis laid that the letter (C J before the Vowels a, o, n, mull be pronounced like (X,) as in the words cado, coram , cudo 3 and before the Vowels e, i, as S, as in the words cedo, cilium. But there is no reafon why it lhould be fo. Upon winch accpunt DeLingu* our learned Country man. Sir Tho. Smith, doth juftly cenfure it as mosf fi rMm lit era, non liter a 3 ignorant ie fpeci men, non artis 3 modh ferpens, one. mod'o cornix.

cdJu»f soffit. The letters C, S, T, are often uled alike, to denote the fame Power , or»ti». and t hat both in Englijb and French 3 and the letter («?) is mod frequent-

ly ufed for (Z) which muft needs be very improper. And, which is yet more irrational , fbme Letters of the fame name and (bape are uled fometimes for Vowels, ixxd fotnetimes for Confonants 3 as jf, V,fV,T^ which PrifcitH. yet differ from one another Jicut corpus & anima , and ought by no means

to be confounded.

To which may be added, that from this equivocal power of Letters, it fo falls out, that

1. Some words are dijlinguijbed in writing , and not in pronunciation : as Sejfio, Cejjio'-, Sera, Cera 3 Servus,Cervus 3 Syrus, Cyrus 3 Boar, Bore 3 Come , Lat. Cum 3 Done , Dun 3 Dear , Deer 3 Hear, Here ; Heart, Hart 5 Meat, Mete 3 Son, Sum Some, Lat. Sum 3 Toes, To ^ f 3 Toe, Towe 3 To, Too, Two.

2. Some words are difiinguijhed in pronunciation , but not in writing 3 as the words Give , i. Dare, Give , i. Vinculum 3 Get. i. Acquirere, Get , i. Ga* gates 3 a r and his in Englijh , and h and his in Latin. So the Latin word Male , i. evilly , is a difiyllable 3 whereas the Englijh word Male, which fignifies the mafeuline Sex , is but a monofyllable. All which are very great incongruities, and luch as ought to be avoided in any regular efta- blilhment of Letters.

IV. 4* Their Names in moft Alphabets, are very improperly exprejfed by words of feveral (yllables 5 as Aleph , Beth, Gimel, &c. Alpha , Beta, Gamma, See. And thus it is in 15 feveral Alphabets mentioned by Her -

m annus

Chap. IV. ImferfeBion in Words. ij

m&ntiHs Hugo. In which refpeft the Roman Alphabet , and our Englijh , 1)6 which follows it very near , are much more convenient then the reft, c> ^ 1

where each Letter is named (imply by its Power. Though herein like- wife there be (omedefe&s : for the letter C (hould not be named See, but Kee ■, andC, not, asufuallywe do, Jee, but r«.- and (oK, to con- form it with the reft, (bould be called er, not ar j and Z (hould be ftyled ez, not zad.

5. 1 heir Figures have not that correjpondency to their Natures and V. Powers which were defirable in an artificially-invented Alphabet, wherein the Vowels ought to have (bmething anfwerable in their Chora- Uer unto the feveral kinds of Apertion which they have in their found.

And (b for the Conjbnants , they (hould have (bme fuch affinity in fheir ^

Figures as they have in their Powers. ’Tis (b in (ome of them, whether purpofely or cafually, I know not j as BP. bp. CG. SZ. and perhaps T D, t d : but not in others.

To this may be added , the manner of writing as to the Oriental Tongues, from the right hand to the left, which is as unnatural and incon- venient, as to write with the light on the wrong fide. The Jews them- snKnrie (elves write their particular ftrokes of Letters from the left to the right Cau&i. L hand 5 and therefore it would be much more rational, that their words “P** * (hould be written (o too.


Befides thefe Defefts in the ufual Alphabets or Letters , there are feve- A y j. ral others likewifeinthe Words of Language , and their Accidents and X Conftru&ions.

1. In regard of Equivocals , which are of feveral fignifications , and therefore muft needs render fpeech doubtful and obfcure j and that ar- gues a deficiency , or want of a fufficient number of words. Thefe are ei- ther abfolutely lo,or in their figurative conftruttion, or by rea(bn of Phra- feologies.

Of thefirft kind there are great variety in Latin. So the word r Li ter at os rCodicem. j)PMco,( r ifctt ) Libtrtate fruentem.

1 ) Oratores ( J . ) Fihurn.

' Rujiicos J C Arbor is corticem. .

So the word Aialus fignifies both an Apple-tree, and Evil , and the Jliafi of ajhip =, and Populus fignifies both a Poplar-tree y and the People , &c.

Befides fuch Equivocals as are made by the inflexion of words : as Lex , kgis,legi' y Lego, legk, legi : Sus, fuis 3 Suo 9 fuis- y Sums, fins : A mare the Adverb 5 Amo , amas , amavi, amare 5 and Amor , amark vel amare : with abundance of the like of each kind.

Nor is it better with the Englijh Tongue in this refpeft, in which there is great variety of Equivocals. So the word Bill fignifies both a Weapon , a Bird’s Beaf, and a written Scroul : The word Grave fignifies both So- ber, and Sepulcher, and to Carve, &c.

As for the ambiguity of words by realbn of Metaphor and Phrafeology , this is in all inftituted Languages lb obvious and (b various, that it is need- lefs to give any inftances of it j every Language having (bme peculiar phrafes belonging to it, which, if they were to be tranflated verbatim in- to anothe# Tongue, would feem wild and infignificant. In which our

D Englilh


1 8 Imperfection in Wordsfoc. Book. I

Englifh doth too much abound , witnefs thofe words of Breaks, Brings Cafi, Chare, Come , Cut, Dr aw , Fall, Hand, Keep, l ay, make, Pafl, Put, Rum, Set, Stand, Take, none of which hare lels then thirty or forty, and Tome of them about a hundred feveral fenfes , according to their ufe in Phra- fes, as may be feen in the Dictionary And though the varieties of Phra- fes in Language may feemto contribute to the elegance and ornament of Speech j yet, like other affected ornaments, they prejudice the native fimplicity of it, and contribute to the dilguiling of it with falfe appearan- ces. Betides that, like other things of fafhion, they are very changeable, every generation producing new ones $ witnefi the prelent Age, elpe- cially the late times, wherein this grand impolture of Phrafes hath almoft eatey out folid Knowledge in all profeffions $ fuch men generally being of moft efteem who are (killed in thefe Canting forms of fpeech, though in nothing elfe ,

2. In refpe&of Synonymous words, which make Language tedious, and aregenerally fupcrfluities, lince the end and ufe of Speech is for hu-

seatmr de mane utility and mutual converle 5 magis igitur refert ut brevis, & reSus, « aU 188** L & fi m P^ ex longus & varius. And yet there is no particular Lan-

B P mhm S ua 8 e w^at is very Obnoxious in this kind. ’Tis faid that the Arabic Prolegomena , hath above a thouland feveral names for a Sword, and 500 for a £ ion, and de lingua 200 for a Serpent, and fourfeore for Hony. And though perhaps no other tea, left. jL an g Ua g e do exceed at this rate, as to any particular 5 yet do they all of them abound more then enough in the general. The examples of this kind, for our Englijh, may be feen in the following Tables. To this may be added, that there are in moft Languages feveral words that are mere Escpletives, not adding any thing to the Senfe.

3. For the Anomalifms and Irregularities in Grammatical conftru&i- on, which abound in every Language , and in feme of them are lb nu- merous, that Learned men have fcrupled whether there be any fuch thing as Analogy.

4. For that Difference which there is in very many words betwixt the writing and pronouncing of them, mentioned before. Scriptio ejlvocum pitfura: And it ihould feemvery reafonable, that men Ihould either (peak as they write, or write as they fpeak. And yet Cuftom hath fo ri- vetted this incongruity and imperfe&ion in all Languages, that it were an hopelefs attempt for any man to go about to repair and amend it. 'Tis needlels to give inftances of this,there being in divers Languages as ma- ny words whole founds do difagree with their way of writing , as thofe are that agree. What is laid of our Englijh Tongue is proportionably true of moft other Languages, That if ten Scribes (not acquainted with the particular Speech ) Ihould fet themfelves to write according to pronunciation , not £ny two of them would agree in the lame way of Ipelling.

Tis an obfervation of a Learned man concerning the French Jongue, Sir rto. Smith it is ineptijftme confufa,alias ad faflidium otiofisJirffarBa Uteris 3 ali-

de rc&a ds ad mendicitatem inops &• jejuna 5, nunquam fibi conJtans,& rar'o rationi Scriptione. confona. Tis laid that Peter Ramus did labour much in reducing it to a

new Orthography , but met with much dHcouragement in this attempt from Learned men 5 befides the invinciblenels of general Cuftom, a- gainft which ( for the moft part ) men ftrive in vain. What better luc- cefs thofe Learned ingenuous perlonsof the French Academy may have,


Di tized by v^ooQle

who hWe fadercfor {tfveral ytearsidgagedkKtksrWtock,i >1 cannot eanjb- ongmm r«- &wrt’liisiiclIatfaddf )tf^^M^iing of F»4*«itfaatv^&<dicH fofcthe com* pcfldiauin^oEvn^^^ ad^Jt;aLithaif>nrii) [Letters* . ..

iterbwpticjn aad ->

u(e of them through his Dominions ; and that in all Schools, ifeuths jftoufcl^joftit&ed m Use nfendf jJstA.' ^Aad.jret, notvirMsoding’his

imer^M&otly. aftferhk death kid llli&iteitf dJ$pfcdd jo!; .hrladmv/ .<;8<; ,■>*.*?. 3 l-., ft;.

As to our own Langrage^ A ^ CTa d per&tm halve takeamueh pains a* bcgit the' Qtthvgntytyiov h: 1 vThkuLeaioefltKirigftt) Siri^oamce tmtih, Se- ccotary coiQueeifi^filitirt^ij naiu^qovetkjb/he&Emba^ From A,

hath ptblnfliod imf lo^tx^bbaurfe in Lkiifty f>ot* 8 o&, tmtytfatk Urn gu* AftgUiawt Jhufmonk qftbtrharL this Sdlrij^waaiii tpothor >Wfeourft pwifedutsd fcy bHeufi the ibruMsy > Udx> jcxUf bimlfelfc Mktjhrt $ who tktai followed by one Wade, that writ to the lame purpole. After thele, Sul* laker endeavoured to add to, and alter divers things in thole others that

preceded lu 0 L 3 iwl^waf.Aeinedodinitbetoel^fffipf hh

(W^inhk FwgkftrQioaamii. V.And*yetfefoi»tfc&e ; i*Gyft^thatftiU we retain the fame errors and incongruities in writing which our for


\rAi\At: •! Irlo «v>V,\ •.

•*. 03 "... 3 - • .i e WiLouB -no oj t. jVMm h'j r ':!? ‘ . •

. uiA ya bn/. { x\v.\\v. .• \ !t ,.3 j.:

\ -Yv-b

1. fty* witty* tyttpirr nordrmF^ ^Wi lk n t t

the-rufes of Art, jl. Tty* ptypral}

, I. Tty* wittyr Lettyr norf^g^s faff, ,%*, t%dffb h

the-rufestf Art, JL Tty{pa$yrd&ovudjp^ feverol

W4jis of Cmwwfuttjm 1 IL Tbs firfi *ty% t0 ^ t r< *

vi ded forty tf^ptyfoj&tytd fh«r

  • r a juft en*#tf4&* rf jtyhjtyngf atfdfiotitys fa which now/

aretoU$gwd\\ ■ \\ j0 ' ' .{/Y- ‘l , ' t .'

UR-om what hp^h already ^4 4 may gf>j>*ai; fl that there are nq £. j.,

1 Letters or Lat]g>iag^s thath^veheen at opcc i^yented ap^eftablifbed according to the Rufes of Art; but that all, excepttoe ,(pf which we know nothing fo certaip as, tbaf it was nottpm^ehy human Art upon Experience) have been either taHen up from t;h*t firft, and derived by way of Imitation ; oij elfe, 19 a lpog tra^ of time, have, upon feveral emergencies , admitted various and cafkaf, otyrotions > by which means they mull needs be liable to tpaoifoki defe&s and iqjperfeftipns, that ip a Language at . owe. invented and according to the rules of Art might be eafily avoided. Nor could this otherwile be, becaufe that very Art by which Language Ihould be regulated, viz. Grammar^ is of much la- tgr invention tty * Lavages thyqfctyes, b»ng . ^dapfed to what was al- ready in being, rsthfifttjKW the Rule of makipg it w.

Though the Hebrew Tpngme hs .the mqft an/tieqt , |et ftybbi Judah v«j/r«xdeAr- Chiug of fez in who. lived ^.^1040.; was the 6ru that reduced it te Gramihat.

to the Art of Qra^tm^r, And thpugb there were both Creek, and Latin 11 ' *' cap * + ' Grammarians m u ch more anclenr; yet were there none in either, till a longtime after thofe Languages fiourilhed : which is the true reafou of

Da al»



VtJJims ibid, cap. 3. Ptlyitr.yirgil lib.i.cap.7.

f II.

$. III.

T be firft Principle of Communication . Book I.

all thole AnomalifuA in Grammar y beeaule the wa* luted to £««- guage, and not Language to the Att. Platois lajdtobe the firftthat coo* . (idered Grammar : Arijleile tferfirft that fay Jwritingi did reduce it into an Art : and' Ef kurus the firft that pufclickJy taught it amongft the Grecians. ■ '■ ’• • •

And for the Latin, Crates MaUetes, ErobafTadoc to die RamanSenatb from King Attains, betwixt the fecondandthird Fume War, preicmly af- ter the death of Ennius, U. C. 583. was the firft that brought in the Art of Grammar amongft the Romans, faith Suetonim. , 1 -

Thele being lome of the Defefrs on imperfe&iops in thole Letters or Languages, which are already known, raayaflbrd dire&ioo, What is to be avoid ecfby thole who propole to themfeives the Invention of a new CharaU&at Language , which being theprincipal end of this Difcourfe, I lhall in the next place proceed/ tp lay down the firft Foundations of it. ; r> ;■ 1 ■ .

r . .

As men do generally agree in the lame Principle of Realon, lo do they likewife agree in the lame Internal Nation or* Apprehenjion of things.

The External Exprejjion of thefe Mental notions , whereby men com- municate their thoughts to one another, is either to the Ear , or to the Eye. . t

To the Ear by sounds , and nfore particularly by Articulate Voice and Words. - - >

To the Eye by any thing that is vtfible) Motion, Light, Colour, Figure 5 and more particularly by Writing.

That conceit which men have in their minds concerning a Norle or Tree, is the Notion or mental linage of thatBeaft, or natural thing, of fuch a nature, fhape and ufe- The Names given to thele in feveral Lan- guagespre luch arbitrary founds or words, -as Nations of men have agreed upon, either cafually or defignedly, to exprefs their Mental notions of them. The Written wordis the figure or pifture of that Sound.

So that if men (hould generally content upon the fame way or man- ner of Exfrejfipn, as they do agree in the lame Notion, we Ihould then be freed from that Curie in the Confufion of Tongues , with all a the unhap- py conlequences of it.

Now this can onely be done, either by enjoyning lome one Language and Chara&cr to be univerfally learnt and pra&ifed, (which is not to pc expe&ed, till lome perlbn attain to the Vniverjil Monarchy • and per- haps would not be done then : ) or elle by propoJtngCoine fuch way as, by its facility and ulefulnefi, ( without the imposition of Authority ) plight invite and ingage men to the learning of it ; which is the thing here attempted.

In order to this. The firft thing to be conlidered and enquired into is. Concerning a juft Enumeration and defeription of luch things or notions as are to have Harks or Names alfigned to them.

The chief Difficulty and Labour will be lo to contrive the Enumera- tion of things and notions, as that they may be full and adequate, without any Redundance or Deficiency as to the Number of them, and regular as to their Place and Order.


itizeg) by

Cnap. V. T he firfi Principle of Communication. 2 1

If to every thing and notion there were aligned a diftind Mark., to-, gether' with fome provifien to exprefs Grammatical Derivations and In- flexions j this might fumce as to one great end of a Real charaQer, name- ly , the expreffion of our Conceptions by Mark* which Ihould fignifie things , and not wards. And lb likewife if leveral diftiud words were affigned for the names of fuch things , with certain invariable Rules for \dl luch Grammatical Derivations and Inflexions, and iiich oacly, as are natural and neceflary 5 this would make a much more eafie and conveni- ent Language then is yet in being.

But now if thefe Marks or Notes could be lb contrived, as to have fuch a dependahee upon, and relation to, one Another, as might be futableto the nature of the things and notions which they reprelented j and lo likewife, if the flames of things could be lb ordered, as to contain fuch a kind of affinity or opposition in their letters and founds, as might be fome way anlwerable to the nature of the things which they lignilied j This would yet be a farther advantage foperadded: by which, betides the belt way of helping the Memory ay natural Method , the Vnderflanding likewife would be highly improved 5 and We Ihould > by learning, the CbaraBer and the Karnes of things, be inftru&ed likewife in their Na- tures, the knowledg of both which ought to be con joyned.

For the accurate effe&ing of this, it would be neceflary, that the Theo- ry it felf,upon which luch a delign were to be founded, mould be exact- ly fisted to. the nature of thing i. But, upon fuppofal that this Theory is aefe&ivc, either as to the Fulnefl or the Order of it, this muft needs add much perplexityto any luch Attempt, and render it impetfetf. And that this is the cale with that common Theory already received, need neat much be doubted 5 which may afford fome excufe as to leveral of thofe things Which may feem to be lels conveniently difpofed of in the follow* ing Tables, or Schemes propofed in the next part. * ;

T he End of the Fir ft Part,




Part. II.


The Second Part, ' ♦

Conteining a regular enumeration and ddcdption of all thot? things and notions to which names ;

are to be^afligned. '


I. The Scheme sf Genus's. II. Concerning the more general notion* of things ,the difficult? of eflablijbing theft aright. II f . Of Tranfcenderi- tals general. IV. Of Tranfiendentalrelations mixed. V. Of Tran - feen dental relations of A&ion. V I. Of the fever al notions belonging to Grammar or Logic. ' ! ' ’ *' v

' • v ■ ' ■ V :

AViNG difpatched the Trof^gomena in Hie former part ? 1 proceed ( according t;o the niethod propofed ) to 'that more difficult attempt of enumerating anddcleribingaU fuch things and notions is fall under di- itourfe. ' ' h" j

In treating concerning this, I (hall fir ft lay 4own a Scheme at~Anajfjjs of all the Genus’s '©Irmbrecotntndn Weadsof things belonging to this defign $ And then (hew how each of thefe may be fubdivided' by its peculiar Dif- ferences ; which for the better convenience of this inftitution , I take leave to determine (for the moft.part)to the number of fix. Unlefi it be in thole numerous tribes, of Herbs, Trees , Exanguious Animals, Fifes and Birds 5 which are of too great variety to be comprehended in fo narrow a compals After which I (hall proceed to enumerate the feveral Species belonging to each of .thefe Differences , according to fuch an order and dependahee amongft them , as may contribute to the defining of them, and determining their primary fignifications Thefe Species are com- monly joyned together by pairs, for the better helping of the Memory, ( and (b likewife are fome of the Genus's and Differences. ) Thofe things which naturally have Oppojites, are joyned with them, according to fuch Oppofition, whether Single or Double. Thofe things that have no Oppo- fites, are paired together with refpedt to fome Affinity which they have one to another. Tho it muft be acknowledged that thefe Affinities are fometimes lefs proper and more remote, there being feveral things (hifted intd thyfe places, becaufe I knew not how to provide for them better.

The General Scheme .

All kinds of things and notions, to which names are to be affigned, may be di- ftributed into fiich as are either more

General-, namely thofe Univerfal notions, whether belonging more properly to



I Chords 5 DISCOURSE. IV { Special -, denoting either JCREATOR. V

(.Creature $ namely fuch things as were either created or concreated by God, not excluding feveral of thole notions, which are framed bythe minds of men confidered either ’

( £eUe£lively -, WORLD. VI (Difiributivelys, according to the feveral kinds of Beings, whether fuch as do

  • Subfiance-; ( belong to

{Inanimate 5 ELEMENT. VII \Animate confidered according to their feveral

f Species * whether " Vegetative

] c T n*,*f,n / fSTONE. VIII

ympetfc# , asMtneraU,^ M¥JAL , X C LEAF. X

'*■ I) (HERB confid. accord, to the* FLOWER. XI


l ’ cTREE. XIV


(Sanguineous i 2 BIRD. XVIT

l ISenfitive CFISH. XVI I ( Sanguineous -, < BIRD. XVU


Ijiceident 5


Quantity SPACE. XXn



Quality, whether/MANNERS. XXVI




j Quality 5

\ Relation ; whether more.









Concerning Metafhyfic.

Part; ID

In this precedent Scheme, all the feveral things or notions, to which names are to be afiigned , are reduced to forty Genus' s. The firft fix of which do comprehend fuch matters, as by reafon of their Generalnels, or in fome other refpeft, are above all thole common heads of things called Predicaments; The reft belonging to the feveral Predicaments , of which I reckon only five. Amongft thefe , Subfiance doth take in fourteen Genus\ Quantity three, Quality five, Avion, four ,. and Rela* tion eight.

This being foppofed to be a fufficient general Scheme of things, that which is next to be enquired after , is how each of thole Genus's may. be fubdivided into its proper differences and Ipecies. In order to which I fball offer that which follows.

In the enumeration of all fuch things and notions as fall under di- fcourle , thofe are firft to be conlidered which arc more general ot com- prehenlive, belonging either to Metaphyjic , or to Grammar and Logic.

Tho particulars are firft in the order of Being , yet Generals are firft in the order of Knowing , becaufe by thefe, fuch things and notions as are lels . general, are to be diftinguilhed and defined.

Now the proper end and defign of Metaphyjic fhould be, to enume- rate and explain thole more .general terms , which by 'realbn of their , ’ Univerfality and Comprehenfivenefs, are either above all thqle Heads of things ftiled Predicaments, or elfe common to feveral of them. And if this Science had been lo ordered , as to have conteined a ’plaip regular enumeration and defeription of thefe general terms, without thje mixture of nice and liibtle dilputes about them , It might have been •, proper e- nough for learners to have begun with. But men having purpofely ft rained their frame arid difculs lb many intricate queftions , as are commonly treated of in it : ’Tis no wonder that it fhould hereby be rendred, not onely lels fit for young beginners, but liable alfo to the pre- judice and negleaof thole of riper judgments. That which I aim at in treating concerning thele things', is to offer fome brief and plain de- feription of them , as being confcious that fuch matters as are prim'o nota , ana moft obvious, are moft hard to be defined. And the multiplying of words, about things that are plain enough of themfelves,doth but con- tribute to the making of them more obfeure.

The Tight ordering of thefe Tranlcendentals is a bufiuels of no finall difficulty ;becaufe there is fo little aftiftance or help to be had for it in the Common Syftems, according to which this part of Philofophv ( as it feemstome ) is rendred the moft rude and imperfed in the whole bo- dy of Sciences;as if the compilers of it had taken no other care for thofe General notions , which did not fall within the ordinary leries of things, and were not explicable in other particular Sciences , but only to tum- ble them together in feveral confuted heaps , which they ftiled the Sci- ence of Metaphyjic. And this is one reafon why the ufual enumeration of luch Terms is very fhort and deficient in relpedof what it ought to be, many of thofe things being leftout, which do properly belong to this number; wHtch defeas are here intended to be in fome meafure fuppli- ed. Tho it muft be granted , that by realbn of the exceeding compre- , benfvenefs of fome notions, and the extreme Jubtilty of others, as like- wite becaufeof the ftreightnefs of that method which I am bound up to

b y

by thefe Tables it will fofall out, that feveral things cannot be diipofed of (b accurately as they ought to be. .

The leveral things belonging to Metaphyfical or Tranfcendental no- tions may be comprehended under thefe three Heads, namely fuch as are either more

(Abfolute ; v conteinine the Kinds > Caufes , Differences and Mode; of

J things , which I take the liberty to call TRANSCENDENTAL


C Relative whether

'( Mixed j and common both to Quantity, Quality, Whole and Part j \ (tiled TRANSCENDENTAL MIXED.

) simple ; and proper to Action, viz. TRANSCENDENTAL re- (. lation of ACTION.

The molt Univerlal conceptions of Things are^ilually (tiled TRAN- SCENDENTAL, Metaphyftc-aU.

To which may be annexed by way of affinity , that general name which denotes thofe higheft and moft common heads , under which the (everal kinds of things may be reduced in an orderly (eries : Viz. PRE- DICAMENT, Category ♦

Tranfien dentals general may be diftributed into (itch as do concert? the nature of things according to their


I Differences : more I SABSO LUTE aj?d Common. Ilf.

\lRelative to Att ion 5 confidering 5 THE END. IV.



I. That

2 6

Tranfcendentah General .

Part. II.

i. kind. i. That common Efience wherein things of different natures do agree , is called GEtyUS, general^ common Rind.

That common nature which is communicable to fevcral Individuals ,' is called SPECIES, Sort or fpecial ki*d,Jpecifie,fpecifical. Breed.

Thefe common kinds may be diftinguilhed into fuch a9are either more properly [ Tranfcendental 3 namely, thofe moft univerfal and comprehenfive Terms which fall under Difcourfe 5 relating to

I The firfi and mofi general Conception ,of which the Vnderfianding takes notice , as molt known.

j SEEING, Entity) Ejjence, Exifience, fuMjfii am, 9 s, extant.

  • c NOTHING, Nought , null , none, annul , aifannul, annihilate , abrogate , abolijh ,

void, undoe , cancel , evacuate , Ciphre.

Thofe Beings which j j are truly fitch , or thofe which our Senfes mifiakefor Beings. j \THING, Affair, Matter, Bufinefi,CaJc, real -ly, indeed.

'{Apr AREN CE\ Apparition , Phontafm, Shew } Vifion , Elufion andvanijh.

| Similitudes of Beings ; fortked in our Minds either || by apprehertfion of things that are. or imagination of things that are not.

. SNOTION, Conception.

  • CFICTION) Figment,make, feign, frame,devTje)Counterfet)forge.coin,mint,Fa-

ble , Apologue, Romance) Tale, Legend , Mythology , Fairy, Nymph y Centaur , Griffin, Bugbear , Goblin , Chytttera , Atlantis , Vtopia.

The words ajfigned for the fignifying of fever al Things and Notions : to which that common name for the fignifying of particular rational Beings may be an- nexed, though lels properly.

C NAME, £/?/*, Title , Titular, CompeUation,AppeUation.nominate, denominate,

1 4 < Sir name, Infiription , Nomenclator, anonymous, call, Nown, Term.

C PERSON, Age, PaYty, No- body, Wight.

\Vredicamental 3 thofe chief Heads, under which other Terms may be reduced 3 denoting either

{Such things as \\Jubfifi by themfelves, or which (according to the old Logical definition) require a jubjeil of inhefion : Though they are indeed nothing but the modes of Subftance.

\ SUBSTANCE, fubfifi.

5 * i ACC ID "NT -all.

That habitude of things whereby they may be Jaid to have parts diftinft and ca- pable of' di vifion, or the general difpfitionaf things either to Ad ion or Pajfion.

  • CQUANTITY, Much, Deale, Mathematic^

| 6. <£>Z)ALITT, DiJpoJ/tion, Endowment, indue parts, qualification, manner, con-

| r ( dition, e/late.

The application of the Agent to the Patient , or the reception of the force of the , Agent.

( ACTION, doeperform, commit,] pradife proceeding, fundion, exerci/e, at- ) chieve^dealing , Ad , Fad, Deed , Feat , Exploit, PaJJage, Prank., I rick., pty 7 ‘ / the Part.

^PASSION, abide , ail, bear, endure, juffer , undergo, Jufiain, feel, capable. Such things as || cannot be, or cannot be known, without a rejped to fomething elfe 3 or which may be, or may be isnderfiood of tbemjelves, without any fuch refe- rence.

_ ^RELATION, refer. Regard, Rejped, Habitude, correlative . (.ABSOLUTENESS, irrejpedive, peremptory, flatjofitive.


II. That

Caules are cotnmonly distributed into

Chap. I.

Tranfcendentah General.

II. That which any way contributes to the producing of an effect, is ftyled CAUSE, Reafon , Ground , Principle , proceed front , procure, produce, make, conftitut e, In- fluence, raife.put, fit, bring to pafi.

That which proceeds from, or depends upon the Caufe, is ftyled EFFECT, Event ylffue fruit , accrue ,Succefl,Jpring from ,become,grow,come of it,iwpreffion,Produ 8 . $ External, luch as are without the Efleft. f By which things are done 3 whether

f More immediate and abfolute 3 either || more principal , of which the firft Afti- on is, or left principal, and fubfervient to the chief Agent. t EFFICIENT, Author, Maker, Efficacy, ejfe 8 ual. Energy, Virtue, Validity , I Force Rigour, Operation, Influence , frame, conflitute, beget , effieff, do .make, I,< - cauje, work., render, create, bring to pajs.

[ INS T RUMENT, Tool. Organ - ical , Implement.

{.Afore remote and relative > being either in fT he Agent 3 ferving . either to \ Excite, or refer ain it.

' IMPULSIVE, Incentive, Motive, Reafon, Ground, Concitation,Inftiga- tion. Inducement, imped, ftimulate, ftir up, prick.forward, four on, roufe, quicken , irritate, provoke, excite, egging,incite,InftinH, Confede- ration, put on, fet at or on, move, urge , drdw in.

COHIBITIVE, refrain, check. , curb, with-hold, keep Jhort or back* in- hibit, reprefi, hold in, bridling, flint , coerce, confine , limit, no ho, flay, ftaunch J moderate, maflcr, controle.

\jDire 8 and regulate its A 8 ion 3 either |} by that idea which the Agent hath in his mind of feme like cafe, ®r by feme Pattern before his eyes. t EXEMPLAR, Example, Infiance, Idea, Precedent, Caufe.

3 - £ TYPE, Pattern, Platform, Model, Lafl,Mold,Prototype, Antitype, Extra#, Original, Copy, Counterpart, Draught , Sampler, Proof, Duplicate, exem- plifie,prtfigure.

The Patient 3 relating to {{feme peculiar capacity in the thing , or feme fitnefiin refieS of time. ( location.

\ CON DITION, Provifo, Salvo, in c afe, Term, Cafe, St ate, liking,Habit,cpua- OCCASION -al. Exigence, Emergence, Advantage , Opportunity , draw, provoke, feandal. . (abated.

Some third thing , by which the force of the Efficient is either || increafed or ' ADJUVANT, Help,Aid,Ajjiftance, Succour, Relief, Support, Advantage, 'l auxiliary, fubfidiary , avail, conduce, promote , farther, ft and in ftead, Jupply, accommodate, ferve, Co-adjutor, abet, take ones part, ft and by, a . ft*J t0 one > f orn>ar d, minifter , relief, back. one.

IMPEDIENT, hinder, Obfiacle, Remora, Clog,Bar, . debar, obftruft, cum- ber, RUb,Check., Dam, Luggage, Lumber, Baggage, Prejudice, Difadvantage, fereflow,lett,ftop, DiJJervice, ft ay, ft and in the way, trigg, keep back., re- fer ain, with-hold , interfere.

Jorwhofe fekg a thing is : to which maybe annexed the general name of fitch things as have any tendency to the promoting of it. ( Reafon, final, tend.

£ 5 END, Aim. Mark., Goal,Drift, Intent, Effieff, Purpofe, Defegn, Scope, fakg. Reach, /MEANS, fVay. shift , Expedient, accommodate.

\lnternal , luch as are within the Effete as its chief conftituent parts • || out of which a thing is made, and of which it confifts 3 or by which a thing is conftitu- tedin its being , and diftinguijhed from all other things. f MATTER- ial. Stuff, Subftance, Argument, Subject, Boot as fire- boot, 8cc. ’IFORM-4/, Efience. E 2 HI. Thofc



111 .



28 Tranfcendentals General . Part. II.

III. Thofe general Names which may be ftyled Differences, are too numerous to be placed under one common Head according to the method dtfignecl in thefe Ta- bles, and therefore are they here reduced unto three Heads : whereof the firft con- tains fuch as do not immediately imply any relation to Adion, and are therefore fty- led more ahfo We and common -, namely, thofe more univerfal Affedions of Entity whereby feveral things are differenced, fo as to make them DIVERS from one ano- ther. (another, Jevrrai.fundry. vary ■ etydiffonant , to and fro, up and down, multiplicity , choice, different others, heterogeneous ’, ) to which the notion of IDENTITY, V try, famenefi. all one, unvaried , may be properly oppofed, importing an Unity or Agree- ment in the fame t fence.

Thefe are diftinguifhable into fuch Differences of things as imply a reJpeH unto f Something without the things themfelves. fprehenfions of them .

The Vndxrjtandim ; in regard of the || congruity, or incongruity of things to our ap. ) .TRUTH, true, Verity , verifie, very, Right, i>ooth,irrefragably,hkgly, probable.

) 1 • * FALSHOOD , falfe - ifie , Error, erroneous , untrue*

( The Will as to the \\ agreement, or difagreement of things with that Faculty/© as to be rend red defir able or avoidable.

.GOODNESS, Weal, Welfare , right , regular, well, r ell ifie, better, left. 7, iEFILNfSS, id, bad.naut>ht,wrong,amifiJhrewd,fcurvy, lewd, horrid horrible, corrupt, Pravity, 'deprave,Sm , Fault, 1 refpaffl ranjgrefi-ion. Peccadillo . , worfe. The nature of things in themfelves ", as to ||

Their nailed being , or not being.


3* 1 PRIVATIFENESS, Privation, bereave, deprive, depofe, put out, or forth, takf

away. Jbrip, devefl,diJJeife,difpoJfefi, disfurnijh.

Their being, or not being what they are pretended to be.

\ GENUINENESS, right, arrant, rank very, native, legitimate , true , currant. ^‘l&PZiRIOVSNESS, mongrel, bafiard, falfe , illegitimate, improper , adulterine, bafe , misbegot, fophifheated.

Their degrees of being •, whether || prefent , or future and in poffibility.

. ACT U a LNESS, Exi fence , extant.

,5* ipOTENilALNESS , Reverfion, may. can.

1 Their Extenfion • being \\circumfcribt d by bounds, or not fo circumfcribed, (ded.

. FINITENESS, definite } determined,limited ; bounded,Term,Confine,Stint, coiiclu- ^ iiNFINn ENESS, endlefs, indefinite J unbounded, immenje , indeterminate, unli- mited, unmeafurable, inixhaujlible.

.7 heir Caufes. {fmsmr Agent.

I Efficient’, whether || the order of common Providence , or the skill of fome in - 1 . N ATUR A LNESS, right , native , wild, carnal , preternatural, fupernatural.

"I'x FACTI7 loVSNESS, artificial, technical, made.

Material’, being either || without all parts and compofition , or being fuch, to the fra- ming of which feveral parts and ingredients do concurr *

c SIMPLICITY, mere, Jheer, clear, fine , plain, right, pure, unmixed, Jngre- 8 < dient, Jingle, uncompounded.

L MIXEDNESS , mingle, compound, blend Jhuffle,Medly,Mifcellany,pr$mifiuous, temper , Commixtion, complex, complicate, confound , intermingle , Hodg-podge, Gallimaufry, Rhapfody, Cent on, dafh, brew.

[Formal’, \\ being in fuch a fate to which nothingis wanting, or elfe wanting Jome- thingof what they may and Jhould have.

t PERFECTION, abfolute, intire, fu0,accurate } exa8,exquifitejun8ual,precije, 9 . A complete, confummate,accomplifb fir i&, plen ary fhroughly, mature, up, at thp top. I IMPERFECTION, incomplete, lame. XV. That

Chap. I.

Tranfcendentalf General,


IV. That kind of Difference betwixt things, which relates toAdfci- IV - dif- ons cbnfidering the End, may be ftiled DISAGRE ABLENESS, unfit a- ble, dijcrepant. the END of

To which may beoppofed the Notion of CONVENIENCE, agree- A<ftion ’ ment, agreable fitabe, ferving , cent modi ous.

Thde may be difringuilbed into fuch as are More Simple 3 denoting their Fitnefixv || promote, or hinder our well-being.

EROFITABLENE.SS, Advantage, Benefit , Emolument , Interefi ,

Concern , Boot, Fruity Utility , Commodious , Edifie , (land infled, good for , avail.

Hi RlFULtoESS, Harm, Prejudice , Difidvantage, Dammage ,

D if profit, toufance, Mifchief difcommodiousyiocent , Jhrewd turn , pernttious, noxious, noijom , damnific , en dammage, impair, an • noy , dtfpleajure , naught for , vermin ,

Sutahlenefior unjut ablenefs to our appetites.

C PLEAS AN IN ESS, Delight, Complacence, injoy ment, fitijfatfion,

2. •< Jweet, taking, delicious, Paradifi.

\ VNPLEAS AHl to ESS , Regret t diJpleafing,ojfenfivef rouble, grievous, uneafle, painful.

1 sfgreablenefi or Difagreablenefi of things to

2 f OUENESS, Duty, ought, fhould, Honed, owe, part, incumbent on: ,

  • ( UtoDUENESS , ought not, dijhonefi.

More mixed imply ing a refpeft to the nature of the end, as to its f Capacity or Incapacity of exijtiug.

1 .POSSIBILITY, Feajible,may,can.

4 “» IMPOSSIBILITY, cannot be.

Degrees of goodnefi ; whether fuch as are like to anfwer the defires, by proving very great and confiderable.or fuch as are like to dilappoint the defires, by proving to be very little or none.

{.IMPORTANCE, of Moment, Confequencc,Strength,F or cefVeight,

5. < material, conjider able, pithy, pregnant, efiential, it matter eth.

C V Atoll. T, Trifle, trivial, frivolous. Foppery , Gewgaw, Knacks Toy,

fleevelefi, flight , light, fruit lefi, j Idling , void. Trumpery, Bauble,

QuiUtt) Gambol^ to no boot 3 to no furpoJe 9

Ejleem amongfl good men 3 whether (uch as they are like to think well of asdeferving praife and reward , or to thinks^/, as deferving ihame and puniihment.

(WORTHINESS, Merit , Defert, Value , demerit , cheap , dear,

6 . < price, precious, depreciate.

(UtoWOR'i HItoESS, Vile, Mean, Poor, undejerving, indigni



3<d Tranfcendentah General. Part. II.

v. diffe- v. DIFFERENCES of things relating to the MEANS, may be di- Eg C tothc ftributed intofuch as are means. r Moxc Simple, denoting the being of things

‘[Good 3 as good is determined by

I ' r Law 3 whether according to Law, or notagainfl it.

^ cLAWFULNESS, legitimate, right , legal , canonical, orderly. INDIFFERENCE, adiaphorous.

j Ccufiom or opinion 3 whether luch as the generality of men do ! < think, well of and pra&ife, or diflikg and avoid.

f J C DECENCY, Decorum, meet, fit, feemly, handfome, becoming,

I 2. \ comely, goodly.

j ] • C INDECENCY , Indecorum , unmeet , unfit, unfeemly, unhandjbme , I j uncomely, mifbefieming,ugly.

t \Free from evil 1 whether of

I Hurt-,

^ fSAFETY, Security, fire, tutelary , innoxious, five, prote&, in- < • < fi re -> indemnifie, warrant, SanOuary, Shelter , Refuge. j 3 * | DANGER , Hazard, Peril, Jeopardy, unfafe, risk,, venture, ad - J venture , endanger , expofe, incur.

L Labor and Pain 3 in the

f Agent 3 the Doing of things with little or much labor.

) r EASINESS , Facil-ity itate, clear, gentle, light, S^'\piFFICVLTT, Hard , uneajie, crabbed, intricate , laborious, j freight , Perplexity, rub, knot, graveling, hard put to it.

f Patient 3 The fifering of things with little or no labor, ox with much. fGENTLENESS, Eajinefi foftnefi fill, tenderly, gingerly. 5 ’CVIOLENCE, boiferous, rough, harjh , blufiering, impetuous, force, ravijb.

Comparative 5 of the

r Nature of the means to one another 3 whether mutually agreeing as ha- t virig the feme kind of affe&ions, or difigreeing as having luch kind of affections as are apt to exclude one another out of the feme t fub jedt.

f CONGRUlTY, Sutablenefi, Agreablenefi, Sympathy, confonant,

1 6. < com P at *ble, right, appofte , fit, meet, apt , adapt, confident, accord,

/ conform, accommodate, comply.

v CONTRARIETY, Repugnance , withfand, againfi, unfit able. Anti - perifajis , counter, crofi, incongruous, inconjiflent , incompatible, i J interfere.

( Vffulnefi or Vnujefulnefi of means to an end, whether in j LoWer degrees 3 when there is a fair probability that a means may I cithei promote or hinder the end.

  • t EXPED\ENCE,Convenience,behoovful,meet,fit,perquiJite,requifite.

1 1 • * INCONVENIENCE, Inexpedience, unmeet, unfit , incommodious. {.Higher degree 3 when there is a certain dependance betwixt the means and the end.

To which may beoppoled that kind of nexus betwixt means and end, which is altogether uncertain and doubtful.

C NECESSITY, needful, requijite, ejfential, jhould,muf, freight, 8. s exigent , force, perquifite, prejfing.

L CoNTlNGENCE, Venture , adventure, may, Accident ^er adventure, adventitious, fortuitous, incident, happen, perhaps . 6 .Thole


Chap. I. Tranfcendentals General, 3 1

VI, Thofe more general refpe&s and habitudes which (everal things tu mode. or notions have to one another, are Ailed by the name of MODE, man- ner, way , fort, ftJhion,guife, wife , garb, courfe, form -ality, kind.

Thefe may be diftinguifhed into iuch as are r Internal', denoting that

• C In which another thing exiffs, or the thing Jo exijiing in another \ C SUBJECT, liable , obnoxious , expofed, matter. Text, Theme , under- £**> capable.

- j (.ADJUNCT, Epithet e, inherent.

( About which a thing is imployed.

a. OBJECT, mark., fope, butt, treat, handle, meddle with, have to do


External 5

’With which things are accompanied or done 5 according to the 1 \ Kinds of them, either in General, or J specially of fuch things, as are

( remarkable for Extraordinarineis and Greatnefi.

C CIRCUMSTANCE, Rite, Ceremony.

1 3 * ^SOLEMNITY, Grandeur ffate,fomp. Port, celebrate Jolemnize,

I c Rite.

\jConfequence of them', or that habitude refulting to any thing from j - the confideration of al 1 its circumfrances together.

4. STAID, Pfi ate, Conditio n. Cafe, Jun 8 *re,Lil{ing, manner yafyicfje,

1 plight, point % in good repair.

By which any thing is known.

5. SIGN, Badge, Token, Mark., Note, Symptome,Symbol, Index, Indica- tion, Cue, Print, Scarr, Track., Signature, Jignffe , Beacon, bee ken, Bo ad, foretoken, pre/age, Prodigie, portentous, ominous, aufpicious.

According to which any thing is, or is done ', relating either to the J Order obferved in the being or doing of things ', whether by j One perfon or thing after another who hath left his place, or for ano- | ther who is onely abjent from his place.

as Succeflbr, Caliph, Jiipply, place.

< £ STEAD, as fubjlitute, Jubdititious,Jerve for, Juccedaneous, De-

puty , Surrogate, Vicar, Delegate , Vice-gerent , Attourney ,

Broaker , FaBor, in lieu , Lievtenant, ProBor, Proxy. iTwoperfons or things either one after another , or one with another.

< STURN, Courfi, alternate, f econd,bout .

^RECIPROCATION, mutual, interchangeable, intercourje , correfponcL .

1 Meajures of Being whether the more General name for foch fflea- iures, differenced according to more and lefi, or that fpecial kind which denotes the Jbdain and Jkort Being or Doing of any thing * according to a greater meafare. {and little.

i g jDEGREE, gradual, a Jpice, a firein, gradation , leqjurely, by little ! " t IMPETUS, Fit, Paroxyfm, brunt, crajb, effort , pang.

| AffeBions of Being 5 with reference either to fome common agree- ment and mutual dependance, or to fome inconjtjlency betwixt them. SCOGNATION, Affinity, Nearneff.

  • ’{.OPPOSITION, Difagreableneff, contrary, counter, repugnant, with -

ffand, againff, crofs, thwart,othef fide,adverfe. Antagonist, An- tithejis , confront, impugn, oppugn.



Tranfcendentals Mixt.

Part. II.

' TRANSCENDENTAL Relations MIXED, may be diftributed into fuch as do belong either

H * nUANTITY, as confidered (to


I. TRANSCENDENTAL mixed Relations belonging to QUANTITY confidered MORE GENERALLY, may be diftributed into fuch as do concern the meafure of things compared ei- i ” Other things of the fame kind or company (ther with

Indefinitely ; as to

r Being or Subftance, namely when the things compared are confidered

  • Singly and inti re. Being cither of an ordinary Gze,or more or lefs tlnn ordinary .

f INDIFFERENCE, Pretty big,paffahle,rtaJ'onable, fo Jo.

c i GREATNESS, Magnitude , ample, large yVaBJ?uge,immenfeygr and y monBrous, pro - J ) digiou s, found y Jwiuging, whisker, main 9 muth y magntfie , aggravate , exaggerate ,

1 S a filthy deaty a foul deal, Gyant.

j ( LITTLENESS , Smalnefs, Petty, Minute , Modicumy Scantlingy diminutive , l iff, lea ft, poor, ah ate, allay , rxrrns<«rf, Elf \ Dwarf, Shrimp, Tit , Dandiprat, Pigmy . Lccwjwiftf/y; as con Gfting of feveral individuals or parts, whereof there are together an ordinary number , or mare or lejs then ordinary . a {MEDIOCRITY, a pretty deal, an indifferent quantity, mean, reafonable.

\ * C J JBOV NDANC E, a great deal, much, a world, affluence, plenty , Jlor*, copious, fluff,

• < J'atiate, flow, fluent , luxuriant, enough and to Jpare.

j t £ C ARC ITT, Little, want ydearth, pinching, J cant, bare, jejune, lack*

I Vfe, with refpeft to the quantity of it, whether fuch as may by its juB proportion promote

JBOV NDANC E, a great deal , much, a world, affluence , plenty. Bore, copious , fluff , J'atiate, flow, fluent, luxuriant, enough and to Jpare .

SCARCITY, Little, want ydearth, pinching, f cant, hart, jejune, lack*

< the end, or fuch as may hinder it, by being too much , or too little.

f SUFFICIENCY enough, big or much enough, competency, moderate ,f atis fie, ferve,well, full.

    • \v EXCESS, Redundance, Juperfiuity, needle fs, exuberance, too much, overmuch, over-

J charge, cloy, glutt, furfet, fatiety, extreme, immoderate , luxuriant, rani out of j reajon, waB, fly out , lafh out .

{DEFECT, Not enough, lac{, need, pensery, indigent, uecejjitous, deBitute, want, fail*' fall ffort of, Jlender , jejune, incompetent, infujficient .

\.S£uality of it, denoting the being of a thing of an ordinary gooodnefs, or more or lefs then j 1NDIFFERENCY, Pretty well, tolerable, not amij’s. ( ordinary •

EXCELLENCE, extraordinary good, eminence, prehem.nence , egregious, eximious,imom- J parable, Juferlat'tve, foveraign, tranfcendtnt , fingular, heroic , high, noble , gallant,

) choice, pajjing, rare, remarkable, notable. Paragon, Mirrour.

( SORRINESS, mean, poor, vile, trivial , contemptible, dejpicable, frippery, Traff, Trum- pery, Raff, Scum, DrVgg, filly, flight , paultry, J'curvy, poor, c our fe, flat, pedlmg, cheap, worthlefs , Fellow, Sirrah, Companion, Rafcal, Varlet , Wretch, Scoundril , Skip-jacJ(, Scrub , Vrchin , Flirt, GiU, Jade.

Definitely j as to

Being ; either of the fame degree, or more or lefs.

j EQUALITY, Evennejs, parity, peer, match , fellow, adequate, equipollent, adjuB, i INEQVALlTr, unequal, odds. (halves with, as many, all one .

I ( SUPERIORITY, above, upper, advantage, odds, preheminence,furmount,overpaj's,

( < furpafs, exceed, go beyond, out -go, get the Bart, top, excell, prevail, predominant.

f INFERIORITY, under - ling , di /advantage, allay, come ffort of, low. •

Vfe •, as means to an end, when one thing hath the J'ame degrees of fitnefs for an end as another, or more or lefs.

A I EQUIVALENCE, countervail. m°'\tBETTERNESS.

' w 1 W'ORSEarFS'S'.

] Them fives ; in refpe&of their

c Being or fubftance,ei ther continued the fame,or changed to more or lefs .

J AT A STAND. (prove, rife, grow, gain, come forward, ere feent .

j 7* 1 j INCREASE, Augmentation, progrefs, increment, enlarge, magntfie, amplifie, aggravate, im- l 1 DIMINUTION, Abate, Bate,fwage, affwagejecreajc, extenuate , mince , mitigate, allay , I retrench, rebate, ffrink* .

J QUALIT Yin general, either continuing in an ordinary degree, or being changed to more or lefs. < Q 4 JUST TEMPER.

f 1 1 INTENTION, heighten, Brtin, raife, aggravate, exaggerate, exafperate, enhaunce, acute, I J cutting, k**n, fore , piercing, vehement, urgent, eager, earntB, deep fleet, amain, greatly, 1 ) much. ( flender,wiak . , dead dilute jud, faint, gentle, light.

{ / REMISSION , Abate , allay, flake, flacken, fwage, ajfwage ,dimintff, mitigate, flight, cold,

! Vfe ; when things cither continue as tney were, or elfe become more or lej'sgoef.

! Vfe ; when things cither continue as they were, or elfe become more or lejsgood.

^ i KEEPING AT A STAY. {improve, Edifie, botch, cobble, clout, pntcb,Progrefs, advance.

P’l f MENDING, emendation , be ttering,Bjtpamt ion, Reformation, Re BauratioHy correB,redrefs, m i MARRING, Spoiling, Deprave, Impair, J'pill , taint, alloy , wear, corrupt, vitiate, waB,

II. Tran*

Ob^p.I. . Trarifcendentah Mixt.



flMiei frota END to End. ••

C LENGTH, -w-j Longitude, prolong, pmrni?, eek§ out, extend, te

  • •< mem, prolnctttp^

CsHORTNESS , brevity , Concifenefi , abbreviate , curtal. abridge, rejtrain, compendious, fttccinS. *

Superficies ; from fide to fide.

( BREDTH, Widmef utilmk, Large*#, Amfltne# ffecoui, Ji- 2. < late, enlarge, extend*

Streigbtne & ScaftMe /> c ty*> comprejfed) pin\-

Body j reckoning from i

f Top to bottom.

profound, Atyfl, farr iMo,high.

ALLOWNESS, F ord^ S court, Deprejjton, low. flat. )

Bottom to Top. ^ 9 J , ; j

i ;

,S T « $ . Cr #"*. «"*> *?, <**#<«, ram-

III. Trust-

v^.oo Le

Tranfcendentals Mixt . . Part. .II

III. Tranfiendental Relations of DISCONTINUED QUANTITY Or Number, may be diftributed into (itch as are either :

j Comparative 3 denoting either a greater or lefer number then ordi- ‘ nary.

CMULTlTUDE, many, numerous, a toorld of, multiply, increafi , < I . < propagate, fore, fioarm, thick# prcfs , crowd , throng, rout.

{FEWNESS , Paucity , decreafi , fmall number, thin, diminifb- ing.

i sjofitive ; concerning the "Number of things, whether ( One, or more then one.

V S SINGULARITY, Individual, numerical, jingle.

. ) 2 *5 PLVRALItT , more ^-Some or AU.

S P A RTICULARITY, fpecial, peculiar.

J ^{UNIVERSALITY, Generality , Catholic k, Oecumenical , utmojl . Kinds of things, whether 0«»e kind, or AU kinds.

SSPECIALNESS, peculiar, particular.


, Parts of which number confifts, whether .Efw*/ or Unequal Units. ^JEVENNESS, Parity, ...

1 ^‘{ODNESS; Imparity, uneven. i LPofition of things numbred, denoting their

f Being in a ftate of fiparation from others, or in a Rate of conjun- 1 Ition with feveral others.

, * u (SEGREGATENESS , fiver, fit apart or aGdc, Analyst, Ana - ^ P torn), piece-meal, by retail, di fence, dijtribute, one by one, ' / Parcels , by pole.

V AGGREGATENESS, Train,Troop, Comp any, Party, Scull \Swarm, i ' Team, Flock, Heard, Pack. » Covy, Sheaf, Bale , Bundle , Fardle ,

Bunch , C Infer, Grofs, by the great.

  • Order , belonging either to Things, or to Words.

C SERIES, Rank,, R-oxo, Clafs, fitccejjtve, chain, Courfe,Race, col - ! 7 . s lateral. Concatenation, Alphabet.

(.CATALOGUE, Index, Table, LiJl,Role, Bill, Scr ole. Terrier, a particular , Cargo, Inventory, Mufier,impannel, Genealogy , Pe- digree, Vocabulary, Dictionary , Lexicon,. Nomenc later,- Alma- nack., Calendar.

Parts of an aggregate being all together.

8 . SUIT, Fack, Set, Mejs, a Ring.

IV. Tran •

Chap. I.

T ranfcendentah Mixt .

IV. Tranfiendental Relations belonging to QUALITY, as confidered IV - T ranfcen

irv» i? v a rn v _ i 1 • /I • • 1 • r t 1 • I r n • *. II Af

MORE LARGELY, may be diftributed into fuch kind of Relations as ou^rrY* arc cither ; atfcrge.

7 single containing a refpett to the '

I f Caufi of a thing, whether none or any, The being of a thing, the firft of I I its kind, or not.

tPRIMITIVENESS, Root, original, fimp/e, underived.

W DERIVATIVENESS , conjugate, Notation, Etymology, tranfinilfion. , Difiance of a thing, whether without or with any other between*.


Manner of being, whether i nti/ely of it felf, or by virtue of fomething elfe.

i | ^ABSOLUTENESS, Independent, Freehold.


[ [Degrees of Being or Caufality, whether fuperior and before all others, 1 or inferior, and after Ibme others.

f PRINCIPALNESS, Chief, Special, Ring- leader, fiver aign, fiprente, ) paramount^ firji) main 5 arch y prime , primary , capital y cardinal fundamental. Top, Head, A/afier.

C ACCESSORINESS, Abet, adherent , fecond, Companion, Party, Copart- ner, Complice , Appendage, Label, Appurtenance, adventitious, col- lateral, confciom, privy, fide with, back^ partake, participate, by the way, by the by.

Mutual', whether more

j Pofitive * fignifying one thing either to have or not to have Relation

I to ibme other.

I k PERTINENCY, belong, appertain,appofite,to the pur pofi pouching,

< 5- < concern, material, relate to,firvefor, incumbent on.

L IMPORT INENCY, not to the purpofe, extravagant} fieevelefi, wide

.j from the matter, wild, idle, improper.

^Comparative, denoting (ucii relation to belong oncly to one or few or to many. f 3

, 5PROPERNESS, incommunicable, owner, peculiar, concern. ’■* '<• ^.COMMONNESS, ufual } vulgar, currant, general, profiitute. * '

V. Tran-


Tranfcendentals Mixt ,

Part. II

V.Tranfcend. y Tranfcendental Relations of QUALITY confidered MORE moreftri&ty. STRICTLY, may be diftributed into fuch as do concern either their f Being The fame or divers.

C LIKENESS, Similitude, fimilar, affimilate,refemble, reprefentation I. ) Species , idea , Image , Effigies, Portraiture.

(. VNLIKENESS , Dijjimilitude , dijjimilar, degenerom.

Circumjlances ; whether f Special , relating to their

r P/^ce, either the being of things /« their due portions , or o»f of their due places.

( O&DEK, Regular, Method, array,imbattle,marjhal,rally,in frame.

i ( OKDEK, Regular, Met

| 2. S difpofe , digejl , ivwgc. <’ C CONFVSluN, Difordet

< C. CONFVSluN , Diforder, Rhapfody, Chaos, Gallimaufry, tumult ,rovt,

coy l, d/Jfjeveled, difrankgd, out of frame or order, promifeuons , J Prepojierous , Ruffle, Shuffle , fc amble, clutter, blunder , jumble,

hurry, burly burly, pel/ mell.

J [Time, cither the being of things *r ufually they are, or their being etherwifo then commonly they uje to be.

' ^ ORDINARINESS, common, ujual, trivial, currant. %’lEXTRAORDlNARlNESS, firange, uncouth, unuffial, unwonted, of note , notable, notorious, Odnfff, Paradox v 1. General , The being at things according to certain rules or not jb. c REGULARNESS) right, re^ifie, rule.

, 4-* \EXORBITANCT , Irregularnefi Enormity, Diforder, extravagant , li- centious, wild, faulty, wrong, loofe, immoderate, unruly, unbridled, out of ftuare, lajh out , Hetervclyte, Anomalous.

Being known $ eit her to many or /err.

S PU BLICK.NESS, Notorious , famous, common, ext ant ,open,being out, or abroad. , Declaration , Manifefio, Remon franco, Edition, Promul- gation, Jet forth at out, jbew, fpread, blazon, fui>hJh,proclarm, di- vulge, denounce, produce, poff up, come to tight , high way. PRITATENESS, underhand , clancular, clandejitne, retire , between I themfelves.

^Mixture with or addition of other things $ when they are i Better for fitch mixture, or IVorje for being without it

I j ORNATENESS, adorn, fet out. Deck . » beaut if e, embellijh,trimm,

I trick., tire, garnffi, flour ijh, dr e(i. prank.. Ornament, Grace, flo- , J rid, neat, fmug,Jpruce, elegant, quaint. fine,polite. gay, gaudy, gor-

  • ‘i geous, flaring,garifi, flaunting, Call ant, Spark., Bracelet, Plume,

J I Garland, Ouch , &c.

j ! HOMELINESS, ftmple, rough , rude, untrimmed, plain, bald.

[_ e tter for being without fuch mixture, or worfe for it.

( PURITY, Cleannefi, undfiled, defecate, fine, refine, try, furbufh, 7 . < fcoure, purge, purifie, clarifie , depuration, neat, abfterfive.

L DEFILEMENT , Filthinefi , Impurity, unclean, fowl, fqualid, bedawb , befmear , bewray, contaminate, fiabber, /lubber, fmear, foil, fully, pollute, daggle, flurry, /mutch, /mutt, /lain , alloy, em- bafi, dajh.

VI. That

Chap. I.

Trmjcendemals Mixt.



VI. That thing which is made up of feveral lefier things united toge- vr. Tranfcen. ther is called by the name of WHOLE, Total, Integral, Jntire, Summ, and

All, Utterly. Quite and clean, full, plenary . PART.

Thofe lefier things , by the union of which another greater thing is made Up, are fiiled by the common name of PARTS. Particle , Parcel, partial , Divide, Jhare , difir ibute, driblet, portion, piece , pittance.

The tranicendental relations of whole and part are (uch as denote a rtGpeCt to Quantity Continued 3 in regard of the f Quality 3 of Goodnefi or Badnefi of (itch parts.

CBEST PART, QuinteJJence, Cream, Flower, the heart ,Top. l - 2 *TORST PART , Rejufe, Scumm, Or eggs, Raff, draft, drofi, rubhijh,

. tare , bran , chaff, recrement, trajb, garbage, offal.

Time 1 either "that which is firfi taken , whereby the goodnefi of the whole is to be meafured, or that which is jitper added after the CSAY, tafie, touch, fiantling. (whole.

  • ^'{VANTAGE) fitrplus, ovcrplm, to boot , over and above, over-weight,

corollary, fupplement, vails.

Place 3 fpecially in liquids , either that part which in reparation doth rife to the top, or that which falls to the bottom.

CSCUM, Sandever, Mother. (defecate,

3 - {SEDIMENT, fitling, caput mart, grounds, lees, dregs, feculent, rack..

Figure 3 fpecially in folids^ whether Roundijh 3 in greater parts, or in lefier parts.

LUMP, Bole,Morfel, Bit, Can tie. Luncheon, Gobbet, Mammocks,

4. <, Stub , flump, grumoms, clotted, clod, turf e, fid.

POWDER, Mote, Duft, Corn ; Grain, Crum, Grate, moulder.

Oblong 3 made || either by Cutting, or by breaking,

5 CH IP, Lamin, Sc ale, Flake, F law, F litter, JhiveJhiver,Jplinter.

5 * {FRAGMENT, Piece, Scrap, sheard, tatter , Flitter, rag,Jhread,Jhip, fiive,flke, collep, cut. iDifiontinued 3 denoting the refpetSt of

A Part put to another, or the whole as being made up of fuch parts.

. SADDITUM , item, put to, infert, eke out.

{SUMM, lay or couch together , call up, count, draw to a head, come to, amount, refult , total, in the whole.

A Part t akin out from others, or the whole remaining dfier fitch taking out.

. C ABLATUM, abate, defalk. retrench , deduSf, frbdttS, JubfiraB,

7. < takeaway.

C RESIDUE, overplus Jurpluffage, arrear, remainer , remnant , left be-' hind, the other, the refi, r clicks, orts , fir ops, reverfions , gleaning , effal, odd-ends, flubs, flumps, fiubble. *

A Part repeated a certain number of times, fiat to equal the whole, of the whole confidered aslthfi made up.


PRODUCT , reifangle.

A Part taken out fuch a certain number of times os leaves nothing, of the whole, ox that number of times which hf the Correfpondent _ 5DIVI8OK, (part.



8 .*


Tranfcendentals Relations of ABion m Part. II.


diftributed intol’uch as are more ^ T


(spcrtjlt denoting either JCOMPARATE. II (Kinds of A&ion. (BUSINESS. III.

tS Solitary s wherein more then one perfon is not neceflariiy fuppofed. f {Social $ wherein more then one pcrlon is neceflariiy fuppoled. ^EVENTS. V (COMMERCE. IV

( ITION. V I (things, are fuch as do concern

I. Tranfirndental refpefts of ACTION SIMPLE or relating xofinglc 1 he General condition of a thing denoting the making of it |j to he Jo, or ^PUTTING, Set , Lay, Makg. (to be otherwife.

1 ' {ALTERING, Change , Vary, Mutation, Jbift, Revolution, Viciffitude , Ones right in a thing •, whether (Cataflrophe, Met amorphofs .

( Making it |! to he his , or not to be his.,

) 5 APPROPRIATING, own Jet apart, engrofs, monopolize.

{ALIENATING, transjerr. ejtrange, paf away ones right. v Declaring it to he his, or not to be his,

■ ( CLAIMING, Owning .Challenging, Demand , arrogate, affme, profef, 3 . < attribute. aferibe, take upon hint, declare for.

I ABDICATING, difclaim, difown, renounce, relinquif), refuje, rejed,

’ , repudiate , defer t,f or fikg, difavow, dijherit, execrate , forJwear,de-

' fitute. cajl off Jay afde, put away. ,

Ones PoJJejJion y with refpeft to the f C aujing of a thing to be in ones PoJJeffon or not.

VrAKlNG, Seifng,Apprehending,refume,furprize,aJfume,intercept. ^ f LEAVING, Relinqujh, Ref due, forfakg, Jpare.

1 Being of a thing in ones poJJcJJion, or the not being of fuch a thing in ones < pajjidfon as he ought to have.

SLAVING, in hand, hold,t>oJfef.

^{WANTING, indigent, lack., necejjity, need, penury.

^Continuing a thing in ones PoJJejJion or not.

, S HOLDING, Detain, Retain, Keep.

'{.LETTING GO, Difmifl fir render, give up, shed, Caft, mew, refgn. jhe Knowledge of things , wit h rel'peft t o the ' Endeavour oj' knowing, or the good Juccef of fuch endeavour. ,

, . SSFEKIN^p, fearch,feel for, grope, ranfack rummage, ^ueli,

{FINDING, retrive,fft out,fmell out. Foundling.

Caufng a thing to be known, or hindring it from being known.

"I (SHEWING, dijelofe, deteS, betray, reveal, dtfeover , declare, de- .mohfi rate, remonft rate, render. v .

(CONCEALING, Hide, shelter, Supprcfl, Sculk, lurk.. Secretfrivate, ■ Latent, occult, underhand, clofe, clancular,xfandefine . in a corner, . \ in. hugger mugger, recefi retire. fink., mich^fneaksfip , or'fteal away, cloke, veil,hoodwink, mask, muffle.

.Caufng others to be perfectly known, ox to be thought Jo.

( MANIFESTING, Apparent, Evident, plain, flat, open, confpicuovs, fperfpicuom, obvious , certain , clear, palpable, few, declare, certific / Jet fori^ epme to light. /

  • ....S SEEMING, Semblance, shew. Pretence, Pretext, %>mbrage. Colour,

a few, a blind. Formal, Appear, palliate, fain, bear in hand, make at if, makejbew offpecious, dijguije, Eyfervice. II. Tran-



Chap. I. Tranfcendental Relations of AUion. 39

II. Tranfcendental Relations of A&ion COMPARATE, are fuch as do concern.

I" Divers things at the fame times, whether fuch kind of A&ions as from the nature * 2 '°™ of the Agents or Patients, may be called | 'Corporeal-, denoting the

Cau(ing of things to be together or afiwder.

S JOIN lNG, annex, Connexion, couple, link . , copulation,concatenafion,conjun - Sion, Coalition, coherent ,copulative,conglutinate, combine, compa3,fet or put together.

SEPARATING , S egregate, funder, fever, diffever, divide, ditjoin,difinite,dif- feS, difolve,part, take in pieces, disjunctive.

Continuing them together or afitnder.

2 5ADHEAR1NG, Cleave , fiick. to, cling to, hang together , coherent , infeparahle.

C ABANDONING , For fake, Defert, Relinquifi), Leave, Forgo, Flinch , Quit, Dereli- 3 ion, forlorn, defiitutc,Jhakg or caft off \ fart back,, give over. :

Mental ; Tutting of things together or afunder S APPLYING, lay or put to.


Both Corporeal and Mental 5 with relpe,& to the ' Taking in of feveral things, or the leaving out of feme.

CCOMPREHENDING, Contain, Comprize, Imply, Involve , Inclofe , Include ,

4 . < inchtfve, hold. Complication. \ ,

(EXEMPTING, Except, refrain, feclude, exclude, fave falvofietafide.

Putting of things together, the better to judge of their likgnefs or unlikgnefs, or examining of them for the difinguijhing of that which is right and true. SCOMPAR1NG, Conferr, Collation , refemble.

5*£TRY, Prove,Searcb,Temptation,Experimcnt,teil,toueb,examiugage.poiJe,poJe ,

probe. 9

\lhe fame things at divers times, whether the lame as to

r subfiance fignifying either the doing of the fame thing feveral times,ot the making

  • of a thing to be different at one time from what it was before.

C REPEATING, Iterate, reiterate, recite, render, rehearfe,redouble,reduplicate,

6. < inculcate, ingeminate, rccapitulate,renew, afrejh.again , Tautology . the burden.

C CHANGING, Mutation, Vary, Alter, Shift.

\ Quantity j Th c giving back, of the very fame thing, or of fimething elle equal to it.

‘J 5^-tSTORING, Give back., Reftitution,refund, return, Refiauration. ^COMPENSATING, Recompenfi , award, make amends , remunerate, quit, re- quite, retaliate, retribute, reparation, paying, fit, being even with, meet with, makf good, cry quittance, like for likf, one for another.

Quality endeavouring to Jhew how another thing it , or to do the like ,

Q £ REPRESENTING, declare, Jhew, exhibit, prefent.

° ^IMITATING, Mimick, perjonate, take forth, follow.

Vfi 5 as means to an end , The making of a thing more fit or left fit for its end.

( REPAIRING, Mending , Bettering, Improving , correS , reSifie, renew,

) reedifie, Emendation, Infiauration, Redrefs, fet to right, make good, make 9’ J up, patch up, piece up.

  • SPOILING , Marring, corrupting , deprave, impair e, raze, fit ape otcrofi out ,

fieigjot works.

HI. Thole

in.T»a»f. Relit, of BUS!- NESS.

2 ,<

40 Tmnfcmdental Relations of ABion. Part. Il-

Ilf. Thofe kind of Actions about which menbeftow their time and labour, are called by the general name of BUSINESS, Affair, Task , Chare,Tranf*Sion Maher, Fa- dor, Agent, negoti ate, occupie,fiickfe,meddle, intermeddle ,deaiing, imployment .adtve.

To which may be oppoied the Negation or being free from luch Actions ftited' LEAS 7 JRE, Vacation vacant jdle or flare time, unoccupied, rcfjtite. *

Tranjcendental relatione of BUSINESS, may be diftributed into fuch as are f Previous to it.

( Mental or Verbal.

^DESIGNING, allot, appoint, plot, preordein,projed.

UNDERTAKING, enterprizejakg in band, Jet nponfatk (fite materials.

Real 5 either more general or more Jpecial, with refpeft to the providing of requi- '’PREPARING, Parade, previom, ready, make way, fitting, Tuning, Harbinger. FURNISHING, Equipage, fitting, ready.

Parts of it 5 whether f Initial’, with refpedt to the

' Firjl entrance upon a bulinels , either Real or Seeming.

\ C BEGIINNING, Inchoate, initiate, commence, Inceptor , Spring , Rife, Origh 3. < nal, firjl , fet about, fet forth, fet a foot, go in hand with, enter upon.

'• COFFERING, Propoje, prefer, tender, bid, propound, overture. (be done,

application of the labor, either to the doing of any thing, or to know whether it can C ENDEAVOURING, Devoir , bejlir , adoo, coyl, fickle, firein,Jlrive,Jlruggle , 4. < oJfort j make a Jlir , do ones bejl, reach after , lay out for.

(ESSAYING, Trying) fay , attempt, prove, tempt - ation,Teft , Experience , enter- prize, venture, Jound,taft,iouch,run the risk, or adventure. (longer time.

Medial • with refpett to the time beftow’d in the doing of it, whether fiorter or ^DISPATCHING, Haften, quick., bigh,forward hurrf, precipitate, Jpeed.Cele- 5* S rity. Expedition, fodain, apace , out of hand, cut Jbort.

^PROTRACTING, Delay, defert, retard, JIacken, reflite, tarry, forefiow, Unger, prolong, lengthen , prorogue, procrajlinate, dally, lagg,fiand about, whiting about Jbift off yput off. pofl off, flin out timei [ Final 5 with refpeft to tne

End of the Adion 5 || either the effc&ing of what we undertake and profefs, or | our failing in it.

> C PERFORMING, Accomplijhing, Atcbieve, fufil, verifie, dijeharge, execute,

6 . \ keep, obferve, exploit, makegood, bring top aft.

(VIOLATING, infringe, break., treflafi,tranjgrefi.

Adion it felf j whether PerfeB or Imp erf ed.

(FINISHING, Concluding, ending, accomplijhing, fulfil, performing, ceafe,give ) over. Period, Term, ultimate, lajl, conjummate, determine, diffatched, done.

7 ' j Catafirophc , clap up, Jhut up, windup, cloje up, draw to an ijjite, go through C MISCARRYING, Failing. (with, run his courje.

Hinderances of it 5 either not rightly ufing the meant, or not ufing fome of them.

CERRING, Swerve, fiip,firay , affray, mifiakg, overfight, deviate, falter, fallible.

. s heterodox. Fallacy, wrong, amifi, awry , being out, befide the mark

^OMITTING, Pretermit, Wave, decline , d fault, efcape, lapje, leave, mifi, forbear, balk, JuperJede, overlook, overpafi, preterition, over flip, overs kp, let pafs, pafs by or over, lay a fide, hold ones hand.

Helps of it ; denoting either avoiding miftakgs at the beginning , or redifying mi - Jiakgs afterwards.

5 PR EVENTING, Anticipate , Previous, aforehand, forefial. Foregame. ^REMEDYING, Redrefs, Shift, Aftergame, Help.

IV. Tran-

Digi ed by

Clap. I. • Tranfcendemal Relations of ABiOn. 41

IV. Tranfcendental relations of Aftion concerning fuch things as are i^Tranfcen. alienated from one Perfbn to another , are ufeally called by the General com-*** ° f Name of COMMERCE, Entercourfe,Traffiek., Prattick., have to do with, mircf.

Thefe may be drftributed into fuch*as are < Frees and not upon confideration C Pajjtve ; Not hindring one to takt or to do. ,

/ 5 YIELDING, Sufferings permitting, give way, give place.


L A&ive 5 - .

timperfe&s denoting a i tiUingnefi to part with, or a defire to have \ a thing.

/ SOFFEKlNG,Proffer,tender,exhibit,prffeM,recommend,Oblation. j * d DEM ANDfNG, Require, Challenge. _

( Perfe&s wiihrefpeft tpthe r Pojfejjion ofa thing s the Farting with it , or Taking of it. j S DELIVER INC, Surrender, transferr, rtjign,

\ ' 2.KECEIMNG, Take, entertain, capable, reception, receptacle.

( Right of a thing s the Parting with it, or Taking of it.'

(GIVING, Beftow, confer, render, grant, contribute, endow, con- 4* S J%», G ’fi> Roon, Large £ Collation , Donation , Donative , Graft i.

C ACCEPTING, Receiving , adminificr,dijj>enje, difiribute, Tor ken, Fairing, take in good part.

Conditional 5 and upon confideration, whether fuch as concern the

  • Caufing of Relations by Aftions that arc

f Real 5 The Parting with fomething of ones own for the ufe and in the j | j Head of another , or the refioring what another hath Jo parted with.

/. ^DISBURSING, B efi ott>, defr ay,extc nd, lay out, Burjar, Principal.

J* m ^REFUNDING, Repay, return, reintburje.

( Verbal 5 the Comparing and meajuring of particulars , or reducing them to an equality.

1 (RECKONING, Compute -ation, count, account, caft account. Cal- ,

^ 6. <? culate. Audit, Score, Tally. i

cBALLANCfNG, Evening of Accounts, Spitting fcores, Adjufi.

Relations tbemfelves enfuing upon fuch Aftions , whether as having ,

1 fomewhat of ones own in another s pojfejjion, or Jomething of another s in ones own pojfejjion.

1 SEEING CREDITOR, Lending, Loan.

'* dBElNG DEBTOR, Owing, Debt, upon fcore,in ones books, behind hand, Arrear.

Iceajing or dflolution of Juch relations by feme Aft of the f Debitor ; either by refioring what is due , or by being rendred unable for it.

I ( PAYING, ^Defray, difeharge, fatisfie, reimburfe, Annuity, Poun- < 8. 2 dage. Shot, rejporfible.

| (FAILING, Break, Ban ky out.

[Creditor 5 Acknowledging refiitution, or Giving away his right to it.

S ACQUITTING, Discharge, Quittance, Receipt, clear accounts.

    • ^FORGIVING, Remitting, pardoning, put up.

V. The



42 Tranfcendental Relations of ABion. Part. II

v, event, v. The General name for that which follows upon A&ions. elpecially as it relates to the end for which A&ions are done,is EVENT, Vpjbot , ijjitc, reftlt, emergence , accrue , occurr, come to pa ft, fall out , befall, betide , en- pe, prove, redound, happen y light, fuccede, Luik, Fortune, End, Sequel, Sue * ceft, incident , coincident , intervene Jitpervene, take effeB, how fares , gw/, fpeeds ity come of it 3 come to good or to naught.

Tranfcendental relations of A&ion belonging to Eventy may bediftri- buted into fuch as do concern the f Exifting or not exifting if the £»</dcfigned .

C OBTElNlNG, Acquire, get, procure, attain, reach, gain , comp aft, re - I . < cover , take, vein, catch, come bp, pick, *p-

iFRVSTRATING, Failydifappoint mift. defeat , deceive, > elude. croft .come fort ofyfbift off, put by, of no effe£t, to no purpofe^vain, void, nullity. Good or Evil a cc ft wing to us by it, with refpeft to the f Increaftng or Diminiping of our PoJJeJJions.

CGAINING, L ucre, Advantage, Profit, Emolument Stock:,the proceed, 3 . \ acquire,get, win, recover, extort.

C LOOSING, Dammage, decrement , detriment, difodvantage,difrofity wrack., foil hurt, binder an ce , out of ones way.

Diminiping or IncreaJtng of our Want.

SSAVJNG, Sparing, take up. Sumptuary, run out.

5* £ SPENDING , Lay out, before, expen d,difpcnd,expence .charges, cof, [ Continuing . or not Continuing of a thing in our Pojfejfion.

\Imperfett 5 denoting the Endeavour and care we ufe about it, whe- ther any or none. ( poftory .

SLAYING UP, Treapring,Preferving, Stow, Hoord, Store, Re- I * t * c SgANDRING, Lavijh , profufe , careleft, mijpend, embezel, waft,

I unthrifty, ill husbandry ,fpendthrift, flying out.

IPetfetf Confifting in the Good or Illfucceftoi fuch Endeavour* SKEEPING, Preserve, retain, Cuftody, holding, prompt nary. Cellar. 5 * 2 LOOSING ,. Perdition, loft, wrack., ped,ftil.

Applying of a thing-, whether more

\ Simply, denoting the applying of a thing to its proper end, or the not applying of it fo.

| . ( USING, Imploy, improve, exercife, occupy, manage, treat, handle,

< 6. s entertain, ujeful s jerviceable,ftand in good ftead. ( hand.

C ABS Tt INlNG, Forbear, refrain, Jjpare , withdraw , wean , bold ones ! [Relatively ; as to that fatisfaSion ov d/Jfa tiff a£f ion o( mind which we have in the uje of a thing.

SIN JOYING, Fruition. »

' * SEEING SICK OF, Naujeate, loath, tedious, prfet, weary of.

Replt of fuch application, in the diminifting or increafng of our Pain. x _ .

C REFRESHING, Recreate, relieve, recruit, relaxation, refedion, 8. ) Bait.

C WEARTING , Laffitude , tyring, tedious, faint, fatigue.


QUIETING, Tranquillity, reft, compofe,fedate, ferene,ftill, calm, Jet 9 . ^ or be at reft.

CTROVBLING, Moleft, difturb, annoy, difquiet , incumber, inf eft , in- terrupt,pefter, cumber, turbulent, firs, coil, broil, turmoil, garb oil, perturbation, VI. The


Goo ;Ie

Chap. L 7 ranfcendentd Kthtions of AUion % ^

VI. The General name denoting Tranicendental Motion or reft, is **• motf. ITION, Goings Faffing, Remove, betake, repair , tranfmiffum, Penetrate ,

Fiitt. "

STATING, Abide , remain , tarry, continue , re/Tde, refl,‘fiop, fiick,datnm, detain, bold at a bay+Aianfion, Stage, Remora.

The Relations belonging to this motion^may be diftinguiflued into fiich as are

Solitary , luppofing but one PerlbnorTbiog, with refpeft to its r Moving towards or from the Speaker.

(.COMING, Arrive, Acctfi, Refort, repair to, frequent, recourfi ,

I. < cone our fe, confluence, return.

C GOING, Depart, recede, return , regrefi, ingrefi, egrefi, be packing,

I be jogging, retire,retrograde, withdraw, dijkdge , avant, void,

J flip aw ay, fink, or fneak away, fling away, fait off, get gone, fit

I I forth, rub along.

, ! [continuing of Motion', whether

I f Simply 3 Towards the fame term, or changing of the Term.

(PROCEEDING, Perfifi , proficute , perfevere , progrefi, pafi, ad- „ 1 2. ( vance,holdov go on, fit forwardor on.

I ) {TURNING, Winding, Feare, Double , tack.i about, face about, I j wheel about.

[with Defign 3 either to feme certain place, or to no certain place, r TRAVAILING, Expedition, Voyage, Journey, Progrefs,Peregrinati - ) on, Diner ant, Paffenger, WayfaringjUarcb'fit out. Palmer, Pilgrim,

3 * ^ Pafs, Taffort.

(WANDRING, Stray, afiray, range, rove, fir aggie, err -ant, Vagrant, Vagabond, random, ramble, rome, prole , gad, Gypfie, Rogue, Land- loper, Labyrinth, Ambages, social 3 fuppofing leveral perlons or things.

  • " 'Caufing another

[To go or to come,

(SENDING, Miffion, miffive, Token, convey , difmifs. Remit, J dijpatch, Meffenger,Embajfador, Legat, Envoy, Lieger, EmiJJa-

  • j j ry, Currier, Arrant.

I '‘FETCHING, Bring, reduce, forth-coming.

[To come after, or to go before.

  • ("LEADING, Guide, Conduit, bring, convey , draw, Jtianudu-

5. < Sion.

(.DRIVING, Chafe , drift, expel, repel, repulfe, goad, beat back.* Ferret out.

Coming after another thing in motion, or coming up equal to it.

, ^FOLLOWING. Enjue, come after, purfite, dogging, trace.

  • 2 OVERTAKING, Reach, Top, Catch, fetch up.

Coming of things together from leveral terms, or the Preterition of fimetbing in our way.

5 MEETING, Obviate, obvious, encounter, occurr, Randevouze.

'* £ AVOIDING, Decline , Fly,Jhun , efibew, Wave, beware, efiape, evade, jkift off, out of the way.

G 2


  • t

Part. JL


Or the feveral notions belonging to Grammar or Logicl

T HE mod general name for thofe external exprefiions , whereby men do make known their thoughts to one another, is DI- SCOURSE , Commune , Communication , Tarty, Tal CoUoquie , Trail, Treatije , handle. Stile.

To which may be annexed that particular way of dilcourle, moftin uft>, namely by articulate voice and words, called LANGUAGE, Tongue , Speech , Linguijl , dialed.

The leveral things and notions belonging to dilcourfe, may be diftribu- ted into fuch as do concern either the


Farts of it-, or thole primary ingredients of which it confifts ,

  • whether

S More Simple -, filled ELEMENTS. I C Le fi Simple-, WORDS. II

- Kinds of it ; or thole fecondary parts belonging to it , whether fuch as are C Proper, to ^GRAMMAR. III.



  • I. The '


Chap. I.




I. The firftaod more Ample ingredients required to the framine of '• eie- Diicourleor Language. .ire (tilt'd ELEMENTS. Mcdirian. ments.

Thefe may be diftinguifhed into fuch as do concern eitherthe , Sounds made by the Organs of fpeech, according to the i " General name 5 denoting either || that which is fpok$n,ov the picture of it in writing. r

"LETTER, literal.

1 JCHARACTER, Figure, Note, Letter, Cfphre, Orthography.

'Particular kinds; relating to fuch as are

‘ [More primary and/e^/e 5 whether ||fuch open founds as are fra- med by a free entijfion of the breath through the organs of T e t * or ' uc ^ ciojed founds in the pronouncing of which the breath is intercepted by fome collifion or cloture amoneft the in- irruments of fpeech.

2 5 VOWEL.


Lels primary and mixed 3 either that which ( for the moft part) doth confift of feveral letters. pronounced in one continued motiok, or ot more Vowels coalefeing in one found.

. 5 syllable. ,


rime or paufe to be obferved in the pronouncing of feveral words* or lentences, according to the

[General name 3 denoting that mark which ferves, either II for fiepa- | rating fuch words as belong to feveral claufes or fenteneex, or for

< writing thole words which are to be pronounced ns one.

I S INTER P UNCTION, Period, Point.

I 4 * ^HYPHEN, Maccdpb. i Particular kinds 5

r LeJJer 3 according to the degree* of Left Or Mote ) ^COMMA. * 7

/ 5 ‘ 5 SEMICOLON.

( Greater according to the degrees of Lefs or More.

, \COLON. -

S^RIOD, fuOpoiht,ftop, paufe ) reft.

Manner of Pronouncings with reference to r Diftinftion of fuch words or claules as are 7 Left material ; denoting that fuch a paflage, either H is notneceffarj I to make the Jen fe perft or is added by way of Explication of fome-

1 thing preceding.


  • dPARATHESIS, Expofition.

M° r e materials either that which ferves - to diftinguifh fuch words , wherein the force of the fin/? doth more peculiarly confift y or that which denotes the words to be intended to a contrary finje. to what they naturally fignifie.

« 5 EMPHASIS. « 

, °* JlRONY

!. Prolongation of Vowels , ot Elevation of voice in the proflouncing of any fyllable. B

c ArrFNT

9 ‘ C ACCENT, elevate. H. Theft

igitized by


Part. II.

n. WORM. IL Thole particular founds or Charters, which are agreed upon to' fignifie any one thing or notion ,are called by the general name of WORD, Verbal , verbatim , term , esodite .

That which is intended by any focb found or Character, is called MEAN- ING, Setfe, Signification , Purport, Acceftion , Import , tenor, denote , moral Words may be diftinguilhed according to the f General name; given to the chief kinds of them, whether || the more I Principal fuch as fignifie fome intire thing or notion, or the Left Princi- { pal, fuch as confignifie andfcrve to circumftantiate other words with S 5 INTEGRAL. (which they are joyned.


[Particular kinds; whether of

Integrals 3 considered according to their [ Natures j being either more

j CAbfolute ’■> denoting either || the naked Effence ofa thing, or the End

I ) 5 ABST R ACT, fop ar ate. (and thing it felf.

It / ^CONCRETE, complex.

V Relative 3 to the

! Names things 3 whether focb as fignifie morefimply and of them-

folves , or luch whole lignification doth impart their being ad - 5SUBSTANT1VE. ( joyned to fometbing elfe.


Allions or Pajjions of things 3 (which is here taken notice of in < compliance with inlmuted Grammar, tho it be not properly one

j fimple part of (beech* but rather a mixture of two, namely the

| Predicate Sod Copula.) To which may be annexed that which

is commonly ad joyned unto this , to fignifie the penality or affe- 5VERBE. (jSttonof the A&ionorPaJfoon.

4# Jadverbe DERIVED.

j Place and Order in a proportion, whether that which according to

I ^ natural conftruftion doth precede the Copula , or that which doth 5SUBJECT. (follow it.

5* J> PREDICATE, Attribute, aferibe , impute.

^P articles^ whether the f Mod necejjary and eliential to every proppfition.

< 6. COPULA.

(jbefi necejjary »

r Subfirtutive 3 in the room either of lome Integral word, or of lome j 5PRONOUN. ( fentence or complex part of it.

y- Winter jection.

^ v Connexive or declarative 3 whether luch as are more

( r Proper to Subjlantives 3 being ulually prefixed before them, ei- ther || that whole office k is to join integral with integral on the fame fide of the Copula, ot that which forces for the more full and f Q 5 PREPOSITION. (diftinct exprejfion of Subfiautives,


l Common to other words 3 either that kind of particle which Is ufually adjoined to Verbs, to fignifie fome kind cf Mode or Cir- comftjinoe belonging to them, or that whichjfirwes chiefly for

  • the joyntng of claufos or fintences.



Chap. I.


III. COMPLEX GRAMMATICAL NOTIONS, of Speech, may “[ E £ OM - be diftinguifhed into (uch as concern the g&amma-

'Portions into which a difcourfe may be divided, whether more tical no-

ImperfeQ , TI °* 8 -

1 Abfolute ) either that which denotes onely fome fart of the finfi , or that which fignifies fome complete finfe.

, ^CLAUSE, P of age.

I ^ I# £ SENTENCE, P eriod,Text, Aphorifm, Apophthegm, Axiom, Im - prefiMotto, Pope, Phrsfe, Stile. '

< [Relative, to the number and order of (uch parts, either th clef,

\ confiding of one or more fintences, dr the Greater being an Aggre- gate of thtfe. t

IK VERSE, Staffe, Stanza.

’ ^SECTION, Par agraffe Article, Scene.

J’erfeQ 5 conteining either a Principal part, or an Intire difcourfe . a ^CHAPTER, A8.

£BOOK, Trail, Treatifi.

Kinds of fuch difcourfe •, with refpe& to the c 'Matter or Words, according to the

J General name 5 denoting either a more loofe and free may of putting the words together , or that which is bound up to meafure.


C VERSE, Lyrici^, Pindaric k., Ode.

Particular kinds of Vcrfi $ either that which depends only upon fome Sated meafure of words , or that which doth likewife (up- pole a fmilitude in the Jound of the endingSy fables .

„ „ 5 MEETRE-/m/.

5 *Jrime.

Form or fignification of words, whether

1 Natural and according to the firft intention of them , or Artificial and borrowed, containing a reference to (bmething elie of near affinity and fimilitude.


  • ^TRALATITIOUS, Metaphor, Trope, Parable, Simile,

Homely, or Ornate.


'* £FIGURATE. Allegory, Improper, Riddle , Enigmatical.

Full, or Defe&ive having fomething left out.

t EXPRESS, Plain, open, fiat, explicite. Hint, Inlying, mention,

8 . y fit form.

I UNDERSTOOD, Implied, implicite, tacit, intimated.

[Eafie, or Difficult to be underftood.

C PLAIN, Evident, Perjpicuour, clear, exprefi , obvious, eafie, facil,

9. s explain, explicate, unfold, illufirate, open , make out.

C OBSCURE, Dark., abjlrufi, riddle, enigmatical, deep, profound, bard, difficult, myfieriowe, intrigue.





Part. II.

IV. COMPLEX* LOGICAL NOTIONS of difcourfe , may be di- ftributed into fuch as are [ Pojitive ; concerning

Words 5 with refpeft to their

' Ambiguity, shewing the different finjes which they are capable of, or ttfing them in a faUaciom fenfi.

5 DISTINCTION, diferiminate.

I ^^QUfVOCATlON, Ambiguouc^Amphibole.

Vniverfality Retraining a word unto fome more- proper and peculiar JenJe, or enlarging of it as there may be occaiion, to its foll fcope and eomprehennvcnefs.

s LIMITATION, Refriction, flint, hound, terminate, determine. AMPLIATION, Inlarge, dilate, expatiate. ft

[Things 5 declaring either their f Natures - y more or lefperfe&ly.


| ^DESCRIPTION, Character, delineate, pourtray, plot, platform, < Kinds 5 more or left perfc&ly. ( model.

I 5 DIVISION, Parting, Dichotomy.

    • ^PARTITION, Difributiou, parting .

[Affe&ioo>f$ rrameiy fuch common principles of knowledge whereby men are to be dire&ed in their judging. To which may be op- pofed the excluding of ftch particulars at do not properly belong to thffe generals.

C RULE, Maxim, Axiom, Principle , Theorem, Can&n, Rubric, A- 5. < pbotifm, rtgutaOO.

C EXCEPTION, Exempt , refervation , refrain, ’ exclude , feclude, filvo, five Jet afide.

\jComparate or dilputative, •

^General - 7 when from Jbmethingt already kgsown and granted'; we en- deavour to prove feme other thing, or the taking of that other thing as • being fb proved

V ARGUMENTATION , Reafon, argue, dijpute, debate, dipuff , •s £ J differtatfon, ratiocination , demonf ration, fopbifiry, captious, cavil, polemic, mooting. Problem, chop Logic.

ILLATION, Inference, conference, confe&ary, d«du(tron,fequei, Conctufan, CoroBary, tefidt, follow, imply.

[Special j as refpetting the

' forms mo* Artificial, whether that which is raoft/#Zf,or that which is defell ive.


Matter ,

Intrtnffc itofb the datureof the things themfclves , fignifying the proving «f a General, whether (j from many or authe particu- lars, or from feme one or few particulars.

' 8 ^INDUCTION, Particularize.

I * c EXAMPLE, Injlance, exempliffe, Jpecifie , leading cafe.

. ^Extrinjic , from the Authority of Ibme other perfon, ora rejem- blance to Ibme other thing.

5CITATION, Quotation, tefiimonies, alledge.

9 ' 5 ALLUSION, Glance. V. MIXED


Chap* I.



V- MIXED NOTIONS OF DISCOURSE belonging both to JqSs Grammar and Logic may be distributed into fuch as are OF- di-

i Left complex v denoting filch d con/pleat fintence , wkereih fometking SCOURSE. is either affirmed dr denied. To which may be ad joyned fiich kind of fin fences, as by common ule and long experience have obtained to be of authority amongfi men. , ' ,

( PROPOSITION , Theffi, Ajfertion, Point, DoCtrine, Obfirvatioh,

I. < Poftion, Problem. •

C ADAGE, Proverb, Old -fay or faro, By. word.

[ More complex', whether

| Kinds of difiourfe ; ,

I i Poftive i , •

1 'More general ; denoting fomething to be fpokgn in prefence, or toritten to be fent to others.

SORATION, SpeechjLarangue, Declamation firatory, Panegyric.

' ^EPISTLE, Letter.

More fecial', relating to matters of Fatt, || either the more ufial name, ox that which denotes what is commonly faidbytnany. NARRATION, Relate, Story, Hiftory,Tale, teU ft dings, Report, recite, recount, rehearfe , impart,inform, Tradition, Annunciate on,Commemoration, Diary, Diurnal, Gazet, Chronicle , Legend, bring word, give notice, or intelligence.

RUMOR, Brute, Hear fay. Report, common Fame , Noifi, Vogue.

J. ^Explicative ^-according to the

General name -,

4. INTERPRETATION, Exp oft ion, conflruCtion , explain, expli- cate, unfold, Troucbman.

Particular kinds ', whereby the words are I ’Altered', by putting them into another language , Or intb other 1 words of the fame language. .

< ^TRANSLATION, Confrue , verfion, interpret, turn, render.

! ^PARAPHRASE, Defiant, Metaphrafi, Circumlocution.

[Enlarged-Joy adding feveral other words tor further explication, or Contraffed', into fewer words.

(COMMENTARY, Glofi, Note, Annotation, Stricture,

6. ) Scholiafi, Expoftor.

CEPITOME, Compendium, Brief, abbreviate, breviate, a- bridge, Brevi ary fuccinCt , concifi, AbflraCt , Synopfis, Sy- fiem, couch, con trad. Summary , extraCt, recapitulate.

I Appendages of difiourfi, whether the Extreme either the Beginning or the End.

( PROLOGUE, Exordium, Preamble , Proem, Introduction, Pre - 7. \ face, Prelude.

C EPILOGUE, Conclufon.

Intermediate 5 either that which is more neceflary , whereby one part is to be connected to another , or fuch additionalpart as is left neceflary to the main fcope of the difeourfe.


  • c DIGRESSION, On the by, by the way, Divtrfon, Excurfon, Ex-

travagant, glance.




COURSE maybe diftrib ng or perfwading, either

Part. II.

JL MODES VI. MODES OF DISCOURSE may be diftributed intofuch as coo- scoukse. ccrn ( ^ e bufinefs of proving or perfwading, either

C Antecedently j denoting fuch forms of ipeechas imply r Doubting^ or a defire of being informed by others , to which may be op- pofed the general name for thofe returns which others make to fuch forms of Jpeech.

< (.QUESTION , Ask, Interrogate , demand, examin, expofiulate.

^ ( (^UESHUIM , Ask,, Interrogate, demand, examin, expofiulate,

I I. ^ Inquifition. •

C ANSWER, RefponfitL, Reply, Rejoinder, Return.

^Knowing or acknowledging, whether f Pofitiveli faying a thing to be Jb, or not to be Jo.

I ^ AFFIRMATION, Ajjert, averr, avouch, proftfi,Ajfeveration,

« 2 • J Portion. •

I j NEGATION, Deny, renounce, refufe,Recufant,diJavow,gainJay,

I ( repulfe,Jaynay.

[Conditional $ allowing a thing to be Jb for the prefer, t , that we may thereby the better judge of the confequences from it, or owning the truth qjjcrted by another.

^SUPPOSITION, Admit, premifi, prejuppofe, Condition , Provijb , 3. < Hypothecs, put cafe.

cCONCESSION,' Grant, yield, allow, acknowledge, admit, agree. ' < Concomitantly 5 as the Afisor parts of it. r More general 5

! Saying Jomething againfi what another affirms, or faying what is mofi contrary to it.

50PP0SITI0N, Gainjay, thwart.


Arguing againfi another , to which is oppo(ed,7fte Jhewing an injiffi- ciencj in fitch arguments, g S OBJECTION, Impugn, Cavil.

£SOLVTION, Solve, Anjwer, Rejolve, Subterfuge, Evfson, Cafitifi. [More Jpecial , relating to

Our own arguments or opinions, by Jhewing the truth of them, or Je- conding Jitch proof, by further evidence.

■ (PROBATION, Prove , demonfirate, evince. Evidence, verifie,

  • . 6 V Reafon, Prejumption.



I C CONFIRMATION, Stablijh , ejiablijb , ratifie.

• Our adverftries arguments, by Jhewing the weakjtefiof them, or turn- ing the force of them againfi himfelf.

SCONFUTATION, RefeU,rcJute,difbrove, reafon againfi. *

/* ^RETORTION, Invert, recriminate. ’

-S ubfiquently, 5 whether

( Rcall , by rendring an adverfary unable to defend hh own opinion , or J making him to fubmit to ours.

<a SPOS1NG, Puzzle, nonplus, baffle, co/found, gravel, rundown.

Y $ CONVICTION, Satnfie, evince.

C Verbal 3 acknowledging the truth of our opinion, or renouncing the error of his own.

9 . ' ^ nole ^ ^ Sr*»Uproftfs cry mercy.

C RECANTATION, Renounce, retraB, recal, revoke, unfay, btte in.


Chap. II.

Of God, and World .

5 1


L Concerning COD. II. Of the fiver al things and notions reducible under that collective Gensts of WORLD.

T Hofe more fpecial kinds of beings to be treated of Antecedane- A oufly to the Predicaments, becaufe they are not (as Predicaments are)capableofany lubordinate fpecies, are GOD and WORLD.

That which the Heathen Philofophersftile the firft Mover, the firft andfupreme cauieofall things, anafuppole to be a Being of allpojfible perfections^ GOD, Lord, Jehovah, Deity, Divine -ity, Deifie. •

And becaufe of that abfolute Simplicity and Purity of the Divine na- ture,whereby ’tis diftinguilhed from all Otner things, and therefore inca- pable of being divided by Parts . or by Differences and Species as the reft are , hereupon, under this Head there is onely provifion to be made for that great Myftery of Chriftianity, the Sacred Perlbns of the Blefted (FATHER.

Trinity SSON, Chrififjefus.

(HOLY GHOST, Holy Spirit.

To the name of Cod that of IDOL may be oppofcd , by which is meant any Falfi God • according to the Acception of the word in that Scripture, All the Cods of the Heathen are idols.

To the Second Perjbn the name ANTICHRIST may be adjoyned by way of Oppofition » the true Notion, and Importance of the word fo requiring.

By WORLD, Vniverfe,\s meant tne Courtages or Frame of the whole II, Creation, with more efpecial reference to thole Principal and more Gene- 5 SPIRITUAL and immaterial. I. ( ral parts of which it confifts; whether ^Corporeal, c onfidered according to the Parts into which it is dividea, whether CELESTIAL. II.

Terreftrial: either _ r . x TTT

1 S /««««*. 5 LAND. II


■.CIRCLES by which it is divided. VI. * *

I. By SPIRIT is meant Immaterial Subfiance : to which may be ad- 1. SPIRIT. joyned,as its proper Oppofite,the word BODY, CorporeafMatter - ial,Car - A Created Spirit is either fitch as (cafiforps, corpulent.

f Doth not relate to a Body 5 and tha t confidered according to its ^General Name, as being a minifiring Spirit.

'i. ANGEL -ical, Dqnson.

.Special kinds, as Good ox Evil.

\ SOOOD ANGEL, Cherub, Seraphim, Good Genius.

I * C.DEVIL, S Alan fiend, Diabolical, Damon, Fury, Goblin , bad Genius.

I Doth relate to a Body 5 and that confidered according to its C General Name,as being defignedfor the enlivening and quickping of a <3. SOUL, Animate, Spirit, Mind. (Body.

CSpecial kinds, as rendring its Body capable cf ' Nutrition and Growth $


Senfi j

)5- SENSITIVE. (evil.

Difcourfi and Religion, together with a fenfe of moral good and 6. RATIONAL, reafinable . Ha II. A-



Part. II-


II. Amongfi Corporeal Subfianees, that which is ejleemed mofi Simple and mofi PerfeQ, whole general name is therefore frequently ufea to figoifie a place ora /late of the greateft Perfection and Happinefs, together with that which in both thefe refpe&s is oppojite , are commonly ft)’ fed ^HEAVEN, Celefiial , Firmament, skje.

^HELL, Infernal, Stygian.

Thofi e parts of Heaven which fall under our Strifes may be confidered ac- cording to their.

r General Name, denoting fuch parts as are more Solid and Luminous.

J i. STARR., Stellate.

^Particular kinds 5 either

Fixed , that is to fay, which do alwayes keep the fame dijlance from one another. And thefe, for the better diftin&ion and remembrance of them,are ufually diftributed into divers parcels or little Aggregates, called Cohjlellationt : the received names of which are, according to their imaginary Refemblances , either the proper names of Per- fons, as Perfius, Andromeda, Orion, See. or the names of brute Ani- malt, as Bear, Lion, Ram, &c. or the nam£s of Inanimate things, a«  Balance, Arrow Jkc. which may each of them be fufficiently exprefc

  • fed, as the things themfelves are to which they are refembled, with-

out being particularly provided for in the Table. And becaufethat great Luminary which rules the Day, withusinthisSyftemis, by the raoft received Hypothefis, thought to belong to this number* there- fore may it be adjoyned , as the moft confiderable Particular be- ' S FIXED STARR, Conilellation. (longing to this General.

S, 2SUN,^r. • '

Wandring, viz. which do not alwaies keep the fame difiance from one a- nother i to which may be adjoyned that other kind of Luminous Body, which is now by fujficient observation and experiment difeovered to be above the Atmofihere 5 according to the

(General names.

) 5 PLANET, Wandring fiarr.

/ 3’ ^COMET, Blazing fiarr.

'‘Particular kinds of Planets, being either

Seen by us at a difiance , either more Frequently,

( Higher pair V 5 SATURN -ine.

) 4 ’ JjUPlTER, Jovial.

  • ( Lower pair, ®


j *’ c VENUS, Morningfiar,Eveningfiar, Day fiarr.

[Rarely, as being near the Sun,

6. MERCURY -m/.

Inhabited by us,

7 . The GLOBE cf SEA and LAND, Earth, World, Oecu- menical, TerreHrial, Terrene, Vniverje, Geography.

Secondary 3 whether moving || about the Earth , or about any other Planet,

p 5 MOON, Lunar. HI. By


Digitize by

Chap. II. World. 5?

III. By EARTH , Land, World, is meant the habitable farts of this In * EARTH. Globe , to which may be ad joyned the more general name of the Greater farts of the" Earth, denoted by the word COUNTRY, Region , Land,

Trad, Quarter, Coafi.

The moft confiderable Notions belonging to Difcourfe,which refer to this, may be diftinguilhed withreJpeS to its Figure, || whether equal or unequal , Convex or Concave . j S PLAIN, Champion, Level, Flat, Even.

  • c 5 MOUNTAIN, Hill, Afcent , Rijing, Upland, Downs , Knoll,

cVALLET, Vale, Dale, Bottom.

Boundaries, or adjacent Waters 5 , which are either . j On all jides, whether

Great, |] psore great, or left great.

5 CON TINENT, Firm-land, Main- land.

j ’ {.ISLAND, Ijle, Injular.

'■Left, || whether roundijb and high, or oblong.

5 ROCK, Cragg.

\ J 3 * JCLIFF.

  • | 0n three fides, which, according to a higher or lower fituation, a$ it is

conjpicuom || more or Iff, is called . 5 PROMONTORY, Cafe, Fore-land, Head- land. Point,


On two tides, conjpicuom, || more or left. j -■ SISTHMU^ Straight, NecJ^ of land.

V CBANK, Shelf Flat, Ridge, Shallow* Shole ,

I On one fide, either according to the more general name, or that parti- cular kind which is Jometimes covered with Sea.

, S SHORE, Strand, Sea-coafi, Bankfide.

■■ ’2 WASHES, Sands.

\Moti on or Reft.

j 5 QUICKSANDS, Drift, Syrtis. c OAZ.

IV. To



Part. II

IV' T6 the Word WATER, as it denotes the watry part of this Terre- jfrhl Globe, may be adjoyned the word SEA ,Marine,Maritim 3 which de- notes the more general name of the greater parts of Water, as Country or Region does of Land. (as the other ,withrefped to its

The more coftfiderable Notions under this Head may bedilhnguiihed 'F/g»re, ||whether equal or unequal, Convex or Concave.

SiEQUOR, Calm Sea , Smooth sea. l ' QWAVE, Billow, Surge, VndulatiOn, Rough.

{WHIRL- TOOL, Vertigo, Gulf, Stratioxo Boundaries , or adjacent Land 3 which is either r 0n all I ides , whether . Great , || more great, or left great.

) 50CEAN, Main-fia. #

) ‘ 2 LAKE, Meer, Pond, ttafi).

! '-Left, || whether obround and deep, or oblong.

| SWELL, Head . .

s ** ^SPRING, Fountain, Source , Rivulet.

} On three Jides, \\gr eater, or left.

I SBAY, Gulf, Creek, Arm of the Sea, Harbour, Port, Key.

4 * £PENE-LAKE, Haven, Harbour, Port , Key.

On two Jides, ^greater, or left.

SFRETUM, Streight, Narrow fta , Sound, l 5 * ^CHANNEL.

On one fide, cither according to the morege^r*/ flame, or that parti- cular kind which i ifometimet higher, and fimetmes lower if on the , SSHORE, Margo aquea, * {Land.

°* £TIDE, Ebb,FU>w, Hrgh water, Low-water, Neap-tide, Spring-tide. Motion or Reft 3 whether conftantly moving, or generally at reft

(■STREAM, River, Brooks, Current, flow, pour, gujh, Bourn, Rill, ' *r. \ Rivulet , Eddy, Gullet, Flood , Deluge , Inundation, Torrent, Ca- S tar a3. Water- courje, Running-water. {water.

(STAGNUM, Pool, Puddle, rond, ftagn ate, ft anding-water, Dead-

V. The ANIMATE PARTS of the World do comprehend fitch Bodies Vegetative; more {as are endowed with Life or Spirit 3 whether

r Imperfett 3 fuch Bodies as grow in Veins of the Earth, which though thejfcare not commonly owned and reckoned under this Rank , yet feveral Learned men haveheretofore reduced them hither, as being a more imperfeft kind of Vegetable 3 becaufe when Mines have feem- <* ed to be totally exhaufted of them, yet there hath remained behind fome kind of Seminal or Spermatic parts, whereby they have in pro- cefs of time been renewed again, and continued to propagate their 1. MINERAL. (kinds.

^ ^Perfed 3 whether according to the ( General name ;

2 1 . PLANT, Vegetable.

I Special kinds;denot\n% either, that tribe of Plants that are tnoft fmall, tender and numerous; Orthofe kinds,amongft thefe,which arecom- S HERB ,Wort,Weed,Botanic. (monly fed upon by beafts,^.

^ GRASS, Graft, Greenjword.


j 4. ANIMAL, Brute -ijh. i Rational ,

5. MAN, Woman, Human dty, Folk? VI. Be-


Chap. II.



, VI- Bclidtrs thofc parts into which the World may be divided **• KiAGi. there is likewife confideration to be had ofthofe Imaginary CIRCLES by which men have agreed to divide both the Celefiial and Terrefirial Globe for the better explaining of the Di fiances and Motions of the Starrs* and the feveral climates of the Earth 3 to which may be ad joyned for Affinity the Notion of ORBE, Sphere* 7

Thefe Circles are either

fGreater, dividing the Sphere into two equal parts 5 r Indeterminately 3 namely that which Jeparates the upper and vidble 1 part of the Globe, from that which by reaion of its being below us, we cannot foe, terminating our vifion.

1. HORIZON -tall.

Determinate ly$ as to [ Northern and Southern parts 3 whether

^ffight* w ^ ere ^ n the Sun makes every-where equal day and

2. EQUATOR, sEqainoffialy the Line.

Obliquely, namely, that Line wherein the Sun is fuppofed conftant- Jy to move in its Annual courle : to which may beadioyned that Circular fipetficies 3 on each fde qftbky which terminate the motion of the Planets i

a S ecliptic.


JZaJlern and Weftern parts 5 wherein the Sun makes mid-day or mid- S!fp tJ / “Jlit • other Circles correfpond which paf through Worhf^ tke Hori%on ^ the former dothrough'the Poles of the

. ^MERIDIAN, Colure.

  • a azimuth.

Lefler, dividing the Sphere into two unequal parts 3 whether

1 ^ **• *' * j *** » 11 *


5 * Z^tartic.

T 7^ZtTsl,tT‘ im 4 "* sm *•*•**•* »“**«»* i

6 STROPIC of » summer Solflice .

. * cXRGPIC <f V* Winter Solace.

dther t0the * qMa$or > 01 '“t* Morhum.




Elements and Meteors.

Part. II


L Of Elements and Meteors . II. Of Stones. III. Of Metalt.

I. ^ THereas men do now begin to doubt, whether thofe thatarfc \ \ called the Four ELEMENTS be really the Primordia reruns, Firft Principles, of which all mixed Bodies are compounded 3 therefore may they here be taken notice of and enumerated , without pa rticular reftri&ion to that Notion of them, as being onely the great Mafjes of na- tural Bodies , which are of a more ftmple Fabric then the reft : For which realon the word METEOR, may be annexed to Element, for its affinity in this refped , fignifying the feveral kinds of Bodies which are of a more imperfeU mixture. Thefeare, according to the common Theory, diftin* guilhable into

’More /implex whether i Real, fuch as do actually exift.

C Lighter 5

^5FIRE. I.

I;$air. II.

1 * '•Heavier?


. /EARTH. IV..


More mixed, denoting various modes of Air. u WEATHER.VI.



Chap. III.



I. The hottefi and lighteft kind of thole that are counted Elements, is 14 fIRE ‘ Called 9 iRE : Burn, Scald , Singe, Kindle, Tind, Light.

The leveral Notions referring to the Parts or Kinds of it* atediftin- guilhable by their Magnitude, Place, Duration, Shape, &c.

. f The General parts or kinds of Fire, are || either greater , which leetn ! I to be enkjndled Air 3 or left, being a fmall Jeparated portion of J Tire,

, 5 FLAME, Blaze , Corufcaticn , Flajh , Leant , Light fire. i £SPARK, Strike fire.

l_The Special forts of Fiery Bodies, to which cuftom hath given particu- lar names, are foch as are either \ More confiderable 3 in refpett of their

‘ ( Laflingnefs, continuing for fome time in the fame place 3 and then || va- \ nijhing, or falling.

^COMET, Standing , Blazing fiart.


| ( Suddennek\ being || either the Shining and flajh of inflamed Exha * lotions , or the S ound made by Jitch Inflammations ,

SLIGHT NING, Flajh, Corujcation.

£ THUNDER, Fulminate.

[Lefi confiderable 3 I More high in the Air ;

’ Of Coherent parts, in the Ihape of || a (landing perpendicular Co*

4 lumn , or of a Dart in motion.

A 5 BEAM, Trabs.

) 4 * JDART, Jaculum.

Of Disjoyned parts, of 3 Ihape II bigger, or lejjet.



I More low in the Air, loofe, wandring 5 |[ as that which appears often to Mariners at Sea : and if Jingle , it is called St. Hermo , Helena and is thought to portend Storms j if double, 'tis ftvled Cajlel and Pollux , fignifying good weather : Or that which adheres to, andencompajjes feveral Animals, without hurting them, being probably an Inflammation of their Effluvia. .

5 SIGN IS FATUUS, Will with a tFijp) Jack, toith a Lanthorn.


Within the Earth 3

7 . DAMP. V .


I tl. The



Part. II.

^ ■

ii. AIR.. II. The General name for that kind of Body , which, for it/ Levity end Warmth, is counted the next Element to that of Fire, is AER -eff, Wind, It is diftinguijhable by its ( Breath.

Purity, being || either more remote from the Earth and its Exhalation* $ or adjoyning to the Terr eft rial Globe , and impregnated by the Steams and Effluvia that proceed from it.

RATHER, or dthereal Air , Firmament , Stye, Welkin.

c atmosphere.

j Kinds of mixture , according to the more r General name, ox that particular kind which fignifies a mixture ofWatry ) ^EXHALATION, Steam, Ree^ Effluvium, volatile. (parts

  • ) ' c VAPOR, Evaporate , Breathe.

1 \.PartkularV\xtis in refpeft of its mixture with || Earthy , or Fiery parts. \ FUME.

£ SMOKE, Suffumigation t bloting . , fume.

Motion ,

S Above ground c, || Direct, ot-Circular .

K W 1ND, BiowyGale, Breath , Blaft , Puff, Guft,F law ,Moufoon,Tradc- 4. s wind. Bellows , Eolipile, Fan, Ventidud.

C WHIRLWIND, Herricano, Tornado i*

Under ground \ || Violent, or Gentle.


[ 5 5 DAMP.

hi. WATER. HI. The third of thole greater MaJJes of Body, conftder able for it t Gra- vity and Moifture>\s ftyled WATER: Aqueous, Dip, padle, Drein.

The names belonging to this are fuch as concern either Th efnaller Particles of it 5 |j whether Solid, or Hollow.

S DROP, Drip, drible, dri^le, trickle, fprinkle, run,jhed,inftil.

' ^BUBBLE, . Froth , Spume, Tome, Mantle, Ebullition.

The Mixture of it with Air, |) Upper , or Lower.

, $QLO\lD,- Over c aft, gloomy.

’ C MIST, Fogg, nebulous .

The Condenfation cf it y || from a Cloud, or from a Miff*

SRAIN, Drizle. j* 5 DEW. .

^ The Congelation of it, according to its more

! General acception, or according to that j facial kind of it relating to the (mailer particles of a Cloudy ftyled 5 FROST, Freeze, Ice, congele, Ificle.

4 £SNOW.

Particular reftriftion to the Drops || of Rain, ox of Dew.

^ ^RIME, Hoarfroft.

The Kinds of Dew :

1 L f \ Mor e Concrete 3 of a Jrveet taft : to which may be ad joyned that pe- culiar kind of phyfual Dew mixed with the Exudations oft he Plant , \MANNA. f T jt/J/tnutn


More Liquid 1 gathered from Plants by Bees : to which may be ad- pyned for its affinity, jjiat other natural Body gatheredWkemfe by

7* C ^ ees i aT *d of a clammy confidence.

cWAX* j Vf Thac


Chap. III.

IV. That which is commonly defcribed to be the Coldefi, Thickeft, EARTH. Heavieji , of any of thofe Bodies Counted Elements, is called EARTH,

Land, Mold. _

This is diftinguilhable by its "

1 Smaller Particles ,

! Alone and without mixture, i. DUST.

Mixed with Water.

2. DURT, Mud , A/’/re, daggle, fuddle:

Separated by Fire } \\ defending, or afe ending.

SASHES, Embers , Cinders.

<*S£)OT, Fuliginom.

Bigger Majffes of it, Jerviceable for building, and of a ( Cold,clammy confidence, to which that common mixture which it made \ of this may be ad joyned for its affinity.


) * £ MORTAR, Lome. .

( Hot and dry confidence, ufually made burnt Stone $ to which, for the lame realbn, may be ad joyned that other common mixture made of



'■ ^PLASTER, Target , Tatras, daube .

The placing of that Pair, Flame, Spark, under the firft Difference , note. and that other Pair, Drop, Bubble , under the third Difference j with thole other Species under the fourth Difference , muff be granted to be belides the common Theory 5 But there is this account to be given of it.

That there teems to be the like kind of relemblance and affinity in thele to their Gentnesyns there is in lome of the other Species, which are com- monly received.

V. APPEARING METEORS are liich as onely feem to be,and have t.appear- not any real exiftence. ING mete-

Thele are either of u OM *

determined Shape ,

1 Part of a round. ■

1. RAINBOW, Iris.

Round wholly 5

c Encompajfing any of the Planets or bigger Starrs,

2. HALO.

^ C Reprefenting || the Sun , or the Moon.




4. VIRG.ZE, Streaks flays of Light.

4 Undetermined shape , being a fieming Hollownets or Opening in the Heavens

5. CHASM, Gaping.

VI. By



Part. II.

VI. By WEATHER, is meant the flat e and condition of the Air $ the Several kinds of which, not fufficiently exprcfliblc by any words in the precedent T able, are confidered either as to C The Airs |j Tranjparemy, ot Opacity .

J ^CLEARNESS, Open,ferene.

/ *' £HAZtNESS.

^ The various Meteors wherewith it may be ajfeS ed ; whether 'Rain,

f^/'«^^and byitlelf; either j r Drops, || little , or great.

JM SM1ZL1NG, Driztle.

<iV 4 5SHOWR. #

< Stream.

3 . SPOUT.

[Mixed, || with violent Winds , or with Snow.


4 £sleet.

Winde, confidered according to its

(Quality 5 whether excejjively cold , or mixed with noxious va- J pours.

) 5 . blasting.

^Quantity 5 being either

f Little , or not Jufjicient to ruffe the waters. •

)/- SGENTLE GALE, Breez.

. j ’ ^CALM, Stilt , Halcyon.

C Much j whether equal , or unequal.

5 STIFF GALE, High wind.

' ‘ c TEMPEST, Storm , Flaw, bluff ering , boifferbus.


igitized by v^ooQle .

Chap. ill.


6 1


QUch kindoF Minerals as are hard and friable are called STONES, d. II. ° Petrife, ^nany: to which EARTHY CONCRETIONS may be annexed by way of affinity, being more foft and brittle , and of a middle nature betwixt Stones and Metals. f Stones may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are

  • (VULGAR, and of no price, i.

s MIDDLE- prized. II.



[Earthy Concretions are either



I. VULGAR STONES, or fuch as are of little or no price, are diftin - 1 vutGAft guilhable from their different Magnitudes, Ules, Confidences, into the stones.

” Greater Magnitudes of Stone 3 ujed either about \ Buildings 3 whether^ .

\Walls 3 chiefly, being of a

C Softer confidence 5 |j whether natural, or faffitioue.


) ^-Jbricr.

^ Harder confidence 3 not eafily yielding to the Tool of the Work*

(Greater mattes j (man, growing J| either in

( 2. RAGG.

( LeJJer mafles 3 whether fuch as are for their figure jMore kpobbed and unequal ; uled for the driking of fire,

I thejr the more common which is left heavy , or the Ids common .1 which is more heavy , as having fomething in it of a metalline 5 FLINT. (mixture.

  • JMARCHASITE, Fire-Jlone.

. I More round and even 3 I 4. PIBBLE, Thunderbolt.

[Roof or Pavement 3 being of a laminated figure, || either natural , or faUitiout.


5 * 5 TILE.

I Metals, either for the

Sharpning or trying of them.



Polifhing or cutting of them 3 || being either of a more fpungy and fift, or of a more hard confidence.


7# eEMRY.

LeJJer Magnitudes ; || either more, or left minute.

p SSAND, Grit.

  • ^GRAVEL.




Part. II

II. MIDDLE-PRIZED STONES are either of a ' shining Politure,ox capable of it j whether of • r Simple white colour, and more foft confidence, i. ALABASTER..

Sometime white, fometime blacky or green, and fometimc variegated with < veins 5 growing in \\greater 3 or JefirMuQes.

SMARBLE, Potphyrie.

2, 5agat.

spotted j || with Red upon a Greenift) colour , or with (pots of Gold - colour upon Blew. ,

5 JASPIS, Heliotrope.

^LAZUL, Azure-Jlone.

Tranjparency : either

r Brittle } || whether natural, or fa8i lions.

) . 5 CRYSTAL -inc.

) 4 * 3 GLASS, Vitrifie.

C Filial, into Flakpt, || either greater, or lejjer.

5 SELENITE, Alufcovia glafi, Ijingglaf, Sport.

5 ‘ J TALC.

Relation to Met alt j || attraQing of Iron t or making of Brafl.

, 5 LOAD-STONE, Magnet -ical, Cotnpajl.

JGADMIA, Calaminaris.

Incomhujlible nature.

7. AMIANTUS, Asbefim.

Strange Original s not being properly Minerals , though ufually rec- koned amongftthem* but either ec fub-marine Plants or (uppofed to proceed from a liquid Bitumen. o SCORAL -ine.


There are (everal other kinds of Stony Confidences mentioned in the Authors who write de Lapidibm. Some that are found in the Bodies of Animals , their Stomachs , Guts, Bladders , Kidneys , Crc. (everal of which are denominated from the Animals in which they are found 5 as Alefforinfy Chelidonins, Bezoar , &c. Others have peculiar names from then Jkapess as Afroides, GloJJbpetrOy &c. Others made of Animals Or parts of Animals petrified, which may be diffidently exprefled, without being particularly provided for in the Tables.


Chap. III.


6 3

Ilf. PRECIOUS STONES, Gemms , "jewels, are fuch as, for their rarity and beauty, are every where more ejieented : amongft which fome are LESS TRANSPARENT, which are diftinguithable chiefly by their Colours : either 3

'Repreienting variety of Colours with dimnefi, (| lef, or more.


1 aCATS-EYES. *»

< Of particular Colours.

r Whitijh and fhining 5 though this be not properly a Mineral, but a I part of a tefiaceous Fifh.



4 SARDIUS, Cornelian , B loud- jl one.

J Vale FleJJy colour, like that of a man’s nail.

  • 4. ONYX.



\fale Purple.


As for that which is commonly ftyled a Toadjione: this is properly 4 tooth of the Fifh called Lupus mar in us, as hath been made evident to the Royal Society by that Learned and inquifitive perfon D' Merit.

IV. MORE .TRANSPARENT Gemms 3 may he diftinguifhed into fuch as are either

Colour left : || either moli hard and bright ; or that which is very like to this in other refpe&s, but onely left hard and bright.

, 5 DIAMOND, Adamant .


Coloured 3 to be ranged according to the order of the colours in the Rainbow.

Red 3 of a lujlre || greater , or lefi.

S RUBY, Carbuncle.


Fellow, whether paler , or deeper.


3 * 2 TOPAZ.

Green ; |j either moft bright and pleafimt, or of a darker kind of Sea* green.

SEMERALD, Smaragd.

4 '2beryl.


5. saphire.

[Purple or Violaceous 5 more inclining II to Blew, or to Fellow.

, 5 amethyst.

2 hyacinth.

HI. PRECI^ 0 U 8



transpa- rent. ,







V* Such



Part. II.

v .eartht v. Such EARTHY CONCRETIONS as commonly grow in ONS C Dis Tf ' AftWstogcther with fuch other factious Subflances as have fome analo- solvibie. gy to thtfe, and are DlSSOLVlBLE by Fire or Water, maybe diftin- guilhed by their being {Not inflammable :

'More frnple 5 being feveral* kinds of Salt, || whether of the

Sea water, ttfemoft neceflary Condiment for Meat* or of th zAir, ufcd as a chief ingredient in the making of Gunpowder.

SSALT, Brine. *'

    • JnITRE, Salt-peter.

Earth • |j of a /inequality and abfterfive, proper for the drying of Wounds, commonly boiled up into a confiftence from a mine - j ! ral water or that other kind of Earthy Salt dug up in great lumps. i 5 ALUME. j < < 2 * ^SAL GEMMjE.

Metals of all kinds, fometimes called Sugars and Cryftals * but a- greeing in the common nature with that which is ftyled 3. VITRIOL, Chalchanthus , Copperas.

Vegetables 5 made || either by fermentation, or by burning. STARTAR.

4 *?AlCALI.

t Animal Sub/lances , made by Dijlidation , called 5. URINOUS SALT.

More mixed of other Salts '•> ||more volatile , ox fixed. « 

' ' ‘ 5 'SAL AMMONIAC, j ' ^CHRYSOCOLLA, Borax. t Inflammable $ of a more

( Dry confiftence, and Tellowijh colour. • > ^

< 7. SULPHUR, Brimflone.

( Clammy and tenacious confiftence 7 Not Jwcet- fented || mor efolid, or more liquid.

) p 5 BI f UMEN -inons.

S ** ^NAPHTHA, v Jwee/- lented.


VI earthy VI. EARTHY CONCRETIONS NOT DlSSOLVlBLE may be TiONSNOT diftingu’fhed by their various Colours * being either dissolvi- White and loft according to degrees, || more, ox lefi.



Tel/ow/Jh red, whether more yellow , or more red SORER, Tellow okgr.

2> £RED OKER, Kuddie.

< Black}, of a finer or confer grain.


JplT-COAL, Sea-coal. , ;

Gold- colour, of a poifonous nature, || either as it is dug out of the Earth, 5ORPIMENT, Auripigmentum. (or as it is fublimed.

4 ‘ ^ARSENIC, Rats bane.

1 Reddijh often found in the fame Mines w ith Orpiment.



Chap. III.




M ETAL is a Mineral, for the moft part, of a hard confiftenee, > ftr clofe, duQil, and fujil: It is diftinguifhable into r VerfeEt.



( Imperfe&, with reference to .


JrecrementiTious PARTS. IV.

I. By NATURAL METALS are meant fitch as of them(eives^r< 7 z» in i- nAtu- ihe Earth , without any kind of mixture, or other help by the Art of men. tai 8 ?* E ” T hefe are pither . f More rare and precious } of a

TeUovoiJh colour , moft heavy , not growing in any particular Mines, where ‘tis imbaied with any drofly mixture : but found pure, either in final! fands, or rocky branches.

1. GOLD, Gilt, or.

Whitijh, and next in value to Gold , not fubjeft toruft,and of a pled- fant found.

2. SILVER, Argent.

Of a middle value } of a i Whitijh colour, and more foft confidence.

< 3. TINN, StaHnery.

CReddiJh colour, the firft material of Mony.

4. COPPER. t [Moft baje and common : •

"Of a fofter confiftence,and a darkjjh colour, not fonoroui.

, 5. LEAD, Plummer.

Of a harder confidence, being the common matter for Weapons anti Tools.

6. IRON.


II. By FACTITIOUS METALS are meant fuchas are made by the n fact* Art of men. Thefe may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are made of ^ tiouj? 11 "

  • Copper and Lapis calaminark.

j I. BRASS, Brajier. *

[Tinn, Lead, and Tin-glafi. •

) 2. PEWTER -er.

Iro » grated by frequent heating, and beating, and boiling with

3- steel.

fc in. IMPER-





Part. II.

HI. IMPERFECT kinds of METAL, are cither •

C Fluid

< i. MERCURY, guickfdver.

C Sol id and confident nfed for

' Purging , and chiefly for Vomiting.

а. ANTIMONY - 4 /.

Making of Pewter , being of fitting brittle fubftance.

3. BISMUTE, TingUfi.

Making of Soder , being like Tinn, but more hard and brittle.

4. SPELTER, Z ink.,Spalt.

< Painting -, || confidered according to its natural ftnte, being the Qar of I guickfilvcr ,and of a Dark, red : or elfe as it is prepared by grinding,

, j which renders it of a Bright red.



Writing not known to the Ancients, and therefore without any Latin or Greek name.


IV. RECREMENTITIOUS PARTS OF METAL, arefuchasare cafi off', either in the | Preparation of them, by 1 \ Melting ", being of parts

' More large and united a kind of fcurn arifing from the feparation of iropurer mixtures in the fufion of Metals, chiefly in the pur- ging of Silver from Lead.


More minute and feparate -, being a concretion of the leffer parts of Copper , which flyout when that Metal is in fufion -, || either the heavier parts, which by their gravity defcend to the floor : or the more light and volatile parts, which adhere to the roof or walls.



[Beating or hammering.

( 3. SCORIA, Scales.

{Corruption of them-, according to the ~ General name,

^ 4. RUST, Canker. v -

'Particular kinds -, proceeding either of Copper and Brafi, or of Lead. S VERDIGREEC E, JErugo,

5 ‘ $CERUSE, White lead.



Chap. IV.


6 7


I. Of Plants f he difficulty of enumerating and defcrihing thefe. 1 1. Thi more general djtribution of them. 111. Of Herbs conjtdered accor- ding to their Leaves. I V. Of Herbs conjtdered according to their Flowers. V. Of Herbs conjtdered according to their Seed-vejjels. VI .Of shrubs. VII. Of Trees.

< . ?

T He more perfcS kind of Vegetables are called by the name of Plants , I,

the feveral kinds of which are lb exceeding numerous, as muft needs render it a very difficult talk for any man who is moft verfed in the ftudy of them,either to enumerate them fb fully or to order them lo acu- rately, as will not be liable to many exceptions 3 efpecially confidering the ftreining and force that muft fometimes beufed, to make things com- ply with the inftitutioh pf thefe tables into Which they are to be re- • duced.

Gafpar Bauhinm doth in his Pinax reckon up about fix thoufand feve- ral plants , the particular names of which do amount to alrnoft twice the # number of words here intended for the whole body of language. And there is realbn enough to believe, that there are many more befidesthofe he mentions, fince we find by daily experience, in lowing the feeds of Flowers and of. Trees , and the different vvayes of culture ufed about them, that new kind? of Flowers and of Fruits are continually produ- ced, fuchas were not before delcribed by any Author, and fiich as do afterwards propagate their kinds ; infbmuch that it may well be doubted whether there be any determinate number of thefe fubordinate Species.

I defign in thefe following tables to take notice only of the chief fa- milies of Plants, to which the others are to be reduced, In the dcfcripti- ons of which, there will be no finall difficulty, by realbn of their great number, and the want of proper words to exprefsthe more minute dif- ferences betwixt them, in refpeft of fhape, colour, tail, fraell, &c. to which inftituted languages have not afligned particular names. I men- tion this by way of Apology for the feveral defetts, which lam fenfible of in the following tables.

In the defeription of thole Plants which are heads of njtmerosis fami- lies ,1 take notice only of that Communis ratio , which belongs to all the f ubordinate varieties of them, unleis it be when thefe is no fiich common agreement belonging to them all : or where feveral things are reduced under the fame head, Ibmefor their agreement in one Accident, ando- thers for their agreement in feme other Accident 5 in which cafes thede- fcriptions here mentioned , are to be under flood of the chief and moft common Plants of that name.

As for the various particulars contained tinder each family , as fuppofe Tulips, Rofes, Apples, Pears^PfurnsjC^c. Thefe need not be particularly provided for , both Secarpfe the juft number of them is not yet ftatedy every year producing new ones: And becaufe they fnay as well be exprefied Periphraftically here as in all other Languages 3 either by their

K i


v^.005 Le


Part. II.

Seafons 3 whether Early or Late, Vernal, Autumnal, Hyemal.

Lafiingnefi', being either Annual or Perennial.

Bignefi or Littlen efi t Talnefs or Lownels.

Manner of growth 3 whether Ereft, Trailing, Creeping, Climbing, Twitting.

Place of growth 3 either Terrefirial , Hilly, Sandy, Stony, Clay. &c. Aquatic , belonging either to Sea or Rivers, Marifh, Moorifli, Fenny grounds.

Several farts 3 whether in refpett of the

'Root^ being either Fibrous , of bigger or letter firings, more or Icls numerous, fpreading (idewife or tending more dire&ly down- wards : Or Bulbous , of one (ingle bulb or feveral, whether Ob- round, Comprefled, Oblong, Coated or Scaly : Or having

its thicker parts contiguous, or hanging more at a dittance by final 1 firings.

Steutm or ttalk 3 whether Solid or Hollow, Smooth or Rugged, Round or Angultfi, Knotted or Jointed more or lels frequently, being free from leaves, or having leaves.

Leaves ; whether as to their

Superficies 3 being Smooth, Unduous, Shining, Rough, Prickly, Hairy ,Woolly, &c.

shape and figure 3 Round Angular, Broad Narrow, Long Short, of finooth or of indented, jagged, waved, curled edges, being either (harp or round pointed.

< Sub fiance or Bulfe Thick Succulent, or Thin Dry, being inter- fperfed with nerves either dire& or tranfverfe.

Colour 3 whether the fame on both (ides or different, clear or (potted, of a brighter or darker green.

Number 3 One, Two, Three, &c.

1 ^ Manner of growth 3 whether fingly, or in pairs oppolite to each other : or having more then two encompaffing the ftalk , Win- ged, Fingered, &c.

Flowers 3 as to their .

' Shapes 3 confiding of one (ingle undivided leaf, either divided at the edge or not : or having feveral leaves, three, four, five or more.

^ Colour 3 whether fimple,as Red,Y ellow, Purple, &c. or Mixed, Striped, Speckled, Edged.

Number 3 Bearing either One or Many, and thefe either (ingle or double.

. Manner of growth 3 whether of (ingle flowers, being Erett, Hang* ing, Reverfed, &c. or of feveral flowers, Verticillate, Spicate, Umbelliferous.

Seed-vejjels 3 whether Oblong, Clofed or Open, Rounds Hollow, So- lid, Smooth, Rugged, Prickly, Scaly, conteining few or many • feeds.

Seeds themfilves 3 Round, (quare, flat, oblong, downy, &c. finooth, Echinate, black, white, (hining, &c.

Fruits 3 Apples, Berries,

Juice 3 Water ifh, Gummy, Milky, Yellow.


Chap. IV.

To all which may be added their different fmells and tails, and the feveral iifesthey are commonly applyed unto} by feme of which Acci- dents all other Plants may be (ufticiently deicribed.

I had formerly diftributed the kinds of Herbs, according to thole fe^ veral ends and purpofes for which they are commonly ufed, into thefe three heads , i. Such as are for pleajure , being ulually cherilhed in Gardens, for their flowers, or beauty, or Iweet lent. 2. Such as are Alimentary , being ufed by men for food, either in refpeft of their Roots, their Leaves or Stalks, their Fruit or their Seed. 3. Such as are Medici- nal, being either Hot and biting, or Cold and Stupefying, Purgative, Al- terative, Vulnerary. But upon further confideration I am iatisfied, that though thefe heads may feem more facil and vulgar 5 yet are they not fo truly PhiloIbphical,but depend too much upon the Opinions and cuftoms of feveral times and Countries.

As for the ufual diftin&ion betwixt Shrubbs and Trees, \ t doth not feent (at lead lb farras thele things have been hitherto deicribed) to have any iuch diftind limits in nature, as were to be deiired, and as is to be found betwixt other things , there being feveral under each head, which feem to be of a doubtful condition. Setae that are reckoned for Shrubbs, which have a fair pretence to be placed a mongft Trees : and others ac- counted Trees, which without any injury might be reduced to the Genus . of Shrubbs. I do in the following tables comply with that opinion, which ieems moft common and probable.

The rcalbnwhy the two laft differences of Trpes, is not from their fruit ( as the others are ) but from their Woods and Hines , or from their Rojins and Cumms , is becaufe thele are the only things that we yet know of them,their natures in other refpe&s being not yet (for ought I know} deicribed by any Authors-

As for any new Jpecies of Plants that ihall hereafter be diicovered, ’tis probable they may by analogie be reduced either to fome of the fami* . /ze^here mqptioned, or at leaft to iome of the Tribes.

I have added to the feveral fpecies of Plants and Animals , their Latin names in the Margin, becaufe many of them are as well, if not better, known by iuch compellations j and becaufe they are moft frequently • treated of by the Authors who write ip that Language*

Plants may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are more g. ff.

( Minute and tender, called Herbs, to be confidered according to their \ C Leaves .

S < Flowers.

} C Sced-veJJels.

(_ Large and hard being wooddy plants, whether the (Lejjer x which commonly grow up from the root in feveral ftemms < called Shrubbs.

(. Larger , which of themfelves do grow up in one fiogle ftemm, called Trees *



Herbs according to their Leaves . Part. II.

HE RBS CON SI DER E D ACCORDING TO THEIrT LEAVES, may be diftinguifhed into liich as are

( ImferfeCt $ which either do want, or feem to want fome of the more e£ < lential parts of Plants, viz, • either Root, Stalk or Seed. I. •

C Perfect having all the efiential parts belonging to a Plant, to be diftin- Fafhion of the leaf $ whether (guifhed by the

' Long j as all Gramineous herbs, having a long narrow leaf without any foot-ftalk.

S Not flowring ^(i.) not having any foliaceous flower.

C FRUMENTACEOUS Such whole feed is ufcd by men for < food, either Bread, Pudding, Broth, or Drink. II.


Flowing', Being of

i f BULBOUS ROOTS, Having no fibers from the fide, but only < ) from the Bottom or the Top 5 whole leaves are more thick,

) undivided, Imooth-edged, and generally deciduous. IV. j c AFFINITY TO BULBOUS ROOTS, V.


Texture of the leaf 5 being either ^NERVOUS} having leveral prominent Fibers. VII. ^SUCCULENT having thick juicie leaves, covered with a dole membrane, through which the moifture cannot eafily tranfpire, whieh makes them continue in dry places. VIII. SUPERFICIES of the Leaf, or MANNER of Growing. IX.

1 . IMPERFECT HERBS maybe diftinguifhed into ’Terrestrial ; whether

r Mo/l intperfeCt 5 which leem to be of a Ipontaneous generation. Having no leaf,

With a St,emm and ‘Head ’■> the Greater or the LeJ f. The later of which hath by Mr. Hooh^ been firft dilcovered to confift of < Imall ftemms with little balls at the top, which flittef out when SMUSHROOM; Toadjlool, Fungus, Touchwood, Spun he. (ripe.*

  • JMOULD, HorineJS. \ Vinnewd.

' Without a StemjoS a roundilh figure || growing either in the ground, < being elculent, 8c counted a great delicatetor on the ground fating

  • STRUBS, Trufle. (when dry)full of an unlavory hurtful duft.
    • JFUZBALL, Puckfll. *

1 Having a leaf being ge nerally deeper then other plants and curled , growing in Juch barren placet where no other plants will thrive, ||either that which grows, both on th e ground, and on watts and trees, of which there are great varieties : or that which grows SMOSS. {only in moifi grounds and Jbady places.


  • LeJ? ImperfeCt , being counted Inlbecund, whole feed and flower (if

there be any) is Icarce dilcernable, commonly called Capillary r Have fever al leaves ( Plants , whether luch as

J" Divided $

r Doubly 5 or fobdivided,

( Greater ', of a brighter or a darkgr green, the later being lels and

  • ) S^EARN, Brake. ('more finely cut.

) ** $OAK-FEARN.

J ^Lef(cjr\ either that which grows commonly on watts and dry pla-


Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Leaves. 7 1

ces 9 fbmewhat relembling Rue both in the colour and figure of the leaf: or that which grows in moifl Jhadji places, having fmall (lender black (Vajks.

•Jdiantkum album .

9 Capilius\e*t~





[singly ^ or not fubdivided,

” Greater 5 of a broader leafy and purgative root : or of a narrower

and longer leaf .


Jrough spleenwort.

Lejjer , either that which hath a blacky flails and winged leaves like thole of a Vetch : or that which hath a thicker Jhorter leaf not divided to the middle ribb.


JSPLEENWORT, JUiltwajl. Jfplenium.

[Vndivided-, either that wbokleaVcs are fbmewhat broader towards - where they encompafs the ftalk like a half moon; Or MULE FEARN. (that whok leaf is more equal.


{Have but one leaf $ either that whole leaf is like the others of this tbJ 11 tribe, with a tuft of very fmall flower s:ox that which hath an undivi~ ded Jucculent leaf with a finall fli^e Handing off from it.


9 ' 5 ADDERS TONGUE. opbioghjfum.

-Aquatic -, belonging to

f Frejb water i either that which confifts of fmall round leaves , doting on • I the top or immerfed in the water , having little firings (hooting

V 1 *r 1 /\ .1. i*i r* r% n t s* ft n ^

8 .


down from them : Or that which confifts of long fmalf flinty fila- ments, refembling green raw filk.

“DUCKWEED. l *” 1 p*t*ftris.

_HA 1 RY RIVERWEED. Conferva.

Salt water y being either of a 1 1 Softer couflflence 5 having fome refemblancc to

  • ■ ’• Mufbreoms ; either the Greater , being more round and thicks ,with

pores every way.* or the Left, having long flender jlalks with . round leaves growing at the top of them. 1

U SSPUNGE. 8 pongia.


Mofly or ground Liverwort, having green curled leaves fpreading

12. SEA-LETT1CE. (on the ground! LaBucama-

Aiufhrooms and Mofl $ either that which is flat androundifh, hard fHM * and tough, with feveral lines parallel to the circumference.* or that whofe leaves grow out of one another without any flensm.



[Capillary Plants \ having a foft membranaceous tough leaf growing ™*' commonly upon Stones and Rocks in the Sea.

  • 4. WRACK. Algt%

[Harder confiflence y beingtough, vsnh vnany filres ox x\hbs elegantly

diftributed fomewhat like the Mafhes of a Net, growing to a £*•«&«« •

great bredth. suucu-

15- SEA FANN. H. GRA- Ui * ;


7 2


Triticum . Sec ale .

Indie um.

Hordeum . Criza.


tarn cum.

Sorgum. Milium .


Herbs according to their Leaves, Part. II •

II. GRAMINEOUS FRUNfrENTACEOUS HERBS, may be di- tinguilhed into fuch, whofe feeds are f Greater * being covered either with.a , f"7 bin membrane * without any husk adhering, of a figure.

I Oblongs either that of a more turgid grain and brighter colour, every feed in the ear being covered with three loofe hulks : Or that which bears i more blacky, ban 4., oblong feed, having always a beard adhering to the hulk of each grain in the growth. 5WHEAT.


\Ronndif) and fomewhat comprefed-, being the biggeftof this tribe,

. the ears growing out of the fides of tl)c ftalk , the top of it ha- ving a chafiy panicle without any feed.

2. MAIZE, Indian- wheat. growing in a

' Spike $ either that whofe grains in the growth of them arc bearded, their husks adhering clofe to them, being the lowejt : Or that whofe grains are more turgid and round , growing at a great er di- i .fiance in a kind of compounded ear, which feems to conlift of fe-

  • veral lefler Ipikes.

, 5BARLY, Malt.

3 ‘ t RICE.

ranicle 5 or difperfed tuft, at a difiance from each other, upon long weak^fiemmt, not above two together, hanging down.

4. OAT.

Lejfer * growing either in a

r Spike i or ear, having Jhort beards , the grain being of a yeUowifi J colour.

) 5 - PANIC.

(.Panicle or tuft* having a roundifi Jhining feed, || either that which is a more tall Urge Plant , whofe panicle fiands upright : or that which is a left Plant , whofe panicle haws down.




Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Leaves. 73

in. GRAMINEOUS PLANTS NOt ufedbymen LOR FOOD, may be diftributed into III GRAMI- fuch as are NEOUS

i More properly called Grafts s ; <'i.) fuch as have a hollow jointed, and not branched ftalk, and PLANTS J altamineousflo * er, whether fuch as are NOT USED

f ( Spicate ; confiderable for the . • BY MEN

j . Largenefs of the feed being neareft to thofe of the frumentaceous kind; either ‘ ; that of FOR FOODi |\ a Jhort fpike, fquamotu and Ihinifag feed: or that referhbling Pa nic.


Phalaris. Gra . Pan ct~ um.


V figure of the fpike ; whether

I Pull, compact and round 5 either that whofe fpike is more foft and downy, refembling a fox- tail : or that which is like this but more rough .

  • J fox tail.

x - 1 cats-tail.

Xot but lank ; refembling either 1 Wheat 5


J l J either II the greater ufed for the making of* frails : or the leftr .

. tMATtyEED.


Not compaB 9 butloofe, in which the parts are nor clofefet together; l 1 ether that « m# whole fpike is more flat and long , the feeds growing only on two 1 ides alternately, having an inebriating quality : or that whole fpike hath fome refemblance to •wheat , the plant being apt to fpread it felf by the root .

- j DARNELL* Tares. Medium.

5 1 DOGS-GRASS, Quitch, Couch . Ganinum.

\^Not round ; but having thehusks ihcflning one way, being divided idto many parts, ~ each whereof refembles the comb of a Cock. _ , . n

6. CRESTED-GRASS. • Gt.CnBatum.

^ Paniculate ; considerable for the

Alopecnros . * Gr. Typhinnm •

Gr. Triticeum •

Spartum .

Gr, Hordtace -

Largenefs of the Leaves 5 having jointed ftalks ; either n that whofe (lalks is commonly bigger and taller then other GraEcs : or that which bears a large perforate /dining feed

of an afh colour.

1 m IREED.


figure of the Panicle comprehending fuch kind of plants as are

Jrundo. Lathrim a Job

Left common ; whether luch as have

( Some rejemblance to the panicle of Oats, or to the claws of a bird •

j OAT-GRASS. Gr. Avenace -


(Many fquamoue /hitting hollow heads hanging uponflender ftalks.* or having hairy DaByloides • leaves,vr\th long woolly firings oti the fides of them, the feed being conteined in a clofe feed -veftel. .

, M55S8S18: ***** ' S-tK"-'

[ MoB common \ both in Paftures and Meadows, yielding the beft food fof Cattel, both * J m% when growing, and when made into hay.

10. MEADOW-GRASS, Gr.pratenfo

[ ie/s properly called Grajfrs ; conliderable either for the . paniculatum.

Sent of the plant being facet ; either that which grows in watery places, having a leaf fit>e a flag/x aring a Judw hard and clofc : or that whofe Balky have a fpongy pith, bearing flowers like thofe of Reeds.


n tCAMELS HAY. ' m«icm,

being . , .... , Schoenautbrn,,

< t Le/fer ; eithef that which is triangular : or that which is round, being full of a lpongy

| ) pith •


J) 12 *1rush.

j ( Greater ; of a woody fubftance, porous, ufed fir walking Slaves.

Cyperm. J uncut.

I 13. CANE. taima.

[ Head or fpike ; whether more %

1 Loofe ; having a (bit downy fubftance ; \\ either on each fide of the fpike, making it to ro- \ fcmble a feather : or intermixed with the panicle*



( C lofe \ whether

/ Greater ; either that which hatha found cylindrical head , being a tall plant, whofe ) fpike is blackifh and foft like velvet 5 or that which bears feveral fpberical burrs.

< . » RFED MACE. Typha.

) l5m > BURR REED. Spargamum:

{^Le/fer; having a naked ftalk,bearing a / mall (pike refembling the tad of a y.oufe. c


Gr.plumofum . Gr. tomento- fum .



Corona IrriM-

X hum. aS4m tagon .

7'iilipa. Friulian a .

Narcffus. Hyacinthus .

Ornithogalum. Viola bulboja.

Herbs according to their Leaves* Part. II.

IV GRAMINFOUS HERBS of BULBOUS ROOTS, may be diftingu'Thed into fiich as are ccnfiderable for their

Flowers ; wlvch arc generally made up of fix leaves, or divided into fix lafeini a: either there whofe fibres grow from the Bottom of th$ bulb ; having the Roots

  • Scaly; divided into many fqiwmous lamina,

i The Greater ; whofe root hath a Brong fent like that of a Box , the flowers hanging ) clown round the top of the ftalk,wi th a tuft of green leaves above them.


^ (.The LeJJer ; having the ftalk fet wlrh leaves, 1 1 either that whofe flower is more largb and hollow : or that whofe flowers are fmaller, having the leaves nverfed backwards.


• cMARTAGON, furly-cap.

f v Coated •, made up of feveral coats entOTnpafltng one another.

. r Bearing the flew er upon a Hem; to be further dillinguilhed by the

j , Shape of- tie flower ; whether

| I Large and Hollow \ refembling a cup, I either that which doth generally bear but

\ ene flower upon a ftalk, Handing upright, having an tfculent root : or tharwhkh J doth fometimes bear rw flowers upon a ftalk, with checkered Breads, banging / debn their heads, the root confining of two lobes. j > j TULIP.


| s ‘ ( Having a cnp\n the middle of the flowenwhich comes out of 4 skinny kusl^iQX that

I I • ! whicli hath many (mail flowers together upon the lame ftalk.



Colour of the flower % being generally white and marked with green, 1| either that with a Barr-hlee flower , marked with a ftreak of gre en on the bask. of the leaf: or that which hatn a hanging pendulous flower , whole leaves are tipt with green. j STARR OF BETHLEHEM, i * } BULBOUS VIOLET, Snow-drop.

, j {.Figure of the leaf •, refembling the blade of a fword, \[ either that which heirs a

. I F’owr de luce, having nine leaves, three of which ftand up : or that whofe flow -

I J . ers grow in a row under one another.

J ^ j BULBOUS IRIS, Flower de luce.


J Having naked flowers, without any Bern ; whether that of a latger flower and broaden leaf 1 or that of a leffir fiower and narrower leaf.


7 * 1 CROCUS, Saffron .

c Top of the Bulb ; whofe root doth ufually confift of two bulbs , the flowets growing in a kind ^ of fpikfi °f great variety of colours and lhapes.

8. ORCHIS, Satyrion .

Strong fent ; whetheffuch whofe leaves are more. w j Long ; their fent being

1 t Lefs Brong ; the . . 4

(’ Greater ; who r e roots grow fingle, ;[ .either that With hollow tukulota leaves, the ft Ik \ fuelling out in the middle: or that of a broader leaf, rifinghigher inthe ftalkand ) continuing green all winter.

\\ \ ON YON.

s * / PVLFEK*

I {.Leffir ; whofe roots grow commonly inclufters, H either that which bears no feeix I or that which doth bear feed , having very fmall tubulous leaves. fSHALOT, £ chalole.


1 More Brong ; either that whofe root is divided into Cloves : or that of an entire root , and ia fomeefteem for the flower.

T . . GARLICS. •

n, lMOLY.

Broad; having the root either -

1 Oblong and fmall ■ either that which is lower with .an VmbtIL of Urge flowers s or that

1 which is taller, having a round he^.



. Round and great ; growing upon theSea^coafls. 13. SQUILL* Staonytn.


i)etts caninut*

Chap. IV. Herbs according to t heir Leaves. 75

~vTheRbs OF AFFINITY TO BULBOUS PLANTS, upon account j^KENfS of their leaves or flowers, may be diftinguilhed into fuch as are either ntty F to Efteemed for their flowers; growing in bulbous

\ Dryer places 3 whether fuch Plants as are more properly plants.

\ European 3 whofe flowers are • LeJJer i bearing

Matty flowers 3 Starr- like, j| either that of 9 Tuberous root , whofe flowers grow in a lpike : or that of a Fibrous root.

I. £ _ £ KINGS SPEAR. JfphoJelut.

^SPIDER WORT. Vhalangtum-

'One Jingle flower 3 hanging the head having a tuberous root, bearing two long flotted leaves ;


[ Larger 3 of a tuberous root, || either that of a fading flower re- lembling a Lilly ; or that whole leaf is like the blade of a /word .

3 - ItuberousVower de luce.

[American 3 of a tuberous root, || whofe flowers are either f Leffatet 3 either that of broad leaves , bearing a fcarlet flower like that of Corn-flagg, with a geniculate ftalk : or that which hath long thick, dry leaves, /harp pointed, growing immediately from the root, bearing a Item of large flowers, hanging down their heads.


^JUCCA, Indian bread. ' Jucta.

[More feoeet 3 growing in a Jflikf, refembling the flowers of a Hyacinth.

5. INDIAN HYACINTH. n,acmthu,;

\ Watery places 3 the flowers coming forth in ah Umbel 1 , being of a pur- I r "fj s * stubt ' plifh colour, having fix leaves 3 the leaves of the Plant being long and triangular .


LNotefteemed for their flowers 3 being difrioguilhable by their r Having no pcrfkQ leaves-, hut lome lrrtle Icaly fubftances refembling leaves, whether of *

Fibrous roots', matted together, refembling a birds neft.

7* birds nest. ham &vi>.

S calg roots ^ with little protuberances fomewhat refembling teeth, \\ ei- ther thap whofe root is more Rounder more Branched.



£ Having a naked ftile or peftle itfledd of d flower, whether the aphjlUt.

1 Greater 3 of a Tuberous root, || either that which hath a /Jotted j j thick. like a Snakej with a jagged leaf : or that of a Iriangu-

1 lar Undivided leaf

$ uncut flori- diu.

8 .

DRAGON, j y * ^WAKE ROBIN, Cuc/oo-pintle.

\LcJjer\ having either Broad or Narrow leaves. JBROAD LEAVED FRIARS COWLE. '^NARROW LEAVED FRIARS-COWLE.

L 2

Dracontium] Arum .

forum la*




Art f arum an * guftifoi ;


7 6

Herbt according to tbeir Leaver . . Pare. N.

VI. roUniI



Q nc ah*.

Nymph* a. Caltha pal*. Sr is.


Herha frinita- tis •

Jfarum . Cyclamen •




Pyrola . Res fo’is.


Pet a jit it .

Bard ana ma- jor-

Bar dan a mi - HOT.

VI. HERBS OF ROUND LEAVES, may be diftinguilhed into fueh whofe leaves are \ Larger 3 j Terreflrial 3

I j Lying on the grounds the flower coming up before the leaf and foon fading, || cither that whole leaf is white underneath, of a yeliorb flower , growing one upon a ftalkj or that which hath a jpike of purplijh flowers , being the larger plant.



Standing front the ground 3 bearing Burrs , the Greater or the Leffer.



\jGrowing upon mountainous places : . having a purplijh flower , and a pappous feed.

3. HORSEFOOT, Mountain-Coltsfoot.

] Aquatic 3 of fmooth fhining leaves , |) either that whole leaves are of a light green and not ferrate : or of a dark^ green and ferrate, bearing yellow flowers.



'[Leffer 3 whole flowers do ftand either j Singly 3 on long foot-flails, growing iri • ' Dryer places 3 diftinguilhable by the

f Flamer • having a lending head and a Jhort heel, || either that of I a higger leaf and the flower of a more Jitnple colour: or that 1 of a leffer oblong leaf and the flower of fiver al colours.


5 ' JPANSY, Hearts- eaje

[Leaf 3 being more thick, lomewhat relembling Ivy, || either that whofe leaves are of a ftrong purgative quality , the flowers Jmall, of a dirty purple : or that which is ejleemed for the flower having a great tuberous root , the leaf for the molt part



Fenny and boggy places 5 either that of pale yelloWifh leaves , which feel unUuoufly , the flower like a Violet: or that which hath a large white flower, the leaves being like thole of a Violet, but lels.

_ S BUTTE R WO R T, Torkjlsire Sanicle* j 7 * MORASS OF PARNASSUS,

\jMany together 3 .

\TerrefiriaT, diftinguilhable by

[The flowers-, growing in a Spikg, being white, || either that which >- is bigger, having green leaves likg thole of a Tear-tree: or that [ which is lefs, with red hairs upon the leaves retaining the Dew, growing in nroift places.




8 .

Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Leaves. 77

7he leaves $ . •

f Indented j and divided into leveral Angles, || either that which j hath fmooth JhinihgleaVes and feeds tikg finall burrs : or that

I whole leaves arc jomewhat hairy , being of an elegant ftrii-

< fture, bearing yellowifh green flowers. - •

| . 5SANICLE. Sdmcula.

[ I 9 ‘ ^LADIES MANTLE. ahhjmUS.

{Scolloped about the edget 5 || either that which is taller , of a bhit'e

J floweret root confiding of many finall reddifh kernels .* or that which is lower , of a yellow flower and fibrous root, grow- 1 ingin moift places.



yThe manner of growing $ whether auritt\

\ ( Creeping on the ground $ either that With a hairy leaf , of an ill

I lent, bearing a blew hooded flower: or that of a fmall leaf bearing a yellow flower. •

} I 5® ROUND IVY, jilehoof, TunnhUdf. Redna tmi-

II( 2mONYWORT, Herb twopence. ,

\C limbing-, of ahot biting tafl , and an elegant flower with a long } heel. . *

  • 2 , INDIAN CRESS. xuCturnmfoi

Jliarine 5 growing in fait places near the Sea, || either that of a fait In * icMm > juicy leaf bearing a fpike of finall white flowers: or that which hath a large bell flower, the plant running upon the ground, being Purgative.

, 5SCURVY-GRASS. aduud

13 , ?SEA-BINDWEED. itidamta;

Saxifraga alba *

Saxifragd aurea *

til. HERBS


Herbs according to their Leaves. Parti 11^

VII. HERBSOFNERVOUS LEAVES, may be diftributed into fuch as are

' Terrejlriafe growing in dryer places, which are diltinguilhablc accor- ding to the

r FaJhion of their leaves $ whether | ' More broad } to be further confidered according to their

1 Manner of growth $ having

!•; iLeavy (lalfe $ viz. the leaves embracing the fhlk, || either that

I which hath plotted leaves , whole root is a vehement purgative :

t or that other, having a j fpife of flowers life thofe of Orchis.

I l 5 WHITE HELLEBORE , Neezwort.

| ; I ^HELLEBORINE, Baflard white Hellebore.

f j Naked flalfe j and flowers in a fpike, || either that whole leaves are undivided : or that whofe leaves are fo divided into jfegs, < -I as to reprelent a Staggs horn.

•j 5 plantain.


[colour of the (eaves ■> whether that whofe leaves are of a 4arl^ < green above and ajb- coloured underneath fltcaiing a fpife of flow- ers.* or that whole leaves are oi a paler gresnjoeaxmg the flow* i [ ers ip a kind of VrnbeL „ SSNAK 1 WEED, Bijlort.

<'1 '* £$OPEWORT.

More narrow 5 either that whole jpife is round and more long : . or that whofe jpife is more Jhort , conteining feeds refembling fleas.


4 * Jfleawort.

Number of their leaves 3 either that which hath only one leaf: or that which hath only two leaves.



[Flowery of one leaf, whether

( Greater j in the fajhion of a Belly the plant having a bitter taft, || el- 's ther the Taller and larger : or the Lower and fmaller. s 5 GENTIAN, Fellwort.


(teffer 5 having (mail one leaved flowers , hanging down their heads and bearing berries 5 1 | either the Higher or the Lower.



'•^Aquatic 3 growing in the water , bearing fpikes of flowers from the joynts of the ftalk 5 1| either that of fmootb edged leaves : or that whofe leaves are either curled or waved about the edges.



viii. sac-

Chap; IV. Herb? according to their Leaves .

VIII. SUCCULENT HERBS maybe distributed into fuch as art C Biggeft , either that whole leaf is more broad a‘nd hot indented: or that \ whole leaf is long, /harp and indented.

J . SHOUSELEEK, Scngreen.



Terrejlrial $ confiderable for having Broad and commonly crenated leaves, around Hal\, the flowers growing in the falhion of an Utnbell, *|| either that whole leaves are more blunt pointed: or that whofe leaves are more Jbarp pointed , the root having a fent like that of Roles.

, 5 ORPINE, ;


Round pointed leaves not indebted, || either that which is greater , having reddijh ftalks , bearing yellowijh flowers, being eltulcnt : or that which is bf?, tearing fatal/ white flowers of five leaves. V SPURSLAIN. j

j 3 * ^GARDFN brooklime.

■< White flowers , fpeckjed with red , the leaves ferrate , || either that which hatha more round leaf and larger flower : or that whofe ( leaf is more oblong and flower left.



Narrow leaves 5 growing in dry places : the Greater of the

' l. offer.

> 5 stone cropp.

5 £Wall pepper.

< Small round leaves 5 the ft*lk proceeding from the middle or Center of it, bearing a Jpile of fatal/ flowers.

6. - NAVELWORT, Wall-pennywort,

kMarine j growing in fflt places , whofe leaf is cylindrical;, thealhes of ' it being ufed in making of Glaft. *


Portnloca* Cepd *»



IX. HERBS confidered according to* their SU- PERFICIES, or MAN- NER OF GROWING.



Jnc hufa. Hcbium.

Pulmeuaris* C win the •



Lithjfctrnum. Hflhgtr opium.

kfparap*. Gallium •

JEquifitum Millefolium cornutum aquatic nm.

JLubia tinfto'- rum.

CruciatM ,

Herbs according to their Leaves. Part. II.

IX, HERBS confidered according to the SUPERFICIES oT their Leaves, or their MANNER OF GROWING, maybediftinguifhedin- Rough leaved ; whether (to fuch as are

\Alore roughs having

S Blew powers ; either || that whole leaves are broader, having black ftreaked feed: or that whole leaves are Zwrger, the Segments of the 5BURR AGE. (flower beitig not fo (harp pointed as the other. ^BU GLOSS.

Long narrow leaves ; ‘either y that which hath a red root commonly ufed in Dying : or that which bears larger flowers , which before ^ALKANET. ("they are explicated, do turn like a Scorpions tail. 2< ^VIPERS BUGLOSS.

LcJS roughs diftinguilhable by their having spotted leaves ; bearing one entire flowed of different colours, vh,. White and Purple on the fame root : or that whole flower is a S round tube .hanging downwards, the leaves embracing the ftalk.

SSAGE OF JERUSALEM, Ladies-glove. •


' Broad leaves , (harp pointed, being large plants • either || that whole flower is longfiollow 3 and of one ieafjhivided into five legments : or that which is of an ojfenfive J?»#,the flower of a dirty red 3 the flower SCOMFREY. (fucceedea by 4 feeds in the Ihape of little burrs. ^DOGS-TONGUE, Hounds. tongue.

I S snail leaves ; either || that whole feed is of an ajh colour fiord and fli- tting, like a polilhed ftone : or that the Jpikg of whole flowers is SGRUMMELL. {crooked and ftippofed to turn towards the Sm. 5 ’ ^HELIOTROPE.

Stellate ■, lo ftiled from the manner of the growth of their leaves, which encompals the ftalk at intervals, like the rays of a Starr; diftin- LeJJer flowers ; (gujfhable by bearing.

EreS ; having fle.nder long leaves ; of ,

! Solid flalksit ither || the taller bearing red berries, the (hoots of u ch arc ufed for food : or the lower of an ill lent, bearing yellow flow- ^ S ASPARAGUS, (ers , ufed in (bme places to coagulate Milk.

  • ^LADIES-BEDSTRAW, Cheeferunning.

Hollow fialks 3 )d\r\ttd without any leavy flowers, either fjthat whole , leaves are like brifiles : or that whofe leaves are branched likg SKORSE-TAIL. (the horns of a Stagg.


“S • Ramping ; of

! Broader /M»«;either || that which hath a red root ufed for Dying: or that whole leaf is more hairy , having four leaves oppolite to one o 5MADDER. (another at a joint, bearing yellow flowers.


Narrower leave slither ||that which is like Madder: or that common weed, whofe feal\s and little burrs are apt to flick. t0 * mans clothes.


9* ^GOOSE-GRASS, Cleavers.

Larger flowers 5 growing on the top of the branches ; either || that of broader leaves , growing commonly in woods, having a tuft of white four-leaved flowers of a fweet lent : or that of narrower leaves , the 5 WOODROF. ( flower confifling of five leaves.



Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Flowers. • .81

Of Herbs confidered according to their Flowers .

H Erbs confidered according to their flowtr,having no feed-veflel be- I V

fides the Cup which covers the flower, may be diftinguiftied into STAMINEOliSi whofe flower doth confifl of threddy Filaments of Stamina, having no leaves befides the Pcrianthiumi or thofe herbace- ous leaves encompaffing thefe ftamina , which do not wither or fall away before the feed is ripe. I.

f Foliaceous 3 which befides the Stamina have leaves, being either oP I Compound flowers 3 confiding of many leaves : or a circle of Leaves, and a Thrumm of fhort ftamina 3 cloic fet together 3 whether 5NOT PAPPOUS. II.

^PAPPOUS, whole feeds do either ly in down: or have feme downy parts. III.

[simple flowers 3 which befidesa circle or border of leaves, have only fome fewer longer ftamioa more fparfedly let together, like threds or firings, to be diflinguifhed by the manner of the growing of the •

•{Flower 3 into

j Umbelliferous 3 luchas grow in the fafhionof an Umbel onfeve- ‘ ral little fialks , proceeding from the top of a bigger fialk, which all together reprefent the figure of an inverted Cone, the flowers being the Bafis, which have generally two feeds growing together, and a compound lea£ whether of ■BROADER LEAVES 3 under which are comprehended all fitch whole leaves are about the lame bredth,or broader then Partly. IV.

FINER LEAVES 3 under which are comprehended all fiich, whole leaves are divided into narrower fegments then thole of Parfley. V.

Verticillate 3 by which thole kinds of Plants are meant, whole flowers grow in rundles or whirles about the fialk , being of the fhape of a Hood or Helmet 3 as likewife thole whole flow- ers are of the like Ihape^namely Galeated , having the likeo- pen leed-veflel , but their leaves growing by pairs, whether iFRUTlCOSE 3 having fialks of a hard woody confifience. VI.



(SEED 3 growing MANY TOGETHER IN A Clufier or BUT- TON. IX.

-JKu./i I. HERBS




Xbtbarba- tnm .


Jcetofa. Jcetofa Rfl- mama*





Cannabis • Lnpulm.

Merc ur tali*. PhjUon.


Sfinacbla. Bonn* Be mi*

• Herbs according to their F lowers. Part. II.

.1. HERBS OF STAMINEOUS FLOWERS, and not of grafly caves, may be diftributed into fuch whofe feeds are { Triangular $ the plants to which they belong being either c Perennial j

f Bigger j having a great leaf not jagged about the edges ; |j either I that whole leaf is more large,* na the root ufed for purging : or that

• whole leaf is more oblong.



'^LeJJcr '■> having a grateful acidity in the taft of the leaf; || either € that whole leaf is oblong : or roundijh.

. 5‘ORREL.


Annual 3 having leaves.

• Triangular } and black feed 5 1| either that which is EreB , whole feed is Efculent : or that which is Climbing .

5BUCR- WHEAT, Brank.


Not Angular $ being (hort and (lender, upon weeJ^procumbent ftalki , full if joynts.


Round 3 . '

f Diflinguijhable by Sex } of male and females, becaufe from the lame feed fome plants are produced , which bear flowers and no feeds, and others which bear feeds and no flowers, f The bigger s, having a divided leaf, || either that which hath a large hollow jlal and a compound or fingered leaf, of the rine of which Linnen is made : or that which is a climbing Slant twilling about fuch things as are next to it, from the right hand towards the left, contrary to the manner of other twining Plants , of a rough roundijh leaf divided into many fegments, with a head of Italy tufts growing in a duller or bunch, commonly ufed to preserve drink from fowring.

, SHEMP, Tovp , Canvas.


[The LeJJer? whole leaves are

shorter either that which hath Jmooth leaves and is annual: or that which h ath hoary leaves being perennial.


Longer * of ferrate edges, the root being perennial 7. DOGS MERCURY.

Not diflinguijhable by Sex 3 but either by their


I Triangular s, conliderable for

y r Being of an unBuom touch , and ufed for Sallets : |j either that which hatha bigger and echinate feed: or that which hath a lefi and Jmtotb feed.

| | „ 5SPINAGE.




Chap. IV. Herbs according id their Flowers .

[Having a fccdvejjel made up of two leaves clojing together : or having the leaf (innate about the edges.


9 ' Jgoos-foot.

I < Broad 5 with fitoooth edges of a dull vfepid tafe, with a large long root, the fccd vejjel being round, rugged and hard , contein- 1 ingtwoor three feeds. -

• I 10. BEET.

Narrow and long, having a fpicate head $ || either that ufed by Dy- t ers, having Undivided leaves , and longer Jpikes : or that which hath divided leaves, and ff oxter Jpikes,


.. j ; aBASE ROCKET.

JTinged leaves 3 with a Jliffe fealty, growing to a good ftature^nd bearing Triangular Cods.


Sent or Ctacll

t Pleafant 5 either that whofe leaves refemble thofe of an Oak , with red veins : or that whofe leaves refemble thofe of Wormwood, bearing the flowers in a long (pike, add having a rough feed - •. < vefeU ,



JOnpleafant 3 having a ferrate leaf with feingingprichje * .

' 14. NETTLE.

Secd-vejfeli bearing chaffy tufts, |j either that which hath a rounM

leaf’, orthat whofe leaf is more oblong and pointed.

• ,4 *^PRINCES FEATHER, Amaranth*.

place of Growth 5 beirig ufnally upon malls , having red flails, and a rough feed .


L Littlenefa being the leaft of this kind 5 \\ either that which hath

wealfeaks leaning on the ground , with leaves like thofe of Time but fmaller, bearing the feeds in clutters about the joynts : or that which is of a moody ftal^ bearing the flowers and feeds at the top of the branches.











t. . ;






Flos folis.

Flos (olu PprM* mid alls.

C dltha*

Ed lit major. Me Hit nin&r.

C oftots barU- rum .


St tt chat citri - oi a.


Chryfantbe- tnum fegetum. Buphtl almum vtvum ,

Flos Africanw.

Cham amt- lum.

Cetula fat id a. \ Matricaria.

Herbs according to their Flowers. Part. II.

II. HERBS having a COMPOUND FLOWER NOT PAPPOUS, may be diftinguifhed into fuch whofe flowers arc compounded either of

Short hollow ftamina thick fet together in a thruttim, with a circle of leaves.* or without fuch a circle, commonly called Corimbiferotn , being either of i j

[ Undivided leaves 3 having a \ Radiate flower 3 whofe limb is \ Fellow \ either the

Greater 3 and talleft,|| either that which is the biggefl of flowers : or that which hath a Uberosts efcnlent root.



Lejjer 3 having a crooked fled.


White 3 either the greater and taller , having a ransom leavy flalkj or the lejjer and lower, having a naked flails 1


3 ‘ £ DAISY.

[Naked Flower 3 confiderable for having fA flrong pleafant flmell 3 either that which is the bigger plant, of a broad leaf: or that which is the lejjer plant, of more narrow leaves more deeply indented , whole flowers grow in an Um- bel!.

SALE COST, Coflntary.


]_ Long hoary leaves ; either that which is Odorate t having a ytUowijh flower ,of a dry flrawy conflflenee 9 preferving the colour for fe- veral yearsafter its being gathered : or that which bears a white flower , the more common fort of which is not Odorate. e SGOLDEN STjECHAS.

^CUDWEED, Cottonweed.

Divided leaves. 3 having a |' Radiate flower j whole limb is

Tel/owj Confiderable for the leaves, beinp I More finely divided 3 either that which grows ufually amongfl Corn : or that which doth commonly grow in mount ainont I places , having leaves like thole of Fennel,


[ Winged leaves 3 like thofe of Tanly.


White 3 whole leaves arc

\More finely divided 3 either that of a pleafant : or that of an unpleafant fent. q SCAMOMIL.

Z STINKING MAYWEED, f Lefi finely divided 3 being of a flrong fent.


Undivided 3


Chap. IV. Herbs decor ding to their Flowers . 8.5


"Undivided 3 befog long and narrow 3 || either that whofe leaves are indented about the edges : or that whole leaves ate finooth, being of a hot taft.



N **S* flower i, whofe (talks are

r More woody ^ either that whole leaves are more green : or that 1 whofe leaves are generally hoary and white. ....

_ southernwood. a


s~eji woody 5 either that of a bitter tafl^and more pleafdnt fin ell 1 or f‘ emna - that whofe fint is not Jo pleajant, whole leaves axe green above and hoary underneath,


, 2 MUGWORT. ' Artemfia,

Bearing their flowers in the fafllion of an Vntbei[, having winged leaves^ |) either that which is of a ftrohg and not unplcafant Cent ': or that which is Moderate.

J3 5 JANSY. Tanacetum.

cMiLFOlLl tr&lltfci'tHm*

oblong tubuloas (eaves 3 the

f Greater ; bearing foany flowers upon a (talk, J| either that whofe ! leaves upon breaking have feveral 1 ittle hairy firings , the flower

1 made up of tubulous leaves lafeiniated at the top : or that of a

T moxeglobklar flower t the root feeming to have a piece bitten off.

\oCAdIOUS ?• /• « 

^DIVELS BlT. Morjus Dlar

^ring but one flower upon a ftalk, like that of Scabious, M '

1 ?r hC I f -r C of a T ? Und hlew fl mer ' h Q ving a leaf like that of the

SBLEW D AISY^ 1 and a

• * cTHRIFT, Sea Gilly flower . c*l“J^ r aia

lOblong flat leaves; without anythrumni in the middle, bearing blew m *™ m “

^^and ^^l!/ 36 WhiCh ^ f m * Uer and 4mMdl : 0r that which is


10 t SUCCORY. cuimiL

til PAtf-


Herb s according to their Flowers. Part. II.

III. PAPPOUS HERBS, may be diftributed into fuch who fe heads are either

r Round and Squamous, confiderablc upon Account of their r Leaves 3 whether

f Prickly 3 either that of a lejfer : or that of a bigger bead ujedfor



  • • Jhartichoke.

< Hoary 3 either that whofe flower is commonly blew , of Fabulous jag- l ged leaves : or that which bears a purple flower of flat leaves. 5 BLEWBOTTLE.


Serrate $ commonly winged, ||the LeJJen or the Greater ufed in < Phylick.



Stalky 5 being dry and hard , bearing ulually a purple flower 3 || either 1 that of a more dark.: or that of a lighter colour.



  • [Seeds 3 being more large » either that of White : or that of Black




1 Plain or flat 3 whole flower is either Radiate-, or naked.

ITerrefirial 3 confidcrable upon account of their f Roots 3 being more large, bearing yellow flowers ^ |j either that j of a lefler leaf , the root of which is counted poyfonosss to beafls :

I or that of a larger and longer leaf. \ the root oi which isodorate and bitter , and counted wholfome to men.



< Leaves 3 being thick, fatty and jagged, bearing yellow flowers 3 l| either that which bears a thrummy flower : or that which bears a radiate flower.


7 *$ragwort.

1 1 ^Flowers-, as to their

j Manner of growth 3 in a kind of Vmbel, or Tuft 3 || either that s j whole flowers are naked and purplifh : or that whole flower t | are radiate and yellow.



i Colour 3 -either that which bears flowers of different colours, the Jeayes whereof lomewhat relemble the rays , of a Starr : or that whole flowers are generally yellow , the leaves of the plant being Odor ate.

1 sstarwort.



igitized by C^ooQle

Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Flowers, 87

I [Marine ; having long thicks leaves || either that the border of . whole flower is Purple and the middle of it Tellojo: or that of a TeUow flower and hard flalkj , the leaves being narrow and cut in at the ends.



Double j the plants having a milkj juice , diftinguilhable by their mmh {Heads ; being fmaller 5 either that of a more rugged leaf tiled for I Sallads : or that of a finootber leaf laid to fweat out a gumm j at the joints.


j "-Jgumm succory. CMn>

'-Leaves j whether

Jagged ; either that of a filid fialkji or that of a hollow Jmootb flalk^ the feed of which being ripe, doth with the down upon it, fpread it felf into a Sphxrical figure.


^DANDELION. suntim

J Vndivided -, 1 1 either tha t whofcfeaw/ are the flow-

er of which being sloJed 3 doth reprefent a goats beard, whole root is eflulent: or that whole leaves are round pointed , and hairy.


^MOUSE-EAR. *****

{Refemtling thiftles ; but not prickly; either that which bears “rger : or that which bears leffer flowers. t SSOWTHISTLE. tmtm.





Levs {he Mm.

Herbs according to their Flowers. Part. II.

IV. UMBELLIFEROUS HERBS whofc LEAVES are MORE BROAD aodlels finely cut, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are,

| oddratc, and of a Ihongfent} whether fuch as is I $ A/ore pie ajant 3 in fuch kind of plants as are j 1 More properly belonging to this tribe 3 to bcdiftioguiflied upon Ac- I count of

r Leaves i is to their 1

} shapes 3 whether fuch are are ;

r 0f Different Jbapes in the fame plant,the lover leaves towards l the bottom of the ftalk being rounder and broader, and ' thofe upon the ftalk more finely cut hw'mgJrematic feeds 3 l| either that of a fmaller feed : or that of a more large feed, J being round and hollow , the leaves of the plant being of

lefs pleafant fent then the feed.



j s Winged leaves-^ refembling thofe of

■ 1 1 c Parfnip 3 having the like froell and tail.


, QF earn 3 either that which hath a large blacky furrowed feed:

or that whole feed is lefiy and more fender, refembling 1 ! an Oat.


J I 1 3, £wild cicely. :

j < 1 refembling T^rfiey, but being much fcrdader 3

j j cither tlaac which hatha large black.ftreakfdjted: or that

J : which is a taller plant , having left leaves and a ftronger

It fi#-


< i * 4 * Jlovage.

L Colour 3 whether

Vale greeny having large and broad leaves; |] either that which hath a yellow juice, the Vntbel of whole flowers is fbmewhat ffherical, which dies after bearing feed : or J that which is of very near affinity to this in lhape and | ,« fent, but not fo large, and wore perennial.



I I ^ Dar K greeny being indented 3 either that whofe fee dh broad:

. or angular.



. • - • fff'ry tuft ^encontpajjing the bottom of the flalk-


j improperly belonging to this tribe 3 having winged leaves 3 1| either that whole flowers are tubuloue: or that which bears a great tuft of white flowers of a (beet fent.



Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Flowers.

\Lefi pleafant

r Lejfir • || cither that of a weaker fint, but efculent and of a grateful taft : or that of a fironger fent , growing naturally in moifi pla- ces.

_ 5 parsley.

| “* 2 smallage. ' ‘ 1

Lar S er: > of a rough fialk., and winged leaves.


[.Not odor ate 3 diftinguifhable by their r Roots 3 being efculent 3 || either that of a bigger root growing Jingle : or that of a left root growing in clujlers.



Leaves 3 whether

r Whole, and lomewhat nervous 3 1| either that whole leaves are more round, the folks growing through them : or that whofe leaves are j more long.



I IVingedyind indented 3 1 | either that whole root is of a hot biting tafl: j or that whole leaf is divided into three, five, or more figments,

• being long and narrow.



\. 9 f different Jhapes in the lame plant 3 the lower leaves being divi- > , ded like Varfley , the leaves upon tip Stalk, being undivided, and encompaffing it, bearing a great, black, round feed.


Jlace of growth-, being proper to wet grounds 5 || either that whofe * leaves are hairy and of a deep green , bearing a white jlower : or that whole leaves are not hairy.



Ptrfoliata, BufUnmm »



Sphndilmm. Stum •

V. UM.

VjC ?le

9 o


lamculum • Amthnm .



limit. Liktmtu Ga - /**/•



5#/r/i A**/!#- Htjf.

Paftintc* ft. tiva ttnui fd. Dtmcm »



Panax Jfclt- pium.



Cic atari a d- qpatic*.

Bu r bocafta-




Herbs according to their Flowers. Part. II.

V. UMBELLIFEROUS HERBS whofe LEAVES are more FINE- LY CUT into narrow fegments, may be diftinguilhed intofuch as are I Odorate ; having their leaves divided into | r More long narrow f zgments 3 confiderablc upon account of their r Leaves 3 being _

( Ofa dar^ green 3 and fraall feeds 3 |[either that which is perennial, of Jlender feeds : or that which is annual, of flat feeds <; FENNEL.




< 1

Commonly divided into three fegments at the ends 5 l| either that whofe leaves arc more thin and dry : or more thick. **d Jitccu • lent, uled for lallade.



< Seed 3 being either

f Large and broad 3 {| either that of a tall Jlature, the figments I of whole leaves are (omewhat Jhorter then thofi of Fennel : or I that whole root fmeUs like Frankfhcenfe.



| [Long and more fender 3 whether the Bigger or the Left, of an Aromatick lent.



I. Stalk. 3 being crooked, bending fiver al wayes ,


[Afore Jhort figments 3 having

[ Rough feeds 3 || either that whofe root is large and efinlent : or that of a f mailer root, the Umbels when the flower is faded, refem- . bling a Birds neft by doling or bending inwards towards the top. , 5 CARRET.

•* 5 WILD C ARRET, Birds-nefi.

Long freaked feeds 3 || either that which is th t tatter plant, bearing the lejjer feeds : or that which is the loiter plant bearing the larger feeds.



Broad large feeds-, or having a leaf hairy on the backfide,and reddijh. a 5 ALLHEAL. a ’ ^CHERVIL.

[Large hollow falk.h || either that of an ofenfive finell and counted poifonotts : or that which refembles this, growing in watery places.


( . 9 ' ? WATER HEMLOCK.

l Not odor ate 3 growing in / Dryer places 5 diftinguilhable by their I { Roots 3 having


f Tuberous roots 3 conliftitig of one Jingle tuber, or of fiveial. 5 EARTHNUT.



Digitized I .

Chap. IV. Herbs according, to their Flowers.

J [Roots of a hot biting tall 3 |j either that of a round dark,, coloured < feed: or that of a broad flat fled, the root of which hath a yel- J Jow purgative juice.



IS talks of the Vmbel, being flrong and white, ufedforthe picking of Teeth : to which may be adjoined that other plant, if .this fail, whofe feeds are prickly.



[ Watery places j of

f Fibrous roots 3 || either that whole leaves have fegments like Fennel,

I butlotnewhat broader : or that whofe fegments are like thole of J C arret , but fmooth, and with a milky juice.



.Tuberous root 5 .


Otnambt •

VI. VERTICILLATE FRUTICOSE HERBS, being all of them odorate, may be diftinguilhed intofuch whole leaves are either Larger 3 whether

( Hoary and rough 3 of a plealant taft and fmell.

1 1. SAGE.

C Smooth 3 and of a dark green 5 || either that whole leaves are cut in < likythofeof an Oak., more long and narrow: or that whole leaves

are only indented about the edges, being more fhort and broad.


  • Jtree GERMANDER.
  • • Leffer *, whole leaves are either
1 short and roundijh 5 the fent being

J More quick, and pungent j either the larger , having a woolly head : or the leffer. ■



Mote mild and gentle 3 having fmaUer leaves, which grow thicker on the ftalk:

  • 4. THYME.

.Long and narrow 3 whether ’ Hoary 3 the

( Greater 3 bearing (pikes 3 (| either that of longer fpikps, being the J larger plant: or that of fljorter thicker fpikes.


i ) * aCASSIDONY, French Lavender, Sticky dove.

L 5 whole leaves are indented, being of a more dull fent , bear- ing fmall flowers.


Smooth 3 || either that whofe leaves arc fofter and larger: or that whofe leaves are harder and left.









Folium mou- tanmm*




9 2




AftHfla. Calafwntba ,

Mitmcca, M*j#** *•


Ocymum, jtcinos •

DiSamnus , iAarruhium album,



ScorMium, S cored oni*.

S cl area t Hmnmum,

Herbs according to tkeir F lowers. Part. II.

2 .

VII. VF.RTICILLATE NOT FRUTICOSE HERBS, may be di- ftinguifhed into fuch asare Oaorate 5 conhderable for their lent, whether Pleafant 5

The greater kind? diftinguifhable by the [Flowers •? growing

More cloje and thick, together ? || either that which is apt to creep and fjread under ground by the roots: or that whole leaf hath lome refemblance to the leaf of a Nettle.

. SMINT. •


[More dificrfedly ? at the Petting on of the leaves, having fhorter and broader leaves ? ||the former of a darker green , and Jlronger font.



Seeds 3 growing in a large hollow Cup like an inverted Beil? having leaves like Balm.


Scaly heads 3 the former a more grateful Jmell \ and leffer leaves*


4 ‘ 2 WILL) MARJORAM, Organy.

Leaves ’?

j Not hoary ; || either that whofe leaves are, like thofe of Marjoram , indented , the flowers growing in loofer fpikgs: or that whofe leaves arc like thofe tf Thyme? but of a different lent.



[Hoary? having leaves

\ Broader 3 (j either that which hath fever al fialy heads , being the lejjer plant : or that which is the bigger plant? whole flowers, grow in dole run dels? of a ftronger font.



[Narrower •? a low plant bearing a yellow flower.


j 'The leafl 5 a final! creeping plant growing jn watery places Jbring of a 1 pungent fent.


’ Not pleafant '? diftinguifhable by the I Sent $ bring like that of Garlicky || either that whofe leaves are like J thofe of Germander, growing in watery places : or that whole j leaves are like thofe of Sage, growing in wooddy placer .


2 WOOD-SAGE. tLeaf'? whether {Rough-?

\ Broad leaf 3 the bigger or the Leffer.





Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Flowers, 93

| | Refembling thbfe of Nettle ; the one narrower : the other broader i 1 and rounder pointed.

I i { *1 SD 2 AD NETTLE, Archangel. TJrtieaimn.

1 | j 2 BLACK HOREHOUND. Marrubmm

[Long$ || either the taller larger plant i or the lejfer plant having not fo thick a down upon the leaves.


? , I2, aiRONWoRT. sum*.

Smooth-, with a round jagged leaf) of a dar^ green, having a flijfe


13. MOTHERWORT. c«di. c *.

\Not odor ate 5 confiderable for having

r Long narrow leaves $ the flowers coming out more dijjierjedly, growing in watery places ; || either that whofe leaver are more narrow , and green like thole of Hyflop : or that Whole leaves are left narrow, the j flowers (landing commonly two together at the joynts.



■ rt * : ■ a a rountnlM*.

I Sptcate flowers 3 *

I ! r The greater , || either that of oblong green notched leave t and Jhort fptkgs : or that .which is the fatter plant) having longer Jpthfs t growing in watery placet , bearing iometitnes three leaves at a j i joint.

n Te 5 BETONY.


' «.The lejfer-, bearing* generally blew flowers ; || either that whole * m t m . leaves refemble thofe of wild Marjoram : or that whofe leaves are like thofe of the lejfer Daily, creeping by firings .

1 . 5 SELF-HEAL. jwftr.

ie *£ BUGLE.

  • -No leaves j but only firings or wires, growingupon other plants, from

whom ( when it is arrived to any bigneis ) it receives its qourifti* ment, the root in the ground dying.

17. DODDER. Cmfima.






Herbs According to their F lowers. Pjk. IL




Vipfacm . Erpigium*


fm .

Vtrga Pafhrif.

Agrimama, Ore** Lute- tian*.









VIII. SPICATE HERBS, may be diftinguilhed intofuchas arc f Spinous $ having prickly leaves, whether thole whole head is

Oblong 5 || either that whofe leaves do fo encompaft the ft ally as to hold the rain water : or that of a jigged teaj, whole roots are often Can - l died for Jweet- meats.



L Round 5 (|| either which hath a reftmblance to Tbiftles : or to Teaftls. SGLOBE THISTLE.


I Not fpinous ; diftinguilhable by their , r Seeds -, being little burrs 5 || either that of a winged leaf and yellow flower : or that of an undivided leaf bearing a white flower.



Winged leaf 4. BURNET.

Trefoil |l either that whic^hath a reoolljfpike :^or that whole feed- e/ doth in the top HARES-FOOT.

I « t -y || VI1UVA * TT “ — / yr V

vejjel doth in the topof it expendlt felf into five rays.



Long leaves , growing i« wet places j [| either that of a hot bitingtaft: or that which hath a fairer ftihg of flowers , being of an acid taft.





Chap. IV. Her by according to their Flowery. . 95

IX. HERBS bearing MANY S££DS together IN A duller or BUTTON, may be diftinguilhed according to the r Leaf 3 into fuch as have

f Winged leaves 3, || either that whofe leaf is underneath hoary and of a filver colour : or that whole leaves are broad at the end , having lit- tle pinnate towards the bottom of them, bearing a burr.


'* Ravens.

Fingered leaves 5 growing from the fame point of the foot-fialkj> |j either five, having a flower confiding of five leaves : or Jeven, the floWer confifting of four leaves.



[But ane leaf upon the foot-flalk. of the flower * and but one flower 5 || either that whole leaves and folks are generally more Smooth : or more Hairy, the head after the flower is faded,being covered with long woolly locks.

JANEMONY, Wind-flower.


Flowers 3 whether molt commonly

| Tellow ; Ihining as if varnilhed,* bearing their feed in a rough head 5 I [| either that whole flower doth generally confift of five round point - | ed leaves : or that whofe flower hath eight or nine leaves blowing - early.



Red 3 having leaves like thofe of Camomil.


Ni in a head of a round cheefe- like figure i || either that Which









RjwuucnUu. fbttidonmm mmm .

Ihi Jdrnu,

Of rounder leaves 3 the Left or the Greater.


• <>holyhok.

< Of hoary foft leates 3 j| either the lefl growing in Marflies : or the great gt by tbc Sen*



Of jagged leaves 3 8 * VERVAIN MALLOW;

Malv*. Mtlya hr- tmfitmajtrj*






^6 Herbs according to their Seed-veffel. Part. II.

Qj' Herbs confidered according to their Seed-vejfel.

H ERBS of Perfett flowers confldertd according to their Seed-veflels, may be diftinguiflied into luch as have •

(A divided Seedvejjel 5 into feverai diftinft cafes, which may be called } CORNICULATE. I.

( An entire Seed-vefel } whether , ,. n . , .

^Siliquous j containing their feeds in long pods, dilhnguilbable accor- ding to their flowers, into u

r Papiuionaceous $ the flower having feme refemblance to a Butt^r- fly,as the blooms of Peafe or Beans, &c. whether '

1 C CLIMBERS j fuch as are generally fumiftied with Tendrils or < < Clafpers. II.

I NOT CLIMBERS $ being without fuch Tendrils. III.

Not papil/ionaceous j fuch whofe FLOWERS do generally CON- SIST OF FOUR LEAVES. IV.

Capfulate ; having Ihorter feed-veifels, diftinguilhablc into (Pi«tapeta> a as bear FLOWERS OF FIVE LEAVES. V.

J Tripe tala, and TetrapctaUj fuch as bear FLOWERS OF THREE ) or FOUR LEAVES. VI..

^ Monopet ala $ fuch as bear a flower of one intire leaf, whether t Campanulas } fuch whofe flowers have feme refemblance to the < figure of a Bell VII.

(Not campanulate 5 the limbs of whofe flowers are divided into ■ feverai fegments, reprefenting fo many diflinft leaves. VIII. fBACClFEROUS ; whofe feeds are included in a juicy pulpe. IX.

I. HERBS OF A CORNICULATE or Horned SEED-VESSEL, may be diftinguiflied into fuch as are *

| More efleemed- for the flower j having

Bigger feeds ; || either that with a compound broad leaf bearing the lar- geft flower of any low herb : or that with a winged leaf like Alh, ha- ~ PIONY. (ving blacky Jbining feeds, and a lent like Hops.

^FRAXINELLA, Baflard Dittany.

LejJer feeds 5 || either that of a divided J, lender leaf the flower having a long heel: or that which hath a compound leaf the flower beading downwards , confifting of tubulous parts.



I Lefl efleemed for the flower 5 having

  • " 1 Hooded flowers 5 and roundifh jagged leaves \ (| either that which is

counted Potfon : or that which is counted an Antidote.



[Not hooded flowery j| either that of a tuberous root, the flower coming ’ out of the middle of the leaf blowing in Winter : or that with a Tri- 5 WINTER WOLF-BANE. (angular feed of a biting tali.


[seed-veflels like the long bill of a bird 5 || either that which bears larger flowers ,more fparfedly fet : or that which beznkfler flowers ^CRANES-BILL* (in thefalhion of an Umbel.

£VENUS COMB, shepkeardt needle. 11 . PA-


or cor-





IraxtueB a.



Acomtum. Author a .

Acenimm bye- mule.

ftapbii agriu.


GcraniHm. S CAttdiX.

Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Seed-veftel. 97

Tl. PAPILIONACEOUS CLIMBING HERBS, maybe diftributed into fuch as do climb,either by ous

{Twitting 5 having long flat cods, their leaves being let by threes. .cumbers. < I. KIDNEY BEAN, French bean, Ginny been. . H»fttlm.

{.Tendrils ', or Clafpers, to be further diftinguilhed by their Seed'-, whether

c . Round and efculent $ (Either that whole feed is blac the leaves and flowers like tbofiof the common Bean : or that whole feed is I not black, the leaves of a tighter green.



| Flat\ and efculent, having hairy winged leaves (| the Greater : or the Left. '

" rVETCH. rid*.

3* 7 LENTIL. unt-

Cods', being knotted, dtherwife relcmbling a Vetch. 4 . BITTER VETCH.


S tali^', being Angular •, || either that which bears one pair of fmooth leaves upon a footfialkj or thht whofe leaf \s undivided, only to- wards the top, having two or three figments, bearing a white flower.

„ (CHICKLING. Ushjrm


Leaves 5 by pairs encompaifing the ftalk, being more broad dt bottom , and Jharp pointed , bearing a yellow flower, having black Ihining


j . Manner of bearing the efiulent part under ground |l either that which bears its feed both under ground, and above ground : or thatofftnall tuberous efiulent roots, bearing bright purple flowers, many together upon a foot-ftalk.



Hi. PA-



Herbs according to their Seed-vejfel. Part. II.

HI. PAPILIONACEOUS HERBS NOT CLIMBING, may be diftinguifhed intofuchas have, either

i c More leaves then three 5 Efculent 3 whether the

^Larger 3 of a flat feed‘s |] either that of a great hollow Jlal broad I leaves of a dark green, the cod lined with a woolly fubftance, the blofloms being black and white : or that which hatha fin- gered /«4jf,being from one foot-ftalk divided into many fegments, «J <1 bearing a fpike of flowers.

1 5 bean.

  • • Z LUPIN.

\LefJer', of a round feed , having fmall winged leaves indented, the cods round and turgid.


'-Not efculent j to be further diftinguifhed by their Flowers 3 growing in thick fpikes or tufts. The Greater 3 f| either that whofe leaves grow like thoje of V etch, fmooth, and of a Iweet taft, a fhort crooked-cod furrowed on the out- flde* conteining a double row of feeds : or that whole leaves < are hairy.


  • Jmilk VETCH.

| \Leffer 3 || either that whofe flowers grow in a tuft , the utmoft ^ fegment of the leaf being broader then any of the other.* or I that whofe flowers grow in a fpike , having a leaf divided like I Rue.



Seed veflef whether

Rough 3 having winged leaves 3 J| either that whole flowers grow in thicker Jpikes, of afhining red colour, with prickly feeds growing at the end of one another: or that whofe flow- , ers grow in more flender Jpikes from the fides of the ftalk, ha- ving a long thick root. .


5 * JCOCKS-HEAD, Sanfoin.

, Smooth 5 whether fuch as bear

Crooked cods 3 and yellow flowersj many together : or crooked feeds in the fhape of a Horsfhooe, the feed veflel being indent- ed on one fide.



[Streight 3 being long and flender , of grafjy leaves , and a bright red flower.


Stalk^i being hairy, Jiijf and ereit, with leaves confifting of many pairs of Wings 3 || the latter of which will contra & it felf upon the touch, as if it had fenfe. o SGOATS RUE.


Leaves 5

itized by



Chap. IV. Herbs according to their, Seed-vejfel.


[Leaves', which are long and winged, being fmall plants || either that whole cods grow together lik$ the tlarvs of a bird : or that with a fpioous feed-vefjet.

S birds foot. .

“ 9 * J>LAND caltrops.

Not mere then three leaves, diftinguilhable by their '.Flowers-, growing in fpikes.

I | Trefoil s, || either that which bears longfpikps of yellow flowers, to which fucceed round feed- vellels, conteining generally but one feed in each: or that of a farter jpike.



[Not Trefoil having a grajjy leaf. it. MILKWORT.

[seedvejjels \Long 5

Crooked ', f[ either that whole ' leaves have fame refemblance to tbofe of Purflain , growing by threes, of more llcnder cods .* or that which hath long fmoolh undivided leaves , the feed-veffel being < HkeaCaterpiUer. 6


^CATERPILLER. f freight i whether

More long and fender', || either that which h^h little wings or ears at the bottoms of the leaves : or that which hath lono flat cods.



[Lefl long and thicker-, having prickly fialks , bearing a large flower in proportion to the plant. •

14. CAMOCK,. Ref* harrow.

[Round •, and Spiral , |j either that which is Jmooth -. or that which is prickly.





Tribulm terfe- ftrit.

Mtlilotuio TrifoUum pra*











Tcenum Grs* turn.

Mjfla hvita

Medics cocble-


Medics Ecbt*


. O a IV. SI-



Ltttcoium Ktiri .



Zyfim*chia filiquofa Jtpcynmm n- &um Syria - cum.'

tUqum. % Kafrn* *


BrtJJicm. Perfoliat* fill- fuoja.




Cayfic«m 9

2 .



1 oo Herbs according to their Seed-veffel . Part. II.

. — * -- — —

IV. SIUQUOUS HERBS NOT PAPILIONACEOUS, whole flowers confift generally of four leaves , may be diftinguilhed by thdr Being eflcemed for the flower , having

j" shrubby Jta ks ; and being of a pleafant Jent y of a round flat feed || either that of hoary leaves : or that whole leaves* are Jineotb, of a deep green. ' •



J oblong feeds || either that which hath a more broad jagged leaf: or that which hath a Jharp indented /^compounded of feveral toge- ther upon one foot-ftalk.

DAMES VIOLET, Double Rocket.


Seeds wrapt up in down ; || either that whofe flower grows out from the top of the cod, which makes it to be called flliuo ante patrem : or that which hath a broad nervous letf with a milbie juice, bearing the flowers in a tuft, having a Urge cod filled with afllkje Jubilance.

5 CODDED WILLOW HERB, Coddedlooje Jlrife. ^UPRIGHT DOGS-RANE, Sil^grafl.

Being ufedas Efculent 3 either their I Roots $ whether fiich as are commonly eaten

Boy led-, ||either that whole leaves are more rough, the root com- monly roundifb: or that whole leaves are more fmooth, the root oblong, and of a more firm fubflance.


4 * 2NAVEW.

' Raw 5 of a biting taflj bearing purplijh flowers , and long knotted cods.


Leaves ; having

Succulent leaves ; of a blewifh grey; || either that of a jagged leaf, yellow flower: or that of an undivided leaf bearing a white flower.

r SCABBIDGEj Colewort, Colly- flower.


Jagged fmooth leaves \ || either that which bears larger flowers grow- ing mor£ fparfedly : or that which bears left flowers growing more I clofe together.

I brocket.


^The fmell and taft of Garlic!^: or a hot biting taft, bearing large cods, which being ripe are of a red colour, p 5SAIIC£ ALONE, jf ac( by the Hedge.


Seeds -, || either that of Jhort Jquarecods : or that of long round cods.







Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Seed-vejjel.

I Leafj whether I I Divided , or jagged. '

  • - r Left finely ; being of a whitijb blew, and bearing commonly a yel-

low flower j j[ either that which is a maritim plant, having a lar- ger Jlower,znd longer cods : or that which hath a yellow juice. . HORNED POPPY.

< \ I



lAfore finely } having flender cods.


Undivided j whole leaves are

S Smooth towards the top*of theftalk, and rough towards the bot- tom, bearing white Jlowers ; || either the greater , having many flender long cods growing thick together on the top of the branches: or the left bearing the cods more dilperlcdly.



Long 5 bearing yellow flowers, being tall plants ’■> [(.either that which hath narrow dar^green leaves, not ferrate or that whofe leaves are more tread, of a pale green and ferrate.



Seed wrapt up in down 5 having five leaves in the flower $ || either that which is counted a Toyfon : or that which is counted ad Antidote .


  • 4; |SW ALLOW- WORT. _ . |

Growing in watery places $ having winged leaves^ || either that Which is efcuknt of a biting taft.a jhort thicks cod : or that which is in Come efteern for the JloiverJbeziing more long and flender cods, and whitifh flowers.


,s dGUCKOE FLOWER, LadyfmocK

• : . , j • ,

PspaStrcsy- nitulstam. Cbtttdomkm nut jus* ‘

Sophia Chi*


Turrit*. ' ’

piUfiBa fiU -

camtiuu ntjsgmm. Drabs htfta*







V V.


Lythmt .



Herbs according to their Seed-vefel. Part. II,


' Undivided j (may bedifcinguilhed into fuch whefe leaves are

[ Fjlecmcdfor the flower } whether fych whole flowers grow

Sparfedly', being either of ,

! Sweet Jent } and elegant ftru&ure, their flowers ftanding in (mall cups} (|either that ofa Anger leafand flower : or that whole leif, SGILLYFLOWER. (and flower is fmaUer,


No conflderable fent ; ,

! Growing in a cup ; || either the larger, the leaves of whole flow-' ers are more round pointed :or the /^er ..having a clammy juice, 5 CAMPION., (whereby little FJyes are caught.

2 $catchfly.

Not growing in a cup ^ a low plant, bearing/v>/wg purple flowers.


{ In an Vmbel or Tuft 5

( Perennial whether that w c ** bears flowers of various colours on the j lame tuft:or that whol? flowers are commonly of a bright fcarlet. <( sloNdon TUFT, Sweet John, Sweet William. »

) 4 * Jbristow nonsuch.

(^Annual } whole leaves are of a bitter taff.


Not efieemed for the flowery conflderable either for their f Manner of growth ; whether

Ere&i bearing

^Red flowers 5 growing commonly amongft Corn } || either that , j which bears Jusall flowers, of linooth leaves, round feed, an an- J gular cup : • or that which bears larger flower s, of a deep red,

• 1/; S C PW.BAS1L. ^ , (hoary leaves, and angular feed.

1 I •, ^COCKLE. ^ ^ (leaves are

1 fellow flowers 5 of a red juice when bruifed, whether fuch whole (Lefler } j| either that of a round flalkj. or that of an aneular } S St. JOHNS-WORT. C flails

y - ast. PETERS- WORT.

J C Larger 5 having a round feed - vefjeL like a berry.

8. TUTSAN, Parkzleaves.

J Procumbent > bearing

S White flowers } whole leaves are cut in about the middle^ either that which bears a more large flower : or that which bears a little JSTICHWORT. (flower having hairy leaves.


Coloured flowers 5 • the latter being fpotted on the backlideof ’ SBASTARD CHICKWEED. (the leaves.


Milhje juice } bitter and cauftick,of a triangular leed-veffel.

11. SPURGE, Titbymal.

[Large flower s-^f \xher that w ct is uled for the' making offine linnen,ha ving long narrow leaves, & a round feed vellel,conteining oblong Ihining feeds : or that with a ftiff ftalk, having leaves like thofe of 15 5 F LAX, Linfled. (Sallow, fometimes 3 or 4 at one letting bn. ^YELLOW LOOSE STRIFE.

Divided leaves-\\e\t\\cr that which hath a ftrong lent, a round feed- veil el, the leaves of a whitifh blew colour.* or that which bears a large flower of a pale blew, with a circle of leaves uoder it, having a large feed- T , S^-UE, Herb of grace. " (Vcfiel, horned at the fop.


Mypnicum, jfehrum . *



Grsmm 1m-











Alyffbn Diofco - ridis.


Bur fa paflorU.

Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Seed-veffel. 103

VI. CAPSULATE HERBS, whole flowers confift of three or four VI c AP _ leaves, may be diftinguilhed into fiich as are 3 either of sul krt "

1 Three leaves 3 in the flower.being water plants 3 1 | either that which hath ? fthree or I long leaves like Aloes , with (harp ferrate edges : or that whofe leaf flowers! VC

doth in the figure of it referable a barbed Arrow,


I ^arrowhead.

IPonr leaves 5 in the flower, to be further diftinguilhed by the ’Seed-vejfel 3 whether I Comprefled 3

S Larger ; and more broad3 || either that whofe leaf is like the leaf of a Nie/f/(r,the ieed-veflel fhining like Sattin : or that of hoary ftalks SBULBONACH 3 Houefly,Sattin. (and leaveSjbeing the lefler. vitUiuuarU.


Lejjer 3 the former of a biting taft.

I a STHLASPI. Thhfti.

j 3 * eSHEPHEARDS PURSE. Bur fa pattorit.

  • Round 3 of

[Larger beads--, and flowers being narcotic 3 1 | either that of a bitter

I j white juice of which Opium is made, with a ftar-likecovering on 4 the top of the feed-vefiel: or that whole leaf is more finely \a 5POPPY. (jagged, having a rough feed-veffel. Papavtr •

<• 1 4 * ^BASTARD POPPY. I

{Lefler heads-^nd flowers,being of a hot biting taftf,|| either that W ch

bears a white flower & reddilh feed: or that which bears long nar- row leaves upon the ftalk,and others that are broader,and jagged - ^GARDEN €RESS. (towards the bottom of the ftalk. •»«/****»»».

I 5 * ^SCIATICA CRESS. • '*«*•

j Lea f 5 as to the

f Biting taft 3 1 | either that which is a large plant of a juicy ferrate leafof a light blewifh green : or that which is a low fmall plant t of jagged I leaves , and rough leed-veflel, growing many together, each con- T ...

• t $PEPPER-WORT. (teining one feed. ‘


{shape 3 being like thole of Ivy, the ftalks being divided into three, and fo lubdivided, one fide of the lower part of the leaf ftanding 7. BARRENWORT. (out mote then the other. JE t imediMm '

Flowery in refpedt of the

( Colour 3 being yellow 3 large plants 3 1 | either that whofe leaves are ofa .

\ blewifl) green, longand finooth, ufedin dying : or that whofe leaves


(are more narrow and indented.

^ Myagrutuo


Manner oj growth 3 infpikes.

J Vponthe top of the ftalks\ bearing fmall blew flowers3 1 | either that of lefler leaves indented : or that of a naked ftalk, growing by J VERVAIN. (the fea fide.

9 * ^SE A- LAVENDER. Lmmum

From the Jides of the flails 5 whether the r Larger b having a flat feed-vefjel.


C Lefler 3 being fmall plants, having comprefled feed- veflels like thofe of S hepheards- purft : the latter bearing the bigger rj .

1 1 SPEEDWELL. ( flower of a bright blew, chamtirit



1 04 Herbs according to their Seed-veffel. Part. II.

cam- VI I . CAMPANULATE HERBS, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are

ULATE ~ Climbing i

Pomiferous 3 bearing j gi SSl er 'fid 61 ** fruit • t i her fuch as have

I f softer j^itts or coats^ either that which is the largeft,of a waterifh tall, having a large feed with a welt about the edges : or that < which is of a more rich pleaiant tad, with a plain feed not nfprk-

I 5 POMPEON, £>*ajh. (ed in the limb of it.

< *’ 2 . MELON, Musk^melon.

, shelly co4//$growing to fuch a hardnels as renders them fit to make bottles, either that which bears commonly a white flower: I <> 5 GOURD. (or that of a yellow flower.


< lofjtTb . - - •

| r Efculent 3 of a whitifh pulp, and waterifh tafl.

'«*• < 3. COWCUMBER. ;

Purgative 3 || either that of a figure like a Pear, of a bitter juice : or that like a Cowcumber , but fmaller and rough, the feeds 1 fpirting out upon breaking off the (talk.



Neither efculent nor purgative 3 having a leaf like that of a Fine, but left, the fruit oblong but very fmall.


Icapjulate 3 having a fhort round feed-veflel,and angular feeds, climb- ing by twining about other plants 3 || either that which is not pur* gative : or that which hath a milky juice in the root.A violent pur-

  • w *'- A 5 BINDWEED. (gative.


lEreff 3 confiderable fdr the flower, being either

Greater 3 || either that whofe flower is bigger at the bottom: or that . ( European 3 (which is lefi at the bottom.


Mmm. y- Jthroatwort.

< ( Exotic j || either that which hath flowers of feveral colours, leaves j like thofe of Nigbtjhade, growing by pairs, the branches alterna-

f/«r:or that whofe leaves are jagged, having a large thorny feed-

mervail of peru.



■LeJJer 9 || either that which hath

• An Efculent root 3 a long leaf, a blew flower, the edge divided into five points : or that whofe root is not efeulent.



A hollow flower 3 Ibmewhat like the finger of a Glove : tfiefecond 5 FOXGLOVE. (being of a purgative quality.


A Narcotic quality 3 || either that which hath large finooth undtu- ous leaves, but very fmall feed: or that which hath foft woolly leaves jagged.



vm. CAPSU-

Chap. IV. Herbs according to their Seed-vejjel. 105


their leaves divided into (everal fegments, may be diftinguilhed into luch sulate

have Sotcu..

Naked ftalks j PANULATE

f Of a rough nervous leaf'* || either that which bears one flower upon a ftalk which is bigger, being divided into five lacinia : or that which bears a lefi flower ynany together at the top of the ftalk.

. S PRIMROSE. frimult vtrtf.

cP AIGLE j Cowflif. i taraljfis.

< Of a thicker fmoother leaf 3 the flowers growing many together, ftand- ing in a jhorter cup 3 || either that which bears the bigger : or the fmaUcr flower , the leaves being hoary underneath.

SBEARS EAR. Auricula Vrfi.

2 ' 5 BIRDS EY. earafyjismm-

. Of a round indented leaf'* tma °


Leavy ftalks 3 whether Taller plants 3 confiderable for

i r Bearing their flowers in flikgs * the litnb of the flower being divided into five figments, with very little hofc * || either that whole leaves and ftalks are hoary : or that which hath lefi leaves, being green.

| SMULLEIN. rnitfcn*.

{ 4 J MOTH MULLEIN. aistfris.

[Having fmaU duskie flowers • || either that of a roundijh leaf, and weak ftalk, the flower being a kind of Tube, with a lip on one fide; or having zftiff ftalk.* a leaf like a Nettle ,a fmall pnrplijh flower, and around feed-vefjel.

m 5BIRTHWORT. Arabia.

i 5 ' JFIGWORT. stfthtlmia.

\lLefier plants $ whether luch as are

’ Deciduous 3 to be further diftinguifhed by their different flowers. RefemblingA head with a gaping mouth'* having long narrow leaves^ the fecond having a heel.

1 6 . Snapdragon. A«*mi»»*>.

6 ^TOAD FLAX. uoario. -

Refembling a helmet or hood 3 (or that with finaU& busks.

( Having creafed indented leaves 3 II either that with turgid huslu:

< X SCOCKSCOMB. 'ofr,*


< C Haying broad jagged leaves 3 with a jpikg of gaping flowers , be- ing a larger plant : or having long leaves jagged about the fet- ting on, with large feed.

8 SHRANK. URSIN, Bears’breech. tamo tlU-


\jVHh heels 3 |j either that whole feed when ripe will flirt out of the cod, bearing yellow flowers: or thatof a pate downy leaf, weak ftalks, trailing on the ground.

  • d FEMALE FLUELLIN, Female speedwell. g>».

.Evergreen 3 having weakftalks creeping on the ground. aimm.

10 . PERIWINKLE. VMt * t" vin -


JXkdi mi tan-



106 Herbs according to their Seed-vejjel. Part. II.

BACCt- IX. BACCIFER.OUS HERBS, may be ditfinguifhed according to Lous t h e ir

’ r Qualit™* '■> into (uch as are

^Efiulent $ either iorefpett of the i Fruit 5 being

| ( A lojl pleafant s, a Trefoil propagating by firings or wires. laria* <> i. STRAWBERRY.

1 CLef pleafant $ || either that of a leaf lik§ Agrimony, bearing round K < fruit of bright red : or that of a broad hairy rough leaf bear- ing a large fruit almofi as big as a Cowcumber. turn amt- DAPPLE Qp LOVE.


1. Root 5 bearing winged leaves , and a bell flower,


'•Malignant!) whether fuch whole leaves are more r Simple and undivided , || either that which hath a broad leaf bear- ing black, berries : or that which hath a more long, broad, dark, co ~ loured leaf a great root , bearing great berries on Engle ftalks.

tnum. 1 „ Snightshade.

mJrajorM. I ** ^MANDRAKE.

[Compounds, or made up of many fegments ; || either that which bears light green berries in a clujler : or that which bears but one leaf divided into four or five parts, and but one blackberry.

"hZ **' < 5 HER B CHRISTOPHER? Berry bearing Wolves- bane.

m F arit. : £HERB TRUE LOVE, One Berry.

■ -Manner of growth ; of the '

'Plants themjehies 5 Being Climbers, whether fuch as are confidcrable for

[ Purgativenefli bearing red berries ; || either that of a great white j root , having leaves like a Vine , but more rough: or that of a ' j jgf*at black, root , with leaves like thofc of Ivy. ma alia. 1 . JWHlTE BRIONY. vniawgra. 1 ° m ^BLACK BRIONY, Wild Vine, Ladiesfeal

vicing full of crooked prickles $ having a long triangular leaf, itaaafrra. 7 • PRICKLY BINDWEED.

1 Berries j whether in a

. f Bladder 5 || either that which is a lew plant , which bears a red berry I in a large bladder : or that whofe leaves are like Chickpeed , . ramping upon other plants. • s 8 JWINTER CHERRY. miaium. °* ^BERRY BEARING CHICKWEED. mu fOmbels, having winged leaves, like Elder, both for ihape and lent.

Mm. 9 • DANEWORT. v

Chap. IV. Of Shrubs.

Of Shrubs .

SHRUBS may be diftributed into fuch as are

i r Baccifcreits 3 ■ - Deciduous 3

$. VI.

SPINOUS, or thorny. I.



SILIQUOUS 3 fuch as bear their feeds in PODS. I V. t Craniferons 3 bearing fmaller feeds , whether fuch as are 5 DECIDUOUS. V.


1. BACC1FEROUS SPINOUS flirubs of DECIDUOUS leaves, maybe diftinguifoed into fuch as have either fCompound \eavcs 5 whether fuch as mav be called 1 fringered 3 viz. when feveral proceed from one point,bearing an efcu- lent berry confifting of many little pulpy grains aggregated toge- { ther in one head 3 II either that whole branches are ere& 9 bearing the I more pleafant fruit:or that whofe branches arc procumbent and trail-

JRASBERRY, Raflis. ^BRAMBLE, Blackberry.


Ting rrnim sdaus. & Madm imtp-

I Winged ; viz. growing by pairs againft one another upon a middle ™* rib 5 1| either that which bears the more beautiful and jweet flower : or that whofe flower is lefl beautiful and Jweet.

ROSE. • , Rtfa.

BRIER. Rtfacamua.

Simple leaves 3 .

Divided into feveral fegments 5 || cither that Which bears a more juicy efculent berry, being the lefjer plant : or that which bears a drier red berry ) being the taller plant.

< SGOOSBERRY. t o*fadmiu.

J 3 - 2 WHITE THORN, Haw-thorn * o*j*c»ntba.

L Undivided $ whether .

Roundijh 3 whole fruit is

f Efculent 3 || either that which produces a fruit like a final/ Plum, black, round, of an acid auftere taft, the blofloihs coming' out before the leaves : or that which bears its fruits in clstflers, being long /lender reddijh ,of an acid taft.

SSLOE-TREE, Blackthorn. * rmmufih,.

  • ^BARBERRY. Mnhriti

\Not efculent 3 whether ' ’

$ C Purgative 3 having leaves like thofe of a Plkm-ttee, bearing black berries ufed in dying.


Not purgative 3 || either that which hath long, ftiffe, (lender,

(harp thorns, bearing a fruit refembling a hat : or that whofe berries contein a long flreaked feed.

, 5 CHRISTS THORN. tatmrm.

b - 3 BOXTHORN. tycium.

I tong 3 and fomewhat hoary.

7. BUCKS THORN. P a II. BAC- ***"»"“>



Of Sbrnbi.

Part. II

II. BACC 1 FEROUS Shrubs of DECIDUOUS leaves , NOT SPI- NOUS, may be diftributed into fuch whofe berries are 3 either Efculent 3 bearing their fruit

) In cluflers', || either that of a rich juice/pungv woo.d, trailing branches: or that whoft leaves are like thofe of Goeslcrry , but larger,and ere& 5 VINE, Grape , Raifw. (branches .

    • ^CURRAN.

Singly \ being a low plant, of dark green leaves, hollow flowers, final! a. BILBERRY, Whortle-berry. (fruit.

Not efculent 3 to be further diftinguifhed with refpett to the Leaf. "Undivided 5

Round', confiderable for the ' r Manner of bearing their fruit 3 whether In Umbels $ whole leaves are

( Hoary 3 underneath 3 J| either that which bears black* berries , J containing one flat feed : or that which bears red berries.


< y' J WHITE BEAM TREE, Cumberland Hawthorn.

< ( Green having red twigs , and a £/<«^/r«//,conteinipg one kcr- 4. DOGBERRY TREE. fnel.

In clutters 3 having but one grain in a black berry 3 || either that 5 BIRDS CHERRY. (whole leaves are larger :ox lejfer,

5 WILD ROCK CHERRY OF AUSTRIA, (leaves are < vSparfedly 3 having leveral grains in a berry 3 whether luch whole < ( Hoary underneath , and lefi\\ either that of a thicker leaf,bear-

j ing a red berry, covered with a kind of down : or that other SDWARF MEDLER. * (bearing a black berry.


Green and larger 3 like thofe of Alder, but fmoothcr, bearing a black, berry, the inward bark, being a violent purgative.


Flowers 3 being tubulous and odorate3 1 | either that which is climb - < 5 WOODBINE, Honyfuckfe. (tug : or that which is ereti.


IjTafl of the fruit', being hot, bi ting, aromatic,zrov/\og in clutters, each clqfter coming out on the fide of the ttalk, oppofite to a leaf on

  • 1 9. PEPPER. ft he other fide, being a Climber.

[ j-on&'r

! f Purgative^ bearing red berries 3 || either that which lends out Its blofloms in winter before the leaves, being of a fweetfentior that

  • 1 whofe younger. branches and berries are quadrangular.



Not purgative 3 having flender flexile twigs 3 || either that which bears black, berries in cluflers : or that which bears red berries . _ 5 PR 1 VET. {more fparfedly.


lagged; || either that which bears a great round clujler of " white flowers: CGELDER ROSE, (or that which bears its flowers in an Umbel. I2, £ WATER ELDER. f berries .

Compound 5 bearing a flower like fejjamine with round black Ihining 13. YELLOW JESSAMINE. (ftalks.

Having no leaf • the flowers and berries coming out at the joynts of the 14. SEA- GRAPE. III. RAC-

Chap. IV.

Of Shrubs .


I'll. BACCIFEROUS SEMPERVIRENT SHRUBS, may be diftribu-«i. bacci- li Compound 5 whether ^ ( ted into fuch whofe leaves are 3 either sempervi-

! Winged 3 1 | either that which is of a fragrant fmell, bearing^wJW feeds rent in blacky berries : or that which bears ftnall berries like Mulberries. SHRUBS * 5 TRUE BALSOM, Balm. adfmmm


Fingered 3 having feveral leaves growing from one foot-ftalk,bearing I a. DWARF PALM. (the fruit in clufters. Fa!ma humi -

\lntire 3 whether of * /w *

Indented edges 3 bearing

C Black, berries 5 || either that whole leaves grow egainjl one another :

\ or that whole leaves grow alternately ♦

1 X CPHYLLYRA£A, Mockip rivet. ihiijrr**.

< ) ** 2 EVERGREEN PRIVET. aiatnnm.

( Red berries 3 || either that of oblong Jhining Jerrdte leaves , bearing fruit like Strawberries, .but bigger : or that which bears berries of a 5 STRAWBERRY TREE. (more pale ytllowifh red. drhum.

‘ 4 ’ 5 EVERGREEN THORN. tjmmnka.

1 Smooth edges 3 to be further diftinguifhed by the (leaves are

f Tajl 3 hot and biting, being violent purgers 3 whether luch whole r Broader 3 of a tough ftalk, the leaves towards the bottom being ) more long then thole of ^bearing grecnilh flowers, and black \ 5. SPURGE LAUREL. (berries,of a very hot taft. laurttU.

(.Narrower 3 j| either that which bears long pale leaves and red ber- ries: or that which bears dark green leaves, the berries growing , S SPURGE OLIVE. (by threes. *&"“***

b ' 2 WIDOW WAIL. (either

Flower 3 as to the manner of its growth, as likewile of the Berries 3 - r In the midfl of the leaf 3 whether having

  • c Larger leaves 3 notfpinous : the latter of which hath a fmall leaf

i growing out of the middle of another leaf,betwixt which two,

k * • • the blofloms and berries do grow.


^horse-tongue. H m iojr * m .'

Leffer leaves 3 fpinotss, bearing large red berries.

8. BUTCHERS BROOM. **/<*/•

In an Vmbel * havitjg a thick. , broad, dark, coloured leaf 3 bearing early flowers, and laid to bloflom twice in one year.


r 7 /i t 1 Laurus tmus .

i \Leaf$ whether

f Small^flendcn and prickly at the ends, being odorate3|| either that whole leaves and wood, are of a more plea/ant fent i producing 1 blewijh berries : or that whofe lent is lefl pleafant i bearing blacky j 5 JUNIPER. (berries, jtuti ft m .

I ?0, 5 sAVIN. . . s«Mm.

i Roundijh and broad 3 1| either that which is odorate : or that whole flowers grow in clujlers 3 bearing pentagonal fruit about the big- 5 MYRTLE (nelsof a Peaje. Mp*ut.


Manner of growing i upon other plants3|| either that which hath weak ' * branches, angular (hining leaves, black, berries in cluflers , growing commonly upon other trees or walls: or that which never grows on

SIV Y. (the ground ,of a paler colour and tranfparent berries. Utier*-

VMISSELTO. IV. SI- r.fc**-




Laurus tmus.



Myrtus. Rhus myrti-




iv. SILI-



Syria?* emu* Uo /for#.









Acacia Ameri- cana.

Flout* bUmi- lu .

Getufla, Genijla fpi- uoja.



Of Shrubs.

Part. II.

iV. SILIQUOUS SHRUBS, may be diftinguilhed into fuchasare i Deciduous 3. whether having ,

Intire leaves 3 the

r Greater 3 being a tall plant, approaching nearer to the magnitude ) of a Tree, bearing beautiful /pikes of blew flowers, y i. LILACH, Pipe-tree.

, C Lejjer 3 fl either that of a round leaf, \ being a low plant, the bud of <, whole flower, when pickled, is an efculent faUce, bearing large white flowers: or that vvhith is taller, bearing yellow flowers. 5 CAPAR.

2 , 2THORNY broom.

L Compound leaves 3

! Trefoils 3 bearing yellow flowers 3 the Greater, or the lejjer.



Winged leaves 3

f European 3 confiderable for having ' A purgative quality 3 || either that which hath no od leaf at the end ; or that which bears its feeds in hollow pods or bladders. 5 SENA.


An efcuknt root 3 of a Iweet juice.


1- Exotic 3

fThe Greater 3 being thorny, bearing yellow flowers 3 || either tharwhole leaves are fmailer , the flowers growing in a Iphx- rical duller, being odorate : or that whole leaves are much




[ihe Lejjer - confiderable for the falling down of the branches, and doling of the leaves upon a touch, as if the plant had fenfe. 7 . HUMBLE PLANT Sempervirent 3 having

' Green twigs .3 bearing yellow flowers 3 || either that which hath long (lender, Iquare, flexile twigs, and long thin cods ; or that whole . twigs are more (hort, and (tifle, and prickly, bearing (horter cods < more full and thick.



[Hoary leaves ; || either that which hath long thorns , (landing thick, bearing white flowers lhaped like thole of Broom , having winged leaves : or that which is a Cinquefoil. •

. 5 goats Thorn.


6 .



Chap. IV.

Of Shrubs.


V. GRANIFEROUS DECIDUOUS SHRUBS, may he diftinguilh- ed into luch as are

SEre&, to be confidered according to their Flowers 3 whether fuch as have r Smaller flowers 3 in fpikes 3 bearing

Round fruit 3 like berries 3 || either that which bears five leaves upon a foot-ftalk : or whole feed-veflets are pentagonal, contein- ing (mall yellow feed.



\fieed wrapt up in Down 3 having very fmall leaves like thofeof Ci- pres, and an odorate wood.


^ Larger flowers 5 whether

1 Odorate <, || either that which h^th weak branches, whole flowers < are of a more pleajant finell : or that whole flowers are, of’<*

"*'■ 1 Jlrong and lefipleafant finell.



iNot odorate 3 having leaves li kg thole of Marfls ns allow , being fift and hoary.


Odqratenefi of the leaves 3 || either that which grows in fenny places, bearing long leaves , and fmall fquamous Catkins : or that which is a lower plant) having roundilh nervous leaves, upon long foot-ftalks, bearing woolly tufts, and feeds likg Lentils.

5 GALLS. *


JlLil, kjnefiof the juice 3 being a violent purger, having long leaves of u pale green colour.


Climbers') either by

V Twifiing ; || either that which is a Trefoil : or that which hath winged \ bearing the flowers in a duller, having feathery tufts.

✓ 5 CLEMATIS, Virgins-bower.


( Laying hold on walls or trees by fmall tendrils 3 like clawes or Angers. 8 . VIRGINIAN CLIMBERS, Virginian Ivy.

Althm 0.

El a Agnus



Hi thymnUmt arhnfetns

. V . ;

Hedern qutn- nutfsl. Conn- dtnfis.



Of Shrubs .

1 1 £




Ciftu #.


munis. TsrtM r*hr.




Suits* fruti- c$f*.

Stfili JEtkiu pieum .

Ledum Mfi- muffh


JUlimus. tit farfo*




i VII.

VI. GRANIFEROUS EVERGREEN SHRUBS, may be diftinguifh- Europaan 3 confiderable for (ed into fuch as are

j Bearing large flowers 3 whether that which hath hoary leaves, the flow? er confifting of five leaves : or that which bears long JiiJfe leaves of a HOLY ROSE. (dar/^ffreest,

OLEANDER, Rofe-bay.

Having sparging quality 3 whether luch as have T Hoary leaves • || either that which hath fmall leaves jbickjet upon the 1 ftalk, being hoary underneath', or that whole leaves are bigger 3 and } hoary all over, bearing fmall flowers in tufts.


I JGUTTVVORT, Trouble-belly.

IS moot b hard dry leaves 3 bearing a blew flower lily that of Scabious.


Being odor ate 3 whether luch as have

1 Hoaij leaves 3 verticillate 3 having hooded flowers 3 1 | either that which I hath narrow long leaves hoary underneath : or that which hath j broader leaves hoary all over , bearing yellow gaping flowers.

[ . 5 rosemary.


[.Green leaves 3 whether that which bears fmall flowers in an Vmbel : or that which bears a large flower like that of Oleander t yellow and r 5 HARTWORT. C lpotted.

5 * Jsweet mountain rose.

(7 he place of their growth 5 whether

I r Near the Sea 3 being of a pale colour 3 1 | either that whole leaves are fmooth , bearing ntofiy flowers, and a fmall comprefled • feed : or that of winged hoary joining leaves , bearing yellow flowers in clutters.



\jn barren places 3 being a low plant, having fmall hollow flowers , and 7. HEATH. (little leave*.

[ Exotic 3 a low Jbrub 3 the branches fpreading and growing thick toge- ther, which after being dried and Ihrunk up, will upon beings*/ into warm water dilate and expend themfelves.


Of Trees.

Trees may be diftinguilhed according to their \ Fruit or Seed', being conteined either in a f F lefty pulp 3 whether









Gc ;le

Chap. IV.

Of T rees.



< I

I. POMIFEROUS TREES, may be diftinguilhed .into fuch as arc [Afore properly called Trees 3 whether l' Deciduous 3 having r Vijible Blojjoms 3 [ Efeulent whets ripe 3

More rounds the tree fpreading more in breadth } both as to the

{ branches and roots of it, the fruits having an outward cavity at

each end, in the place of the hlofjbm and the fialk^ and five in-

ward cavities lined with fiiffe membranes , each of which doth 1. APPLE. (commonly contein two kernels. jtsim,

\Lejf round 3 that part of the fruit where the flatly grows, being more prominent i || either that which rifes more in height.ox that which Jpreads more in breadth , being a lower and more crooked tree, whpfe fruit is covered with a Down, being when raw, of ap , 5 PEAR* (unplealant taft and fcn$. i'Xicrd*.

£ QUINCE. i ms.

[Not efeulent, till rotten 3

[ The greater ^either that fmatter tree, having bugle antes green j above and white beneath, the fruit having a wide aperture in the j place of the btojjom : or that thorny tree , whole leaf and fruit is \ like a Hawthorn jbut the fruit bigger, and of a pleafapt acidity.

SMEDLAR. Mtftilm.

^LAZAROLE. ; ^ —

j j I kP 36 l e ffi r ? being tad trees i || either that of wingedferrate leaves , bearing a fruit like a fmaU Pear: or that of jagged leavesjbtarmg a lejjer fruit in clujlers upon long foot-jlalky.

5TRUE SERVICE. ' . smbus.


(No vtftble blojjoms 3 unleft ("as JOHN BAUHINUS obforves) within • the fruit , being a weak, tree, of finooth bark., large 1 leaves, divided commonly into five jags, whofe/nwMsof an oblong Pear-likffi- eurc.of a more loft confidence, full of little grains.

5 . FIGG.

Sempervirent 3 or evergreen 3 whofe fruit is either \ Round-, of a ,

Hard, crujlaceous, brittle rine 3 a thorny free 3 bearing large beauti- ful blojjoms, the fruit full of grains in a red pulp, with a kind of Coronet on the top of the fruit, at the place of the blojjom.

6. POMEGRANATE. Atahs w«/-

Softer rine 3 the fruit as to its colour being of a deep yellow either f * that which hath a quick. juice of a grateful acidity : or that whole >ORANGE. ( juice is of a more dull and flat tall. a*rsuti*.

APPLE. tuuam ads.

b Oblong 3 and oval 3 being of a pale yellow 3 1| either the bigger, whole m ’ rine is more thick.) and whole juice is left acid: or the lefi, whole rine

  1. 5 CITRON. ( is more thin , and whole juice is more acid. ASalmsmtdi.
  • ♦ £ LEMMON. . Ursmia.

{Lef? properly called Trees 3 bearing fruits of fome rcfemblance to Riggs 3 || either that which grows to a great bignels, bearing a pleafant fruit , many in a clufter, being Annual : or that whole leaves grow out of one another, of which thole in Northern Countries are commonly lo ^PLANTAIN TREE. (fmall as to be reckoned amongft Herfo. no [sort*. 9 ? INDIAN FIGG. Q_ H. PRU- rum i****.

\ 7 * ? ADAMS

1 14

11. rni^i.



M *tus ftrfcs, Knciftrfca .

M *btt Amu* h i*€*.

Frunms .

Ghrafus. Corums .





Zitjfbus M*. Zizjpbus f*th>

    • « 

Of Trees .

Part. II-

II. PRUNIFEROUS TREES, may be diftinguilhcd into fueh as are Hot Purgative j I Deciduous 5 whole fruits are \Gr eatery who fe ft ones are

Rough } having many deep crooked furrows; j| either that whole fruit is covered with a Down : or that whole Ikin is not downy .

5 PEACH. Mala cotoon.

    • £ NECTARINE.

Smooth 5 ||either that, whichis fioner rife, of a more dry ) Jolid > yeWovt pulp: ot that of a more Juccutent pulp.



Lejjer 5 putting out bloffoms before leaves |] either that which bears a more round fruit upon a long foot -Stalk- or that which bears a more oblong fruit upon a Jhorfer foot-Jlalk- 5 CHERRY.


[sesnpervirtnt : having Jlones with very linall kernels: || either that which hath long narrow leaves , hoary underneath , the fruit not efeu- lent till pickled : or that which hath very long leaves , like thofe of Reed, the fruit growing in cIufters,of a pleafant tail.

, 5 OLIVE.

4 * Jdate.

I Purgative j being fold in Apothecaries Jhops.

! Vjed fimetimes for food 5 || either that whofe fruit is bigger : or that I which bears a fmall black, turbinate /r#/f,ftanding in a little cup , of a J- black, Jweet, vifeid pulp, adhering to the Jlone , which conteins j three feeds.


5 *Jsebesten.

I [Notufid for food$ || either that whole fruit hath lome rejemblance to an Olive : or that which bears a red fruit , the leaf Jhort, round, fer- rate, of a deep green.


Ill BAC'


Chap. IV.

Of Trees.


III. BACCIFEROUS TREES, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are m. bacci* - European-, (either

T Decidua*/ 3 whole fruit is

( Efculent 3 having broad, roundifl), ferrate, rough leaves, bearing a fruit I ) like that of a Rasberry , but bigger.

) 1. MULBERRY. m™.

C Not ejculent 3 having

Winged leaves 3 the wood more

and fpungy 3|| either that, the younger branches of which are full of Pith , bearing the berries in an Vmbel, being of an ill '1 fent : or that which bears its berries in a clofe tuft, the wood < being ufed for giving a black tincture" to Leather.

< I _ SENDER.. ■ • SamhtcM.

^SUMACH. _ _ RjiusSunuub,

. lHard 3 either that which bears its berries in an Vmbel, being of a red colour and an acid talb or that which bears a fmall, round, oblong fruit, inlongclujlers, having many hollow excrefcences 5 QJI 1 CKEN TREE. Hike Bladders . **«»mb»-

i ^TURPENTINE TREE. imbimbm.

[Single leaves $ bearing a fmall blackfruit upon a long foot-Jlalk. like that of a Cherry, the leaves refembling thole of Nettle.

  • « 4. NETTLE TREE. mm.

J Evergreen 3 confiderable for their \ Berries 3 whether luch as bear

r Blacl^ berries 3 || either that whole leaves are more Jhort, odorate, of a deep greeny ach berry conteining two feeds : or that whole 1 leaves arc more pale, long, Jhining and ferrate.

CBAY. Lamm.


• ' H Red berries ; || either that which hath fmall narrow leaves of a I dark green : or that which hath large Jhiningprickly leaves.

L 5 YEW. * atoM.

! * WHOLLY. Jpifolium.

V Whitifh berries 3 having fmall round leaves of an ill jent,z bard clofe 7. BOX. (wood of a yellowilh colour, mam.

jGumms 3 1 | either that which hath winged leaves, without an od leaf at the end : or that which hath long narrow leaves, like thofe of Iris, producing a red Gum called Sanguis draconis. q CLASTIC TREE. Ltmifcw-

  • ^DRAGON TREE. Dr at o arbor.

_Exotic 3

'Deciduous 3 j| either that whok fruit is Aromatical,be\ng the bottom of the flower , which when ripe, grows turgid in the middle 1 where the feeds arc conteined : or that of winged leaves , ferrate ,

< of a deep green, bearing white berries in cluflers . *


° ^bede Tree. a&daratk.

, Evergreen 3 || either that of an Aromatic wood ufed in Phylick^having leaves like thofe of a Fig-tree, but Ids 3 or that of winged leaves, long , narrow, Jharp pointed, bearing berries like thofe of /iflaragusjn clu*

^SASSAFRAS. (fters. saffafnu.


Laurm • L*ur*s ctrs- Jm .





1 1






Pifacea . Styrax .

AvtUana. f-

Cortlns filvf* firii .

C a Rant a. Tagus.

Staphjh-dtn - </roi».

Iftf* tmfcha -


Buna arbor .



Of Trees .

Part. II.

2 .

IV. NUCIFEROUS TREES.,may bediftinguilhedintofuchasarej :

E«ro/<e<i»j conteining in one common hulk “{One Nut) having a covering that is either

and pulpy; having oyly kernels $ || either that which is the larger tree of winged leaves , odor ate , having a rugged kernel, divi- ded into feveral lobes : or that which is a lejjer tree y having long narrow ferrate leaves , and a fmooth kernel.

S walnut.

'* £ ALMOND.

[ Thin husks y either fuch as are

f Wholly enconrpaj/ed , and covered by their hulks $ whether that of winged leaves , having a white thin Jhell, upon which there is ano- . ther rugged coveringror that whofe leaf is like that of a Quince, green above and white underneath , the fruit covered with a downy husk, the kernel of a bad tali.

PISTACIE, Fiflic-nut.


[Open at one end') being fmaller Trees , of broad indented leaves, bearing Catkins $ || either that of a larger kernel and thinner Jhell. , whofe honk, is longer : or that of a lejjer kernel and thicker Jhell 9 whofe husk, is Jhorter.

„ 5 filbert.


Several Nuts 3 whole outward hulk is Echinate and prickly 5 |j either that which hath long y fmooth, deeply indented leaves, the hulk conteining three or four Nuts : or that which bears a Jhort, roundiJb 3 Jhining leaf having a fmooth bark, and Nuts of a triangular figure.


4 ‘ £BEECH.

[ Smooth ) and thin,7» the form of a Bladder 5 being a final] tree of 5. BLADDER NUT. (winged leaves.

{Exotic $ conteining in one common hulk f One Nut $ || either that which is a large tree, bearing the largejlNutof I all that are kjtown, , covered with a thick rine upon the Ihell : or that j which hath a hard Aromatic kernel, covered immediately with a yel- lowilh Aromatic husk .5 called Mace, upon which there is a thin Ihell,

, 5 COCO. (and upon that a pulpy coat.

b ' £ NUTMEG.

L Several Nuts 3 having a covering

f More thin 3 whole kernels are uled for the making of drinks, being but Imall trees 3 || either that which grows in Jhady moijl places , having many kernels together in a hulk : or that which is left properly called a Nut , bearing a double kgrnel in a husk) each of them beiifg flat on one fide, and gibbous on the other.



Covered with a woolly fubfeance : or that which befides the outward tegument hath likewile an inward pu/p, wherein the fruit lies,of the feiapeof a Heart, and the bignefeof a Bean, uled in Phyfick. '“COTTON TREE.


8 .

Gc ;le

Of Trees.

1 17


Chap. IV.

V. GLANDIFEROUS, and CONIFEROUS TREES, may be di- v. glan- ftinguilhed into fuch as are Sd com?

Glandiferous. FEROUS

‘ Deciduous \ || either that which is a large tree , of a hard lading wood, TREES - a rugged bar k_, the leaves waved at the edges : or that whole leaves are more deeply divided , bearing a larger fruity ftanding in great , < thick rugged cups, uled for tanning.

1 1 I x S OAK - Aureus.

J !• S nrT'Trn a v



[Evergreen 3 || either that whole leaves refemble thofe of Holly, being of a dark green above, and white underneath : or that which is very like to this, having a very, thickly light , porous, deciduous barl^ 'HOLM OAK.


Hex • Snbpr.


Coniferous 5

~ Deciduous 5 bearing ftnall Cones 3 || either that which grows in wate- ry places, having leaves of z dark, green, lhaped like thofe of the Nut- tree : or that whole leaves are very (lender, growing in tuftsjaxorc thin at dijlances , of a paler colour.

SALDpR. jtuus.

3 * Jlarich TREE. ft*-

Evergreen 5 whofe Cones are

\ Bigger -, || either that which is a large tall tree, bearing great roundifb Cones of fmootb fcales , ftanding upwards , the leaves being (mall, narrow, and thick let together : or that which bears long J, lender leaves, two growing out together front one focket, the Cones confiding of hard wooddy fcales.


4 *2 pine.

Lejfer’, having’

\Long leaves 5 || either that whofe leaves encompais and cover the branches^bearing long Cones hanging downwards: or that whole leaves grow from each fide of the Jialk., being more flat, like thole of TttPjgreen on the upper tide, and whitilh underneath, furcated at the end, bearing Cones fhorter and thicker, growing ereS.

SMALE FIRR TREE, Pitch-tree. AtUsmas.


I short leaves 5 || either that which grows in a conical figure, bear- ing fmall roundifh Cones : or that which hath contpreffed branches of a ftrong refinous lent, bearing fmall Cones encompaffed with fx Jcales.

/ ^CYPRESS. Cupnjfus .





1 1 8

VI. TREES tvhofc Seeds are in SIN- GLE TEGU- MENTS.

Silt qua arbor.

c*Ba. Tamarind us.

Arbor Jnda.

Of Trees,

Part. II.




Jar minus. Mur ma jus.

Betnla. Populus trim inula.

Salt u angnfli- Salix latifol.


Plat anus.

V[. TREES bearing their Seeds in SINGLE TEGUMENTS or Co- verings, may be difnnguithed into fuch whofe feeds are conteined in Pods 3 called Siliquous trees 3 whether fuch whofe Pods are ' Larger 3 being

c Efculent 3 having winged leaves , and very broad Pods.

< 1. CAROB, St John's bread,

{^Purgative 3 || either that which bears a round, blacky, and very long

< Pod , whofe pulp is ufed as a jjenign purgative:or that which bears

J a thicks Pod, having winged leaves , and a purgative pulp.



LeJJer 3 having a round leaf, bearing elegant purple blojjoms, and a thin 3. JUDAS TREE. ( Pod.

Membranaceous coverings 3 whether

j Foliaceous husks •, || either that whole leaves are rough and indented, I having a rugged bark.: : or that whofe leaf is lomewhat longer and J Jmoother , having a more even bark.-

1 , 5 elm.


1 Alate feed-vejjels j or Keys ; whether fuch as do general] bear C Single Keys 3 having winged leaves, a fmooth bark [j and a tough wood. ^ 5 ASU.

C Double Keys 3 || either that which hath fmaller leaves , divided into five legments , being a brittle wood: or that which hath broader "j leaves, more deeply divided, being a foft wood .

(■ smaple*


Catkins 3 called Juliferous trees 3 whether luch as are of j LeJJer leaves ; || either that which hath Jlender reddijh twigs , fmooth j and white branches : or that which bears a roundijh crenate leaf, up- ( on very Jlender foot-jlalkj. which makes them apt to (hake upon | every little breath of wind.



< Larger leaves $ || either that whole leaves are of a darkgreen, like thole

of Ivy , having a whitijh bark L» and growing in watery places : or that whole leaves arc laciniated, being of a dark, green above, and hoary o S BLACK POPLAR. (white underneath.


Longer leaves 3 of a foft wood, growing moft naturally in moift places3 ||either that whole leaves are more denje and compa&, being the larger tree : or that which is a lejje tree , having a broader leaf and bearing larger Cat- kins.



Round Buttons 3 |J either that which hath broad leaves ending in a point, being fmoother above then underneath, bearing a fweet blojjom, and a round fruit about the bignels of a Peaje, conteining one feed : or that which hath a divided leaf who (e fruit is echinate or prickly , contein- ing feveral feeds



Chap. IV.

Of Trees .

11 9

Upturn coin- brmuuu

Stmatum ra- brum.

Ssntslnm ci~

VII. TREES confidered according to their WOODS or BARKS, tii. trees maybe diftinguifhed into fuch as are principally known and taken no- ticcof for their their

f Woods ; according to their ufc$ in barks? 0 '

t Phyficki whether fuch as are efteemed f Cordial', b^nga hard, heavy, un&uous, Aromatic wood, the grain like that of Oak-

i. ALOE TREE. Lignum aims.

Diaphoretic 5 of a hot biting taft 5 || either that Which is ufed againft the Pox : or that which is commended as an Antidole againft the ■ biting of Serpents.

I 5GUAIACUM, Pockjoood. Lignum vita,


Cooling ahd Ajlringent whether that of a deep red, being hard, heavy, and of a finer grain, having adull tail; and no lent : or that which is yellowifh,of a ftrait courfe grain, and fragrant Imell like



[Vjeful againjl the Stone and dijeafes of the Kidney || either that which nmum. tinges Water fo, as to make it in feveral lights to appear of two co- lours, bletoijh and yellow , not conliderable for taft or fntcll : or that which is yellovpifh in the middle, and white on the outfide, having a hottilh taft, and a fept like that of a white Rife.


  • ■ 2 rosewood.

\_Mecbanics 5 whether for - . • iinm '

Dying a red colour , the former being a hard heavy wood of a ftrait grain, with freaky of black; e 5 BRASIL WOOD.

5 * J LOG WOOD. num '

Pabrile ufes $ whether the making of ,

f Cabinets 5 being capable of a fhining politure 5 fl either that of a black, colour , a dole grain, being very heavy : or that which is • variegated with red and white .

I . 5EBONY. . Mtmnm.


'flubesj for the conveiance of Water, being ftreight (lender trees, growing to a very gfeat height, having a tuft of branches only at the top, the greateft part of them being pith, inclofed in a fhell of very hard wood , lomewhat relembling a Rufh,

7 . CABBIDGE TREE, Palmetto Royal.

I Barky $ or Rines i either that which is C Ejculent , being Aromatic, and of afweettaft. d 8. CINNAMON.* . , ,

C Medicinal • || either that which is fo foveraign a remedy for the euro of Agues , being of a dark colour , no conjiderab/e tajl : or that which is of an Afb colour, and a hot bitine tajl, good againft the Scurvy. a 5 CORTEX FEBRfFUGUS PERUVlANUS, Jefuits powder. Cortex fekri- 9 ‘ 7CORTEX WINTERANUS.

Cimutmomum .






1 18

Of Trees,

Part. II.

VI. TREES tvhofc Seeds are in SIN- GLE TEGU- MENTS.

S'tliqu* arbor*

CaJJia. Tamarindus •

Arbor Judo*

Vlmus* Carf'mut .


Acer minus* Acer majus .

Betula. Bopulus trtm mala*

Populus aifTa. Populus alba.

Salta autufli- Salix latifoL

Tilt a.

Plat anus*

VI. TREES bearing their Seeds in SINGLE TEGUMENTS or Co- verings, may be difdnguiihed into fuch whofe feeds are conteined in j Pods ; called Siliquous trees 5 whether fuch whofe Pods are 1 Larger } being

1 EJculent', having winged leaves, and very broad Pods.

< 1. CAROB, St John's bread,

(Purgative 5 | either that which bears a round , black., and very long Pod , whofe pulp is ufed as a benign purgativeior that which bears I a thick, rod, having winged leaves , and a purgative pulp.



LeJJer 5 having a round leaf, bearing elegant purple blofjbnts, and a thin 3. JUDAS TREE. (Pod.

Membranaceous coverings ; whether

j Foliaceous huskf i || either that whofe leaves are rough and indented,

I having a rugged bark. : : or that whofe leaf is (omewhat longer and j finoother , having a more even bark 1 5 ELM.

4 ‘ $ hornbeam.

\Alate feed-vejjels j or Keys j whether fuch as do general! bear ( Single Keys ; having winged leaves, a fmooth bark, and a tough wood. 2 5 - ASH.

C Double Keys', || either that which hath fmaller leaves, divided into five fegments, being a brittle wood: or that which hath broader leaves, more deeply divided, being a foft wood .



Catkins 5 called Juliferous trees ; whether fitch as are of j Lefer leaves ; || cither that which hath Jlender reddijh twigs , finooth I and white branches : or that which bears a roundijh crenate leaf, \ up- on very Jlender foot-Jlalkf. which makes them apt to (hake upon every little breath of wind.

, 5 birch.

"*2 aspin.

Larger leaves j || either that whofe leaves are of a darkgreen, like thofe of Ivy, having a whitijh bark » and growing in watery places : or thart whofe leaves ar c laciniated, being of a darkgreen above, and hoary o S BLACK POPLAR. (white underneath.


(Longer leaves ; of a foft wood, growing mod naturally in moift places; || either that whofe leaves are more denfe and compaS, being the larger tree : or that which is a lejje tree, having a broader leaf, and bearing larger Cat-kins.



[Round Buttons ; || either that which hath broad leaves ending in a point , being finoother above then underneath, bearing a fweet blojjom, and a round fruit about the bignefs of a Peaje, conteining one feed : or that which hath a divided leaf, whofe fruit is echinate or prickly, contcin- ing fever al feeds






Chap. IV.

Of Trees.

ll 9


Lignum vit *• Lignum c$ln- brmunu

Sant alum m- brum*

Snntslnm f/-

VII. TREES confidered according to their WOODS or BARKS, fii. trees maybe diftinguifhed intofuch as are principally known and taken no- confid «* d ticc of for their their 5 t0

Woods 3 according to their ufe$ in woods or

Phyficki whether fuch as are efteemed barks.

[ Cordial 3 b||ng a hard, heavy, unftuous, Aromatic wood, the grain 1 like that of Oak.

I. ALOE TREE. fcguum Aim.

Diaphoretic 5 of a hot biting taft 5 || either that which is ufed againft the Pox : or that which is commended as an Antidote againft the biting of Serpents.

5 GUAI ACUM, Pockppood. x ' JSNAKEWOOD.

Cooling ahd Ajlringent 3 whether that of a deep red, being hard, heavy, and of a finer grain, having adull taft and no fent : or that which is yellowilhjof a ftrait courfe grain, and fragrant finell like Musk-



[Vfeful againft the Stone and difeafes of the Kidneys',\\ either that which trinum . tinges Water lb, as to make it in feveral lights to appear of two co- lowxSibUroiJh and yellow , not conliderable for taft or [well : or that which is yeUowifh in the middle, and white on the outffde, hiving a hottilh taft, and a fept like that of a white Ride.



\_Mechanics 3 whether for imm.

Dyitig ared colodr 3 the former being a hard heavy Wood of a ftrait grain, with ftreah of black. e 5 BRASIL WOOD.


Fabrile ufes 3 whether the making of

f Cabinets 3 being capable of a (hining politure 3 (J either that of a I black, colour, a clofe grain, being very heavy : or that which is j variegated with red and white.

1 r> 5 EBONY.


I. 1 Tubes 3 for the conveiance of Water, being ftreight fiend er trees, growing to a Very gteat height, having a tuft of branches only at thetop, the greateft part of them being pith, inclofed in a /hell of very hardwood , iomewhat refembling a Rufh,

7. CABBIDGE TREE, Palmetto Royal.

\Bdrks 3 or Rines 3 either that which is C Efculent 3 being Aromatic , and of afweettaft.


C Medicinal 3 || either that which is lofoveraign a remedy for the euro of Agues , being of a dark, colour , no conjiderable taft: or that which is of an A/h colour, and a hot bitine taft, good againft the Scurvy

5 CORTEX FEBRIFUGUS PERUVlANUS, Jefttits powder. Ctrt,x f thi ~ 9 ‘ 2 CORTEX WINTER. ANUS. ' 1

Mrafilium Ugy. num.




CwUxWin - ttrwnns.


I 20

Of Trees.

till. TRIES confide red according to their GUMS or ROSINS.


Gummi Aru-




Gummi Lit- mim

Gummi Atth mu.


Carann m.


Camfhtra .

Mdelttum .

Taca mahaca.

Lucca .




, Part. II.

’ ^

VIII. TREES confidcrcd according to their GUMMS or ROSINS, nay be diftinguilhed 3 either according to their Sc*”** b whether

. odor ate 3 being of a bitter tafi, proceeding from an exotic thorny ) Tree.

I ) 1. MYRRHE. , „ *

I ( Not odorate 5 || either that which proceeds from an Egyptum thorny ' tree : or that which is of a yellowilh colour and bitter taft, lea- ving behind it a kind of fweet rellilh, fomewhat like Liccorico CGUMM ARABlCK.

2 * ^SARCOCOLLA Rojins 3 whole confidence is more i Solid 3 and hard I Odorate b having a CMorepleaJant fintb ufed '.for ' Suffumigations j being tranfparent 3 having \LeJJer grains 3 1 | either that which proceeds from an Arabian tree : or that which is of near refcmblance to this, proceed- ing from an j. E thiopian Olive , of a whitijb colour mixed with yeUowf articles.



[ Bigger grains 3 proceeding from an American tree , the latter of which is more clear ana tranfparent.



[Perfumes ^ y either that which is cf a more hard confidence, V and more tenacious : or that which is more eafily diflblved.


5 *$benjamin.

I Lefl pleajant Jent 3 either that which is \ More volatile 3 white and tranlparent from feveral trees.


. C Left volatile 3 j| either that which is pnduous and bitterijh, eafily growing loft, proceeding from exk,exotic thorny tree : or that which proceeds from a tall tree like Poplar .



Not odorate 3 of a redtinciure^ ufed in painting and varuijhing.


Liquid 3 being of a fweet lent 3 }| either that which is of a more firong fmell : or that which is of a readijh colour , ufed for flopping defluxi- ons.





Chap. V.

Of Animals .

I 2 I


I. Concerning Animals, the general diflribution of them. II. Of txan- guiotss Animals. III. Of Fijb. IV. Of Birds. V. Of Beafls,

VI. A Digrejjion concerning Noah’/ Ark. ,

S Enfitive creatures may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are counted a more

( Imperfeft i which have femething analogous to blood, but are deftitute 3 of that red juice commonly fo called, being therefore ftiled EX- I ANGUIOUS, having either no leggs, or more legs then four,

  • Perftft 5 whether

FISHES, which have no legs, but fins anlwerable to them, being co- vered with a naked Ikin, or with fcales, whofe proper motion is Jmmming.

■< BIRDS, which have two leggs and two wings, whole bodies are cor vered with feathers, being oviparous, whofe proper motion is fljh

BEASTS, which are for the moft part, four-footed,hairy, and vivipa- rous, .excepting only feme few which are without feet or hair, and are oviparous. . ,

It may be obferved to be amongft thefc (as it is amongft the other ranks of Beings , ) that the more perfed kinds are the leal); numerous.

Upon which account, Inje&s being the mod rpinute andimperlett, and feme of them (perhaps; of a Ipontaneous generation, are of the greet- ed variety, tho by reafen of their littlenels, the feveral Species of them, have not hitherto been fefiiciently enumerated or deferibed, by thofe Authors who have particularly applyed theinfelves to this ftudy.

There are fendry of thefe,as litewifeof other Animals, which have no Latin names, as being unknown to the Romans, & there are fendry which have no Englijh names, as being Grangers to us. And amongft thofe-that have Englijb names, feme are here deferibed by their ufeal Appellations In becaufe I knew not at prefent how to render them properly in Eng; lijh : And feme there are peculiar to feme coafts and rivers , and not * commonly known elfewhere, which are hard to be enumerated.

As for fi3itiona Animals, as Syren, or Mermaid, Phenix^ Griffin , Harpy,

Rnck., Centaur , Satyr , &c. there is no provision made for them in thefe tables, becaufe they may be infinite , and betides, being but bare names, and no more, they may be exprefied as Individuals are.



Of Exatig*t<m Animals.

Part. II.



Of Exanguimt Animals .

T Hofc&indsof atore imperfect Ammab, which at*e dcftkute of that re<l juice, commonly called blood, are (tiled Exatiguious ; to which tnay be annexed that general name givcnto the leal! kinds of thefc, viz. Infc&y from that inciliue or refemblance of cutting what is common to mou of them in fbmepart of their bodies.

Thefe EXANGUIOUS ANIMALS may be diftinguHhed into ' Ltjjer ; ufaally called lujsffs ; whether fuch whofcgeneration is f Analogous to that of other Animals ;• which breed young like them* i I (elves , growing from a lefler to a greater magnitude , not being ) tranftnutable into any other Infill ; whether fuch as have.

KNO FEET OR BUT SIX feet, being WITHOUT WINGS. L 1 2SIX FEET and WINOS, or MORE feet THEN SIX. II. [Anomalous ; whether fuch as


£Havch t their produ&ion undergone jeveraH mutations ; being firft Eggs* t ^ icn Ma gg ots or Caterpillar s y then Aurelia, and then flying Jnjeas , which after their firft production do not mcrcafe in mag- nitude; whether fbch as have



j Greater ; whether

r Hard$ whdCe hones are on their outfide ; being either CRUST A CEOU5 ; namely fuch as are wholly covered with a tough flexile Jubfllance, having generally eighths, betides a pair of clams, and two or. more anmdated horns or feelers. VI. TESTACEOUS ;* of a more bardand brittle jnbflance "TURBINATED; confiding of a cone-trkf cavity , routed up in a $irdl f which beginning at ihe Aperture or mouth of them, doth generally proceed bom the ldtband to the right. VII NOT TURBINATED. VHI.




Chap. V. Of Exanguious Animals .


I. INSEGTS of an Analogous generation, having no feet , or but fix l insects , feet, being without wings , may be distributed into thole that are fafpt h»*

Apod*’, without feet. yf*, ’being

[More oblong and round 3

[ larger i "**'

f More Jlcnder-, of a reddijh colour , with very little diftin&ion of parts 3 || either that which breeds in the earth : or that ! which breeds in the bodies of children .

' >EAR.TH WORM. £&»


. . . > . I II • t 1


[More thick, 3 || either that which breeds in Watery places, being ujed • for the drawing of blood : pr that which is covered with a Jktisy nsoijlure , having four little horns like prominencies , or feelets.


3 *5snail.

j breeding in Animals 3 || either the more shiukte , being (mall Wwnr/jb reeding in the lower guts of Men : or the bigger Jock- ing their heads in the inward membranes if Horjes Jiontacbs or guts.


3 * Jbotts. •

[More Jhort and fiat 3 1 | either that whofe Shape dqth fomewhat tefemble a Flounder , found both in waters, and in the branches of the Torus bile arts, and the liver of Several of the Ruminant kind : or that of a Quadrate body , with a little trunk, (landing out betwixt two Anted- me, and fix firingy Jubilances behind, living in the Sc *4


+ Jasilus. ’

\tiexapoda 3 having fix feet .

[ Terre firi al •,

I f Greater 3

r More Jlender 3 || either that whole body is fomdwhat Cdmpreficd , fending out a light from her tail 1 or that which is of a wbitijh co- lour, more oblong, breeding in Meal.

i e SGLOWrWORM. OchMa.

1 5 ^MEAL-WORM, Gentle.

[Lefi Jlender 3 j| either of a

’ Darker colour 3 being like a beetle without wings, but Seething to have Some little rudiments of wings , noted for being apt upon a touch to Send out a yeUowiJh oyly Jubfiance from his joynis.

6 . PROSCARAB. • * tnjcsratuui

Lighter colour 3 whether that which rejemblesa Locufi without wings : or that which is of a Chefnut colour, fiat, broad, fift, avoiding light places. n 5FIELD CRICKET.


[Lejfer 3 troubleSome to other Animals 3 f| whether that of a paler co- lour : or that of a dark red, being falienti o 5 LOUSE. Muulu/i

  • JFLPA. **m.

|_. Aquatic 3 having a comprejjed bodyjNith an oblique decujjktion upon the

back. , and a long tail. sM nut-





Of Exanguious Animals. Part. II*

!I.*NSECT$ winged, or having abovfc CxJegS;

Lteufla. M antit*

GryUm • GryHo-t*Ip*.

Citnex • Mlatta data*

i II. INSECTS of an Analogous generation, having either wings or more Winged 5 whether (legs then fix, may be dift ributed into luch as are

I Terrefirial 3 whole bodies are i More oblong 3

f Living in open fields'# nd feeding on plants i || either that kind, by the fwarms of which whole Ccvr/r/ej have been fbmetimes deftroy- ed, having long hinder legs for leaping, making a noife bp rubbing their kgs againfi their wings : or that of a long (tender breafi , often

  • holding up the two fore- legs, which are longer then the other.

S LOCUST , Grajhopper.


[ Living in holes of the ground, and houfis 3 || either t hat which affe&s l to refide near Hearths and Ovens, making a noile like a Locujl , by

< the aflri&ion of the wingsji&ving the wings lying more clofe to the

J body : or that who fe fore-legs are broad and jtrong,dividedinfo fin -

'j L gers like theft of a Mole, whereby it is inabled in a very (hort fpace SCRICKET. fto dig a hole in the ground.

I ' ^FEN-CRlCIUny Chnrr-worm.

JWore comprejjed and broad 3 [| whether that which hath broad angular (boulders, being marked with an oblique decvfiation on the back., ha- ving theprobofih reverfid under the beUpiot that which is of a Chefnut colour (having Urge flijf wings, avoiding the light .



[Aquatic 3 having a decufiation or kind of Lozenge- mzvk on the backs || either that which runs upon the top of the water , having long legs like thole of a Spiderior that which hath two long Jwi timing legs behind, WATER SPIDER. (whereby he fwims in the water.


.Not winged 3 Terrefirial 3 having [Eight legs 3 being hurtful to

j Animals 3 either the >

T Larger whether that which by drawing out both the belly a jlimy > k fubfiance , and working it with the feet, doth frame a [mall Web to catch Flies: or that which hath an oval body , two forcipate claws, j a knotty tail, with a crooked fling at the end of it,

, 1 e SSPIDER.


<. Middle kynds, || either that of a vfiund body, the kgs fined to the nec(i ^ flicking to Animals by thrufting the head into their skin: or that 1 which is of 4 darker cd colour ,a tender skin, caufing a very oflen-

< , STICK, sheep-tickj (five fiink., when crulhed.

e * JPUNICE, WaU-loufe.

, L Leafi kind-, | |either that which breeds in corrupted Cheefi, fruit file,

| , or that which' doth felf into the skin of children.

| | ' SMITE.


| j ! Clothes', being of a filver colour , Utealy, oblohg , of fioift mbtioh,

| | 8. MOTH.

| J Fourteen legs 3 covered with a fialy armature, having a flat belly, and a j I gibbous back., being apt to roul it fell up when touched.

| | 9. SOW, CL efelrp , Beg-loujc, Wood-loufe, More

Chap. V. Of Exanguiow Animals .

1 25

j [Afore then fourteen feet s, || whether that whofe body is of a more com- { SSCOLOPENDER. ' (preffed : or a moie round figure. saUftaira.

I 1 cJULUS. 7-lm.

l -Aquatickj, || whether that which flicks to FiJhjaot much differing from an ^Jellus, but only in refpett of the which is ibmewhat broad : or 1 that

SEA LOUSE, (Whofe baekys more gibbomflreing apt to skip.

SEA FLEA, Sugg, River Shrimp. . “


rtnutm PuUx mart*




2 .

III. INSECTS of an ANOMALOUS generation, defigned for a fur- ther tranfmutation, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as axe | r Jpoda ; thole that are without feet, confidcred according to the 1 General name >

< 1. MAGGOT. , ***'

L Particular kinds 5 whether fuch as are. . .

f Sharp at both ends 5 1 1 either the digger, producing the favificou. s kind : or the lejfer, breediog in the exorefeies of Oaks , attd the tufts of Bri- ars, and fometimes creeping out of the fides of Caterpillars , produ- cing a finaller fort offhining Fly,tnatty of which arc Seticaudes.

“BEE MAGGOT, Grub. ; 1 ' V

_shining fly maggot; \

^Broad and fiat at their tails 3 |}either the greater, baring ttoo black.

1 ffjots on the tail, the fore-part beingmarellenddr,with two little

I black hooks upon the head, by fixing of which,this lnfe& doth draw

I his body forward, from whence Flefh- flies proceed :or the leffer, with

I 5 GENTILE. (a fhort eredt tail , producing Flies of the Waff kind.


[ Pedata 3 having kgs, whether fHexapoda j fuch as have fixlegs.

r Aquatic-jiving in the waters, || whether that.which is naked, producing Dragon-flies : or that which is in a cafe with little flrdws or Hicks ad- SLIBELLA WORM. ( hering to reproducing May flies.

    • 2 CADEW, Straw-worm. ' %iwm,

Terreflrials, breeding feveral forts of Scarabs s, || whether that which is of a ftrait figure : or that whole tail is inverted under the belly. e 5 STRA 1 T BEETLE PRODUCING HEXAPOD.

5 * £ WHIRL WORM. spniju.

{More then fixlegs', confiderable according to the | r General name 3 comprehending all (uch 3 asbefides three pair of (len- der crooked legs , on the three firfl annuli next the head, have two or more (hort thick legs behind, and two appendages at the tail. To which may be ad joyned the moft principal of thole.

J , 5 CATERPILLAR. \ ruci

^SILKWORM . sumtiu

{Particular kinds * whether having f Eight feet 3 that which in its progreffive motion doth firft gather j its body up into a loop , refting it upon his hinder feet and the ap- I pendages of the tail, and then thrufting himfelf forward, or elfo 1 . 5 GEOMETRA. ((kipping forward.


[Many feet 3 amongft w hich the moft common and numerous kind have fourteen feet j\\ whether thofe that are ftuooth : or thofethat P c SMOOTH CATERPILLAR. (are hirfute.

iPALMER WORM, Bear storm. IV. NA-


Of Exanguious Animah . Part. II*








Mrnfcs c*r- nsris. Mufcs rsris.


C itdi*;





3 .




1 V.N AKED WINGED INSECTS, which in their prod u&ion do under- go feveral notations^nay bedidributed into fuch,whofe wings are either [ Membranaceous confiding of a thin tranjparent film, being bred of f /Ipoda s without feet • (Maggots or Worms that are

I 1 Bigger (habit and breed,having/o»r wings whether fuchas are

  • Favificows,ox making of Combs, in which multitudes'of them do co-

| r Beneficial 5 by their gathering of Hony and Wax from Plants 5 || ei- ther that which is of a more oblong figure, the males of which (called Drones) are without flings, being commonly prefcrved in Gardens : or that which is more Jhort, thicks and hairy, living BEE, Drone, Hive , Comb, (more wildly in lefier J warms . HUMBLE-BEE. ’

l Hurtful ; by their dedroying of fruits, lee/jC^c.being of an oblong figure, and * yellow colour ^ either the lefijo{$ lighter yeUowsox the “WASP. (greater, of a deeper yellow.


favificom having ( Wajps.

Four wings', whether fuch as in their (hapes refemble Bus or _ SBEE-LIKE FLY.


Two wings', )j whether that of a Jhort thickjbody,o( various bignefi firs and colours, proceed i ng from an oblong round Aurelia, feeding on flejh : or that of a yellomifii colour, and longer legs, feeding in A 5 FLESH FLY. (dung.


\LejJir 5 Jiving gregarioufiy ', either that of an oblong body, with a deep ineijure, hzvitig four wings, of which there are many that at fbme* times are without wings : or that of a more flender body,* tuft on the Arad, living near watery pUces, having but two wings.

CANT, Emmet , Pijmire,


[pedata$ having fix feet •, whether thofc of

Broad wings •, || cither that which hath a great head, a long fir ait pro* bofeis lying under the belly, making a loud noife, by the help of two diffe membranes that are upon his brealho r that which hath a near refemblance to a Butterfly, in refped of the largeneis of the wings Jbui , CCICADA. (only they arc not farinaceous or ere 3 .


Narrow wings $ being bred out of the water |] either of a nakydhex* apod tVorm : or of one that lives in acafi, to which little dicks and 5 DR AGON FLY, Bolts- head. (draws do adhere;


1 flong legs $ having but two wings.

8. CRANE FLY. Shepheards fly.

\Farihaceous wings •, being covered with a mealy Jubflance eafily coming off upon a touch, which in the Microfrope appears to confid of finali downy feathers, m the mod ingenuous Mr. Hoo\ hath fird difeovered 3 whether fuch whofe wings in the ufual podure are Ere&ed j danding upright upon their being of great variety for

colours and M4gtf//*des,didinguifhable into thefe two common kinds,

5 BUTTERFLY. (fuch as appear by day, or by night.

/' ^MOTH. (flrong, and the tail more broad.

Comprejfed 5 lying more flat on the body ,ikc wings being more Jhort and ic. HAWK BUTTERFLY. - V. SHEA-

5 -


Chap.V, Of Exangmous Animals .

V. SHEATHED WINGED INSECTS, commonly called Beetles of Scgrafotimy be diftributed intofuch, whole cpveringS are more Thicks ft ron & **d horny * whether thole that are accounted f Horned ; having either

i 4 Out -km* ’, fae greater yhebiggefl of this tribe,the A<w*turnmgdown- j wards: ©rtheie^er, being one of thefiuoU$efihit tn be t having > ' Antmnn on eadihde'ofhis J /«w«tfor fortr,whic^ tsqgetherreprelent

1 <» the Gr«^_ letter 4, breeding among!! and devouring Corn. 5RHINOCEROTE. l ' JWEEVILL.

llSwoloorn* $ ' •

< CStiffe^yfvhavtt Jeyutsi, whether brmcbedi&exksoSe oT&Stagg : or ) CsTAG BEETLE* (not branched like Jthofe of a Its//.


^&«rfer,and with joints-; improperly called fon** 8 heing Antennx or feelers * || either that whole Antenna are very long and ne- tt wrjednuer hie backyot that mbickhiahJ^obhedfiulers uotfo long,



[Ns# horned j STerreJirial 5 having

Lone**' coverings for their wings * fine greater,

- 1 f Of a dWr^Uackilh colourtyvixthes that wlrich«®oftc<ttw/**#:

' j or that other of near relemblance to this,having ferrate legs,

4 I ufing to roul Dung into littk balls , by working backwards

i t 5COMMON BEETLE. <wkhhis


1 Of a lighter colour-, || cither that of ^ru/jet o#/<H*r^livi»g in Trees, < having a longibarpaai/, extended beyond the rnngt:o r that

1 : ' 5 DORR, Gref Beetle, (of a fiiniuggneemficedlag on Rofes.


[The le/Jer 5 || either that of a long /lender body, frequent about houfes, making a noile like the minute of a ITatcb* by (hiking

< thebottomof hisdre^ againfthis &ofy:or tkatof emote /hort round figure* living an the fields* beiegekhor wholly red, or

■ / $ DEATH WATCH. (ibmetimes (potted with blacky


{shorter coverings ; not reaching half the length of their bodies * which are long and (lender, having forked fads* which they turn j up in their defence ; || the grotto* which ist'bUckyxtt tbelefi which

| SSTAPHILINUS. (iso ( nredtn/h colour


  • Aquatic || either the greater* living under footer* having the hinder

pair of legs longer for firimuting * being laid to for out of the water iometimesin the night : or the lefioi a gshltosss round /hitting bari^* o $ GREAT WATER SCARAB, (playing on the top of the water.

Jless water scarab:

Thin* weah. and flexile 5 of more oblong bodies ; [| either that which is of z green* gilded* fhining colour for Cauflicl(s : or that which /bines SCANTHARIS. * {in the night.














Digi i by v^ooQle


1 28


ASmcms. hotnpa mart-


Vrfus mart • nus .

JllacMs fluvi - MtilUm

Squill*. Squill* Man- tis.




Cancer Wf*- ri*.

Cancer Htra- cleoticns.

Cancer majus. Cancer melu- cenfis.

j Cancer minor*

! At ant* ma-


Aranea cru - fiacea .



Of Exanguious Animate. Part. II.


VI. The greater Ibrt of EXANGUIOUS ANIMALS being CRU- ST ACEOUS, may be diftributed into fuch whofe figure is more Oblong j

I The greater ; having ;

\ Naked. JheUs 5 of a dark,, brown colour * || either that which hath four pair of /<gs,and two great claws : or that which hath no claws five pair o£ legs, the feelers foniewhat comprejjed, being thorny on the back .



\*owny Jhell 5 having a broad head , with two Jhort, broad, laminate prominencies from it, five pair of legs, and no claws .


The lejfer 5 living in

j Frefh watery rejembling a Lobfier, but much left, of a bard Jhell.

3. CRAYFISH, Crevice.

Salt water i having a thinner Jhell , being of a pale flclh colour j ||either that of a Jharpertail, the two fore-legs being booked and not forcipate : or that which hath a broader longer tail , with two purple fpots upon it, being the greater.

5 SHRIMP, Frawn.


Shells of other Sea Fijhes 5 having befides two claws , and two pair of legs hanging out of the Jhell, two other pair of loft hairy legs with- in the Jhell.

5. HERMIT FISH, Scmldier Fijh . j Roundijh^ comprehending the Crab-kind , whole bodies are fomewhat comprejjed, having generally Jhorter tails folded to their bellies.

[The Greater 3 having v

1 Thick .5 fl ror, &> jhort claws 5 the latter of which hath ferrate promi - ' nencies on the Jide of the claws, fomewhat relembling the Comb of a Cock



\s lender claws 5 || either that of a longer body, having two horns be- tween his eyes, being rough on the back and red when alive : or that whole upper Jhell doth extend beyond his body , having a long (tiffe Vail.



VThe Lejjer relembling

C A Common Crab j but being much left.


CA Spidery whether that which is fomewhat more oblongm the body, haviog a long fnout : or that whole body is round.




Chap. V. Of Exanguious Animals .

I 2 1



VII. TESTACEOUS TURBINATED exanguious ANIMALS, riiay vn. testa- be diftributed into fuch as are tuslblna.

' (ore properly fo called; whether fuch whole Jpiral convolutions tei> ANI-"

Do appear on the outjide ; being cither MAJLS.

Not produced ; but equal on both fides ; || either the Greater , having lcveral Diaphragms perforated, the Animal within fomewhatre- fembling a Polypus : or the Lei f, being of a dark red colour , and found in frejh water.



Produced ; whiter

r . More fort in the Jpiral production, confiderable for having a I Purple juice ; heretofore uled in Dying , the felts being either knobbed or thorny ; || either that whofe fell is very large and thick., being the Jlrongeft and heavieft of this kind, having a long aperture : or that which hath a round if aperture, with a neb or beak at one Jide of it.

a smurex.


j Long aperture ; || either that whofe turbinated part is almofl plain, and the part not turbinated^much produccdfio mewha t like a Cy- linder:ox that which is of & great biguef, having fiven Jtrong furrowedprominencies from one fide of the aperture.



Round if aperture ; || either that which is more prominent, having more revolutions :• or that which is more comprefed, having few- er revolutions, many of them having a knob by the aperture.

?SEA SNAIL. - ‘ CteUta


[More oblong ; always ending in a (harp point , having either a more ‘ Prominent bafe ; |l either the Greater : or the Lefler.


5 $turbo.

Flat baf ; broad and routed, being nearer to the figure of a Cone-, the greater: or the lefer, whole bafe is lef flat.


{Do not appear on the outjide ; but are within the fell, having lino aper- tures, || either that whofe aperture is more narrow, being furrnoedon either fide : or that whofe aperture is fomewhat wider, not furrowed on the fides of it. *



{Lefi properly fo called; being of near affinity to the Vnivalvs, the infide % having a pearl-like finning colour, with feveral holes on one fide beine at om end on the outjide fomewhat turbinated * 6

8. SEA EAR. ■ ’ ■ . .

Juris mun **.

6 .

ru .

Conch* Ftr-

ftca .


Of Exanguious Animalr. Part. II.

VIII. EXANGUIOUS TESTACEOUS ANIMALS NOT TURBI- NATED, may be diftributed into fuch as are i Vnivalvs 3 having but one Jbeil 3 whether being • Vn moved 3 (licking faft to Rocks or other things* |j whether that whole convexity doth fomewhat refemble a (hort obtufe angled cone, having no hole at the top : or that which is of an oblong figure, fomewhat Cj- < lindrical, fixed at the bottom to the place where firft it was bred, with • 5 LIMPET. (an aperture at the top.


I Moveable 3 || either that of a Spherical figure fomewhat compreJJed,full of prickles, having one large round aperture at (|ie bottom, and ano- ther fmall aperture oppofitet© it : or that which is of a more oblong figure ,a tender Jbeil , having two apertures on the time fide.



Bivalvs 3 having two Jhells * whether more ! Round ijh 3 fuch whofe outfides are

Smooth ; || whether that ofa larger thicker Jhell,of a pearl- like Jhining, whofe inward part towards the joy nt, doth end in a narrow finuo or cavity : or that which is rohitifis on the outfide.



< Rough 3 || either that whofe joynt is more narrow, having uopromi- . j nences in the infide of it : or that whofe joynt is more broad, with I two prominencies and two correfpondent cavities in each Jhell.



I J Furrowed 3 || either the bigger 3 having one or two ear-like prominen- cies on the outfide towards the joynt : or the lefi, having no (uch pro- S SCOLLOP. ( minencies .

5 * £ COCKLE.

I Oblong 3 confiderable for being

f Lefi long 3 and neareft to the round kind, being ftnooth, and having I thin Jhells 3 || either the greater, o( a JlattiJh and cosnprefied figure : or \ the lejler, being fomewhat of a triangular figure, having the edges 1 SCHAMA. (of th efheU indented.


[.More long 3 whether fuch as are

r Of a dark, blackjjh colour on the outfide 3 |) either the greater , which from a joynt at one end more acute and (lender , doth grow out to a great length, becoming broad at the other end, having a filkc like fubfiance within the Jhell : or the lefi, of which one kind hath the joynt at the end, and is commonly eaten, the other hath the S PINNA. (yVywf on the fide.

7 ’ eMUSCLE.

' Not clofed exactly in allparts of their Jhells 3 1 | cither that which lyes in holes in a kind of marie at the bottom of the Sea, having an a- perture near the joynt ,and a little hook, in the infide : or that which is open at both ends, being the longcfi of all the reft, in proportion to o rPHOLAS. (itsbignefs.

(SHEATH-FISH, Razorfijh

^Growing by a neck. t° other things 3 whofe Jhell confifts of five parts , common!y(though failly ) laid to produce a Bird, being ofa trian- 9. BARNICLE. Aguiar figure.



Chap. V. Of Exanguiom Animals.

1 3 l


IX. SOFT EXANGUIOUS ANIMALS, may be diftributed into nr sofcf luchasare exangui-

f A/ore Perfett ^ having mouths like the beaks of Birds, with eight ftrin - 2 J£ 8 * NI * I V Jubflances about them lerving inftead of legs, their bodies contein- ■

1 ing a blacky liquor hkg Ink. 5 whether thofe whole bodies are mpre ^Obround', having

)No Antenna 5 or feelers, and being without any bone-, |] either the I greatefl , growingto a vajl magnitude : or the left, whole legs are Jt longer in proportion, being of a frveet fent.

's POURCONTREL, Treks, Polypus. PU;W

  • 2 SWEET POLYPUS. ««*.

Antenna 5 || either the greater, with a great, thick, foft, not pellucid bone in the body : or the leffer, which is without fuch a We, having fmall roundijh fiapps on either fide of the body.


    • 2 LESSER CUTTLE. aJSL*..

[Oblong || either that of longer Antenna with triangular flaps , having a long pellucid bone refentbling a Sword : or that of Jhorter Antenna, having the triangular flaps nearer the tail, being of a reddijh colour.

3 ‘ ^RE^DDISH SLEVE. uf ruh

Lefl perfeSl 5 counted Zoophytes, as being betwixt Plants and Animals 5 P ** whether’liich as have

More diflinffion of parts 5 || either that which hathiome refemblance to a Hare : or that which hath fome refemblance to a naked black Snail, without horns. c S EA HARE.



I Lefl diftinQion of parts 5

' Pellucid h being a kind Of Geliy, roundifh at the top, marked with reddijh lines in the form of a Starr, or Rofe , having feveral kinds of rays like legs, proceeding from the middle of it.

5. BLUBBER. fmlmmni*

Hot pellucid 5 uliially flicking to other things ; || either that which is ms% of variant figures, being covered with a bard cations s kin, contein- lng an ejculent pulpy Jubilance : or that which is of a fleflnr con- fluence, having no hard sign, being of Various Jhapes and bignef us, tome of them flinging the hand upon the touch.

  • ~TETHYA. f.

SEA NETTLE. . vSctm-

6 .

  • 1



Part. II-

Of Fijh .

Of Fijh.

FISH may be diftributed into fiich as are ( Viviparous 5 and Ikinned $ whofe figure is either ) SOBLONG and roundith. I.

/ £FLAT or thick. II.

^ Oviparous j whether fuch as do generally belong to 1 Salt mater 5 to be further diftinguilhea by their r Finn j an the bsu\ 5 whether (uch ( the rays of whole finns (ire Qvbeljy fcft and flexile. III.

• £ Partly fift, and partly jpinowj having 5 TWO FINNS on the back. IV.

- 4 ?But ONE FINN. V.

Figure $ whether




Frejh mater 5 being fcaly. IX.

I. VIVIPAROUS OBLONG FISH, may be distributed into fuch a* ire

Cetacean 5 breeding their young within them, having lungs and no gills, and but one pair of finns $ J] either the greatejk of all living Creatures, of which there areleveral jpecies , one without teeth ora tube tocaft water, another with teeth and fuch a tube, and another with a large longhorn: or that other Fijh of a lefi magnitude, which is gregarious, often appearing above water.


£ PORPOISE, Dolphin. *

Cartilagineosss ; faid to hatch their young ones within their bellies, whole mouths are placed under their nofes j whether fuch as btc more Proper to the Sen 5 having generally a double Pesess i wide months , and five apertures on each fide inficad of Gills * to be further diftin- guiihed by their having

Lougfhouts or prominencies $ (j either in the fafiuon of a Saw : or in the figure of a sword, being without thole apertures on the fide, common to the reft.



Rows of very Jharp teeth', |) the Greater : or the Lejjer. o 5 SHARKE.


Lips rough like a File, but without teeth 5 II the Greater : or the Lefftr. 5 HOUND-FISH.


1 Thorns on their backs } |leither joyning to the former part of the Finns : or obliquely croffingthe rays of the finn.


| 5< £ HOG- FISH.

Chap. V.

Of Fifh.

  • 3?

.The aperture of their mouths , neater to % their nofis then any of the other forts of Dog- fifh-, and being (potted 5 || either with Urge |I blacky fiots : or with fmalkr fibts.


W head like the head of a Crutch, with the eyes at the ends of the tranjverfe , growing to a vaft bigncfi : ojr having a very long fen- der tail.


7 eFox

\Common to Jolt and frefi mater ; having gr///,but ho their fkouths

being placed uoder their nofis $ | ^either that who febodj is pent a- gonons , having five rows of bony Umins, not properly f ales, fear firk&s hanging before the mouth : or that which is more round.

i 5 sturgeon. jHftmfvi

  • • 2HUSO.

Cat ulus Ml* Cumins mim



it. VIVIPAROUS CARTILAGINEOUS FISH,, whole todies are u. vnriPA- not long and round, may be diftributed into fach as are kotlS tisa

f Flat and broad j diftioguifliable by fotne peculiarity in their parts, as to and LOm * 1 [Length of the aound.

J fTai/j being cither

  • Spinous i, having a /hasp firrated thorn on the tail counted venc-

mous 5 ||cither that whole fnout is left or snore prominent. rPASTINACA. Sallmsc*.-


I (Not /pinouts, {} either that whofe back. is finooth : or thorn/. a JFLARE. J

cTHORNBAGK. A«/« tUvuu.

Snout $ being (harp $ j| cithet that whole body Is Jbor(cr in prdpof- tion to the breadth : or that whole bods is longer.



Mreadthof the head ) having a thick, fiort tail in the fafhion of a Bat- jledore 5 Jl either that which hath five purple fiats on the baefi: or that which hath one round aperture for each gj&,\ a vaft mouth with firing} fubfances on his bead and baek. *


  • JSEA-DIVEL. Rjma fife**

Situation of the mouth $ which opens at the end of thefnout 9 and not m *' underneath, as the reft of this tribc i having a more oblong body, and, a very rough skin , with finny fubfances 9 ftanding out from each fide like wings.

5. SCAT*; Angel-fifk. stfoihi*.

{Thick. *nd Jhort 5 || either that which hath no tail, but rclembles the head of a Fijb cut off, with one tooth in each jam, and one bole for each gill : or that which is of a reddilh colour and (binous.

MOLE. ' jM t .

LUMP/ Lmmfmli .

6 .

in. ovi-


1 34

Of Fijh.

Part. II-

Mt!va. jfillus ngtr.

Jfmm ami- quorum. Jjifau m»Bu.

  • jfeUus Ungut.


2 .

iii. ovn»A- III. OVIPAROUS FISfi, whofeback FINNS are wholly loft and o/flexile fl ex *^ e > may be diftiuguifhed into fuch as have

FIKN6. | Three fuch foft firms on their backy s namely the Cod-kind , which lift to beprderved tor humane food by faltiug > either the 1

f shorter and thicker s whether

Larger s || either that which hatha kind of heard: or that of a blacky coloured back;

SCODFISH, Keeling.


LeJJer s || either that which hath a blackjpot on either fide : or that

• which is of .a /after body, having very fmall feales, being the leaf of

this kind. #


0 WH1T1NG.

[ Longer and more J lender s || either that whole flefls when falted, looks yellow ,and is more brittle : or that other of near relemblance to this, whofc hinder finnfeemsto be two, by realon of its rifing up higher in the further part, tho it be properly but one.


2 HAAK, Poor John.

Two Jbft flexile finns 5 either the Piggery whether the

Tunny k;nd$ having very fmall feales, fcarce difcernable, with feve- ral pinnulst both above and below, befides their finns, being of a fining blew on the back., and a fiver colour on the belly andfides 5 the

Larger j |) either that which hath no freaky onthe fides : or that which hath oblique tranjverfe freaky from head to tail.


4 ‘ £ PEL AMIS.

LeJJer j having oblique tranjverfe freaky more undulated.


[F lying fijh s having large fpotted finns like wings yv/Mh two longfirong thorns behind the head : to which may Jbe adjoined for its affinity in flying, that pther Fijh , which hath but one foft Jinn on the back.,

• with large feales near his tail.



Leaf kinds diftinguilhable by their having

C The lower pair of finns conned ed s || latter having a Jhorter head, and more tumid jaws.



The rars of the former finn on the back., rifing up much higher then the membrane which conned s them s || either that whole former pair of finns are conneded : or that which hath a hole infead of gills , whole eyes Hand more cloje together.


0m Jdracunculus.

^Little black, foots in the figure of Lozenges.


' One



S&mbrus .

Mihus. Ifiruudi Pl't- nii.

Sobius mart- nus.


Chap. V.

Of Fijb.

  • 35

lOnefoft flexile finn 3 diftinguilhable by their

Being of the Herring kind 3 namely fc sly, without teeth, of a bright fiver colour an the belly, and a darkftining colour on the back., pre- fently dying when taken out of the water , having generally a row of Jharp prickles under the belly 3 whether the U*rgcr^ '. _ . f More common 3 being gregarious , fwimming together in great \ multitudes 3 1| the greater : or the lefjer„

/ 5HERR1NG, Sprat. ;

1 y 10 c pilchard. :

( Left common 3 being fomewhat bigger and flitter then a Herring, ' with feveral black, flots on the fides, coming up into Rivers.

1 1 . SHAD. 1

xJLejfer 3 1 | either that which is more proper to fait water , being long and roundifh,hzv\ng the upper mandible much more produced then the other." or that which lives in Lakes, being of a broader figure then the former.

.,5 ANCHOVY. j

2CHALCIS, Sards.

Being ,of the Hornfijh kind 3 having a longer flender body and a long fnout 3 1 | cither that which is more known and common in Europe, ha- ^ ving one finn from the anus to the tailed another oppofite on the back , the vertebra or backbone being of a green colour ; or that which is here lefi common, belonging to the Weft- Indies, having no l finn upon his tail.



Having between the eyes two finn-likg Jubflances 3 and but two or thi;ee rays in the lower pair of finns, with a row of finall teeth , and a fang at each end 3 || either that which hath upon his backefinn a beautiful Jpot variegated with r undies 3 or that whole finn is of an unequal al- titude.



Wanting the lower pair of finns 3 1 | of a deep figure fomewhat resembling that of a Turbut : or being of a red colour , with large feales, a great flat head,fleep from the eyes to the jhout.

  • 5STROMATEUS, CaUiQhys.

5 Jnovacula.

Having fame Jharp teeth ; and feveral other round broad teeth in the palate, the tops of which are commonly fold for Toad-flones.


Breadth or depth downwards 3 || either that which hath two long rays extending beyond the tail , one from the back. 9 thp other from the bellj : or that which hath but one long ray, like a Bodkin , proceed* ing from the fin on the back. Both exotic Fijhes , deferibed by Margravim.


7 ?guaperua.




i 3 6

Of Fijb.

Part. II.

rv. OVIPA- ROUS FISH having one finn SPI- NOUS , and the other FLEXILE.

IV. OVIPAROUS FISH having two finns on the back., whereof the former is fpinous and ftitfej and the other fift and flexile, may be di- ftinguilhed into the Bigger k^nd 3 whole figure is shorter diftinguilbable by their

j Having (mail fiales', being fqnare towards the te/Y, which is forked:

| or die bein£ of a more deep ^}g#re,with the rays of the fere jinn ) very low, the former of them pointing towards the head.

'f S AMIA, Leccia Salviani.

' Jglaucus.

< [ Having the {inns ahnefl jeyned •, || either that with a littl efhort bedrd under the chin, being undulated obliquely from the back. to the belly with blcvpijh and yellow fireahy : or that other of a near re- < * femblance to this, only without a beard, and of a more blacky co •

, lour.


2 * 2 UMBRA.

[ Longer having a large mouth, with Jharp teeth , || either that which is Jpotted when young, being very voracious : or that other of forae rclemblance to the former, having large fiales y an obtyfi angled mouth , with Jlreakf of blacky and white from bead to tail.



Lejfer ktnd 5 whether fuch as are confiderable for Having two or three long prominences like fingers before their lower finns •, great bonny heads, large broad finns , called the Goumet- ktnd, to be further diftinguifhed by their ' Colour Red , or Grey.


( Forked fit outs ; by reafon of two flat prominencies rclembling Amrs ;

|| either that of Jhorter: or that of longer horns , the latter of which is covered with large bonny fiales, with eight rows of thorns, the body oQ angular, having but two fingers. e 5 TUB-FISH, Piper.


Being of a reddijh colour •, with two long prominencies from the lower

( jaw, efteemed delicate food || either the bigger , whole fiales are larger and ftick faffer to the skin : or the lejjer, whole fiales are lels, and apt to come off upon a touch.



I The length of their bodies whether (Having the. lower mandible longer t hen the other, the finns on the back being at a greater difiance : or having the ficond Jinn on the back very final/, with a wide mouth like that of a Serpent.




itized by

Chap. V.

Of Fijh.

1 37

l Being of a fiattij!) figure $ with oblique tranfverft yellowifh freaks , from the back, to the belly , having the eyes very near the mouth : or being more roundijh , (bmewhat of the colour and figure of Mackerel, only a row of prickles on each fide make it to appear quadrangular.

o 5 WEAVER., Dragon-fifh.


Wanting the lower pair of finhs $ or being of breddijh colour, Without teeth , having the fcales edged with fhort hairy filaments , which makes it rough to the touch.


9 * 5aper.

Having a long fender fnout 5 with a ftrong movable ferrated thorny belonging to the former finn on the back,, inclining towards the tail with bonny fubjlances inftead of the lower finns, the finns on the bacl^ being nearer to the tail then in other Fijh : or having a ftrong ferrated horn (landing upright on the head.

STRUMPET-FISH. i *«/*;*.

,0 '5monoceros clusil

Having the mouth and eyes reverfed , looking upwards : Or haVing a great bead, very wide gills, and but three rayes in the lower pair of finns, the body being Jpotted.



.{Being of a deep figure, without fcales , having on each fide a broad blacky jpot,and long briftles riGng up above the rays of the finns.

12. DOR EE, St. Peters fifi.



Digitiz >y


Of Fijb.

Part. II

- ~n — :

V. OVIPAROUS FISH having one. jinn on the back, the rays of which are partly (life and Jfinous, an 6 partly foft and jiexile, may be dl- ftinguilhed into fuch whofe figure is more f Broad } or deep whether

' European 5

Bigger i diftinguilhable by their COLOURS 5 whether

'Gold colour between the eyes , having round Jharp tecta, and for the raoft part a purple foot near the gills : or that which is of a like figure to the former, but only without this gold colour, being blacky about the tail.

SCILT-HEAD, Sea-bream ♦

^SPARUS. , , „ „ f

Streaked with yellow from bead to tail ‘,\\ either that whole Jtreakf are more obfeure, being of a Jhorter body : or that w hole jbreaky J are more cenfjicuoat , being of a longer body .


2 * eSALPA. ,

Streaked with a dark, colour, tranjverje the back .'•> (1 either that whole fireaks are more obfeure, being of * Jhorter broader fi- gure , and having broad jlat teeth : or that whole Jlreakf arc 1 more conspicuous, being of a longer body.


< 3 * ^MORMYLUS.

Reddijh 3 on the back and J^ ej b J| cither the greater , ^ having a dark (pot on each fide near the head : or the lejjer, being with*

< I out luch a Jpot.


. 4 * Jrubellio. . . .

Being Ibmewhat more produced in their bodies then the others of this deep kind-, || either that which is black, about the tail, having great net : or that of a reddijh colour 9 with four re- markable teeth in either jaw.


5 2dentex. . „

Having the finn on the bac^ fo low in the middle, that it teems two, mthgreat heads fullef prickles , counted venemous , || ci- ther the greater, of a reddijh colour : op the lejfer,


^ Leajl of thefe deep jtjhes, of a dark, colour, with large fcales, and long Jlreakf from head to tail.


[Indian-, defcribed by Margravius j || either that of a forkfd tail, ha- ving two prickles On the cover of each gill : or that which hath broad Jpots on either fide. •


  • • ?ACARA.



Of Fijh.

Chap. V.

1 39

[Long ; diftinguifhable by

I r Variety and beauty of colours $ || either the Greater, of which there are feVeral kinds, the moft beautiful of which, is called Pavo 3 thc more dark, Aferula : or the Lejfer ♦


f * JjULIS. •

[Dark^ broad ftreakj 3 croffing the backs conflderable tor ha- ving . . •

' KHeads variegated with red 2nd. blew 5 j| either the Greater : of the I Lejjer , having a black fpot in the middle of the finn on his 1* back , .

I ln SSEA PERCH. rtrcamriHMi


Tie lover jaw longer then the upper 5 |] either that which is with- 1 out prickles : or that which hath two prickles on the cover of the




A broad blackjpot on either fide 5 or Very great eyes in proportion to the body.


12 ?boops.

r a VI. OVI-



Of Fijh.

Part. II.

VI. EEL. vl * OVIPAROUS FISH OF AN OBLONG FIGURE, being figured generally without Jlales , having j limy skint , apt to bend and twift fish. w i t h their bodies more then other Fijh, may be diftributed into fuch as are

r European y being either Prefer to Sea-watery Longer 3

r Round y whether

f More thickj) || either that which hath but one fair of Jwiwming I | finns, and two little horns: or that which hath no fwimming


Serptns man- mm.

finns , and two little horns : or that which hath no Jwwtming | finns , with four little horns } and a Jharp front , the skin varie- < gated with fellow.



f JMore J lender y || either that which grows to a very great length, < having a wider and longer month then an Eel , .the finn not reaching the tail , which is round and not flat : or that which < hath one continued finn as Eeles, with four firing} promi- ‘ nencies from the lower mandible , lefs round and. long then

the former*



JFlaty like a Ribbon or Fillet y || either the bigger of a reddijh co- lour, having two pair of finns : or the lejjer, whOfe fiejh is tran-

I /» I I I f •»_« * 1 I •

fparent , and the finn on the belly thrice as deep as that on the back., having but one pair of fins.


[ 3- jTiENlA MINOR.

^shorter y || either that with two finns on the back. .j with a kind of beard) and inftead of the lower pair of finns , having two long firin- gy Jubilances cleft at the ends : or that which is of a fmaller mag- nitude ) having one pair of Jwimming finns , with a forked tail, to which the back finn is extended.



Common to fait and frejh water y having a round aperture for the mouth , with which they fuck their nourifhment, and feven holes on each fide inftead of gills , being Cartilagineous , without fwimming finns y |J either the Greater : or the LeJJer.


5 - Jlampern.

'^Proper to frejh water y confiderable for having.

Iwo pair of finns y || either that which is the biggeSl of this tribe , having two very long firings from the upper jaw, and four fhorter from the lower jaw , onely one frtall finn upon the back.% and a long one under the belly : or that which is Jhorter and thicker then an Eel , with a Jkort beard from his lower mandible , having 1 two finns on the back, the hinder finn on the back and that ui>

J der the belly , not being contiguous to the tail , variegated in the co-

( lour.

, SSHEAT FISH, River whale .

I °* PEEL POUT. o„ e

Chap. V.

Of Fijh.


I One fair of finns 5

I 7. EEL. ****•'

^Indian $ ddcribed by Imf trains', [J either that with two long horns reverfed over the backj or that which hath a fiatnefi on hk head and part of his bach^, in which there are divers tranfverfe rimuU or chinks.



VII. PLAIN or flat FISH, being oviparous and bonny, both whole vn. ovi- tjes are on the fame fide of the flat, and the mouth tranfverfe, fwimming pla^J 18 broaAwife, are either fish.

r Oblong 5 and fquamous 5

C Greater ; having the mouth on the right fide of the eyes 3 |j either \ that which is not Jpotttd : or that which k fpotted.

/ 5 COMMON SOLE. ***•

' ) U ^SPOTTED SOLE. . Sci,a **1**+

( Lefier 3 liaving the mouth on the left fide of the eyes, having bigget fifties. ,

2 . POLE. Cjnoghffiu.

Quadrate 3 * .

‘ Greater 3 || either that of a grey marble colour, fpinous , having the eyes on the right fide : or that which hath the eyes on the left fide , being the biggeft of this Tribe.

pTURBUT. Momhu,.

< 3, 5HALIBUT.

Middle kind', being of a dar^grey, and full of final! ajperities.


L Lejfir kind 3 || either that of a JandyreddiJh colour, without fc ales or ajperities , having the eyes on the left fide : or that which is reddifi), fquamous, and with black.Jpots ,

e 5PLAIS. p-jET".

5 * ^FLOUNDER, Fluke.




Of Fijh.

Part. II.



Pifcu tritUfu- Uru .

Pi feu triangu- lar* ennntm

Stella pifeir



Sain * . |

VMacea. j





V 1 H. FISHES OF A HARD CRUST ACEOUS SKIN, may be di- stributed into fuch as are for the figure of them, either \ Spherical » having two broad teeth like thole of men 5 whether

Without thorns- \ || either that which hath a more prominent mouth, znd a bonny breajhot that which is encompafled with very Jhort hairs, dole SORBIS SCUTATUS, Globe-0). (fet.-


With thorns 5 or prickles 5 || either fir eight : or hooded.



Angular 3 whether fuch as are more TPetfe& 3 either

• f Triangular 3 being variegated with angular figures on the body 3 ' [j ei- ther that which is without horns : or with horns .



Pentagonal j or of a five angled figure, encompafled with pentagonal 4. HOLOSTEUS. ( [bonny feales.

llmpetfeff > for which reafon they are by fome reckoned amongfl Ih- Je3s, having tubes, with a kind of valve jnUead of mouths‘,\ie\thev that which is more oblong, of an Hexangular figure to the end of the finn oQ the back i and after quadrangular : or that whole body is of an Hept an- gular figure in the former part, and quadrangular in the hinder part, be- ing (bin ossa, the head having Come refemblance to that of a Horfi.


> ^hippocampus.

[RADIATE 3 in the form of the Rays of a Starr.


IX. SQUAMOUS RIVER FISH, may bediftributedintofuchasare \ Bigger 3 whether (either

\ Voracious 3 whofe feales are fet together either \Moreloofe 3 being generally bigger, fuch as have on their backs 1 ' One finn 3 placed near the tail, with wide mouths , and Jharp long teeth , every other of which is moveable.

I. PIKE, Jack. > Pickerel.

Two finns 3 the hindermoft of which is fmallfitjhy and without rays, having generally teeth , which may be (tiled the Trout-kind , com- prehending fiich as are

Common to frejh and fait water 3 || either the biggejl, of a reddifis flejh : or the leafi, of a white flejh , and violaceotts fmell . o 5 SALMON. .

2 * eSMELT.

Proper to frejh watery whether Spotted 3 the Greater : or the Le/Jer, living in Lakes. *Y

„ s trout.

3 ’ £CHARR.

L Not Jpotted 5 considerable for being f More round ; || qjjther that which is (freaked from head to tail,

I having the finn on the back, bigger and broader then In 1 Trouts : or that having a long fnout.





Chap. V.

Of Fijh.


f. More broad 5 and comprejjed , of a [mall mouth , without troth 3 jl the Greater, lomewhat like a herring : or the LeJJer.


5 * Jlavarettus.

A/ore clofe 3 and comp all-, being generally lejjfcales in proportion theii the others.having a ttvde jw0*fj&,without fee/A,but ajperities analogous to comprehending the Terek kin dpi which in lundry Countries

there are leveral varieties, diftinguifhable by their bignej T or little- nefi.thichpefi or Jlendernefi \ But the two principal kinds to which the others may be reduced, arejjt ither fuch as have two finns on the bask* the firft fpinous, and the other foft, with tranlverle blac\ Jlreaky on the fide, being commonly the bigger : or but one finn, which is partly fpinous , and partly/^t, being ot a yeliowijh colour, and commonly , 5 PERCH. Xlcjfir.*""* (>>

£ RUFFE. * . . ftrea *ur at a,

\hot voracious, comprehending the Carp- kind, w di have one finn on the back., no teeth in their mouth hut only in the orifice of then Jlomacks,o- ver which teeth there is a kind of Jlone or bone , for the mo ft part of a triangular figure, by affri&ion againft which, they grind their food 3 f Bigger 5 comprehending fuch. as delight more in (whether the f Standing waters j || either that whole fcales are larger , and more J looje, the firfi ray of the finn being ftrong and ferrate, having/0 *r j Jlringy prominencies from the upped lip : or that whole Jcales are lefi 1 and more compatf, being very flimy, of a greenijh colour, the lower pair of finns in the male being mbre thick and flelby.

„ 5 CARPE.

7 * $tench.

L Running Waters 3 whether luch as are more

Thick. a *id round 5 || either that which hath four Jlringy prominen- cies relembling a beard : or that Which hath a great head .

“BARBLE. Bmtns.

CHUB, Chevin.

Breqd ahd deep 3 J| cither the mbjl broad: or that which is lefi broad, having commonly red eyes and finns.

„ 5 BREAM. Ahamu.

I 9 * $ROCHE.

\LtfJet 3 floating ufually towards the top of the water 3 || either that which is tflore thick, of lome relemblance to a little Chub : or that .

1 o SDARE, Date. (which is more comprefied and thin, &*/**•

JBLEAK, Blea. *****

Leajl kind of Rider Fifhes 3 whether luch as live mote towards the f Lower parts ofjhe water', near the£r<wt«f<Leither fuch as have on the back.

One finn-, with a kind of beard on the mouth 3 fj the greater: or the liffer. SCUDGEON. 6A0.

J LOACH, Groundling.

Two finns $ with a Urge broad head.

1 a. BULL-HEAD, Miller s-Thumb, Gull. oA» tafia-

[Vpper parts rf the Water 3 or near banks 5 J cither that which hath but tMU one finn on the buck., befog fmooth .* or that which hath two finns, he- ing prijpkly, having three firong prickles on either fide, and a kind of

” MINNOW. ( Armature confifting of four or Jive Laminae it***»i

BANSTICLE, Sticklebacks #*"***•



8 .

13 -



Of Bird s.

Part. II.

Of Birds.

$ IV.

B IRDS may be diftinguifhed by their ufual place of living, their food, bignels,fhape, ufe and other qualities, into •. ;

Terrefrial living chiefly on dry land', whether :

r CARNIVOROUS 5 feeding chiefly on Flejh. I.

' PHYT 1 VOROUS j feeding on Vegetables 3 whether CO/ Jhort round wings 3 left fit for flight*. II.

Zpf long wings 3 and fwifter flight 3 having their Bills', either more c LONG AND SLENDER 3 comprehending the Pidgeon and ^ 7 hrujh-kind. III.

C SHORT AND THICK 5 comprehending the Bunting and Spur’ rove -kind. IV.

[inje&ivorous 3 feeding chiefly on Infills', ('tho feveral of them do likewife (bmetimes feed on Seeds ) having J lender freight bills to thruft into holes, for the pecking out of Infills 3 whether the 5 GREATER KIND. V.


J Aquatic 3 living either


\ln waters j whether

CFISSIPEDES 3 having the toes of their feet divided. VIII, ^PALMIPEDES; having the toes of their feet united by a mem- brane. IX.


AquH** Vultur .

Jc cipher . Mihftu

I. CARNIVOROUS BIRDS, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are either

f Rapacious 3 living upon the prey of other Animals , having hooked j beak* *nd talons, amongft which the females are generally more large j ftrong and fierce. *

£ Diurnal $ preying in the day time. f The bigger and jtronger kind 3 noted either for quick. Sight, at Sent 5

  • the latter of which is by Cejher diftinguifhed from the former/

that the beal^ of it, doth not grow crooked immediately from the root , bjit only at the end or tip of it. t SFAGLE.

, . 2 VULTUR.

j i The middle kind 3 being either made ufe of and trained up bp Men ? 1 for the catching of other Birds, of which there are great varieties, diftinguifhable by their manner of flight, bignefjhape, the Birds they prey upon , &c. or fiich others as are of near affinity to thefe, buus/commonly ufidtothhpurpofi.

2 ’ ^KITE, Buzzard, Clede,



Chap. V.

Of Birds*

  • 45

[The leaf kind ; the former having prominent nojlrils, being well known by his voice : the Other with a procefus on the oisijtde of the upper mandible.

SCUCKOO. , • Uil

3 ; ^BUTCHER BIRD. _ u*r.

I INoSurnalj preying in the bight, having broad facet, and great eyes',

|| of which, fome have tufts of feathers (landing out likg long ears,

I or horns: others being without fuch tups.

| , 50 WL HORNED. Mtfkmmi-

4 Jowl not horned.

Semirapaciouf ; feeding commonly either on Carrion, or other things, and more feldome on living Animal's. • •

The Crow-kind ; having a bill fomewhat large and ftrait 5 |J amongft which.thofe that are mod common with us, are of a deep black, Co* lour, in their bodies The bigger kind ; Greater: or Left

e GRAVEN. • Corpus.

/* JCROW. Ctrnix.

fhe lejjer kind ; having a mixture of dark brown with black • or be- ing wholly black on the body , with red bill and lees.

A 5 daw.


The Parret-kfnd ; of hookgd'bills, having two toes before, and two behind , cOnfiderable for the variety of beautiful colours, and the imitation of jpeech ; || the Greater : or the Left.

_ S P ARRET. FfittMMt.

7 JPARAQlIETO. PpttacMtmi-

The Py-kjnd', of a chattering boice, having many notes $ j| either pyed with black and white, -kith a long train : or having fime of the /mai- ler feathers on each ti>ing,varicgated with blew and black •

. 8 SMAGPY, Py. * . * ■

I Oi ^ T 4 ‘Xr JTtCa C a Hosts.

| , c JAl. ^ Pic*ll4*J*-

L The IVoodp ecker-kihd ; climbing upon tiees and walls , in order to which they are furnilhed with Jlrong feathers in their train, tolup* port them in climbing and peeking’, || of which there are various Jpecies, reducible to thefe two kinds; fuch as have a very long tongue , with two claws behind and two before : or fuch as have fhorter tongues, and but one toe behind.



Montdula • Corwins.

fkns martins a

V that



Of Birds.

Part* II.

That kind of Eagle , which is

Of a darkly ell on colour, having legs feathered down! Chryfaetos.

to the foot j g

Black, all over, excepting a white fpot between the ^ ^ } Melanactus.

» P- »



Vultur Boeti- ctu. Aid*

Vultur Mureusa



Bald Vulture. Chefnut colou- red Vulture. Golden Vulture •

Jccipiter P*» htmbarius . Jecipiter friH - giliarius • Ttnuunculus.


Falcommt *- musm


Ltnarius .


Subbut ft.


Bum Ttior- cbis .

Jnauriuo Pygurgus fuh

Jhonlders on the With a ring of white bn his tail.

Feeding on Fijh.

That kind of Vulture noted for

Having his head and part of neck, bare of feathers Being of a Chefnut colour, and feathered down to the toes.

Being of aycfJowiJh co!our,\exy great,\iw\ng fome of the feathers of the wing, three foot long,

Hawks are ufually diftinguifhed into fuch are f short winged ^having their wings confiderably (hotter then their trains y of which there are ulually reckoned three kinds*

•The biggeft of this kind } r Fem. Cojft«»^,Male Tarcell.

The Idler of this kind •, either ha- ( |L )

vingS’lranJverfc freaks of yellow, f F. Sparrowbawk., h/l.Atuskgt* {Oblong jtreaks. , C Kefiril.

\^Long winged •, having their wings equal to, if not longer then their tr ains , of which there are ufually reckoned thefe fix kinds, noted for A whitijh colour , but fpotted on the back, with black fpots.

Having afafigiated or rifing head, being of an ajh colour.

A thick, head and flat, a fhort neck ., and ftriking with the breaf.

Having a blewifl) bill and legs.

Having a white fpot behind hit eyes pn each fide. ;

Being the leaf of all Hawks.

Kites may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are noted for Having a very forked Train. j C Common Kite.

Being or feeming bald on the head , having af £_ \common Buzzard, round train , feeding on young Rabbets. / 5V

Feeding on Fijh. i^jMald Buzzard.

Being of a white or aflj colour, with a white) (jRiug-tail. freak on the Train.

Lanins or Butcher bird, is of three feveral kinds, noted either for being Of a reddifh colour on the back, the moft] f Lanins vulgaris.

common (bmewhat bigger then a Spar



> n> <

D- '

^F, Gerfalcon, M. jerkin. Mountain Falcon.

F. Kalcon,‘M. Tarcel.

F. Banner, M . Banner et. Hobby. ,

j_F. Merlin, M. jack^Merlin.


Particoloured, of the lame bignels with the V 5=**



Lanitts cineteus major.


Ajh-coloured, about the bignefs of a Black- bird . |

cwls horned are of three kinds, namely fuch as are noted for being Of the bignefs of an Eagle, feathered down to the toes. ISC Bubo.

Of the bignefs of a tame Dove. > JjV Otus, Afo.

Of the bignels of a Mifsle bird , with a fmglc feathet) ^ (.Scops. on each fide for a horn, owls


Chap. V.

Of Bir dr.

J 47



Owl } living in Barns.


Vlul* AUtq* istndi.

Our common field Owl. strix jiito- Goat-fuckgr. vandt.

Wafrimnlgns •


Owls not horned, are of five kinds, namely fuch as are noted for Ha ving a border of feathers about the fare , \ i Our common white

the legs feathered and foes hairy, about the bignefs of a Pidgeon.

Having a ring of white feathers about each eye,z white bill, hairy legs and feet.

Being of a darker colour giving in Ivy-bujhes. j* <T “j Being like a Cuckoo faming a jkort finall bill , 1 but a wide mouth.

Being the leaf of all y not bigger then a Blackbird.

CViw/ are ufually diftihguilhed into three kinds, namely that which is Carnivorous. ^ C ^ reVP ‘

Frugivorous , of a black colour j gregarious, building ( 2) Rook; Ctrni *

their nefts together* CS/

Frugivorous , party coloured ; black and cinereous* -) yRoiflon Crow, cthu* atari To the Pj-kfnd, thole other birds may he reduced which are noted for having

The icings and head of a bright azure. 1 f Roller Argentorateufii.

A colour fpotted with whiter I Caryocatafles.

A tuft o{ feathers on his head. { n I Garruhts Bohemicus.

A bill bigger then his whole body. > ~ < Toucan,

k large bill, with a kind of horn reverfed I o- \ Rhinoceros. upon the bill. I

Two long firings like the fihall hakedJ l Bird of Paradife. ftemra of a feather reaching from the back, beyond the train , and firong legs and claws.

Thele three laft exotic Birds are not perhaps lb proper to this tribe,but I know not at prefent how to reduce them better.

To the firft fort of the Woodpecker- find, thole Birds may be reduced which are noted for Being Greater j of a

cGreeniJh colour , and a blacky §ot on the head off ^ the male.

C Blacky colour , excepting a red Jpot upon the head of the Cock* —

Being of zkfier magnitude , about the bignefiof a [ 2. 1 Witwall, Who. Htutvmm. Blackbird, variegated with black, and white, w ith * a red Jpot on the head of the Cock.

Holding the head on one fide , fomewhat bigger then a Sparrow , of a brownifh colour.

To the lecond fort of the Woodpecker- kind , thole other Birds may be re- duced, which are noted for

An 4jh colour, being about the bignels of a"} f Nuthatch .


A long Jlender bill, being about the bignels of a Sparrow.

• 8 L c=




WaU-cretpet \

ticus Marti* m vtridit.

Pifm ma*l+


Pkns mmrari*

A long Jlender bid y being a little bigger then > x: < Ox- eye- creeper,

a Wren.

Being about the fame colour and bignels as a Larks, and noted for climbing upon Reeds. A greenijh colour , and lels,

V a




I Leffir Reed-Sparrow, c *•***#&, II. PHY.


Part. IP

148 Of Birds.

. phyti- II. PHYT1VOROUS BIRDS OF SHORT WINGS, kfi fit for mmSPov flight 5 may be diftinguilhcd into fuch as are

hort r Flying 5 luch as can bear up their bodies (tho with fome difficulty) by pings. the motion of their wings y for fome confiderable time and Ipace, ha*

ving generally Jhorter ZvZ^/jbeing pulveratricionsysi whitifh fleih,moft proper for food,having gizzards (\.e.)ftrong mufculons JlowacfaUy- ing many Eggs, called t he Poultry- kind-

  1. c DomeJiic ,

( The mojl comm&n j having the train comprefjed upwards.

1.2 COCK, Hen , Capon, chicken gullet , Poultry.

. ' C Lefi common 5 having an elegant /r*/»,which is fometimes turned

up and fpread, and flurs on the legs * 1| either that whofe colours

  • are more elegant and beautiful , having a tuft on the head : or that

which is left beautiful.

Ml.. „ 5 PEACOCK.

J , 2 - Jturky.

i Wild 5 either the v Bigger kind j

f Living chiefly in woods 5 the former being diftinguilhable by ha- ving a long train wherein the feathers do gradually increaje to- ' • wards the middle : the other, by being feathered on the legs.



< Living in open fields } having no heel or bach^claw , Jj either the greater , being about the bignefs of a Turly : or the lefl y being < about the bignels of a Pheafant.


4* Janas campestris bellonii.

Beingferrate on each fide of the claws, and hairy to the toes-, || either < the bigger, feeding ufually on fine leaves: or the /^feeding oaHeatb, of a black colour, the feathers of the train reverfed fidewaycs. ’JropBm. . . 5COCK OF THE WOOD.

    • «. 5< $HEATH COCK, Crons , Pout.

Middle kind 5 of a Jbort train , to be further diftinguiflied by their r Reddijh Breafis 5 with the figure of a Horjkooe : or having a red bill . 5 PARTRIDGE. . (and legs,

•erdixmt*. ) JRED PARTRIDGE.

C Hairy legs $ ]j either that which hath a black jpot under the bill: or that which ife wholly white excepting feme black on the train, be- ing hairy to the very nails or claws , living on the Alps. uih»» i*jL ■ CHAZlE HEN.

pr**. ‘-Jlagopus.

^Lcafl poultry- kind 5 || either that which hath a Jhort train , a finall back, toe : or that which is of a deep body comprejjed upwards , ha- ving longer legsyoith a bill more like a Water-hen.

’tlurmx. o S QUAILE.

whui* L * ^RAILE.

\Not flying - } being the biggeft of all Birds ; the one having only two 3 » nd the other three claws.

Urutbio-ca - SESTRICH.



Chap. V.

Of Birds.


in. PHYTIVOROUS BIRDS OF LONG WINGS, and fvvitier in. phy- flightjhaving their bills more Ibng and (lender, may be diftinguilhed into 'Pidgeon-kind 3 laying but two Eggs. The (the long

\ Bigger whether the mofl common and domeific, of great variety of WINGS.

  • colours, livif/gin honfes : or that which lives in woods , of an ajh co-

I lours having a ring of white about the neck

5PIDGEON, IMve. Columb a.

1 RING- DOVE, guccfl.

Lejjer 3 || either that which hath a reddijh breafl : or that which is ge- nerally marked on each fide of the neck, with azure and blacky except fbme that are wholly White, being the lead of thh kited.

5 STOCK-DOVE. * OtnM , Yungs*

• ^TURTLE. Tartar.

\rbrujb- kited 3 of a lejjer magnitude then Pidgeons, and longer trains in pro- portion to their wings, laying more Eggs then two, being generally bacci- I Specked on the breajl$ * # (vorotts.

fCanoro&i Coinfiderable for having the bill

More round's being of a dunnijh green on the backus feeding on Mifsle berries 3 || th eGreater: or the Lefjer.

  • 5 MISSLE-BIRD, S hr eight. Tardmvifei -

^THRUSH, Throflle, Mavis, Song-Thrujh. vtrm fl

More flat$ fpotted either with whitijh,ox reddijh jpots : the latter tur **' of which hath likewife a reddijh tail S STARE, Starting.

  • dMERULA SAXATILIS, Ruticilla major.

[Not Canorous 3 being Birds of pajfage, coming only in Winter 3 the Greater : or the Lejjer.

5 FELDEF ARE. Tartar pita*-

5 * ^REDWING, swinepipe. fpeckjed on the breafl 3 Lefl beautiful for their colours 3

Canorous 3 |l either that which is more black., with yellow bills and legs ; or lefl black., having fbme dark. Jhiniug blew on the back., being (omewhat waved on the breafl.



[Not canorous 3 || either that which hath on the breafl an Area of white : or that which is of an ajh colour .



[More beautiful for their colours 3 *

r . The Greater 3 || either that which hath a reddijh bill , the Wings and train black., the reft of the body bright yellow : or that which hath a long blackfill, a long crefl of feathers upon the head, tipped with black, with tranfverfe ftreaks of black and white upon the o 5 GALBULA. (wings.

2 hoop * tom-

The Lejjer 3 having the three foremofl toes joyned together to the flrfl joynt , without any membrane, the outmofl and middle toe, to the fecondjoynt 3 1 J either the bigger, having a Bill fomewhat crooked: JpoOir, $BEE-EATER. {the /r/rr,haviog a flrait ftrong bill. r t T\

9 ‘ 2 KING-FISHER, Alcyon, V. PHY- ^

ru. tut ini ilia*



Of Birds'.

Part. H.







Xmbtriza alba Gtfntri Alania tau- ft nor.



Ci trine Ua Hmulanns.


P offer man- tanus .



( hlorts, Pajfit'C Ma- rius,

Ir ingill a, Monte- ft in- filla.

Linar: a.

Lin aria rubra.

2 .

IV. FHYT 1 VOROUS BIRDS OF SHORT, THICK, ftrong BILLS, being generally Granivorous, may be diftingtiilhed into fijch as do belong either to the

\ Bunting kind ; having a hard kgtobin the pallate of the mouth.

The bigger 5 being Canorous.


The Lejjer > not efteemed for (inging 3 || either that of a yello&ijh bo- \ dy : or that which is yellow about the throat.



[sparrow-kind 3 without fuch a k n °b in the mouth.

'1 Not canorous 3

The more common and lejjer kind 3 living either about houfes : or in mountains , having a reddijh head.



The left common and greater kind^ with a bigger fironger bill thep the other, to break the Jlones of fruits for their kernels 3 |j either that without a crefi : or that with one. ^



{. 1 Canorous 3

I Bigger 3 || either that with a great head and a red breaft : or that with a croft bill, the upper and lower part eroding each other toward* the middle, faid to ling in Winter j £ BULL- FINCH, Mpe, Nope.

I 5 * £ SHELL- APPLE, Croft-bill.

\JLeJJer 5 confiderable for their different colours 3 being either Greenijh 3 the Bigger : or Lejjer.



Brownijh 3

The Bigger 3 j| either that whole breajl is of a dilute red: or that which is variegated with blacky on the bead.


'‘^BRAMBLE, Br ambling.

The Lejjer 3 not red about the bill : or red about the bill. LINNET.


8 .

V. IN-


Chap. V.

Of Birds.



Mmiu Htrnndo rips- tia •

V. INSECTIVOROUS the GREATER, may be diftinguitlied in- v.inSfcti- to fuch as are of • gr.e° US>

I r Swifter flight ; comprehending the Swallow-kinds of long wings y fork: G EATER * ed trains , jkort leg> t being much upon the wing, Birds of pajjage y coming in Summer.

  • j j "the greater $ building in Chymneys , variegated with blacky and white y

I j having a redjpot on the breaft : or building in churches , of a black?

[I J ifh colour i very Jhort feet ,the biggejl of ibis kind.


JSWIFT, Martlet, Church- Martin. **"**#»'•

\jbekffer y building about houfes , of a white rump, and feathered down * to the toes : or building in banks , with a broad fpot on the breaft.

. 5MARTIN. •

' £ SAND* MARTIN, shore-bird.

JfA mer flighty f Canorous 5 cortfiderable for I Singing in the night 5 being of a dark, reddijh colour.


Having a long heel j the greater : or the left, living in watery places.


4 * J>T 1 T-LARK.

[.Having a red breaft j or a red train.

_ 5ROBIN REDBREAST, Ruddock: auw*

£ REDSTART. 1 tutunu.

Not Canorous 5 confiderable for

I The delicacy and fatnefsflf their flefh j || living either dntoUgftFigs, of which there are feveral varieties , the moft common and beft known, being from his black, head called Atricapilla : or Jiving in holes of the ground, and having a white rump.



Hai/ing a long train , and frequently moving it $ || either the. more common one , which is black, nnd white 1 or that which is left com- mon, of a yellow colour.

S WAGTAIL. MoUc £‘-j , '


J Living 5 || either Upon ftony places or open Heaths : or that which creeps in hedges, having the back, like that of a common Sparrow, the breaft of a Lead colour , with a black. biU. •




Jlauda. • Alauda pra- ten'is.

• VI. Th*


Part. II.


Of Birds .


P after Troghh dhts .



Pants CarU- l us*

Partitas*. Pants cattds-

tUS r.

Pams Cri fla- tus ;

VI. The LEAST kind of INSECTIVOROUS BIRDS, may bedi- ftributed into fuch as are •

I Canorous , whether of a

J GreeniJJ) colour in the body to be further diftinguifhed by the colour

of the

r Head ; || either that of a blacky or that of a yeUow bead.

■ . ) , 5LIGURINUS. f) ^SERlNUS.

^ Necfa being of an ajh colour.


( {Brownifh colour 5 and (potted , the train more ereft.

3 . WREN.

Not Canorous ; being either \GreemJh, confiderable fcr

Having a tuftof yellow, or red feathers upon the head: or being in other refpefts of the fame (nape with this, but only wanting luch a tuft. .



[Making a humming noift'? of which there are (everal varieties not

yet fufficiently defcribed.

5- humming BIRD.

{ Variegated with blacky and white 5 e The bigger ; with a broad black (pot doton the bread 5 < 6 . GREAT TITMOUSE.

L The lejjer $ confiderable for having ( A blewijh head : or a black, head.


7 ?colemouse.

A long train : or a Tuft on the head.






Chap. V.

Of B.eafl


l 53

VII. AQtlATiC BIRDS living about and NEAR WET PLACES, vn. aqua- having longer legs.anA long fender bills for their more convenient going i^p ng BulftS .and fetching up their food in fuch places, may be diflinguiihed into near.

  • The Plover- kind ^ whofe bills are about one inch and a quarter long. WET p f

[ The bigger $ having

r A tuft on the head 5 being in the body and wings of a dark. and white ) colour.

( , / t. LAPWING, Ptset. > kmmAm.

^ 1 ' Afo tuft 5 j| either that of a greenijh colour, wanting a back, claw : or that of a grey colour with a very fntall back, claw.

£GREEN PLOVER. piuvi&viri-

Jgrey plover. JPluvialis ci -

[The IcJJer , being without any back. daw • II either that of a greyijh *«’***• colour , caught by imitation ; or that which hath a blacky fillet about the eyes^ and.a forked train.

S DOTTEREL. Mtrtn»o$u.

^SEA LARK. Cbaradrios.

The Redjhank, kind ; whole bills are about two inches long.

[The bigger-, conliderable for

Having a red bill and legs : or for having a kind of ruffe about the neck, of the ns ales, of great variety of colours, being pugnacious .


4 ; £ RUFFE.

Being mixed of black, and white •, || whether the greater , having I tranfaerfe freaks of black, and white on the train : or the lejjer , ha-

( ving only the exterior feathers of the train white. m 5 TRINGA MAJOR.


[The Itfjer 5 having white bellies 5 (| either that Whofe back. 1$ grey: or that of a dark, brown colour.



[The W oodcockrkjnd 5 whole bills are about three inches long ; whether having

Strait bills $ •

Frequenting frejh waters of a fulvous colour j fritted $ |] th e greatest or the left 5 the male of which latter is much leff and of si Ihorter bill then the female.


Avis ptgntx*

6 .

I 7 .

  • SNIPE.

{Frequenting fait waters 5 f| either that of a black, and white colour , with red bill and legs , wanting a Psfica : or that of a grey colour having a PoSlicd . 9

tsea Py

8 .


{Crooked bills )j either that of a grey colour: or that whole feathers *'***' are of an elegant fearlet, excepting the usings, which are black;

9 ’ ^guara brasileaNa.

Sc$kfsx, Gulmdg* mi*




x vm. aqua-


  • 54

Vin. AQUA- TIC ussi- PEDES.

Orus . Ciconi*.

Jr it*.

Jrdea alb* major . Jrdea alba minor .

fleUaru, Jrdea Brafi - lica,


t olymbus ma-

  • jor.

CaijmbHS mi- nor.



Of Birds.

Part. II

VIII. AQUATIC BIRDS, living much in the water , being FISSI- PEDLS, |)may bediftinguithed into (uch as are,

j Not fw miming \ but wading comprehending the Crane-hind , having long necks and legs , long and Jlrong hills j whether sharp pointed bills either fuch whole necks are I Longer $ conhderable for

f Building in Fenny placer $ being hairy on the head, having the wind- pipe reverfed in the form of the Letter S, and being Herbivo- rous : or building on Houfes and Chymneys, of a blacky and white colour , with red legs and bill , making a neife by the collijion of the beak.- being Pijcivorous.



Having a thicker bill fomewhat crooked and Ihorterthen theo- tlitrs of this tribe, with j fcarlet coloured wings •, or having a tuft of brijlles on the head.



Being of an ajh colour, having a tuft of feathers fonding out behind the headjkuildingon trees $ being Tifcivorous, with one blind gut 5 || either the greater : or the lejjer,



{Being of a white colour ; in other refpefts like the former 5 the greater: or the lejffer.



[shorter neck 5 II either that which is fulvous and Jpotted , being Pilci- voious , having one blind gut : or that which is white with a redoilL 5BITTOUR.

5 * Jbrasilean BITTOUR.

Broad and round pointed ^/7/jlike a Spoon, Pifcivorous, of a white colour. 6 . SHOVELAR, Spoon-bill.

{Swimming 5 either

[The Diving-kind', being much under water, and finn-footed, viz. with a membrane (landing off on each fide, of the toe/yhaving downy feathers , and wanting a train $ || either the greater , having a longer bill: or the lejjer, having a Jhorterbill.



\lhe Mare-hen- kjnd', whole bodies are fomewhat compreffed fide- wayes j whether

Finn-footed ', having a membrane of Scollopt edges on each fide of the toes, a bald head, being of a black colour. *

8. COOT. .

Not finn -footed-, || either the greater , which hath a little red baldnep or the lejjer, having a long red bill.

S MOOR* HEN, Water-hen .



City). V.

Of Birdi.

  • 55

IX. AQUATIC PALMIPEDE Birds, whofe toes are joyned together ix. aqua- With a membrane, xa ay be diftinguilhed into fuch whole bills are either J iC 'Flat and blunt ; being Herbivorous. NBPEDI8*

t Th egreater 3 1| either the biggefi of a white colour, having blacky legs : or the leffer , the males of which are commonly white.

JSWAN, Cygnet. <3^

  • £ GOOSE, Gandtr^ Goflittg. Jmfir.

The middle kind 3 1 | either the bigger, of a beautiful colour, the head of a dark. green, the body white, with large fpot s of orange colour : or t he ' leff&, having reddijh legs.


'^DRAKE, Duck dm*.

(.The leajl kjnd 3 || either the bigger, having the bill and legs of a lead colour : or the leffer, being from the eyes to the hinder part of the *

bead of a greenijh colour.

„ JWIDGIN. w*. ,

2 TEALE. tanimiaU.

sharp 3 being generally Pifcivorout ,

jThe Solan- gooft kjnd 3 having the four toes joyned together 3 |j whether W&ife 3 1| either that which hath a long bill, hooked at the end, laying but one Egg : or having a great bag under the bill.


^PELLICAN. 0 -*r**Us:

Blacks the greater , ufed for catching of Fifh : or the le/Jer.

5CORMORANT. . Onmmari-

5 ‘ ^SHAGG. Qriumlm fit.

The Puffin- kind 3 frequenting defart Ijlands, wanting a pojlica , going mifu.

upright , laying but one Egg 3 whether fuch as build their nefts \ Within the ground 3 in holes 3 || either that which is more common in

I Ettrope, having the top of the bead, the back., usings and train of a black, colour, the reft white, the bill fomewhat comprefled upwards,

. ftiort } of a triangular figure,and red at the point : to which may be ad joyned that American Bird, of a like ihape to this j but bigger.

> ? PUFFIN. JmuarBko

°* s PENGUIN. . . ctmfit

l On the ground', chiefly rockyjplaces, making their nefts together 3 (| either that with a compreffed black, bill, hooked at the end, having a white line On either fide : or that of a longer bill, left Jbarp, not hooked.

5 RAZOR- BILL. * JiUoWumi.

^ ^GUILLAM. Jmmnitn

The Diving- kjnd', being much under water, having round ferrate bills, hooked at the end$ || either that which is variegated with black, and white : or that which is of a cinereous colour on the back^ with a red head, and a tuft upon it. *

jv S DIVER. jfir. [MX.

2 DUNN DIVER. £"*‘”> rT4 *

[The Gull kind, being much upon the wing as Swallows, commonly of an afh colour 3 || either the bigger : or the leffer, having red bill and leg/, with a forked train.

SGULL, Sea-mew. imms. , .

9 ’ 2 SEA SWALLOW, Scray.

X i Bcfides



1 56 Of Beafls. Part. II.

Befides the common lort of Swans, there is a wild kind, called Hooper, having the wind-pipe going down to the bottom of the breaf- bone, and- then reverled upwards in the figure of the Letter S.

Befides the common Goofe ,there are feveral forts of wild ones , whereof one is blacky from the breaji to the middle of the belly , called Brant Goofe, Bernicla, or Brcnta.

To the Widgeon-kjnd may be reduced that other fowl, about the fame bignefs, the two middle feathers of whofc train do extend to a great length, called Sea-Pheafant , Anas cauda acuta.

To the Teal-kind fhould be reduced that other fowl, of the like fliape and bignefs, but being white where the other is green, called Gargane.

To the Gull- kind, doth belong that other Bird , of a long (lender &// bending upwards, called Avogetta recurvi rofira.

Of Bedfls.

x l^EASTS, may be diftinguilhed by their feveral fhapes, proper ties,utes,

  • jj food, their tamenels or wildneft, &c. into fuch as are either

Viviparous 3 producing living young, r WHOLE FOOTED, the foies of whole feet are undivided, being ) uted chiefly for Carriage. I.


C Clawed , or multifidous 3 the end of whofe feet is branched out into toes', whether


^RAPACIOUS 5 living upon the prey of other Animals 3 having generally fix Jhort pointedincifores.or cutting teeth,and two long fanes to hold their preys whether the SCAT-RIND 3 having a roundijh head. IV.

£ DOG-KIND 3 whole heads are more oblong. V.

OVIPAROUS 3 breeding Eggs. VI.

whole r 1 WHOLE FOOTED BEASTS, may be diftinguifhed into fuch as doted f Solid hard hoofs - confiderablefor (are either of

EASTS. rswiflnef and comelinej T-, being ufed for riding.

) 1. HOR 5 E, Mare, Gelding, Nag , Palfrey, Steed, Courfer, Gennet, y St allion , Colt, Foie , Filly, Neigh, Groom, (filer.

< ( Slownef and Jlrength in bearing burdens ; having long ears 3 || either

the more Jintple kind : or that mungrel generation begotten on a mui. S ASSE, Bray. {Mart.

  • 1 *. 2 *5mule.

.Softer feet 3 having lome refcmblanee to the w.n.4.2<f. (Cloven footed- kjnd-, by reafonof the upper part of the hoof being \ divided, being ruminant , having a long fender neck.-, with one or ✓ two bunches on the back, meiut. j 5. CAMEL, Dromedary. '

( Multifidous kind 3 having little prominencies at the end of the feet, representing foe/, being of the gr eat ef magnitude amongft all other leafs, uled tor the carriage and draught ot great weights, and more particulajlv c-fteemed for the tusks.

&**- 4. ELEPHANT, Ivory. II. CLOVEN


Chap. * V.

Of Beaflf.

  • 57

II. CLOVEN FOOTED BEASTS, may be diftributedinto fuchas Hort/ed and Ruminant, > having two horns. (are

f Hollow 5 not branched nor deciduons, being common both to the males | and fentakj,\xfcfw\ to «we» both living and dead •, whether the ( Bigger ; being ufeful both by their labour and fiejh ,

J i. KINE, Bull, Coup, Ox, Calf \ Heifer , Bulloc k.y Steer, Beef Veal , J / Runt, bellow , low , Heard, Cowbeard \

Lefler being ufeful either in refpett of the Fleece and Fiejh : or Hair and Fief.

5 SHEEP, Ram, Ewe, Lamb , Weather , Mutton, Bleat, Fold, Flock., a ‘ J GO AT, Kid. ( shepheard .

branched, deciduous, being proper only to the****/?/} whe- ther the

\ Bigger kind', || either that of the higheji Jlature, having horns with- out brow-antlers, of a Jhort (lemm, and then'fpreading out into breadth, branched at the edges : or that of a lower jlature , ha- ving round, long, branched horns.


^STAGG, Hart, Hind, Red Deer ,Venifon.

Middle kind whofe horns become broad towards the ends j| ei- ther that of lejjer horns, not ufed for labour : or that which hath the largejl horns in proportion to that body, of any other Deer, with a double branched brow-antler , being in the northern Countries ufed for the drawing of Sleds.

5BUCK, Doe, Fawn, Pricket, Sorel, Sore, Fallow Decr,Venifo'n.

^ ^REIN-DEER, Tarandu.

1 Leaf kind', having a fort, round, branched horn.

5 . ROE-BUCK, Roe.

Horned but not ruminant having but one horn, placed on the noje, be- ing a beajl of great bignefs, covered with a kind of Armature, and counted untamable.


Ruminant but not horned being ufeful to men only, when living, for carriage of burdens, having the longejl neck, of any other Animal (if there be really any fuch Beajl .)

‘ 7 . CAMELOPARD, Girajfa.

Neither horned nor ruminant 5 ufeful only when dead, for its flelh.

8 . HOG, Swine, Bore, Sow, Pig, P or ket, Barrow, Shoot, Pork., Ba- con, Brawn. Grunt.

Amongft thole that belong to the Bovinum genus, there are feveral forts defcribed by Authors diftinguifhed by their having either A Beard • 7 C '^ rus '

A Bunch on the back.'-, \ {V.i e d ) Bifons.

Horns reflelled about the ears. f p Bonajus.

d KBuffalus.







Jlcit • CnvHtb

Damn. RjMftfir •



Broad , flat, rugged horns ;

Besides the more common kinds of sheep, there are others mentioned by Authors, and deforibed to have

Straight wreathed horns."? ca j] e< j 5 Gvis Stepjiceros.

Great thick, tails. 5 C Broad tailed sheep.





Gimp ft Hupi - i CMpr*.


m. claw- ed NOT RAPACI- OUS.

JP xpi$. Simix.

Cerctpitbecns . lgnxvns.

Levit. ii*


Cunrcktus . J/#/ Alp'mmt •

Uiflrix . Echiuks.



Mm denial*



Of Beajis.

Pah. II;

Amongft thole that belong to the Coat-kind, betides the more vulgar fort, there are others whole horns are either

Angular and knobbed. J C Stone Buck-

Small and rounds being hooked at the end . >called< shqmois.

S freight and wreathed. ) C Antilope.

III. CLAWED Beafts NOT RAPACIOUS, may be diftinguilhed into fuch as are either

I Man-like 3 having faces and ears lomewhat refembling thole of Men , with only four broad incifores, or cutting teeth, and two fliort eye-teeth y not longer then the other, their fore-feet being generally like hands, with thumbs , going upon their heels 3 whether the Bigger kind 5 1 | either that which hath a Jhort taiUox that which hath no JBABOON, Drill. (i tail

' c APE, Jackanapes.

Lejjer kind 3 having a- long tail, and being very nimble: to which may be adjoined, for its affinity to this kind in relpe& of th eface, that beafl which is the JloweJl of all others, having but three toes on each foot feeding on leaves, having a blindgut joyncd to the upper orifice of hie (lomacki being probably ruminant.

5 MON KEY, Marmofit.

' £SLOTH, Haut, Ay.

Hare- kind ', having two long teeth in the lower jaw before, and two o- thers oppofite to thole (tho not quite fo long) in the upper jawynod of which are counted ruminant, becaufe when they have by the help of their incifores filled their mouths with meat, they after chew it over again with their Molares or grinders , but they are not properly rumi- nant, becaufe they have but one fiomack. , out of which they do not fetch up their food being once fwallowed.

Thele may be diftinguilhed into the f Bigger kind 3 whether fuch as are covered with f Hair •, living either

C Aboveground 3 being of all others the mofi fearful. s 3. HARE, Leveret.

I C Zander ground 3 |f either that with long ears and a Jhort tail : or that " with Jhort ears and a long tail, being laid to llcep all the Wtsrter.

A SCONNY, Rabbet.

4 5marmotto.

1 Slkills 5 |j either the bigger : or the lejjer kind.



Middle kind > || either that which lives in Trees, with a Jpreadinp b uflh y tail : or that which lives on the ground, with a Jhort tail, ana courji hair, having only three toes on afoot.


6 *\ginny pig.

\Leaflkind 3 living commonly, either

In houjes 3 being mifehievous to Corn 3 \] the greater : or lejjer kind


7 * Jmouse.

Abroad, under ground', having Imall eyes, and broad feet likf handshak- ing not fo properly belonging to this tribe, but of near affinity to it. 8 . MOLE. Befides


Chap. V.'

Of Benjls.

Befides the common Rat there ^re others having Flat tails, their hinder feet being palmipedes, p cal S Water-rat, Muskrat. Short tails , and {potted skins. Sled c Renting.

. Befides the more common fort of Mice there are others

  • 5 9

Mu s HZorva- gicm.

Of long fronts, counted venemous.

Of a fandj colour , a Jpreading tail \ fleeping much.

Having wings, upon which there are\ four claws inftead of feet, the only flying beafi.


Field-mouje, sheew-mouje ♦ Musjraneui. \Dormoufe. jm */ Avttta-


) Batt, F litter moufe. V'fctrtili*.





Lynx ;

IV. RAPACIOUS Beafts of the CAT-KIND, may be diftributed iv. R.APA- ioto fitch, whole bodies are in proportion to their legs , either cat^kind

j Left long i having generally two ClavicuU or canel-bones , bywhidh

  • they are inabled to ftrike or cuff with their forefeet , and to climb,

being able to (heath their claws , whether the j Bigger t, confiderable for

Boldnef and courage j being the chief of all Wild beajls : or for Jlow- neS and flueginefi. going upon the heels.

S UON -efr Whelp, roar.

/^BEARE, Cub.

Spottednef $ || either with Bundles : or with Streak*.


2 CPARD, Panther, Leopard.

Quicks fiphtednefr }

3. OUNCE, Lynx.

j [_LeJfer j || cither that Domefiic Animal, the Enemy to Mice : or that wild • fierce creature , of forae refemblance to this, producing Civet.

SCAT, Kitlimi, Kitten, Mew. c*tms.

4 ‘ £C l VET-CAT. zibma.

[More long 3 namely fuch as by the length of their bodies, and (hortnels of their legs, are fitted to creep and wind themfelves into holes, for the catching of their prey. The Verminous-kind 5 whether fuch as are Terreflrial ; of a

Courfer furr ; being noxious to Rabbets 5 || either that which is fre- quently trained up by Men for the catching Of Connies: or that which is of a \ linking favour.


£ POLECAT, Fitchew ♦ wkmr*.

j '{Finer furr 5 whether the Pmtrmsi

  • L Rigger 5 being commonly white Under the throat.

6. MARTIN, Sable, Cennet. Morttti

Leffer 5 (j either that which is wholly white, excepting a black frot on the tail : or that whofe belly is white, the tip of the tail black , the back, of a light dun. f S^TOAT, Ermine.

4 7t JWEESLE. *****

1 Amphibious-, || either that of a filter furr, having a broad, thick, fcaly tail: or that of a courfer furr.




o y CASTOR, Beaver. e - POTTER.

160 Of Bcafh. Part. IL

As for that mongrel generation, which many Authors being begotten betwixt a Pard and a Lionefi, being therefore called Leopard, as likewife that other Beaji, commonly deferibed by the name of Gulo or Jerff and that other named UyunA. There is reafon to doubt, whether there be any fuch [pecks of ^«/>/»4//.,diff intt from thofe here enumerated.- Tho the belief of thefc (as of (everal other fictitious things) hath been propagated by Or at or s, upon account of their fitnefs tp be made u(e of in the way of fimilitude.

v. RAPA- CIOUS DOG- kind.

Can*. Lupus .

Vulpes. tMXMS .


Lupus aureus .

Tamandua . Tutu.


V. RAPACIOUS Beafts of the DOG-Kind, may be diftiriguifhed into fuch as are either ) European

Terrefirial whether _

Bigger } |j either that which is noted for tamenefi and docility: or for wildnefiand enmity to sheep,

SOOG, Bitch, Puppy , If 'he Ip. Bark ., hay, yelp.

‘^WOLF, Howie,

Lefjer^ living ulually in holes within the ground , || either that which is noted for Jhbtilty, having a bufly tail : or that which is noted for tenacity in biting , being el teemed commonly (tho falfly) to have the legs on the left fide (horter then the other. SFOX.

| ‘ ^BADGER, Grey, Brock.

{Amphibious 5 whether the Bigger , Being lefi hairy 3 having great tusks .» or the lejfer , being wore hairy. ,

S MORSE, Sea-horfe.

  • <*SEAL, Sea-calf. •>

Exotics being noted for

'Gregarioufhetf'i going in great troops, and being laid to a (lift the Lion in hunting.


! Long front, and feeding on Ants, and lometimeson roots 3 (| either that of a hairy : or that of a cruft aceous covering. r



\A bagunder thebeUy wherein the young ones ire: received, being apt to hang by the tail, having a mixed refemb lance both to an Ape and a Fox.


Amongft the feveral fiecies of Jnimals, there is not any of greater variety in refpett of accidental differences, then that of Dogs , which be- ing the moft familiar and domefiick. Beaji, hath therefore (everal names affigned to it according tothele differences, which are derived either from the Countries in which they are originally bred , and from which they are brought to other places, as England, Ireland, Iceland, Ginny,&c. or their bigneis or littlenels, or from their (bape, colour, hairinefs,

But they are chiefly diftinguiffiable from thole ufes which raenhnploy them about, either in refpeft of

Delight i

itized by

Chap. V.

Of Beajh.

i 6 i

( Delight 5 LAP-DOGS.

) Companying when they ferve only to follow us up and doWn. CURRS. / Cujlody of places or things MASTIFS.

'^Huntings either by \ Sight-, GASE-HOUNDS.

Smfll whether for r Birds SPANIELS ) STerreJirial-, LAND SPANIELS;

) {Aquatic-, WATER SPANIELS.

^ (.Beafis$ of a

f 5 Greater kind ; HOUNDS.

{Le£er kind BEAGLES;

SwiftneJ? j and running after .

^Greater Beaft i GREYHOUNDS.

{LeJJer Beafis LURCHERS.


VI. OVIPAROUS BEASTS -, may be diftinguifllcd by their diflfc - 1 rent ways of ptogreffive motion -, whether j

' Gradient • having four feet, the figure of their bodies being either more \ Broad-, whole outward covering is

' ( Crujlaceosts 5 1| belonging either to the Land : or to the Water.

) ^TORTOISE,- Land-tortoife. ;

j '‘^TURTLE, Sea-tortoije. i

v skinny || either that which is not poifonotssi or that which is counted 5 FROG, Tadpole, crokg. (poijbnow. j

• ^TOAD, Tadpole.

' Oblong -, whole bodies and tails are more produced 5 whether the . T Greatefi kind • being Ikinned and Icaly 5 1 | either the larger or the

j } lejfer, the latter of which is delcribed to have a dew' lap under the

1 I rr*D Ar*Gtmr it r r ! /w . /

5 CROCODILE, A lie gat or. Cay man 9 Leviathan. ^SENEMBI, Iguana.

( throat K


^SENEMBI, Iguana. ,

- j Middle kind -, 1 1 either that which is tnofi common in other Countries , and of gteateft varieties : or that which hath two toes behind in each foot, with prominencies upon the bead like ears, being laid (tho falflyj to feed only upon air,



^Leafi kind ^ || either that of a brownijh colour with yellow Jpots : or that of a more dark, colour , having a broad tail for lwimming.

„ .SLAND SALAMANDER, Land Eft , Newt.

’ 5 * £WATER SALAMANDER, Eft, Netot.

Creeping -, being without feet , and of round oblong W;e/;whether the r Bigger kind'-,

6. SERPENT, Hifi

Middle kind-, || either that which is not poifoHotss : or that which is < counted poifonotse , having two long, hollow, moveable /e«f/&,hatch- } ing the Eggs within its body.


VIPER, Adder, Afjie.

\jLeajl kind-, commonly eltcemed blind and poijbnonr.

8 , SLOW WORM. Y That




Ustri/i t#r»


Vtfer * 9



1 62

Noahs Ar\

Part. II.

That kind of Animal which is commonly called a Dragon , and deferi- bed to be a kind of Serpent with wings and feet (if there ever were any fuch thing) might pofiibly be fome monftrons produdion , but there is reafon to believe that there is no fuch (landing Jpecies in nature.

Befides the common kind of Frogs, there is another diftindt fort,called the Green frog) feeding on leaves, having blunt broad toes.

Befides the more ufual forts ot Lizards yhere are others deferibed, as having fome diftindt peculiarity in refpedt of

Bigger magnitude, and greenneis of colour.

Blunt broad toes.

Thicker body , having a tail annulated with I eL i teales. * • o ■

[ Lie green Lizard. The Facetane Li - zard.


Slender body and fmall feet, refembling a Slow worm.

Small head, and lefier feales.

Chalcidica , Lizard . [Srinfe.

VJ. LJAving now difpatehed the enumeration and defeription of the fe- O vcral fpecies of Animals, I (hall here take leave for a (hort digreffi- on, wherein I would recommend this, as a thing worthy to be obferved, namely, that great difference which there is betwixt thofe opinions and apprehenfioris which are occafioned by a more general and confuted view of things, and thofe which proceed from a more diftindt confidera- tion of them as they are reduced into order. *

He that looks upon the Starrs, as they are confufedly fcattered up and down in the Firmament, will think them to be (as they are fometirnes (tiled ) innumerable, of fovafta multitude, asnot to be determined to any fet number : but when all thefe Starrs are diftindtly reduced into particular con (foliations, and defcribed by their feveral places, magni- tudes and names, it appears, that of thofe that are vifible to the naked , " ' eye, there are but few meye then a tnoufand in the whole Firmament,

and but a little mpre then half (o many to be teen at once inany Hemf- fphere, taking in the minuter kinds of them, even to fix degrees of mag- nitude. Ft is fo likdwife in other things : He that (houid put the Quefti- in^haw many forts of beads, or birds, &c. there are in the world, would be anfvvered, even by fuch as are otherwife knowing and learned men, that there are te> many hundreds of them, as could not be enumerated ^ whereas upon a diftindt inquiry into all fuch as are yet known, and have , beett defcribed by credible Authors, it will appear that they are much fewer then is commonly imagined, not a hundred forts of Beads, nor tWQ .«! hundred of Birds.

C,- •

".v.-s'-i.-. From this prejudice it is, that some hereticks of old, and fome Atheidi- cat feoffors in thefe later times, having taken the advantage of railing ob- jedtions, (fuch as they think unanfwerable) sgainft the truth ana au-

  • 1 thority of Scripture, particularly as to the defoription which is given by

Jktojify concerning JNoah-a Ark, Gen. 6. *5. where the dimenfions of it . are let down fo> be three hundred cubits in length, fifty in breadth, and thirty in height, which being compared with the things it was to contein, it teemed to them upon a general view, fand they confidently affirmed 7 v. ^accordingly ) that it was utterly impoffibfo for this Aik to hold fovafta .. multitude of Animals, with a whole years provifion of food for each of then*. This



Noahs Ar\.

. This objection feemjd foconfiderable, both to fome of the ancient Fathers, and of our later Divines , who were otherwife learned and ju- dicious men) but lefs verfed in Philofophy and Mathematicks.that they have been put to miferablc Ihifts for the lolving of it. Origeti , and Saint Aufiin , and feveral other confiderable Authors, do for the avoiding of this difficulty affirm, that being Ikilled in all th? learning cf the Egyptians) doth by the meafure of cubits, hereapplycd to the Ark, un* derftand the ^Egyptian Geometrical cubit , each of which (lay they) did contein fix of the vulgar cubits, namely, nine foot. But this doth upon feveral accounts feem very unreafonable,becaule it doth not appear, that there was any (itch meafure amongft the ^Egyptians or Jews, ftyled the Geometrical cubit : Andif there were, yet there is no particular realbn, why. this fenfe Ihould be apply ed to the word cubit here, rather then in other places* It is laid of Goliah ., that his height was fix cubits and a 1Sam.i7.4i fpan, which being underftoo.d of the Geometrical cubit , will make him fifty four foot high, and confequently his head muft be about nine foot in the height or diameter of it, which muft needs be too heavy for Da- vid to carry*

Others not finished with this lolution, think they have found a better anfwer, by afierting that the ftature of mankind being confiderably larger in the firft ages of the world, therefore the meafure of the cubit muft be larger likewifc,and perhaps double to now what it is, which will . much inlarge the capacity of the Ark. But neither will this afford any reafonable iatisfattion. For if they will fuppofe men to be of a much bigger ftature then, ’tis but reafonable that the like fhould be luppoted of other animals alfo 5 in which cafe this anfwer amounts to nothing*

Others will have the facred cubit to be here intended, which is filid to be a hands breadth longer then the civil cubit, £**0^43. 13. Butthere is not any reafon or neceffity for this* And ’tis generally believed, that the facred cubit was ufed only in the meafure of facred Struftures,as the Tabernacle and Temple,

This teeming difficulty is much better folved by Job. Buteo in the Trad* de Area Noe, wherein fuppofing the cubit to be the lame with whaii we now call a foot and a half, he proves Mathematically that there was alufficient capacity in the ^r^, for the conteining all thote things it was dcligned for. But becaufe there are fome things liable to exception id the Philofophical part of that diteourte, particularly in his enumeration of the fpecies of Animals, feveral of which are fabulous, fome notdiftindfc fpecies, others that are true fpecies being left out j therefore I conceive it may not be improper in this place to offer another account of thole

things* ...

It is plain in the deteription which Jldojes gives of the Ark ., that it was divided into three ftories,cach of them of ten cubits or fifteen foot high, befidesone cubit allowed for the declivity of the roof in the upper fto- ry. And ’tis agreed upon as moft probable, that the lower ftory wps alfigned to contein all the fpecies of beafts, the middle ftory for their food, and the upper ftory, in one part of it, for the birds and their food, apd the other part for Noah, his family and utenfils.

Now it may clearly be made out , that each of thele ftories was of a y fufficient capacity for the conteining all thofe things to which they ate aliigned.

Y a For




164 Noabr Ar\ \

for the m&re diftindt clearing up of this, I ihall firft lay down feveral tables of the divers fpeciesofbeaffc that were to be received into the Ark, according to the different kinds offood, wherewith they are ufual- Jy nourifhedjConteinlng both the number appointed for each of them, namely, the clean by fevens,and the unclean by pairs, together with a conjecture (for the greater facility of the calculation) what proportion each of them tnay bear, either to a Beef, or a Sheep, or a Wolf; and then what kind of room maybe allotted to the making of fufiicient Stalls for their reception.



Carnivorous I

Fruity Roots and to-



I feds.


| Name. •



• P

gtj 9 '

r O


^ Name

Proportion to Sheep.

£§ '



| Name



  1. 8





«a *-n




2 Horfe



2 Hog

i 4


2 Lion



3 Afle



2 Baboon


3 Bearc



3 Camel



2 Ape


a Tigre



2 Elephant



2 Monky

a Pard



7 Bull



2 Sloth

3 Ounce



7 Urus



2 Porcupine

L «T


3 cat ;

r 3


7 Bifons


40 1

2 Hedghog

  • 7

2 Civet-cat*


7 Bonafus


2 S^uirril

  • Ferret

7 Buffalo



2 Ginny pig.

a Polecat

7 Sheep



2 Ant-bear


3 Martin (

7 Stepdferos


^ 30 >

2 Armadilla


3 Stoat



7 Broad-tail



2 Tortoife



a Weefle

7 Goat

2 Caftor

7 Stone-buck




a Otter

7 Shamois


3 Dog i

i _ 2


7 Antilope


» Wolf


1 6

7 Elke



2 Fox "


7 Hart


3 °


i Badger (

> 2


7 Buck



, 4

> jackall (


7 Rein-deer



  • Caraguya


7 R.oe

2 Rhinocerot



3 6


3 Camelopard




2 Hare •

♦» >


2 Rabbet ( 2 Marmotto j

I • .


' 1

92 <




^ ® enumeration I do not mention the Mule,becau(e ’tis a munerel production, and not to be rekoned as a diftind (pecies, And tho it be moft probabkjthat the feveral varieties of Beeves, namely that which is itrlea X)rws i Bifont t Bonafm and Buff, t!o w and thofe other varieties reckon*



Chap.V. • ‘ Nodbs Arl Ej. 165

, t

cd under Sheep and Coats, be notdidinft (pedes from Bull, sheep, and and Goat 3 There being much left difference betwixt thefe,then there is betwixt feveral Dogs : And it beirig known by Experience , what vari- ous changes are frequently occasioned in the fame Species by feveral N countries, diets, ana other accidents : Yet I have ex abundanti to pre- vent all cavilling, allowed them to be didinft fpecies,and each of them to be clean Beaffs, and consequently Such as were to be received in by (evens. As for the Morfe, Seale, Turtle, or Sea-Tortoife, Crocodile, Senembi,

TheSe are uSually deferibed to be fuchkindof Animals is can abide in the water, and therefore I have not taken them into the Ark, tho if that Werencceflary, there would be room enough for them,' as will Shortly appear. The Serpentine- kind, Snake, Viper, Slow- Worm, Litard, Frog,

Toad, might have fufficient fpace for their reception, and for their nou- rishment, in the Drein or Sink, of the Ark, which was probably three or four foot under the floor for the (landings of the Beads. As for thole ' defier Beads, Moufe.Mole^s likewife for the feveral Species oflnSedte, there can be no reafon to queflion,but tfiat thefe may find fuffident room in Several par ts of the Ark, without having any particular Stalls appoint* ed for them*

Tho it feera mod probable, that before the Flood, both Men, Beads and Birds did feed only upon Vegetables, as may appear from that place,

Gen, 1.39,30* And God faid, Behold I have given you every herb bearing feed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yelding Jeed, to you it Jhall be for meat. And to every beajl of the earth , and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that ertepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green both fot meat , com- pared with chap. 9. 3. Where after the Flood, when the produ&ions of the Earth were become of leSs efficacy and vigor, and consequently left fit

  • for nourishment, God laith to Noah, Every moving thing that livetb , Jhall

be meat for you, even ns the green herb hovel given you all things. Yeti becaufe this proof is not fo very cogent to convince a captious Adversa- ry, but that he may dill be apt to quedion,whether the Rapacious kinds of Beads and Birds,who in the natural frame of their parts are peculiar*

]y fitted for the catching and devouring of their prey; did ever feed up- on herbs and fruits 3 Therefore to prevent fuch Cavils, I Shall be content to Suppofe that thole Animals which are now Prodatory were So from thebegining: upon which, it will be pecefiary to enquire, what kind offood might be proper and fufficient for them, during their abode in the Ark- Now ’tis commonly known, that the ruminant kind are modi ufually ' the prey for the rapacious kind of beads.

It appeares by the foregoing tables, that the Deads of the Rapacious oar - ‘ nivorous kinds, to be brought into the Ark. by pairs, were but forty in allj or^wenty pairs, which upon a fair calculation are fuppofed equivalent, as to the bulk of their bodies and their food, unto twenty Seven IVolves 5 but for greater certainty, let thqm beliippofed equall to thirty IVolves: and let it be further fuppofed, that Six IVolves will every day devour a whole Sheep , which all Men will readily grant to be more then Sufficient for thEir neceflary fudenance : According to this computation;five sheep tnud be allotted to be devoured for food each day of the year, which amounts in the whole to 1 82 5.

Upon thefe Suppositions there mud be convenient room in the lower


Noahs Ar]\. fcart. II.

ftory of the Ark. to contein the forementioned forts of hearts which were to be preferved for the propagating; of their kinds, belides 1825. sheepy which were to be taken in as food for the rapacious Beajis »

. And tho there might fecm no juft ground of exception, if thefc beafts fhould be flow'd clofe together, as is now ufoal in Ships,when they are to be tranfported for any long voyage; yet I (ball not take any fuch advan- tage, but afford them fuch fair Stalls or Cabins as may be abundantly fuf- ficient for them in any kind of pofture, either ftanding, or lying, or turn- ing themfelves, as likcwife to receive all the dung that fhould proceed from them for a whole year.

And that the .Ark. was of a fufficient capacity for thefe purpofes, will appearfrom the following Diagram. In which there is a partition at each end of the Ark. t marked A A, of fifteen foot wide, and the breadth of the Ark. being feventy five foot; thefe partitions muft contein in them five Areas of fifteen foot fquare, and an Area of five foot fquare, being fufficient to contein four sheep, therefore one of fifteen foot fquare muft be capable of thirty fix sheep ; Allowing one of thefe Areas at each end for flairs, there will eight of them remain, (viz. four at each end)to be reckoned upon for the conteining of sheep ; which eight will be capable of receiving 388 Sheep*

Befides thefe partitions, at the end there are five feveral paflages marked B B, of feven foot wide for the more convenient accefs to the fe- veral Stalls ;the four Areas on the fide marked CC, defigned for Stalls, are each of them eighteen foot wide, and about two hundred foot long. And the two middle Areas marked D D, are each of them twenty five foot wide, and about two hundred foot long.

Suppofing the two middle Areas to bedefigned for Sheeps an Area of twenty five foot fquaremuft be capable of a hundred, and there being fixteen of thefe, they muft be capable of 1 60c which being added to the former number of 288 will make i888.fomewhat more then 1835 the number affigned for thofe that were to be taken in for food.

The four fide Areas marked CC, being each of them eighteen foot wide, and two hundred foot long, will be more then fufficient to contein the feveral beafts which were to be preferved for the propagating of their kind} forwhich in the foregoing Tablestheir is allotted to the length of their Stalls only fix hundred and fix foot, befides the largenefi of the Stalls allotted to each of them. So that there will be near upon two hundred foot overplus, for the reception of any other beafts, not yet enumerated or difeovered.

As for that fafhion of the Keel of Ships now in ufe, whereby they are fitted for paffagt through the Waters, and to endure the motion of the Waves ; This would not have been convenient for the bufinefs here ^e- figned , The y 4 r^.being intended only for a kind of Float to fwim above water, the flatnefs of its bottom, did render it much more capacious, for thereceptjop of thofe many living Creatures, which wefe to be contein- ed in it. And tho towards the end of the Flood when it began to abate, God is faid to Make a wind to pafover th% Earth , whereby the waters were a ffi? a & e d&e n.8.i.Yet’tis ndt likely that in the time of the deluge, "when the. whole Earth was overflowed, that there fhould be any fuch rough .and boifteroiis winds as might endanger a Vcfk -1 of this Figure; fuch winds ufually proceeding from dry Land.


Chap. V.

Noabt Art\.


From hence it may be evi

It room in the.

ui iiic^ ,ra t he r then to find fufficientroom%r thole ftveral fpecies of Animals already known. But becaufe it may be reafonably prefumed, tbatthere are feveral other fpecies of beafts and birds, efpecially in the uhdifcovered parts of the world, befides thofe here enumerated,therefore iis but reafonable to fuppofe the Arf^ to be of a bigger capacity, then



Noahs Ar]^. tart. II.

■ <■ L * « tVu» fnr«npnMr>ni»d forts of healls wbirh

God is faid to Make a wind topafSover tht, Earth , nhereVyT£t'w iters

  • Jfi?*g e d ,Gen.8. i.Yet *tis nOt likely that in thetime of the ddugej’when

the. whole Earth was overflowed, that there (houldbe any fuch rough and boifterous winds as might endanger a Vclkl of this Figure y (uch winds ufually proceeding from dry Land.


1 67

Chap. V. Noahs Ar\\.

Fromheoce it may be evident, that there was fufficient room in the lower ftory for the convenient reception of all the forts of beafts that are yet known , and probably for thofe other kinds that are yet un- known to theft; parts of the World,

The next thing to be cleared up, is the capacity of the fecond ftory for conteining a years provifion of food. In order to which ’tis to be ob- lerved } that the feveral beafts feeding cn hay, were before upon a fair cab eulatien fuppofed equal to ninety two Beeves : but to prevent all kind of Cavils which may be made at the proportioning of them, let them be as a hundred, befidcs the 1825, sheep taken in for food.But now becaufe thefe are to be devoured by five per diem , therefore the years provifion to be made for them, is to be reckoned but as for half that number, viz. 912. Theft being divided by (even to bring them unto a proportion with the Beeves , will amount to 180, which added to the former hundred make 280, fuppoft three hundred . So tten according to this fuppofition, there muft be fufficieot provifion of hay in the fecond ftory to fuftein three hundred Beeves for a whole year.

Now ’tis obferved (faith Buteo) by Columella, who was very well ver- fed in the experiments of Hufbandry, that thirty or forty pound of hay is ordinarily fufficient for an Ox for one day, reckoning twelve ounces in the pound. But we will fuppoft forty of our pounds. And ’tis aflerted by Buteo upon his own tryal and experience, that a (olid cubit of dryed hay, comprefled,as it ufes to be, when it hath lain any confiderable time in Mows or Reeks, doth weigh about forty pound 5 fo that for three hundred Beeves for a whole year there muft be 109500. fuch cubits of hay, ( /. e. ) 365. multiplied by 300. Now the fecond ftory being ten cubits high, three hundred long, and fifty broad, muft contein 150000. folid cubits, which ismore by 40500 then what is neceflary for fo much tomprefled hay 5 and will allow fpace enough both for any kind of beams and pillars neceflary for thaifabric, as likewift for othlr repofito- ries,for fuch fruits, roots, grain or feed, as may be proper for the nourifh- ment of any of the other Ampuls. And Kkewife for fuch convenient paflages and apertures in the floor as might be neceflary for the putting down of the hay to the Stalls in the lower ftory. From which it is mani- feft that the fecond ftory was fufficiently capacious of all thofe things de- figqedforit*

And theq as for the third ftory ; there can be no Colour of doubt, but that one half of it will be abundantly fufficient for all the fpecies of birds, tho they jEhould be twice as many as are enumerated in the foregoing tables, together with food fufficient for their fuftenante, becaufe they are generally but of fmall bulk, and may eafily be kept ih feveral partiti- ons or Cages over one another. Nor is there anjr reafbn to qireftion, but that the other half would afford fpace ehough both fbt fJodk’s family and utenfils. '• '

' Upon the whole matter, it doth of the t Wo, appear more, difficult to af- fign a fufficient number and bulk of neceflary things , to atfWef the Capa- city of the^r^, rather then to find fufficient room 'tor thofe fbveral fpecies of Animals already known. But becaufe it may be reafbnably prefumed, tbatthcre are feveral other fpecies of beafts and birds, efpecially in the uhdifeovered parts of the world, befides thofe here enumerated,therefore ais but reafonable to fuppofe the Arf^ to be of a bigger capacity, then



l I:

PECULIAR PARTS oi Animate Bo* dies.

Noah? Ar\. Part. II

what may be diffident for the things already known, and upon this ac- count it may be allerted, that if fuch perfons who are moft expert in Phi- lofophy or Mathematicks, were now to affign the proportions of a Veflel that might be finable to the ends here propofed, they could not ( all things corfideredj find out any more accommodate to thefepurpofes, then thole here mentioned.

From what hath beenfaid it may appear, that the mealure and capa- city of the Ark^ t which Ibrne Atheiftical irreligious men make ule of, as an argument againft the Scripture, ought rather to beefteemedamoft rational confirmation of the truth and divine authority of it. Efpecially if it be well confidered, that in thofe firft and ruder ages of the World, when men were lels verfed in Arts ar d Philofophy , andtherefore pro- bably more obnoxious to vulgar prejudices then now they are, yet the capacity and proportions of the Ark. are fo well adjufted to the thingsit was to contein ; whereas if it had taen a meer humane invention, 'tis mod probable , that it would have oeen contrived according to thole wild apprehenfions, which (as I faid before) do naturally arife from a more confuted and general view of things, as much too big, as now fuch men are apt to think it too little, for thofe ends and pur poles to which it was defigned.

CtfAP. VI.

7 he Farts of Animate Bodies ; whether I. More Peculiar, or II. More General*

U Nder this Head of PECULIAR PARTS of Animate Bodies are comprehended all the Parts that belong to the whole kind of Plants: But as to Animals , it contains onelyfoch as are peculiar to Ibme of them, not common to all. And thefe are comprehended with the others under the fame Head , becaufe I could not otherwife place them conveniently to my purpofe. They are diftinguilbable by their rela- tion to

f Plants ; as being Y ^LASTING PARTS. I*



( Animals » belonging chiefly unto t SWIMMING Animals. IV.

< FLYING Animals. V.

{GOING Animals. VI,

I. By

Chap. VI.

Parts peculiar .


J. By LASTING PARTS of Plants are mtzmfttch as do ulually con- 1 laSTin^ tinue during the life of the Plant, and are not renewed every year. And parts ol becaufe the chief of thefeisftyled WOOD, therefore may that be here pl * nte ‘ adjoyned by way of affinity. Thefe are diftinguifhable by their Fabric and Confiftence, together with their Pofition and Shape 5 being either more

Hard and Solid 5 cohfidered attar ding to the f Portion ) as to the

| Earth, wherein Plants do gfow •, being either f Within it j to which may be adjoyned thole parts in the body of the Plant nhich have feme analogy to Roots.

S ROOT, Radical, radicate, eradicate. yKNOT, Knurle, Knag.

Without it $ the upright part above ground 5 1 | either the greater, upon, and from which the branches do grdw.* or the lej/er growing up from the lame root. ’ 3

'STOCK, Stem,TrUh^ , Body, Stal^,Stkb, stump.

^SUCKER, Shoot.

[riant it fe If , /hooting from the stem of it 5 j] whether greater and Jpread : or le/S, and pointed , being common likewife to Fi/hes, &c.

C BRANCH, Sprig , Sion, young Shoot , Graft , Bough , Arm of a 3. < Tree, Slip, Lop.

( C THORN, Prickje , Jptnoue.

iShafe and Figure 5 ||more cylindrical and fiijfs or more taper and flexile.


(STICK, staff, Sta^e, Cudgel, Scepter, Mace , Crofter, Virg,Leadmt- 4*S Truncheon, Battoon, Reft, scotch , Crutch , Helve ,Ter ch.TaUe.

[.WAND; TxPig^ Rod 1 Switch y Pole.

Not di/Jolv able \\ outward : or inward.

5 RINDE, Pr#

5 2 PITH.

Di/Jolvable, by or by F/re 5 being )j either of an atjueoUe .» ot id un&uous nature.


6 .*


\tiquid of a j| more watery : or more unftnoas confiftence. s 5 JUICE, Sap, fucculent.



il By


Parts feci' liar.

Parr. li.

it. annUt II. By ANNUAL Parts are meant inch as are renewed every year • piaritt ttS ° f which are either

More principal $ thofe farts whereby Plants do propagate their kinds. j Antecedent to the Seed either that moft tender part of a Plant, con- I fiderable for its beauty and colour, adhering to the fir ft rudiments j of the Seed : or that which is anfwerable to this in Willows and Nut* < trees, &c.

^FLOWHR, Blojfom, Bloom, blown flfofcgay, Pofey.

‘^CATKIN, Paint.

±Thc Seed it inrrjpetfof the f Parts belonging to it, ana encompaffmg it 5 || either the moft (Soft and (ucculcnf, betwixt the outward skin and the inward 1 j Seed vejjtl: or the moft hard criflaccous part containing the Seed.

1 < 5 PULP.

' ) 2 2 STONE, shell.

(• 7 hin part for Covering t or Oblongs for Defence. i 3 S HUSK, Hull, Shell, Sk?**, Chaffs Boled.

3 2 BEARD.

[Aggregate of Fruit or Seed 5 of a Figure |j more grofl and confufed: or more narrow , oblong, and taper,

4 ^CLUSTER, Bunch, Pannicle.

^’^EAR, Spike, Spire , Bent.

  • • Lefl principal $ to be further diftinguifhed by the Figure, in refpeft of

‘thickncfl or ihinnefl-, either fu^h as are more thief, namely the firfl little fwellings in the growth of a Plant, or of the parts of it : or fuch as arc more thin , namely thofe laminated parts, belonging 1 either to Plants themfelves, or to their flowers.

(SPROUT, Bud,Jhoot, burgeon, puUutate , repuMutatc , germinate , 5 < put forth, (bring forth.

I LEAF, Foliags, Blade.

Length 5 whether fuch as are

f Proper to the Flower the greater, ftandingup fingly in the middle I of the flower : or the lejfcr , being (mail threddy filaments with- al in the flower, whereof there are ufually many together, i A 5 STILE.

I °*5STAMENj tuft.

{. Common to other parts of the plant 5 || either thofe finall ftemms,mv on which flowers and leaves do grow : or thofe kinds of threddy fhoots, by which climbing Plants do take hold of and twifl about the things that ftand next to them 5 STALK, Footflalf, Jhanf.

7 ' JTENDREL, Closer.

Hollownefl', conteining within it, either || the leaves of the flower .* or the fruit.

c 5 CUP, Perianthium.




Chap. VI. Party peculiar. iji

~ — — -■ -i . — ■ — ■ -- — ■ — ■ — — ■ -- -

III. By FRUITS are nieant thofe more Succulent parts of Plants, nr. Kinds which are either the Receptacles of Seed , or elfe the Seeds themfelves 5 to FRUITS, which may be ad joy way of affinity, the general name denoting the EXCRESCENCES of Plants, as Galls are of Oken leaves, &c.

Fruits may be diftinguilbed into fuch as are , r Receptacles of Seed.

f Eaten commonly by men 5 whole eatable part is covered With a . f Soft Skin . .

c Without Stones 5 being generally a larger fruit, i < 1. APPLE, Pomiferom .

(.With Stones ; || either the greater kind } conteining one fingle Hone encompafled with an elculent pulp : er the left growing • . 4 < either in Clufters, or dilperledly on Trees, Shrubs and Herbs, conteining generally leveral finall feeds or Hones in the pulp or husk of it.

5 PLUM, Pruin , Pruniferous ♦

< 2 ‘ £ BERRY, Bacciferosss. ,

Jtard Shed 5 namely that kind of fruit, whole only elculent part is incloled in a hard covering.

1 3, NUT, Nuciferous.

^Not eaten commonly by nten^ but by beajls.

(Coujijiing of one only Seed , in a Seed-veffely || roundifii : or flat-fi-

j gured.

c 5 MAST, Acorn y? an n age.

) 4 ’5 key.

( Conteining fever al Seeds ; being || more filid : or hollow.

SCONE, Apple.

£COD, Hu*k.> Pody Shell, Jhale,filiquous.

Seed $ || being the ntofl minute kind, of Fruit, whereby Plants propa* gate their Kinds » or the Inmojl parts of Seeds.

, S GRAIN, Corny Kern. b ' ^KERNEL.

The Peculiar parts of Animals here enumerated are laid to be fuch as belong chiefly, not only, to the Jeveral kinds of Swim using . , Flyings Going Animals , becaule there are forae under each Head that belong alio to other Animals. So spawn and Crujl belong to Infe&s , and fome Beafts , as well as to Fijh. So Trunk or Probofcis , ana Egg do belong to lome Going

Animals, as well as to Flying. So doth Embroyo to a Bat ana all Viviparous Fijh, as well as to Going Animals. But thele Parts are more commonly and generally found atnongfl thole Kinds under which they are Med,

IV, Thofe



Vans peculiar .

Part. II.

IY. Parts pe- culiar To

IV. Thofe Parts peculiar chiefly to SWIMMING ANIMALS , to cuuir IV which Cuftom hath afcribed diftinft names, do ferve either for their swimminc } 0uttt>4rd coverings with refpeftto different Magnitudes.

  • r LejJer , being a Thin Umin.

\ i. SCALE. . . .

\cr eatery |j opening ufually upon a Joinfas in Oiftcn, &c. or an entire

Armature, without fuch opening, as in Lobfters, &c.

5SHELL, Tejiactons.

2 -?CRUST-4cw*f, sheB. .. ,

Refpiration j thofe Opening parts on the Jides of the Head , which are

thought to fupply the place of Lungs.


Prooreffive motion t, lerving either to ... , .

Direa this motion 5 by feeling fuch objeftsas lyem theway, being long prominencies , funding ojf front the head , common to leveral Inle&s.

4. FEELERS, Horns, Antenna.

Ajjifi in this motion 5 whether of

Swimming , as in moll kinds of Ikinned and Icaly fiul.

Internal 5 a thin membrane filled with air, by the help of which ^ Fifhes poile themfelves in the water.


( External 5 || either thole thin broad fubftances. Handing oflf from the body of the Fifli : or thofe long J, lender parts belonging to thele

, 5FINN.

£RAY, Radius , Pinnula ♦ _

I Going j as in cruftaccOus exanguious Animals.

, ‘ 7. CLAW.

i_ Procreation s belonging either to the || Males : or Females.

P* SMILT, Soft row.

  • £SPA WN , Hard row .

V. The


Chap. VI.

Pam peculiar.


V. jtatts pe- dUliar TO


2 .

V. The Parts peculiar TO FLYING ANIMALS are either ^Notflejhy 3 fuchas fetvefor

[ Outward covering, which is done by final! oblong bodies } with bair'like animal*. branches growing from both fides of them,the bottom of which is a kind of a hoUoW Cylinder Whs a reed.

~ FEATHER, Plume , callow, fledge , pluck.


Progrejjive motion 3 which in fuch kind of Creatures is twofold.

I F tying $ which is done by thofe parts faff ned on the Jhoulders % by the j motion of which they Arify the Air : Thefe are generally an aggre- gate of Feathers 3 but in Bats and Flies of a Skinny confiftence. >

To which may be ad joyned that aggregate of hindermofi Fea- thers^ whereby they J her themfilves in their Flight.


TRAIN, Tail.

[Going 5 by a Foot with (everal Toes (] divided t or united by fome film for their better help in Swimming.

5 TALON, Pounce , Claw>Clutcbi 3 ' $FLAT FOOT, Palmipede.

Feeding and Fighting 3 || the mouth of a Bird : or a kind of hollow tube through which fome things fuck their nourifliment.

5 BEAK, Bill.

^TRUNK, Probofcis, Snout.

Fighting onely 3 of a Jharp figure 3 || either on the fide of the Leg: or in the Tail , counted poifouous.

  • 5 SPUR.

5 ‘ 2 STING, Prickle.

\Jd recreation 5 |) a roundijb body covered with a Shell : or a yellowijh cede containing a Maggot , which is tranlmuted into a Moth or Butterfly.

, SEGG, Nit, Flyblow,

‘ ^CHRYSALITE, Aurelia.

Flejby 3 belonging to the

c Fore-part 3 and placed either || on the top of the head : or under the Jaw.

J ^COMB, creft.

) 7 ' 2 GILL, Wattle.

C Hinder 'part 3 || either that Protuberance about the end of the Backbone or that Cavity or Glandule in it containing an un&uous Jubflanct for the filling the Feathers.


VI. The

  • 7 4

P^rLf general.

Part. II.

Vi. Parts pe- VI. TheParts peculiar belonging TO GOING ANIMALS arc fuch

go£g TO as ferve for

ANIMALS, f Outward covering ; confidcrable accord ing to the

\More general name ; denoting a (mall oblong flexile body , growing Plant lik§ out of the skjn : or Aggregates of theje , growing thick, to- gether and curled.

_ 5 hair.

    • £wool.

Particular kinds ; |j either a more i/g and Jlijf kind of hair : or the more ftnall and fofter kinds of hairy Jubftances , fometimes alcribed to Feathers.

„ SBRISTLE- a ‘2DOWN, Lint.

| Aggregates more proper to Hair : or to Wool.

S FURR ^ Ermin i Minivor , &c. 'timber.


[Hairy parts 5 || on the Chin or Face : or on the Neck:

S BEARD, Mujlach, Whisker.

4 * £ MANE, Crejl.

Progrejfive motion 5 whether || in whole or cloven-footed Animals : or in multifidous or clawed Animals. *»

_ 5HOOF.

, 5 * i NAIL, Claw.

Fighting ; th eforemojl part ferving for offence againfi greater Animals : or the hindermojl part ferving for defence againfi Infelts.

£ SHORN, Head,goring.

‘ JTAIL, Scut, Dock., Crupper, Single of Deer.

I Procreation i the young in the Womb before its birth : or the bag wherein it is contained.

^EMBRYO, child in the Womb.

7 * asECUNDINE, After birth.


II. 1])Y GENERAL PARTS of Animals are meant fuch as are more com- JD mon to the whole kind , or at leajl the more perfect kinds^as Beafts and Men $ there being Jeveral parts enumerated under this head, as Milk, Marrow, Bone, Griltle, Tooth, Dug, Rib, Navel, all under the fifth Dif- ference, and fome under the fixth, which are not common to all forts of In- JeltS) Fifhes^ and Birds. Thefe arc diftinguifhable into C Homogeneous.



v Heterogcneus .

J External.






Parts general.

I. CONTAINED HOMOGENEOUS PARTS are fuch kind of fluid con- Bodies as are diftinguUhable by their various Conliftences and Ules, and homoge- not by any difference of Shape or Figure 5 becaule, being liquid, they nequs have no Shape of their own, but rauft be contained termino alieno. They PA&TS ‘ ' are either more ’'thin and Aerial.

1. SPIRIT •uour.

Liquid and Fluid 3 being either

1 More limpid 5 and of an aqUeous transparency, || for diluting and at- | tenuating the Humors : or a prepared Juice for nourishing the fe-

J veral parts.

• SSERUM/^'%. a - Jsuccus NllTRITlUS.

More opacovs and thick*

' Hot generally diffufed s being ufeful either for r Hutrition 5 || a whitKh hutnpr in the Mefentery extracted from the food before Sanguification : or receiving a farther digeftion in 1 the breads for the nourilhmeht of the Fdetus.


[ < ^'£MILK, Cream, Btefiings, milch, Dairy.

> {.Generation 5 \\ common to both Sexes : to which may be adjoyned

| that excrementitious imoifture proper to fom$ Females.

"j SSPERM, Seed, feminal.

•j 4 * ^MENSTRUA, Courfes.

L Diff ufed through the whole, and mixed t ogether in one Mali 3 con- fidered either according to the .

e General name 5 denoting that red juice in the bodies of the more 'j perfect Animals. j 5. BLOUD, Crimfon.

C Particular kinds 3 of which this whole mate is laid toconfift, com- monly ft i led the four Humors, and according to the old Theo- ry, clteemed to be either ..

- Hot 3 and j| moifi: or dry.

) y- ^BLOUD, Sanguin v \ ^'JCHOLER, Gall.

( Cold 3 and || moifi : or dry.

5 PHLEGM, pituitosts.

'•^MELANCHOLY, Choler adufi.

More confifient 5 1 \ in the Head , the organ of the inward Senies : or in the Cavity of the Bones , for the moiftning of them. t SB RAIN.

  • • ^MARROW, medullary.




Parts general

Part. II.

ta. cow- H. CONTAINING HOMOGENEOUS FARTS are diftingutihable 2£J**£*® by their Qualities of Hardnefs and SoftneIs,or by their Figures and lifts ; neouS bem g Cither of a PARTS. \More hard Confflence ;

For jlrengthning of the Fabric', ]| either the mofl hard and dry: or left bard-, both devoid of Senrc , SBONE, Skull, r ^GRISTLE, Cartilage.

j £ For uniting of the Bones and Mufcles ; )| either 'oblong : or the extremity cf the Mujcle affixed to the part w hich is to be moved.


\_More foft Confidence ; being either ' Thin and broad 5 for covering of || the outward parts: or the inward parts.

SSKIN, Cuticle , Fell, Hide , Pelt, Slough, flay, excoriate, gall.

3 ‘ ^MEMBRANE, Film, Pannicle , Tunicle , Skjn, Pericardium, Pe- ricranium, Peritonaeum.

[ Oblong and narrow ;

' Hollow ; for conveyance of the Bloud\\to the Heart c ot from the Heart ♦

. 5VEIN, Venal.

4 a ARTERY -all.

Solid ; for conveyance of the Spirits, Jerving for Senfec or thole fmall hair- like' bodies of which the Mufcles confift,

S NERVE, sinew.

aFIBRE, Crain, Filament. ,

[Craf$ of no determinate Figure; ujeful for ■ Motion ; according to the name, || more general : or particular.

^ £FLESH, Parenchyma, carnal, Carnofity, incarnate.

’^MUSCLE, Brawn.

. Preferviug from Heat and Cold : or the Percolation of fime humors. SFAT, Suet, Tallow.

7 * 2 GLANDULE, Kernel , EmunSory, Almond, Bur, Sweet-bread, Nut.

V. The


Chap. VII.

Part! general.


III. Among# External containing Heterogeneous parts , that which is the m. of tiU chief i being the Seat and Refidence of the Soul, is the HEAD : To which h^ad. may be oppofed the other part ftyled BODY, Care of.

The parts of the Head are either

’More general^ || either the fbr e-part left hairy: or the hinder part more hairy.

‘ <vFACE, Pifage, Ajpe8, Countenance , Favour , Loo k, Mine, Phy/e- i.< ognomy, Feature, Vizzard, Mask- . CPATE, Scalps Noddle, Sconce, Scull, Brain-pan.

More particular parts of the Head and Face are either 7 More properly Organical 5 for c Senfe -, whether fuch parts as are f External ufed for S eeing , or Hearing.

,S*Y, Ocular , optic, fee, vi etc, look, kgnn, behold, gaze, pore.

  • £EAR, Lug, hear, hearken, auricular.

Tajling, ox Smelling: (| either that Sciflureof the Face through which we breath and receive our nourilhment i or that hol- low prominence, through which we breath and fnieli.

S MOUTH. Chaps , muzzle, oral, devour.

3'^>NOSEj Snowt 0 Nojlril, fmell.

{ Internal ufed for [fajling, Speaking, or Eating 5

I Convex » Jj either that of ajoft FlcJJy fubflance, whereof there I is but one : or that of a mojl hard and dry confidence, whereof ' there are many.

5TONGUE, lick. •

4 c TOOTH, Fang , Tusk., bite, gnaw, nibble. Holders, Grinders.

Concave-, either the upper inward part of the Mouth: or the open paffage through the Neck, into the middle region of the Body 5PALATE, Roof. 1 . * £ THROAT, guttural, jugular.

(f ef properly Organical -, hut contributing to the making up the Fabric of the Face, diftinguilhable by their Various Pofitions into j Vpper and fore-right ; (| Extremity of the Face : or Protuberance 1 over the Eye.

✓ SFOREHEAD, Brovp, Front.

c ?ey-brow.

Lateral-, ff towards the middle : or towards the upper parts.

SCHEEK, foie-.

7 y temples.

» Lower $

Core-right -, || either the uppet and lower Extremity of that Seif ■ fure which makes the Mouth : or the Extremity of the Face . o SEIPi °£CHIN.


JjAW, Chap, Mandible, Jole.


A a

IV. By



IV. Of tlitf TRUNK.

Parts general.

Part. IL

IV. By TRUNK is meant the middle part of the Body, considered atfiraWy from Head and Simms. The Parts of the Trunks are diftinguilh- able by their various I’otiiions being either j Vpper j towards the top of the Trunk.

Not determined to fore or hinder part , but common to both ; ff the Stem-like of the Head : or the upper Convexity of Breafi and Back. $NE< K, Nape , Dulap.

  • ’ ^SHOULDER, Scapular p.

Determined to the

Forepart; [|more general: or more ffcciaUy the glandulous part defigned for milk in females.

S BREAST, PeSoral, Bofom.

2 , 2DUG, Vdder, Teat, Nipple, Pap, Breafi.

Hinder part‘d more general: or more $ecially the Bones of it. o 5 BACK.

r £ VERTEBRA, Spondyl, fpinal. Chine.

I Middle.

I i Hinder-part ^ || the dirc& Mufcles : or tranfverfe Bones.

5 LOIN, Chine. ' -

4 * eRiB.

■ Side-part ; || more general : or more Jpccial/y the lower part of it.

5 SIDE, Lateral , collateral.

5 ‘ 2 FLANK, Rand.

Fore-part ; more general: or more facially the concave middle part ofrit.

S BELLY, rtbnch , Pannel, P critcnseum. ‘

°* $NAVEL, Umbilical.

( Lower $

( Fore part the concave part |) between the belly and thighs : or feat of I the Privities between the thighs.


' ’ ^SHARE, Twijl.

Hinder-part 5 || more general : or fpecially the Cavity.

0 S BUTTOCK, Breech i Haunch i Ham.





Chap. VII.

Parts general.

  • 79

V. By LIMM or Member is meant aoyfpecial part dejigned for AQion, ▼. ofthiT Moveable upon, and diftinguilhable by its joints : for which reafon the L * MMSi * word JOINT may be annexed to it by way of affinity } one being the thing moved, and the other the thing upon which the motion is made They are either f "Upper Limm.

I j Inner mojl : or next to the Trunk, with its Joint.

II r 5 ARM.


’ Middlemojl .

2 SCUB 1 T.

j j 7ELBOW, Pinion ♦ ,

I [ Outer mojl .

CHAND */?, wield . , Manual, Manage, Palm , Fiji, clutch. Graft 3< Haft, Hilt , Glove. J * *

< C WRIST. ’ ♦

j Lower Limm .

Inner mojl: or next to the Trunk.

S TH|GH, Hip, Ham, Haunch , Pefik.

. 4 ?huckle.

< Middlemojl.

S SHANK, Z.e£ Calf.

5 7knee:

.Outer mojl.

CHtKL, Calcitrate , Pajlem.

Common both to- upper and lower Limm 5 the Joints of which may be diftinguilhed by-the order of firft, fecond, or third : or iimermoft, middlemoft, or outcrmoft. *

SFINGER, Toe, Thumb ♦




VI. Cotb


iv. of the


Parts general

Part. II.

IV. By TRUNK is meant the middle part of the tody, considered abflraWy from Head and Limms. The Parts of the Trun k are diftmguiih- able by their various I’olitions , being either 1 Upper ; towards the top of the Trunk.

Not determined to fore or hinder part , but common to both ; f| the Stem-like of the Head : or the upper Convexity of Breafi and Back. SNE< K, Nape, Dulap.

^SHOULDER, Scapulary.

Determined to the

Fore part » ([more general : or more fpeciallj the glandulous part dtfigned for milk in females.

SBREAST, PeOoral, Bofbm.

2 \>DUG, Udder, Teat, Nipple, Pap, ' Breafi.

Hinder part , more general: or more fpeciallj the Bones of it. o 5 BACK.

< 3* £ VERTEBRA, Spondyl, fpinal, Chine.

I Middle.

I f Hinder part i II the direft Mufcles : or tr anther fe Bones.

' SLOIN, Chine.

^ C RIB - .

'Side--part $ || more general : or more fpcciallythe lower part of it.

5 SIDE, Lateral , collateral.

5 ‘ £ FLANK, Rand.

Fore-part 5 more general: or more fpeciallj the concave mitldle part ofrit.

A > £ BELLY, rfitnch , Pannel, Peritcn£um. b - $NAVEL, Umbilical.

[ Lower }

( Fore part ^ the concave part || between the belly and thighs : or feat of ' the Privities between the thighs.


7 ' $ SHARE, 7 wifi.

Hinder-part 5 || more general : or fpeciallj the Cavity.

0 5 BUTTOCK, Breech, Haunch, Ham.





Chap. VII. P art f general. ijy

J 1 1 ' J * ' • L • - • T-

V. By LIMM or A/embcr is meant aoy fpedal part dejigned for AUiou, Pf *e

m'oveabk upon, and diftinguifhable by its joints: for which realon the UMM8, word JOINT may be annexed to it by way of affinity , one being the thing moved, and the other the thing upon which the motion is made.

They are either f "Upper Li mm.

j Inner mofi : or next to the Trunk, with its Joint.

, 5ARM.



. 5 CUBIT.

JELBOW, Vinton.

[Outer moji.

1 C HAND -le, wield. Manual, manage, Palm , Fiji, Clutch, Graft,

3. \ Haft, Hilt, Glove.

C WRIST. ' 4

  • Lower Limm .

i Inner mojl: or next to the Trunk.

S THIGH, Hip, Ham, Haunch, Vefite.

4 5huckle.

- < Middlemojl.

I c SSHANK, Leg , Shin, Calf.

I 5 *5knee:

i .Outermojl.

A SFOOTj Hock,, Trotter, tread, trample, ft amp, Inftep.

  • ^HEEL, Calcitrate, ki^k., Pajlern.

Common both to- upper and lower Limm 5 the Joints of which ma y be diftinguilhed by-the order of firft, fecond, or third : or innermoft, xniddlemoft, or outermoft.

_ 5FINGER, Toe, Thumb .


A * a

VI. Con-


Parts general .

Part. 11.


VI. Of the INWAR.DS.

VI. Containing Heterogeneous Internal parts , called INWARDS, En- trais , Bowels. Toy, Plucky , Purtenance, Umbels, Hajilct, Garbage, Giblets reckoning from the uppermoft, may be diftinguifhed by their Order, Shape and life, into

i Vpper ^ towards the Summity of the Body.

Hollow and oblong } for the conveyance rf the || Nourijhment : or of the Breath.


c WIND- PIPE, Rough Artery, Weafand.

I MaJJie and more folid 5 within the Breaft; for \\ Blond- making : or Breathing. •

! t HEART, Cordial, Core, Pericardium.

2 lLUNGS, Lights.

{Thin and broad , for partition |] tranjverje , betwixt the upper and low- er Belly : or dirett, betwixt the Lobes of the J.ungs.

0 tDIAl'HRAGM, Midriff. • .


{Lower-, diftinguifbable "Both by their Shapes and life.

1 Hollow || wide , but not long , for containing and digefting of Food :

I long , but not wide , for conveying of the Food and Excrement.

C S TOMACH, Maw, Paunch , Ventricle, Craw, Crop, Gorge, Pouch,

I 4-<? Gizzard, Tripe.

j < l GUT, Entrails, Bowels , Garbage , Chitterlings , Colon.

' MaJJie and folid for Jeparating of |[ Choler: or of Melancholy.

\ LIVER, Hepatic.

5 ’ \iSPLEEN, .MUt,

[i Thin and broad . by which the Guts are |) connected : or covered.


ICAUL, Kell.

[By their Ules alone, as being for,

{ Separating the Vrine : or containing the Vrine or the Gall. f KIDNEY, Reins.

7 '\ BLADDER, fefcle.

1 Generation 5 denoting )| the parts for Generation : or the Glandules r j for preparing the Sperm.

I o C PRIVITIES, Genitals , Fizzle, Tard, Fore-skin, Prepuce, j| 7 TESTICLE, Stone, geld, fpay, Eunuch,

' 1 Conception in Females, namely, the part containing the Fetus.

9. WOMB, Mother, Matrix, hyjierical, uterine.



Chap. VII. Magnitude. 484


Concerning the Predicament of Quantity, viz. I. Magnitude.

II. Space j and III* Meafure.

T He chief notions belonging to the Predica-C MAGNITUDE.

ment of Quantity are reducible to thefe< SPACE, general Heads , C MEASURE*


The word MAGNITUDE is intended to fignifie all the notions of V. continued Quantity: to which maybe adjoyned by way of affinity the word EXTENSION, by which is meant that kind of Quantity whereby a thing is laid to have partem extra partem , one part out of another, being the fame thing with the former under another Confederation;

Magnitudes are diftinguilhable according to their


< MUTUAL RELATIONS to one another. H.

L AFFECTIONS, in relped of Figure $ whether 5 SIMPLE, in.

/ Compound 5 either t LINEARY. IV.



S • I •

As for Oration , which is enumerated in the ufual Syftems as ohe 6f the Species of Quantity j that is now by common content acknowledged to b'e very improperly filed Quantity j and therefore it is left out here, and referred to another place.

I. That kind of Quantity whereby the Magnitude of Bodies is to be mea- 1. DiMteN- • Jufedjs called DIMENSION. To which may be adjoined upon account of Affinity, That notion of Quantity , whereby a thing is capable of being fe* par a ted into fever al parts, DIVISION, difiribkte,part *

Dimenfeons are of a four-fold difference*

The leaf of Magnitudes foiled by thole who write de tndivifebilibus, as being in their account infinitely little. •

1. POINT, Prick, Tittle, Pun&ilio, Ace, Jot, Whit.

The fecond kind* defer i bed by the flux of d point, or compofed of infi- nite fuch points, is ftyled.

2. LINE, delineate, rule •

The third, deferibed by the draught of a line , or codipofed of infinite fuch lines.

3. SUPERFIClFS, Plain, Surface. To which may be annexed, that more particular notion of 'Superficies , called AREA, Plot, Bed, Page.

The fourth, deferibed by the lifting up a Superficies, or compofed of infi-

4. SOLID, Body, Bulk * (nite Superficies.

By thele may be express'd thole Algebraical notions of Abfelute, Line- ary, Quadratic, Cubic 5 and fo, continuing this Table, Quadrat*- Quadratic, QuaUrato-Cubrcfubo-Cubic , Qua dr at o- C ubo- Cubic, & far as one pleales.

H. The




Part. II.

it mutu- II. The MUTUAL RELATIONS of one Dimenfion to another are

al rfla- cither of . . c .

TIONS- p 0 i„tto line\ as being either in || the midfi : or extremities of it.


7POLE, Z enith,Nadyr. .

Point to Lines, or Line to Plains s which do tnutually || either wee# . or



2 * ^intersection, Cut :

\ Line to Plains ox Plain to Solid.

' r ^£»/ 4 r ; being II either in the midfl : or the extremities of it.


) 3 $side.

( Round s being either

Extern s || touching : or cutting it.



. Intern s

[Centrals || either more .general, pafCmg from fide to fide: or particularly that which pafiesfrom Pole to Pole.

5 DIAMETER, Ray. '

5**> aXI5.

' Not central s |j either from Periphery to Diameter : or front Pe- riphery to Periphery.

, 5 SINE.


\Line to Line 3 Plain to Plain , or Solid to Solid 5 having j Bare rejpe& to one another in regard of | Difiance 5 || either being aquidiflant : or elfc removing farther : Or approaching nearer .


7 ’ i 5 DI VERGING, Reclining.

.. , ^CONVERGING, inclining.

I IPofitions making an Angle , oblique: ox right: ox parallel.

< ‘OBLIQUE, a-skfte, a-flope , ovary , Declivity, Jbehing, flaunt, » } JPty’ s & e ) f°P e i tvry, ftep 3 incline , lean, glance, Jmagg, *'

  • ^ fquint, leer.

DIRECT, ErtCt, upright, perpendicular, advance, precipitate , ^ headlong , down-right , up an end,fet up, prick, up.

> TRANSVERSE, Crof, overthwart , thwart, traverfe, point- + blank :

l Mutual Conta& f || either returning from the other : or cuttingtbrougb the other.

C REFLECTED, Bound, rebound, recoil, repercujjion , rever* 9 . < berate , rebuff.


Ifl. To

III. To the Affections of Magnitudes , in refpedfc of more SIMPLE LV* FIGURE, may be adjoyned the general notion of FIGURE, shaf t} Fea - there, Fafbion , Form, Frame , Scheme , Lineament , the Make, well fet, orprsF- ® . portioned , tra/tsform , transfigure, deface , disfigure.

Thele Affections may be diftinguilhed in;o fuch as belong 1 One/y to Lines drawn from point to point $ j| the uearejl tray : or hot the nearejl way

S STRAIGHTNESS, Right, dirc&, point-blank;

    • ^CROOKEDNESS, *Curve, a- wry, hoofed} bore, bend, wry, embow,

winding , indirect, fetch a compafi. -

To lines and Plains ; whether conlidered ' Abfolutely in

i General 5 contained within || one line , whole every part is equally I d ill ant from the lame Center : or three or snore lines, whole extre-

{ mities touch one another.

< CIRCLE, Periphery, Circumference} environ, encircle, Jurround,

< 2X Ring-, Run die, Epicycle.

L ANGLE, Cornfr, Coyn, Nook* Elbow, Polygon.

1 [ Special i, of the Angular} || whether of ninety degrees «r or more : or left.


1 3 ' \ 5 OBTUSE, blunt , dull}

j | c ACUTE, Jharp} whet.

I \RefieOively 5 in Bodies whofe fuperficies if compoled || either all of

  • Jiraight lines : or of lines bending in the ntidft , outward e or inward.

f PLAIN, level} fiat, even.

\SCONVEX, prominent , gibbossf} protuberant} turgid, embowed. ^CONCAVE, Hollow } Cavity, Pit , Hole.

To Plains ox Solids, of

J Simple Figure \whofe fuperficies is l| Circular : or Angular of equal fides.

C SPHERE, Orb, Globe, Ball, Bullet ^.ound,BuUet, Pomander, Pom- 5. < mel , Bede * .

(CUBE, Dy.

Mixed Figures defiribed either by the ( Lifting up || pf a Circle : or of an Angular plain.

\ ^S^LINDER,' Bar, Column, Casih, Cannon, Role.

) °'£PRISM, Bar, Wedge.

^ Laying on , in progrejfion from a Point , infinite Plains || circular J/ or angular.

f CONE, Taper, Spire, Steeple, Shaft, Pinnacle.

' * \PTRAM 1 D , Spire , Steeple, shaft , Pinnacle, Obelisk- ■To Lines, or Plains, or Solids $ denoting either fThedifferentr^tf/w*/ of a Cone, being cut || either parallel to the fidet I of it: or befides' the Parallel eithcrjway.

J p f PARABOLA -icall. •


£ ELLIPSIS, oval.

iThe revolution of a Line about || a Cone t or Cylinder.

5 SPIRAL, Serpentine, turbinated, wreath, coyling, worn.

9 ‘ JHELIX, Winding.



iV. Com- pound Ti- gure* II- NEARY.


Parr. II

3 -<

IV. COMPOUND FIGURES of Magnitude LINEARY by undo- fed Lines,are either ‘[More Simple 5 by

[ One Lines whether || jolid : or hollow.

SPIN, Gad, Nail , Peg, Tag, Tack . , Tenter. Needle , Probe.

I# £HOLE, Hollow, Pore , Vent , Aieajb, Orifice, Meufe, punch, perfo- rate, run thorough.

Two lines ;

The end of one meeting with the end 6f the other ; |j either con- vex : or concave.

Sharp ;

C TOOTH, Cujp, Point, Neb, Scrag, Tine, Tenon, Cog, ingrail, 2.< indented.

C NOTCH, Nick_,Nock_, crenated, Gap,batcht, inveck indented.


PROTUBERANCE, Prominence, Procefi,Stud,Bofi, Exciefcence, Gibbous , Crump, Bunch, Knob , Rub, jutting , nfine, tuberous , jl an ding out, flick. 0#*, copped, turgid, Brow, Hillock., Knob , Knot, PI ode, Cragg, Scrag, Lobe,gorbellied, heave, Jwell, firut.

[DENT, Dimple, Sinking, Dock., Creafe, indent. Hole, Pit.

[The end of one with the midfi of the other meeting : or the midjl of one with the midfi of the other cutting.

SFIGURE of the letter T, Crutch.

( CROSS, DecuJJation, athwart. Turn- file.

  • ■ Three Lines 5 at

Several points making Angles 3 either j| on the fame fide: or ondi- vcrfe fides.



Thejame point || meeting, or cutting ; which is applicable likewile to more lines then three.

f. STUFT, Lack., TaJJelj Trefies, Thrum, Hajjack Nap, Rug, Fringe.

j • 3 asterisk.

iMore Compounded 3 • •

I Djjlw 8 !y • •

Pin || with verJatilPin : or with verfatil Lamin.

5 WHIP, Flail, Scourge.

/ cFLAG, Fane, Banroll, Tenon.

p * n || with Tooth or Protuberance, &c. or with Notch or Dent.

8 . 5 HOOK > Crook.,ClaJp,HaJp,Tatches , Flook., Tenter, Cramp-iron.

' cFORK, Prong, horned.

\_Atixedly, with fome kind of Alternation ; || either with Protuberance and Dent : or with Staple and its reverfe.

J UNDULATED, waved, winding. 9 * J CRENATED, Battlement.

V. Com-


Chap. VII. Ma gnitude. 185

' .V. Compound Figures of Magnitude PL AN ARY, exprtffiblfe by clo- led Lines, may be diftinguilbed into fuch as do either gur« pia-

' ’Comprehend Superficies. NARJ.

• r Straight eiftier of three .* or of four Angles.

, 5 triangle. ■ * ,

I ‘^SQUARE, Quadrangle, Quadrate , Diamond figure. Rhomb -oi'd.

Lozenge, Varallellogram.

Curve j either || Round : or Oblong.

S RING, Ferule, Hoop, 'Annulet, Collet , Rundle, Rowel.

  • a 'J>LOOP, Button hole, Eye, Link., Noofe, Halter.

[Mixed 5 being either |j part of a Ring with onetfraight : or a whole

• Ring withleveral Diameters, jj 5BOW.

! 3 $wheel.

i [confifl in being Superficies', as the precedent Figures fluxed into breadth. u So the Flux of a j Pin : or a Hole, do make

| ' C L AMIN, Flake, Leaf, Board, Planks, Lath, Tlate,Scbedule,Scrole,

i 4. < Sheet, Wafer, Cake, Leant* Flap, Label, Coit.

11 C CHINK, Crevifc,Fifiure, Cleft, Crack., Crannj, Chap, Flaw, Rift,

j Split, Slit , Loop-hole , cleave, firing a leak;

1 The FIGURE T or Crotfand Ajlerifc, do make

5TRESSEL, Table. .

1 5- ^pinion, m*

1 cufi: or Notch, do make.

- SEDG, Sharp.

6 * 2GVTTER, Chamfer. j Protuberance : and Vent.

! C RIDGE, Bank, Dam,Bridg, Edg, Ledg.

2 \FVRROW . , Ditch,* Dike, Kennel, channel , Fofi, Trench, Dock.,

Drein , Cut,i Dimple fitivel, shrivel, Wrinkle, rumple, pucker, Pleit,

Staple and Windle ft 5 FORM.

    • • 5 STEP, Grees.

{Square and Ring.


9'2TUBE ROUND, or Pipe, Spout, Trunc^ Tunnel .

VI. Coni*

i8 6


Part. II

tl Com- pound Fi- gures* son* PART.

VI. Compound Figures of Magnitude Solidary ,may be diftinguilhcdin- to fuch as are either



Intern-, denoting the inner parts of a Magnitude to be || either full of (mail Cavities : or to be one great Cavity : or to have no Cavity. s

f n /3 Z' ^ _ /? f • I. II

1 1

\ POROUSNESS, Spunginefi fungous, finkjng, hollow.

I 0 ^ r W » m v V T Th n m M . r\

\ * V/l\V/UOl^LV ’5 <5 J - J O r "V r d“

\ f* HOLLOWNESS, Cavity, concave, Grot, Cave, Den. \MASSINESS, filid, Bulk: l Extern 5 compounded cither of 'Sphere or C»*e, wi/j& || Cylinder : or with C<?»e .

5 BOTTLE, Sutton, Bolt-head.

2 * $PIN,

Cylinder or Prifm , with

r Diverfe Figures j whether || Cube and Pyramid : or Cone and Pyramid . ) 5 PEDESTAL.'

^ ^ Y TURRET or Tent, Tower, Pinnacle.

f ^ * w. J J -

> Another of the fame kind j either ^perpendicular : or tranfverfi .

. 5 gudgeon.


Coxre with Cone $ having || Safe 4o Safi : or Vertex to Vertex.



Elliptic 5 reprefenting the figure of a Sphere crufhed, |) either about the ntidjl by a Hoop : or at the ends by two oppojite Plains.

, SOVAL, Elliptical.

6 * eBOWL.

Spirals : ox Helixes.

  • S BOTTOM, Cine, glomerate, mind about i

'* £SKEIN, Han he, Reel.


jj t ^TpHe word SPACE, Scope,Room,Compaj T, Interim , Interval , (accor- 1 ding to the common ufe of it ) is a name importing the more ge- neral notion of that wherein any thing is contained or done 5


Comprehending bothPp/acr.


I. By TIME, Trad, Tide , Procefi, Opportunity , Seafin , Continuance , is meant continued fucceffive Quantity, having for its common term, IN- STANT, Moment , Trice, Hick*

This is diftinguilhable according to the r Simple differences of it.

^PRESENT, at this time, now, immediately, infiantly, current yready. If 2 C PAST, expired, former, fore-going, ago, already, even now /hereto* < foregone, over, out , a- late, erewhile, long hnce.

FVVDRE, time to came, after- time, hereafter, prefently, anon, by and by , attve ay , ere long, henceforth, proccfi of time t after a long while ♦

_ Mixed




?ra V , ,


yrevi - cdecef-



9 Nedi





e day.

1 hence oned.

J*y ;



' one.

  • mon,









tl Com- pound Fi- gures' son* PART.





i < .


( i


  •  » T:

neral i





\ sim l


Chap. VII.





l Mixed relations of it.

^Comparative •, betwixt

[The Exifings offeveral whether| \botb together in the fame times

or whether in diverfe timer , lo that one is before or after the other.

'SIMULTANEOUS, of the fame time,synchronifm. contemporary \

compatible , conffl , together , concomitant. '

2. < (PRECEDING, antecedent, former, foregoing, previa

n rcr> wr < ous,?riority, before, take place, get the fart, Predecef- D 1 ST ANT, \ f oripremi fi'

v SUCCEEDING, latter, Poferiority , ftccedaneottf, hinder, foliate, go after , Succe/for.

[The Confederations of the fame thing at fever al times 5 whether Pafl-, || little : or much.

(NEWNESS, Renovation, innovate, renew, anew, Neoteric, Neds , ) phyte , novel. Novice, Puny , modern, frefk, upflart, green, late,

< ** / lafl, a little while ago.

v OLDNESS, ancient. Antiquity , prijlin,fenior,fiale , inveterate j of long funding, yore , obfilete , w# 0/ date, a long while ago. Future', || little: ox much

j SOONNESS, frdden, early, rath, betimes, forthwith Shortly, pre^ fently, eftfoon , quickly, in a trice, out of hand ^imminent, immedi- ate, incontinent, infant, ready, anticipate , accelerate, put on,rid way, in the turning of a hand , twincklingof an eye, timely, Jpet- dtly, in haf , after a little time.

lLATENESS, tardy, laf, adjourn, defer, delay, put off, out of date.di - | latory,procraf inate, prolong, prorogue, protra£f,re]pite,retard, after

lAbfifute 5 (a long while, far in the day .

[ particular 5

Determinate 5 expreffing || at what lime a thing was:or from whence p SO ATE. (it is to be reckoned.

    • £EPOCHA, HegiYa.

. Indeterminate , expreffing only the [ Continuing of it , ||a great : or little time.

r PERMANENCY, lafiing , abiding, continuing, durabU } fay , ^ ) Sremain, perfevere , enduring, inceffant, indelible, perennial,

  • j tedious , hold out, of funding.

{.TRANSITORINESS, fading, flitting, frail, glance,tranflent, j temporary, fort, for 4 Jpirt,for a little whiles quickly gone.

{Rycurringoi it 5 || many : or few times. A

c FREQUENCY, often, over and anon, thiclmMfe, common, 7. d recourfe, refort.

ISELDOMNESS, r ar e, farce, f range, unujual,thin,defuetudei \VniverJal 5

j Collective 5 when a thing continues |] throughout the whole time:

J or onlyjome intermediate parts of it.

J o SPERPETU1TY, continual, inceffant, fill ±at all times^tlwayes. 4 * TIMES , temporary, by fnatcbes , by fits, bout, ever and anon ,

now and then, refit, fometimes.

Difributive when a thing exifts }| in every part of time: ox not in any part of it.

SEV ER.N ESS, Eternity, endlefl, for ever and ever , always.

• * INEVERNESS. B b 2 IL The





1 88


Part. II.


II. The Space wherein any thing is contained, is called PLACE, Room, local , fianding,fiation, freeing , fet, put, pofition , lay, dijpofe, pitch, plant Cutis, diflocate . , ProJpeO.

It is diftinguifhable, as the former, according to the more simple differences of it 3 denoting that place 3 || wherein we are : or out \of which we are.

. 5 PRESENCE, face to face, at hand, here, hand to hand, confront, rea-

  • (ABSENCE, Mich, away, non-rcfidcnce. ( dy,refidence .

Mixed relations of it.

S Comparative betwixt the

Exigence of fever alt hi tigs 5 [| whether both together in the fame place .* or in divers places.

£ CONTIGUITY, touch, contaft , hit, joy n, clofe , grazing.

C DISTANCE , off, keep off, bear off, Jlave off, way off, fet farther ,

( (land away.

< ^Confederation of Diftance or Place interpofed, according to the difie- rences of || Little : or Much.

( NEARNESS, Vicinity, Propinquity, Proximity, nigh, next. clofi,ad‘ _ ) jacent, adjoyn , neighbour, imminent, impendent, immediate,ready f at hand,accojl,dravp on, approach, at, by, hard-by,befides,hithermfi.

' REMOTENESS, far, farther , aloof, wide of. difiant « outmofi, ulti- Jbfolute 3 (mate, great way off.

f Particular.

f Determinate 3 exprefling what is the particular place || to which a \ thing belongs : or whence it began.

5 HOME, Scene.

) ^’cRISE, Source, Country, Original, Spring, Boot.

( Indeterminate 3 exprefling only

The taking up of || a great : or little place.

SAMPLENESS, Jpacious, large, burly , wide,vajl, c NARROWNESS, clofe, fcantneff, fir id nefi, refrained.

The occurring in || many : or few places.

^ S OBVIOUSNESS, common , rife , thick:

'(.RARENESS, feldom,fcarce , thin.

IVniverfal. J *

j CoUcEiive 3 when a thing is continued y throughout the whole place : . j or is only in fome parts of it.

CONTINUANCE, produce, fubfifi, along, clofi. '"'SCONTINUANCE, by coafis, fparfim, ceafi, paufe , rejpit , \eak_off, internet, interrupt. A

DifiMutive 3 when a thing is in j| every place : or none.

0 S UBIQUITY , Omniprefence.

  •  ? nvllibiett .

I ,sco

1 w

III. The


Chap. VII.


III. The mixed Notion made up of' P eft ion and Place , or the Applica- m. sitUA- tionof the parts of a Body to the parts of Place, refpeCtively, isftyled™!*. SITUATION, Seat, Jet, fite, lying, Jlanding, pitch, plant, %ofition, placing $ to which may be annexed, by way of affinity, ‘that refpeft of the imagi- 4 nary face of a thing towards Ibme other thing or place, called VER,- GENCY , tending , leanings inclining , hanker, toward, upon that hand,


Thefe are either more

( ' General 5 refpe&ing || the Vnivcrfe : br the four chief terms of it.

SEAST Orient.

1 X ‘ (WEST, Occidental.

\ ' S NORTH, Septentrional, ArUic.

J * (SOUTH, Meridional, Antarctic.

^special 5 with relation to the fcveral parts of any thing, confider’d as a Line 5 the interjacent partior thofe which are meft remote from each other.

(.MIDDLE, Intermediate , Mean, Core, Heart, Waft, main body, J. s Noon, between both. Interim, Interval.

C EXTREME , TermS END, final , lajl , extremity, ultimate, JitrceaJi, lajl, end, utter, d. terminate, expire, in fine,

utmofi. C BEGINNING , Firjl.

J Superficies 5 the outmoft parts of which, being confidered either with relation to the thing it felf : or Ibme other thing to which it is ad- joyned, is commonly ftyled <

^SIDE, Flanks, Wing, Cf^ek^, lateral, collateral. Limb, Rim, Brink, Brinks , Edge-wife, Hem , Ridgy Skirt , Lift, Selvage, Welt , Gardy Eaves, Battlement.

-MARGIN, Limit, Marchefiy Border, Verge, Meer, Bound, Terni, Front -ier, Land-mark,, adjacent, abutt, confine , PurheW. [Body ’y, .

[In general $ either as to fuch parts as are r Higher: ox Lower.

) ^UPPER-SIDE, Ridge, above , vertical.

) * (UNDER- SIDE, lower, neather, bottom.

^ ' Within : or Without.

, 5 IN-SIDE, internal, intrinfecal, inward, inner, inmofi.intejliney

  • (OUT- SIDE, external, extrinfecal, outward , outmoji , utter, ut-

mojl, Surface, Juperficial, exterior, ambient.

Living Bodies , fpccially men, with relation either to The Head: ox Foot.

i. S TOP yTip, Head, Crown, Upper end,Knap,Apex,Vertical,Chapiter. 1 ' (BOTTOM, Bafe , Lower end , Ptdejlal, Foot, Sole.

The Face: or Back:

< (FORE-PART, Front, Frontifpiece, Prow, Van-tguard, Van - 8.S ward, foreward.

(.HINDER- PART, Back,, Rtre , rereward , tndorjhy lajl. Poop* Pojlerior,

The right hand : ox left hand.

SLIGHT SIDE, Dexter , Starrbord.

9 ( LEFT SIDEy Sinijler, Ldrrbord.


i9° .


Part. II-

b in.




T Hofe feveral relations of Quantity, whereby men ufc to judge of the Multitude or Greatncft of things, areftyleaby thenatpeof MEA- SURE, Dimenfion , mete , Jitrvey , Rule $ to which the relative term of PROPORTION, Portion , Rate, Tax , Scantling, Pittance, share,

Doje, Mef, Symetry, Analogy , commenjurate, dijjnnje, allot, adapt js of fome 'Affinity, fignifying an equality or fimilitude of the rejpe&s that ftveral things or quantities have to one another. They are dtftinguilhable into ffich as refpedt either (MULTITUDE. L

Nmagnitude. ir.


( Duration ♦



I. To the Meafure whereby we Judge of the MULTITUDE of things may be annexed NUMBER, enumerate , reckon , compute , tnujler , count, re-count, Tale : tell. Arithmetic , Cyphering. If the way of Numeration were now to be ftated , it would feem more convenient to determine the firft Period or Stand at the number Eight, and not at Ten becaufe the way of Dichotomy or Bipartition being the natural and eafie kind of Di- viiion,that Number is capable of this down to an Unite, and according to thislhould be the feveral denominations of all other kinds of Meafurcs, whether of Capacity, Gravity, Valor, Duration. So eight Farthings would make a Peny, eight Pence a Shilling, eight Shillings an Angel, eight Angels a Pound. So eight Grains ffiould make a Scruple, eight Scruples a Dram, eight Drams an Ounce, eight Ounces a Pound, &c. But becaufe general cujlom hath already agreed upon the decimal way, therefore I Ihall not infill upon the change of it.

The different degrees of Number generally received, arethefe.







J'ONEj Ace, Unite, Once, Firjl, Imprimis, Single.

TWO, a Couple, a Brace, a Pair, a Tokg, Second *ly. Twice, Double, Twofold, Bipartite .

THREE, a Leaf), Ternary , Trey, Third -ly. Tertian , Thrice, Treble, Threefold, Tripartite , Trine -ity.

FOUR, Fourth -ly. Quartan, Quaternion, Fourfold, Quadruple, Qup- drupartite ♦ Quartile ♦ *

[FIVE, Fifth -ly, Quintuple, Fivefold*

SIX, Sixth -ly, Sixfold, Sextuple, S extile. Senary.

SEVEN, Seventh -ly. Septuple, Sevenfold.

EIGHT, Eighth -ly, 08 uplc, Eightfold.

[NINE, Kintb -ly, ninefold.

How other numbers befides thefe here enumerated may be exprefied both in writing and fpeech, fee hereafter, Chap.

II. Mealures

Digitizec >y

Chap. VII. Meafrire. 191

11 . Meafuresof Magnitude do comprehend both thofc of Length, and n. MAGNt- bf Superficies or Area, together with thoiS of Solidity } both com pre- TU1)E * hended in that which is adjayned, viz. the word CAPACITY, hold,

Contain. The feveral Nations of the World do not more differ in their Languages, then in the various kinds and proportions* of thefe Mea- sures. And it is not without great difficulty, that the Meafures obferved by all thofe different Nations who traffick together, are reduced to that which is commonly known and received by any one of them s, which la- bour would be much abbreviated, if they were all of them fixed to any one certain Standard. To which purpofe, it were mod deiirable to find out fbme natural Standard^ or universal Afeajure^v/hich hath been efteem- cd by Learned men as one of the dejiderata in Philofbphy.If this could be done in Longitude , the other Meafures might be eafily fixed from thence.

This was heretofore aimed at and endeaVoured after in all thole va- rious Meafures, derived from natural things, though none of them do fttfficiently anfwer this end. As for that of a Barly corn , which is made the common ground and original of the reft, the magnitude and weight of it may be fo various in feveral times and places, as will render it inca- pable of ferving for this purpofe j which is true likewife of thofe other Meafures, an Inch, Palm, Span, Cubit) Fathom, a Foot , Pact} 8cc. none of which can be d etermined to any fofficient certainty.

Some have conceived that this might be better done by fubdividing at Degree upon the Earth : But there would be fo much difficulty and uncer- tainty in this way as would render it unprafticable. Others have thought.

It might be derived from the guickzjilver experiment : But the unequal gravity and thicknefs of the Atmofthere, together with the various tem- pers of Air in feveral places and leafons, would expofe that alio to much uncertainty.

The mod probable way for the effe&ing of this, is that which was firft fuggefted by Do&or Chrijlopher Wren$ namely, by Vibration of a Pendu- lum : Time it felf being a natural Meafure, depending upon a revolution of the Heaven or the Earth , which is fuppofed to be every-where equal and uniform. If any way could be found out to make Longitude com- menfurable to Time, this might be the foundation of a natural Standard.

In order to which.

Let there be a folid Ball exa&ly round, of fbme of the heavieft metals ■

Let there be a String to hang it upon, the fmalleft ,lirobereft, and leafl liab- le# to retch : Let this Ball be fufpended by this String, being ratended to fuch a length, that the fpace of every Vibration may be equaWo a fecond Minute of time, the String being, by frequent trials, either lengthned or ihortned, till it attain to this equality : Thefe Vibrations fhouldbethe finalleft, that can laft a Efficient fpace of time , to afford a confiderable -number of them, either 6, or 500 at leaft j for which end, its palling an arch of five or fix degrees at the firft, may be fufficient. The Penduluni being fo ordered as to have every one of its Vibrations equal to a fecond minute of time, which is to be ad jufted with much care and exadknefs 5 then meafure the length of this String, from its place of fufpenfiontothe Centre of the Ball * which Meafure muft be taken as it hangs free in its perpendicular pofture, andnototherwife, becaufe of ftretching: which 4 , being done, there are given thefe two Lengths, viz. of the String , and of the Radius of the Ball,to which a third Proportional muft be found out 5

. Which


Parr. IL


which muft the length of the String from the point of Su fpcnlion to the Centre of the Ball is to the Radius of the Ball,(o muft the laid Radius be to this third : which being fo found , let two fifths of this third Pro- portional be fet off from the Centre downwards, and that will give the Mealiire defired. And this (according tothedifcoVery and oblervaticn of thole two excellent perlbns,the Lord Vilcount Brounckpr, Prefident of the Royal Society, and Mon. Huygens ,a worthy Member of it) will prove to be $8 Rhiuland laches, or (which is all one) 39 Inches and a quarter* according to our London Standard.

Let this Length therefore be called the Standard 3 let one Tenth of it be called a Foot 3 one Tenth of a Foot, an lnch\ one Tenth of an Inch, a Line. And lo up ward, Ten Standards fhould be a Pearch 3 TenPearches, a Furlong 5 Ten Furlongs, a Mile ; Ten Miles, a League , &c.

And lo for Mealures of Capacity : The cubical content of this Standard may be called the Bujhel : the Tenth part of the Bufbel, the Pecky the Tenth part of a Peck, a §>uart 3 and the Tenth of that, a Pint, See. And lo for as many other Meafures-upwards as lhall be thought expedient for ufe.

As for Mealures of Weight 5 Let this cubical content of diftilled Rain- water be the Hundred 3 the Tenth part of that, a Stone 3 the Tenth part of a Stone, a Pound 3 the Tenth of a Pound, an Ounce 3 the Tenth of an Ounce, a Dram-, the Tenth of a Dram, a Scruple 3 the Tenth of a Scruple, a Crain, &c. And lo upwards 3 Ten of thefe cubical Meafures may be called a Ihoufand , and Ten of thefe Thouland may be called a Inn, &c.

„ As for the Meafures of Mony’ tis requifite that they Ihould be determi-

ned by the differentQuantities of thole two natural Metals which are the moft ulual materials of it, viz. Cold and «?/ 7 r/er,confidered in their Purity without any allay. A Cube of this Standard of either of thefe Metals may be ftyled a ihoufand or a Talent of each 3 the Tenth part of this weight, a Hundred 3 the Tenth of a Hundred, a Pound 3 the Tenth of a Pound, an Angel 3 the Tenth of an Angel, a shilling 3 the Tenth of a Shilling, a Teny 3 the Tenth of a Peny, a Farthing.

I mention thele particulars, not out of any hope or expe&ation that the World will ever make ufe of them, but only tolhewthe poffibilityof reducing all Mealures to one determined certainty.

Thefe meafures of MAGNITUDE (to which may be annexed the No- . tionof CONTENT) may be reduced to thefe Heads.

1 Line.













Each of which is applicable either to Longitude J Area, or Bulky thelaft of which comprehends the Meafures of Capacity.

m. gravi- III. Mealures of GRAVITY (to which may be annexed for affinity YY * the thing by -which Gravity is meajured, ftyled WEIGHT, Poize, counter -

poife, Plummet , Ji may be diftributed into thefe kinds.









9 TUN,

IV. The


Chap. VII.


1 93

IV. The Gradual differences of that common Meafure of the VA- it. TlLOfit; LUATION or worth of all vendible things ("to which may beadjoyned

that which is u(ed<*/ this com mon Meafure, fty led MONY, Cajh, Coin ,

Ban{, Treafure, pecuniarj, Mint , Stamp, Medal , Counter ,Vurfe^) may be di- ftinguifhed into





V. Unto the Meafure of TIME may. be adjoyned for its affinity the V. time. word which fignifies the Permanency of any thing in its exiftence, from

its beginning to its end , DURATION, abide , continue ,perfjl, endure , bold cut , lajl long,p erf ever c , ever lafting, furvive.

Tima is ufually diftribufed by the Revolution of the heavenly Bodies, or rather of the Earth and Mdoii, into fuch Spaces as are required to a revolution of the

f Earth in its Orb 3 according to the

C Whole

\ I. YEAR, Twelvemonth, Anniverfaiy^ Annual, Biennial, &c. t C Parts 5 confiderable as being the proper feafbns for the C Growth and ripening of Vegetables.

) . S SPRING, Vernal.


j {Decaying of Vegetables, accordingto || a lejfer : or greater degree*

n 5 ^UTUMN, Fad of the Leaf, Harvejl.

^'^WlNTER, Hjbernal, hyemal.

Moon in its own proper courle about the Earth : to which may be ad- joyned the ufual name given to the fourth part of this ;

JMONTH, MenjtruaL 4 "£WEEK, Sennight , Fortnight „ i Earth about its Axis 5 according to the


S 5. DAY NATURAL, Quotidian*

C Parts 3 1 Greater 3

f Time while the Sun continues || above : or below the Horizon*


/ ' c. NIGHT, No&urnal, Perno&ation, lodge ♦ ,

  • v Part of the day artificial, || former: or later.

S MORNING, Matt ins, early , dawning, betimeti 7 ’ ^AFTERNOON, Evening.

Lefer parts of time; being each of them || the 24* part of a natu- ral called an Hour : or the 6c * part of an hour .

o S HOUR, Horary.


in. Life-


f —


» ' »

Natural Power.

Part. II.

yi AGt VI. Life-time, or' the AGE of LIVING Creatures, fas particularly applied to Men, to which there is fomething anfwerable in other Ani- mals 3 to which may be ad joyned the word SECULUM, Age, Eflate, Generation ,) is, according to common ufe, diftinguilhed by fuch Terms as do denote the gradual differences ol it.

I r The firjl and m off imperfeCl State, when || dejlitute of the ufe of reafon - or having but little ufe of iTcomprehending the two firft ten years.

| f INFANCY, Babe } Child, Cub.

(CHILDHOOD, Boy, Girl, IVeuch .green years.

The left imperfect Age, fubjeS to the fway of PaJjio»s $ || either more , or left, containing the third and fourth ten years, c ADOLESCENCY, adult, Lad, Springal , Striplings Youth, La/ , Da - . 2. < mojel) Wench.

• l YOUTH, Juvenile , TounJ^r.

The perfect Age as to the Body : or the declining Age of the Body,, but mofi perfect for the Mind ft yled vergens set as, or the Age of Wifdom 3 the former comprehending the fpace betwixt the 40 th and the 50* , and the latter containing the fpace betwixt the 50* and the 6c* ,* 5 MAN HOOD, virile, middle age. (year.

I £ DECLINING AGE, elderly.

, [The hjl and moji imperfetf Age, by reafon of the decay of Vigor, which commonly happens both in Body and Mind, || either according to the firjl and better part of it : or the laff and voorfl part of this

State, reaching from the 6c* to the 7c*, and from thencefbrthe 5 OLD AGE. , (time after.



Concerning the Predicament of Quality ; the fever al Genus's belonging

  • to it, namely , 1. Natural Power. II. Habit. III. Manners.

IV. Senfible 'quality. V. Difeafe j with the various Differences and Species under each of thefe.

W Hether many of thole things 'now called Quality, be not reducibje to Motion and Figure, and the Situation ot the parts of Bodies, is a queffion which I (hall not at prelent confider. ’Tis fufficient thatfthe par- ticulars here fpecified are moft commonly known and apprehended un- der that notion as*they are here repre!entcd,and are ftill like to be called by the lame names, whatever new Theory may be found out of the caufes of them. •

The leveral Genus’s under this Predicament are fuch kinds of Quali- if Internal: whether f ties as are either


I d. Superinduced 3 confidered more j S* Generally 5 ftyled by the common name of HABIT.

I ^Specially $ with refped: to the cuftomary A&ions of men confidered

T External 3 denoting either _ (as voluntary MANNERS.

C Thole more general affe&ions of bodies which are the objects of Z SENSIBLE QUALITY. ( f en fe.

tThofe fpecial impotencies of living bodies, whereby they are dilabled SICKNESS. (for their natural fuu&ions.



Chap. VIII. Natural Power; 155

As for Figure, which by the common Theory is reduced under this Pre- dicament, that, being a Qyalificatiort or Modification rf Quantity, may more properly be referred thither.


T Hofe kinds of Natural innate Qualities, whereby things are rendred I- able or unable to aS or refifl , according to their peculiar natures, are

flNATlIRAL POWERS, Faculty, Capacity, Endowment, Talent, Gift, Abi- } lity. Strength, Energy, Force, Virtue, may, can. ^

(^lAf POTENCIES , Difability, Incapacity , invalid, unable, weak^, infirm,

lame , dead. \

Tliefe Natural Powers may be diftributed into luch as are

J More particular *, viz. the Faculties that a re SRATIONAL. I.




{More general’, being either ^SPIRITUAL. IV.

£ Corporeal $ relating to the good of the



} t

I. Thofe Faculties whereby we are ihabled to apprehend andcompare the ratio. general natures of things as to Truth and Fallhoad, Good apd Evil, and to £AL^fa- dentean our felvefiaccordingly towards them, are ftyled ^ RATIONAL, Reajbnable, Ratiocination*

^IRRATIONAL, Vnreafonable , brutijb.

Thefe may be diftinguifhed into ’ Apprehenfive whereby we are rendred able or unable to j Know and apprehend knowable things, Generals aft well asParticu- I Jars, refpefting in them Truth and Falfhood. *

C UNDERST AND1NG, Intellect, Mind , mental, apprehend, compre.

I.< hend,perceive . , conceive , reach, refent. Sentiment.

I l IDIOTIC ALNESS, being as a natural Fool, Changeling, Innocerit

\ * Compound andcompare Notions together, fo as to make a right eftb mate of things and confequences.

" 5 JUDGMENT, Judicious.

C INJVDICIOVSNESS, simple, Silly. ^ , ,

Apply general Principles to particular cafes , being a kind of pra&ical Judgment or Memory relating to matters of Duty.- C CONSCIENCE.

1 3 * 2 VNCONSCIONABLENESS , Searednefl, Profiigatenefi } moral,I»JcH- fibility. ' *

. Motive , whereby we do rationally follow any thing as good, dr fly it as evil : or being without atsy fuch motion.

CWILL, Defire, Lift, Option, Vote,Wifl>,. Mind, V leafure, covet, volun- 4X tary.

CLISTLESNESS , no mind to,

C t a II. INTER-


  • V4

I 96

Natural Power.

Part* II-

11 inter. II;. INTERNAL SENSES are forty led, becaufcthey belong to the hal SIN* interivHrpartJ^nd are converfant about internal and abfent as well as pre* Sis. J(„t things. Whether there beany fuch real Faculties in the Soul as are mentioned under this and the preceding Head, is not here to be debated. ’Tis Efficient that comjnon experience doth acquaint us with fuch various operations of the Mind, and that general cuftom hath agreed upon fuch names for the exprefling of them.

Thefe are likewife diftinguilhable into Apprebenfive j whereby we are rendred able or unable for the I Receiving of imprefftont from the outward S enfes .

(COMMON SENSE, perceive, difcern,apprehend, Sentiment yefent, t.\ conceive, difeover, find.

C STUPOR, Numnefi, amaze, afioniJb,narcotic,amuze,aJIeep,fet on edge. Compounding and comparing what is communicated from the outward Senles.

SPHANSIE, Imagination , Conceit, fantaftical, capricious, Pbautafm. ^‘{DOTAGE, Delirium , Dizzard, Sot; bejot.

Retaining fuch imprejftons.

( MYMOKXjrecolleSjre-caUjommemorate, remember fall or come to j mind, put in mind JuggeJl, record, recount, con over,rettingby heart,

3. / by rote, without boo 4 , at ones fingers ends, memorable, memorial, J memorandum, mindful.

( FORGETFULNESS, Oblivion , Vnmindfulnefi. \ overflip.

[Motive 5 whereby, in order to our own Confervation, we follow or fiy what is by the judgment of the Senles reprefented as good or evil. (APPETITE, Dejire, Inclination, Concupifcence, Stomach,Longing,

4. < Lufi, having a mind to.

L LOATHING, fulfome, naufeate, glut, cloy, go againjl, (jucafit,fquca- mijh , wambling , qualm , detefi. #

III. EXTERNAL SENSES are fo ftyled, becaufe they refide in the exteriour parts of the body, and do apprehend only external prelent things ; which common opinion hath determined to the number of Five : f Commodious (amongft which fome arefaid to be

For Difcipline j whereby we difeern f Light and Colour.

I ( SIGHT, Vifion, View, ken, Optic, defery, difcern,e{j>ie,fiicjeepjrie,

" ‘ " V


2 .« 



HEARING, attend, hearken, lifien, give ear, audible. DEAFNESS, Jurd.

[for the trial of our Food at a difiance.

3. SMELL, Odor, Savour , Sent, Pomander , Perfume.

\NeceJJary for the,

C Immediate trial of our Food.

< 4. TAST, Guji, Savour, Reltjh, Smack,, S match, Tang, tootbfouf.

L Perception of tangible things.

STOUCH, feel, contact, taUik, palpable, grope.

'*£NVMNRSS, Stupor, dead, torpid, ajleep.

Though common Language have hot affixed particular names to the impotencies of fome of thele, yet they ought to be provided for as well as the reft. IV. Thole

Digitiz >y

Chap. VIII. Natural Pon>er. 197

IV". Thole natural Habitudes of the Soul or Spirit tbhich render it fit or Unfit for improper functions, areftyled by that general name of TEM- smut. PER-*f«r«, •ament, Dijpofitioh , Spirit, Genius , fancy. Humor, Vein, Qua- lity, Condition, ConflitUtion, Nature.

Thefe may be diftinguilhed into luch as ai-e more

| r General', chiefly of moral dfpofition,dtaot\vig^ the gobdnefi: or badncfi of it.

5 INGENUITY, Goodnature , Candor, candid, free, liberal, clear.

< 1 DISlNGEN"t x ITT, id nature, Pervcrfincfi, thwart ^crofi,froisard, unto- j ard, wayward, awkward , refra&ory, untrail able, foilfUL (iubbotn-fuF-

len, dogged, flurdy, Diff, Seftif.

I particular j as to ' A&ion denoting

Ability, or disability 5 aptitude, of ineptitude for It.

( SPRIGHTLINESS, Wit, Vivacity, ingenious, brisks , lively, quic\j 2.P acute, jharp, debonair ynercuriaL pregnant, \ prtfentnefiof mind.

\ D'OlNESS, S tupidity, grofi wittea, hard-headed, torpidjoftythiclu

heavy, dazle , dolt, Blockhead, Logger- heady Dunce, Sot, indocify dreaming. .

Attention : or levity of mind in it.

C SERIOUSNESS, earnejl, grave, fiber, fluid, fid, fitftahti 4 l,fi*

3X lemn.

C IVANTONNESS, lightnefi, aiery, playteard , gamefom , dallying < Jp° r tfnlt trifling , lajcivious , giddy , petulant, skjttijby toying fibamp ,

Gigg, Rigg, Gambol Aptitude or Ineptitude to moderate the "j j Irafiible appetite.

j j (GENTLENESS, tamenefiMildnefi, Aleeipefi, LeMty, break,

I 1 4. ^ reclaim, tame, come to hand.

I < ^FIERCENESS, Wildnefi, Haggard, Savage, barbarous, cutfinefi, j j firly, eager , furious, dire, fell, grim , rough, fiurce, kgen, un-

{ tamed.

[ Concupifcible appetite.

^OPPOSITE TO RAPACITY, not rapacious.

5 2 .RAPAClTr, ravenous, voracious, greedy, Harpy, devour greying.

Ability or difibility to attempt or rejifi difficulties.

r STOUTNESS, Boldnefi,manfulyedoubtedydaring,fiurdy, fire- 6 . < nuous.

C LAZINESS, fluggijb, litber, her den. Drone, dull, foft. — -

Ad ion and Paffion , denoting an ability or sDfakiUtj to ensure and hold out both in ailing and fiffering. ■

C HARDINESS, Tolerance, ftrenuous, rebuff, fiout,fiurdf,indu{

7. «v firiouo, painful.

C NICENESS, srftnefiyTondemefi, Delicatenejs , Curi<fity,fine f Jfueamifiy effeminate , finical , dainty .

V. thofe


Natural Tower.

Part. II.

V. tem- V. Thofe CORPOREAL HABITUDES, whereby things are ren- BODT for. ^ re< ^ *hle or una hle to or rejiflfortbe good of the IN DIVIDUUM, the indi- are ufually ftyled by thofe general names of Temper , Complexion, Frame x YIDUUM. state , Confiitution , Diflofition, Nature.

Thefe are diftinguifhable into fuch as concern,

' The number of the parts 3 || having all : ox wanting fame.

C WHOLENESS, Intirenefl. pefe 3 ,fafe^and found, tite, confolidatt, I. < of one piece.

L MVTILOVSNESS, maimed , mangle , lame, lopped, crippled.

The nature of the whole or parts 3 being either v I Negative or Tofttive of I ( Corruption,

V ^SOUNDNESS, Sanity , Nealthinefl \ hail, heal, whole, clearnefs.

  • £ ROTTENNESS, Put'ridnefl, Corruption , purulent Jainted,unJound t

) moulder, fefieredaddle, Matt er, rankle, fuppur ate, putrefie, Carr ioH

V ( Trouble to the JenJe of Feeling.

„ 5 INDOLENCE, Eafe, lenitive, relaxation, clearnefs, lighten.

'C PAIN, 4 ch,fmart,ail,anguifh, grief, ill at eafe, fore , pang , thro, tor- ment, torture , akg, excruciate , twing , twitch, fret, gripe, girdy racking. .

{ JPofitive or Negative 3

j 'General^ relating to the fate of the body, || pood : or ill.

VIGOR , Vivacity , thriving, vegeto'us, flour ijhing, lufly, lively, fprightly , florid, quick, frejh > * H heart, in goodphght , in proof, pert,Jmart, crank, flurdy , revive.

. DECAYING , confume , wear, wafl, drooping, fading, out of heart , flagging, languijh , breaks fail going down, fall away, bring down or low , decline , impair, quail, abate, molder, pine, wither, perijh, flend, corrupt.

Special 5 refpefting the 5 Plight of the flejby parts, || full: or flaring.

^ FATNESS, phtmp. pampered, burly, corpulent, grofs, foggy, purfle, 5»< battle.

C LEANNES S , macilent, meagre , Starveling, flue, poor,bare,flare , thin, lank, gaunt, Rafoal, foraggy, ghafily, pine, emaciate, fall away , Carrion, skin and bone.

| Figure and colour of the external parts, || right : or wrong.

' BEAUTY - fulnefs , Handfomnefs, Pulchritude, Comelinefs , Ele - | ^ J gance, Decency , fair, goodly , well-favoured, feemly , polite,

  • ) quaint , pretty, graceful, lovely, perfonable.

<DEFORMlTT, unhandfome, ill-favoured, ugly, uncomely, misbe- coming, Thdecorum, abfurd, unfeemly,miJhapen,fouLfqualid, Uagg, deface, disfigure.

Ability , or disability for A&ion or PaJJton.

< STRENGTH, Force, Might, Validity, PuiJjance,robufl,flrenuom,

7. < flout, flurdy, in heart, main, corroborate, fortifie, recruit. \ 1 VEAKNESS, Feeblenefi, Debility, Imbecitlity, Infirmity, difa - bled, faint, languid, dead, flail, out of heart, heart left, flag- ging, invalid, fmall, bring down or low, enervate , decline , en- feeble.




v^.005 :

Natural Power.

I Aptitude or ineptitude for Motion , \ In a place.

J C AGILITY, TNimblenefi) Activity , Light m 'fc Volubility ^quic^ J 8. < dexterous , Mercurial , rcjlive, handy, man of bis hands.

t LUMP IS HUES S 3 Vnweildinef, dulnef, grof, heavy, pur Re, I Lob , Lubber, Slugg, Lo%el. J

[To a place.

C SWIFTNESS, Fleet neR, Celerity, Speed, faft, apace, jodain, ) quicks, rapid, hurry, accelerate, hajlen, curfory,hy , expedite , 7 ‘ ) r#«, whisky, poll.

{ SLOWNESS, Heavinefs, Jlacknefs, dull Slug, tardy, leifurely, Jtfttyi dilatory, retard, forejlow, delay, Lob, Lubber, lumpifh, LArdan, torpid, unwieldy , gingerly.

VI. j ( General name * THE SPE

If || rM// Oj Ui *Cyj JlUVICa

1 1 2 SMhLEintaJculine. Bucl^, Bore, Dog,Gib,Coc^, Milter, He<

< ' £ FEMALE -> feminine. Doe,' Sow , Wfeft, Hen, Spawner,she.

Difjrojition of things || /or, or againfi Propagation ♦

CFRUtTFULNESS, fertile -ity, fecund, prolifical , fruSific , rank, 3* S produce fruit.

, CBJRRBNNESS, Sterility, Vnfruitfulnefs, infertile, blafling, blite: Instate of things generated, when they\\ have attained th e perfection they «ught to have : or elfe are in a jlate of impetfe&ion , by reaion of ex* cefi, or defeS.,

("RIPENESS, Maturity , mellow. Precocity, fl ale, hatch. ' L SQFER-RIPENES, S , fading, decaying , withering, C.VNRIPENESS, immature, green.



Part. IL



$. II* OUch Jhperinduced Qualities, whether infufed or acquired, whereby the ^ natural Faculties are perfected, and rendred more ready and vigorous in the cxercife of their feveral Adts, according to the more ox left perfedt Degrees of them, are ftyled by the name of S HABIT, Endowment, enure, qualifie, Gift, Talent.

2 DISPOSITION , Vropenfits, Proclivity. Promptitude, Pronenefs,lnclination, readings, given to, addiction, fitnefs . aptitude.

To the more general conlideration of Habit may appertain ! r Thoft States or Conditions of life which either reward or enable men for vertuous Aftions comprehending the SENDS OR REWARD OF VERTUE. I.


Thole Qualifications , which, though they are not properly Vertues,yet do prepare for, and difpoft unto, and, in other refpe&s,circumftan- tiate Vertue itfelf, both in the Habit and Operations of it, and are therefore fty led AFFECTIONS OF VERTUE, either SINTELLECTUAL. III.


|_The Kinds of vertuous Habits, whether

S INFUSED, both Intelleftual and Moral. V.



I. Thole things which are due to the merit of || Vertue or Vice, ire fty led S REWARD, Guerdon , Meed, Prize , Recompence .

2 PUNISHMENT*, Penalty, Penance, Judgment, Plague, Vengeance,injlict, fuffer, impunity, fcotfree. ' # .

Theft may be diftinguilbed into liich as are either more

I r General $ viz. that ftate wherein a thing in joys as much perfection as it is capable of.

5 HAPPINESS Felicity, BliJs,BleJfednefs, Beatitude, good, weal, welfare. V * c MISERT, Vnhappipefs, Infelicity, Extremity Calamity,Woe,Dijirefs,

Dijajler, affliction, Tribufatbn , Trouble , Plague , Judgment, Caitiff, Wretch, poor, pitiful, deplorable.

Particular 5 relating to the reward of

' Moral Vertue 5 in the enjoyment of thole things that conduce to our < beneejje,

j f External ; .

j C PROSPERITY, fiourijhing, thriving, aujpicious, fortunate, bap- I 3* y PV> &°°d ^uc\, fitecefs ,fpeed.

J CADVERSm , Affliction, diftrefs, tribulation, crojs, dijajler, iufe~

I . lirity, fuffering, perfecution, durefs, fall, preffitre , mifehance ,

J mijhap , mifadventure, misfortune , unfortunate, unlufkie, un •

|f projpergus, inaufpicious,fniJler,difmal, ill factor fuccejs.

Internal £5


Chaa VIII.



L Internal $ || quiet, or difquiet of the AfFettions.

C CONTENT ATION, Tranquillity ^Contentment, Serenity, Hearts*

' 3. \ eaft, Equanimity, Sedatenefs,T{ejl, be fatified, acquiefce.

(.ANXIETY, Difeontent, thought taking, dump, trouble, anguifh,dif- quiet, vexation t perplexity, jlr eight, pinch. .

. Chriftian Vertues and Graces j conhfting in an everlafting Vifion and F ruition of God.

^SALVATION, beatifical Vifion, Heaven, Glory.

£ DAMNATION, Condemnation, Hell, perdition.

II. The INSTRUMENTS OF VERTIIE , conimonly ftyled the it. instru- Goods of Fortune , requifite to the due exercife of the Afts of many Ver- ments o* tucs, and one ^ind of Reward belonging to it, do concern either UE *

f our Perfons, and the being at our own difpofal.

/ LIBERTY, Freedom , at large , deliver, rele aft, inlarge, fit free,rid, dif ) patch, ranfom, redeem, manumift, emancipate, give one his head,ftope ±

! * j arbitrary, undetermin'd, unconfined , may, may chufe :

\ RESTRAINT, confine, freighters, reprejs.

I Our Pofiejfions 3 being either \\fujficient, or inefficient, for oufoccafi- i ons and, conveniencies , according to that rank and Ration wherein '} we are placed. •

C RICHES, Wealth, Opulence, Pelf Means, Fortunes, Eftate, thrive,

2. < Treafitre, makg, enrich, worth, well to pajfi.

C POVERTY, Necejjity, Penury , Indigence, Need, Want, poor,empoverifh, mine.

j The futablends of the things which we have or doj and that fatisfatti- | on which we receive by them.

J ^PLEASURE, Delight, DeleSation, Enjoyment.

' 3 * £VN PLEASANTNESS, Grief, Trouble, dijpleafipg.

Our Names, and the efteem we have amongft good men:

CREPUTATION, Credit, Countenance t Applaufi,Name,Honour. Vogues 4 *. 4 report. Fame, redoubted, of Note, Glory, Renown, well-founding.

£ INFAMY , Dif race, diferedit, di/honour, dijparage, defame, difeounte - nance, Jhame, ignominy, Stein, B lot, Rlemtfh,Slur, inglorious, illiberal, ignoble, notorious , ill reflexion, ox found, or name .

Our Degrees j and the quality of our Conditions in relation toothers j being either corifiderably above them, or below them, f DIGNITY, Promotion, Preferment, Advancement, Honour, Worjhip ,

J Greatnejs, State, Port, Title, preeminence, upper-hand. High place,

J raifci exalt , illufirious.

v MEANNESS, Lownefs, Obfcurity,Bafcnefs,Vilenefs, ignoble, plain, abaft j debaft, degrade, Abje&neft.

.Our Ability to protett our felves and others from injury j whi£h is the ulu- al reliilt or confequent of the reft.

r POWER full, Potent-ate,Greatnefe, Interefl, Strength, Might, Puift , j fance, Maflery, Prevalence , Predominance, over ay, rule -the ' S Soft, btar a ftrokg.

C IMPOTENCE , weakj, inconfiderable.




Part, li-

ra. affe- III. AFFECTIONS of INTELLECTUAL VERTUE, may be di- i?T ?rr B ° F ftmguilhed by their reference to thole two Faculties in the CTiML " Rational Soul, imployed for the gaining of Knowledge, vi%.

VERTUE, [ Invention 3 which is || rightly , or wrongly difpofed by.

•j (SAGACITY, Terffcacity, sharpneff Subtilty*Dexierity.Wit* clear., 1 1 . < quick.* *cute* /torching) piercing , docil, tonardly * apt , prompt.

\ kDVLNESS* Stupidity^ Heavineff* groftoitted, in docil* dreaming, J Dolt, Dunce* Blockhead.

1 [judgment 3 which is || well difjoftd, by liich a temper of mind as doth incline man to aflent unto things upon (uch evidence as is in it (elf fufficient .• or ill dijpofed * by luch a temper as inclines a man either to a/fent unto things upon luch evidence as is infffftcient, or not to

a/fent upon fuch as is fufficient. »

S FAITH, Docility) Teachable neff* Towardlineff^ Apt neff.

' c SCREDVLUT* EaJtneJ f* light or rajh of belief* facil.

£ INQREDVLTtT) Vnteachableneff * Vntoward/ineJ ?, Sceptical - \ neff* Scrupuloufnefs, , Vnbelief.

1 „ Sen/it ive Soul , which are apt to hinder us from Knowledge, j" Phoney 3 which is |) well* or ill difpofed by j| *difcreet, grave, ferioue,ffaid. ) fteddy*fettled*fage.

J ** (CONCEITEDNESS * Affectation* Singularity ant a/lical* vagary,

. } wild* light ,aiery, giddy, freahj/b,whimffcal/bair-brain' d * brain/uk^

I Humoriff * Opiniafler.

[ Appetite 3 which is fitly regulated by our being concerned for any Truth according to a due meafure 5 and not either more or leff then the evidence and importance of it, doth requi rc.

C MODERATION, Temper ,Meajure,Gentle-nefr* qualifie , reduce 4. s to reajon.

C (SLIGHTNESS, Slackjtefs , negligence , remifsnefs * Neutrality, < frigid*cold*indifferent, unconcerned* /latering*fuperffcial*cur- I fory, overly, perfun&ory* faint.

V FIERC ENES S, F anaticalnefs * vehemence, violence * eager nefi, earneji, fur tout, heady* immoderate, dogmatical, Opinia/ler,

, boiUerous, rough Jour* keen.

IV. AFFB- - IV. The AffeUionsdt MORAL and HOMILETICAL Vertues* do ctions of concern either

AND^fo- r The Temper and F rame of owe Minds, as to their due

miletical Attention 3

VERTUE. r For any kind of Advantage*or Expedient.

C CONSIDERATION, Advifednefs, deliberate , ruminate* for t‘ 1, v cajl*of or on purpofe.

\ LCCVNCTATION* Loitering*Delay*Jlack.* trifling, linger, lag* while

] <5 S off* drive off ,put off.

I i. RASHNESS *HaffineJi, Temerity *heady. hair-brain d* fooUhardy*

cur fory, headlong* precipitate* unadvifed, incogi fancy* inconji- ] deratenefs, pre/umption.

A l/f Hfly

CCONS 1. S raff CCf^IS

i ] °A

( RA 6


I lAgainfl any kind of Evil, Danger or Impediment.

( HEEDFULNESS, IVarinefi, Careflautelonfnefi , WatchfulnefiAt- ■ ] tention, Intention, Caution, minding^circumfpeCtion, chary. .vigi-

V lant, cautious. Jlne^advifed^avpare^bevpare, intend Jookjo or about , . J fee to f take heed, be thoughtful, t a kg thought Jake warningyrarrow - < ( ^CARKING, Solicitude, Anxiety, overthoughtful. (Jy.

I £ CARELESNESS, Heedlefnefsyincogitancie, negligence, flat ering,

• flightncfl \ light nef fu'pinenefi, incorf derate, dfcitation , overly ,

perfun&ory, fltperficial , fecure, unwary y retchlefs, curforyydle ,

  • flothful.fluggardly, flubbering, dijjbluie , uncircumJpeCl, hand

over head, not regard , overflip.

' Freedom and Readinefs of our Faculties about any thing.

( ALACRIT Y jChedr/vlncfiycadinefl, forwardneflycith all ones heart, f.y with a goodwill, freejglad,promptnefl, propenjity, rather .

( GRUDGING , maunder , murmure, mutter, repine, regret , querulous, go agiinfl, with an ill will.

Reality of out Intentions , futable to olir outward Pretences.

• C SINCERITY, Uprightnefs, reality, cordialnefiheartinefl, downright, 4. \ hone ft, plain, flmple, unfeigned, Joundy clear , uncorrupt.

C HtPOCRISIE, Dijjimulation, double tongue or heart follow -heart edy feigning, falfe, counterfeit, Jophiflical,preiend.

I * The Vigoroufnefl of our Endeavours in the profecution of fitting means, r DILIGENCE, Ajfiduity, Sedulity , Induftry, Attention , Care, Labour,

5. ) Study, infant , elaborate, ply, befiir, fickle , lay about him , earn eft, in- y defatigable, take pains.

C C DOUBLE- DILIGENCE, overdoing, bufie, pragmatical, fain, medling. C.SL OfH, Idtenefi, lazimfs, c arelefsnefs, lither, loofe, ret chief ydr earning. Drone, sluggard. Truant, loiter.

The Vniverfality required to vertuous Aftions, in relpeft bf the ( ObjeCt.

J, ^INTEGRITY, Honefty, intire, equal, impartial, incorrupt, upright, j * “2 PARTIALITT, unequal , making a difference, accepting of perfons. v Time of continuance.

C CONST ANCY, Perfeverance, Stability, Steadinefs,fledfaft, firm, 7. ) fixed, Jure, certain, refolute, inflexible, unchangeable , abide, perfifl,

' j hold out, ft and out, ft ay by, flick. to > unwearied , indefatigable.

>■ f PERTINACT, Obftinacy, Contumacy, pervicachout, peremptory, inexorable, inflexible.

C LIGHTNESS, Inconftancy,ficklenefs, levity, inflability, mutabi- lity, uncertain , unfleddy , unflable, unfledfafl, unfettled , unftaid wavering, divers, dodging, fhittle,fhuttle, flippers, variable, mu- table, changeable , trifling, giddy, freakffh, paltrihg , fafl and


V. Thofc




Part. II


> v. infused V. Thofe are ftyled INFUSED HABITS, to which the Divine favour HABITS* and affiftance is required after a more efpecial manner » which are there- fore ftvled by the general name of GRACE, C/ft.

  • To which may be Oppofed UNGRACIOUSNESS, Impiety, graceleJJy

ungodly, carnal) wicked, fin fid.

Thefe are either j i General ■) confifting in

\ A change of mind from evil to good.

[REPENTANCE, Penitence , compunction , relent , remorfe, contra ' tion, rue , return , reclaim , renew , reyener ation , penance, f IMPENITENCE, Obduratenefs , Hard • heartednefs.

An habitual frame of mind , whereby we are fitted for vertuous aftk ons, and more efpecial ly for th£ Duties of Religion.

C HOLINESS, Sanctity , Godlineft,* Piety, Devotion , Rigbteoufhefi, |3. < Sanctification, facred, Purenefs.

iVNHOUNESS , Wickednefs , Iniquity , Impiety, Vngodlineft , Pra- ■ pkanenefs , Corruption , <S/», Mi fir cant , graceleft , Caitiff e.

\.Aninlargemcnt of Soul, to defire and endeavour public general good, and taking it off from being immerfed in narrow felfifh defigns. f SELF-DENIAL, Chrifian Magnanimity, Generof/ty , Public fpi- 5, s ritednefs, Greatnefi of mind , Refignation.

(. SELFISHNESS , JSarrownefi, Pedanticalnefi, Littlenefi of mind, Worldling.

[particular^ ftyled Theological Vertues 3 refpe&ing rTruth andFa/fi:ood$ a readings to yield an efieftual aftentuoto re- vealed Truths upon fiich grounds as their natures are capable o£ and fuch as are fufficient to prevail with any luch prudent teacha- ble man as is free from any aftetted Captioufnefi.

S FAITH, Belief , Believer, Creed.

4 ‘ f INFIDELITY, Vnbelief \ Mifcreant.

. [(rMdf Evil.

r Future 3 being an acquiefeence of the mind in the expe&ation of I fuch Promiies as are revealed.

| SHOPE, Trufi, Affiance, Reliance, Recumbency. i DESPAIR , Defpondency, out of heart, forlorn, hope left 3 paji hope,

I deadnefspf heart.

jj Generals wifhing well , and endeavouring to be helpful and'fer- viceable unto all , according to the due proportion we are obli- ged to by natural or revealed Light.



6 .


VI. Thofe






Chap. VIII.

VI. Thofe are ftylcd ACQUIRED INTELLECTUAL HABITS ^acqut- jvhich ihay begotten by Induftry , and tend to the perfe&ing of the RED ,N ‘ Mind or Undemanding. They are diffinguifhable by their r Objects , being either

i Speculative 5 furnifhing the mind with due Notions and conceptions concerning the Nature of tbings 5 their Caufes, Differences, Rela- tions and Dependencies.

f SCIENCE, Knowledge, skill, Theory, Learnings Infight.

l ' \ 5 cvRiosnr.

^IGNORANCE, rude, untaught.

Active , denoting Skill in men and bufinefs, whereby we are inabled to judge what is fit and convenient, according to various cafes and circumffances.

5 WISDOM, Prudence , Difcretion , Sapience , wife, fige, politic.

CRAFT, Cunning, Subtilty, Shineft,, Policy, Device. Quirk., Sleight ,

Fetch 1, Wile, Tricky, fy,Jhretvd, Knave , Sharif, Shift, come over one, over reach. r , ,

FOLLT,Fool-ifhnefs, Simplicity, SiUy-nefs, imprudence findifcretion,

witlefs, unwife , abfitrd, Jhallow , Noddy, Ninny, Sot , infatuate.


[Effective , implying Skill in thole feveral Operations and Works * which concern Humane life.

CART, Skill, Dexterity, Craft, Cunning, Infight, Knack., expert, well’

3. y Jeen in, good at, artificial. Workman, Artijl.

L VNSKILFVLNESS, bungling, blundering, botching, fumbling, cob- . ling, fiubber, fmatter , ignorant, filly, rude, grofs, jejune ,inexpert, inartificial, awkward, Frejhman, Novice.

The manner of acquiring them 5 whether by .

f KOur own Objervation, and repeated T rial?.

| (EXPERIENCE, Practice , Exercife, Knowledges onverfant, verfed,

I 4X expert. Experiment, Empyric.

C. INEXPERIENCE , inexpert, raw, to feek., Puny, Novice, Frejhman,

| unverfi.

[The Teaching of others, either || vivh voce, or ex firiptis.

(LEARNING, Literature, Seholarjhip, fchol aflic. Liberal Science,

5. < Skill, indoctinate.

L VN LEARNEDNESS, illiterate, unlettered , rude, fimple:



Manners .

Part. II


f in. ^JT ' He Cufiomary and habittial Adiotts of men cpnfidered as voluntary , § and as they are capable of Good or Evil, Reward or Punilhment, are ftyled by the name of MANNERS, Ethic, Moral -tty.

To which may be adjoyned the general name of luch cufiomary Adi. ons as are mutual betwixt man and man , ftyled CONVERSATION, Carriage, Demeanour , Comportment , bomiktical, Communication , lead, life, livings foci able, behave.

The Vcrtues belonging to thefe do comprehend all thofe Habits which concern the regulating both of our Wills and Affedions, and of our Con- ventions. They are diftinguilhable by the Faculties which they mode- rate, and the Objefts they are converfant about, into fuch as do more im- mediately concern the regulating of our

f Wills and Affedions, and that Re&itude of mind which we are obliged unto with reference to our (elves, conjidered more feparately, accord- ing to thole principal parts of which we confift, viz. Soul and Body, Realbn and (enle, together with the things we polfefs, being either SMore GENERAL. F.

C More Particular, relating to SOur BODIES. II.


[ Conversions , or the right Demeanour of our felves conftdercd as Mem- bers of Society, in our converlc with others 3 the due managing of thd common Affairs and Bufinefles of life , according to tbe relations wherein we (land towards thole whom we are to deal with. Thefe are commonly called Hohtiletical Vertues 3 being either SMore GENERAL and Common. IV. cMore Particular, towards



1. Vfrtue. I. Thole kind of Moral habits which lerve for the regulating of our Wills and Affedions more General, are commonly ftyled by the name of VER- TUE, Honefiy, Probity, Righteoufnefi, brave 3 denoting fuch Habits whereby • we are inclined and inabled to oblerve a due Mediocrity in our A&ions. •To this is proper lyoppo led the notion of VICE, Sin, Crime, Difijonefiy , Trefpaf(,TranjgreJfion, Fault, Failing , Infir mity, Overflight j wicked. Improbity, Turpitude, unrighteous, unjufi, bad, naught, vile, bafe,loofe,evil,Hl,corrupt y venial, heinous, debauched, lewd, lawlefijicencious, foul, flagitious, enormous, profligate ,Mifireant , Ruffian, Caitifffillain.RakcheU, Libertine, defile, pollute. .Thefe may be diftinguilhed into fuch as relate to the Inclination of our Minds, either

'In Debitis 3 in fuch things as are due from us tBy Law *,

< l r 5 JUSTICE, Righteous ~nefi, right, fijuare dealing, Upright dealing.

I ’ 2l^yi.'S7 ILE, Zinrighteeujnefi, Wrong.

n \RIGOVR , rigid, extreme, Jeverity, overfir id.

2RFMISSI0N, Over- (paring .


Chap. VIII.



iRight Reafon. ,

[More general 3 refpe&ing our Aftions towards others, in fuch cafes as the Law-giver(could he have forefeen)would have provided fori whereby a man is willing to recede from his own ftritt right, & the utmoft extremities of things, and to take the mod amicable way . in the accommodating of Differences, fupplying that by right Rca- Ibn which is not provided for in the words of the Written Law.

C EQUITY, Moderation, reafon able, confcionable, Chancery, fair 2. < dealing, in reafon. ( unequal

l_SVMMVM JVS, Rigidnefs,fournefs , unreafonablenefs, iniquity , [More particular 3 in our Thoughts concerning other mens words or a- ftions, being ready to interpret every thing in the beft fenfe,wheri there is no evident reafon to the contrary.

SCANDO fair, ingemfous, candid, fair dealing. fCENSORlOVSNESS, Sinijler JuJpicion, captioufnefs, controling± In Gratuitk 3 refpe&ing chiefly the ( carping. find fault »

f BenefaSor 3 being either

More general 3 denoting || a propenfton of mind to do good to others, together with external actions futable thereto.

C GOODNESS, Benignity, benevolence. Beneficence , hindnefs.gbod 4.) turn, beholding, gr at fie.

ImisCHIEVOVSUESS , Maleficence, ill turn,

[More particular 3 refpe&ing fuch as areinaftateof mifery.

5 MERCY, tender-hearted , pitiful , propitious , foft.

£ CRVEL 7 Y , Immunity, inhumane, hdrd-hearted,pittilefs, favage, dire , truculent, barbarous.

[£e»^/*ry;namely,a propenfion of mind to put a juft efteem upoqjhe Favours we receive , and to take all occafions of acknowledging and requiting them.

^GRATITUDE, Thanks -fulnefs, give or render than hi. 'INGKATITVDE, Vnthankfulnefs, ingrateful.

Inarduis 3 whether things

1 Hard to be done 3 whereby We are made duly refolute againft all fucK 1 difficulties either of Fear or Difeouragement as may hinder us in our duty.

r FORTITUDE, Valour, Courage, Manhood, Prowefs^uifiance, flout, 7. j redoubted, undaunted, bold, daring , valiant , refolute fin heart , of j flirit, manly, manful, fturdy.

, C r RASHNESS , Temerity, fool-hardinefs, audacity deflorate, beady, < hair-brain d , boiflerous, precipitate.

d [cOfVARDISE , timorous, faint-hearted, fearful, foft. Craven, Dai flard, Poltron, Recreant , out cf heart , to flinch, to coin.

Hard to be fuffered 3 in refpedt of 1 Pain. 0

I g C PATIENCE, Longfuffering, forbearance^ abide , bearfrooh^, eta* J * < dure, Juflein, tolerate, weather it out.

[^OBSTINACY, flub born, flurdy, peremptory.

^SOFTNESS, Tendernefs,. Impatience, relent, moUijte.

Provocation to Anger and which we are toobfcrve a due Mediocrity.

S MEEKN ESS, Mildnefs, long-Jufferittg , genttenefs, clemency, lenity, c 5 LENTnVDE 3 Stupor,InJestjibility. (calmjut up.

fRASH ANGER , curfl, hafly,pettifh, peevifl), fnappifh,tefly.

II; The

6 .*




fart. II.

ii. Yertues ■ II. The more Jpecial Vertues for the regulating of our Wills andAf- Ivt bodies. f c ^‘ ons in things relating to our BODIES, whole Object is Jucundunt ‘ or Vtile, are either.

fOf a more large extent •, denoting an Ability to withftand all fitch tem- I ptationsof allurement whereby we may be hindred in our Duty. : j ^TEMPERANCE.

Im gSENsVALITT, Voluptuoujhejs, Intemperance, debauched, diffolute, effeminate, Epicure .

"[0£ a leffer extent •, concerning the Moderating of our natural Appetites •towards things which concern the Prefervation of the ■ f Jndividuum either

2 .

f More necejjary as in r Meats.

ABSTINENCE, abfiemiousyfajling .


^GLVTtoNt, Surfeit, voracity, gormandizing, pampering.raven- ous, fated, Gully-put.


SSOBRIETY, Jbftemioufnefs,

{.DRUNKENNESS , Sot , befot, inebri ate Jheady, intoxic ate, fox, ca * rouje, overtaken , whittled, fuddled, tipJie,Tipler, Soaker, Pot-com- panion, Tofs-pot.


SVICILANGE, Watchfulnefs.

4 * 'cSLVGGARDLINESS, Sloth, Drowrfinefs, Sleepinef*.

Lefs necejjary ; which concern Refrefhments from Labour.



- External Decorum a nd Ornament.

£ ^CLEANLINESS, NeatneJs,Jmugg,terJe.

  • NICENESS , 'Finicalnefs, Delicateneji, Daintinefs, Curiofify ,

s dapper.

C SLOVENLINESS , Vncleannefs, Najlinefs, fordid, filthy, fan a-

  • lid, foul, Sloven, Slut, Jlubber,

{Species 5 as Venery.

5 CHASTITY, Continence , flohejly.

' C VNC HA STITT, Incontinence , tVantonnefi, lafciviout, unclean, obfeene, ribaldry , bawdy , lewd, light , dijhonejl, corrupt , defile, deflowr, incejl, rape, ravijh, viciate.


III. VertueS


TT7 ’

III. Vcrtues relating to the due moderating o£ olir Affettior.s towards the m - Vc ^ things which concern our ESTATES and DIGNITIES, whofe Ob jeft is rro- r r 0 ela ‘ fit or Efleens , may be diftinguilhed into Rich as do more particularly concern <>ur £- r Rflateszt\d Pofieflions, being either, , (pur and'mo*

f Mor v general 3 d enoting a Mediocrity about getting, or keeping , or fpending. Nn its.

C LIBERALITY, Bounty, Munificence, open-handed, free, generous,

J I. < franks, l ar Z e -

» {^PRODIGA LITf^r of ttfeneflyeaflful, laznjb, riotous .embezil Jafl) out, Ha-

n £COVETOZ)sNESS, Av aYice. Wort diin efi\ (voc!^, run out,

w Morc fpecial 3 in Getting.


(\SCRAPlNG, Rapacity, greedy, cr ipin’g, ravenous,

2.SLATERING, Improvidence. ,

j Keeping. (ring, near.

| " S^UGALITY, Parcimony,thrifiinefs , good husbandry, Javing,Jpa-

A PENVRIOVSNESS, crib, bar d,clofefijied,hide-bound,over-t'hrifty,

  • ) tenacity, pinching, pinch peny, Churle, Niggard, Mtfer, (lofe, npar.

V <■ S gVANDRlNG, flying- out jUhvsbandry yinthriftincffipend-ihtift,

j roafl, entbezzil, miffpend.

  • “ spending 3 diftinguilhed hy its Objefts^either

j ’'The Public. , •

C GENEROSITY, Magnificence, Bounty, Grandeur, (lately, pompous,

1 4. < Jumptuous, brave, noble, heroic

C S RIOTOZiSNESS, Profuftnels ,Luxurionfnefs , blade- it, debauch, Roi- , gSORDIDNESS , Bafeneflytntvor thy, penurious. ( fler.

( 1 The Poor 3 relieving the wants of others. . .

f ALMSGIVING, C hari ty, Dote, Alms, relieVe.Penfioncr, Bedes- fit ah,

5* ) Eleemofynary, Hojpital. ,

! ( CHTJRLIS HNESS, uncharitable, rough, Niggard.

1 {Strangers. ,

s S HOSPITALITY, harbour, entertain, treat, open-houje.


I *. Dignities and Efteem 3 in refpeft of the

eipect c

’Avoiding or Jujfering of Difgract.

Seeking or bearing of Honour 3 as putting a juft value upon things, (Twving but a little efteem for little things, ) as liiewile upon himlelf, and his own merits 3. and hot elthet CLefi then he ought.

1 jg ^MAGNANIMITY , brave, noble (heroic, generous, greatnefs of mind. ir * c S INSOLENC E,arrogance,haugJbtines^prefumption,vaunting.vaporing t J ZPVSILLANIMITT, Bafinefi, fordid JtdanticuL (_ More then he ought .


IS* BjECtNESs, Sheaking, harrownef and liltlehtfs tf mind,baje, 2 AMBITI 0 N, Pr efumption, High' mindednefs, Vainglory,. Arr ogahcc± afpire, overweening, Rodomohtade , affe&ltion of Efipire.

E e IV. H<£










2 .

IV. HOMILETICAL Vertues more COMMON, are fuch vertuous habits as are required in men of all degrees and conditions for the regu- lating of their mutual Conversions. Not that the other Vertues before Ipecined, are not likewile neceflary to this end:but that they do not fo di- re&ly and immediately tend to it as thefe others do which are ftyled HO- MlLETLCAL.To which may be oppoled INSQCIABLENESS,Z?4rtarj/5».

Thcfc are diftinguilhable into fuch as render our Converlation 5 cither

p profitable to each other : which may be conlidered according to the

j " Matter , fuch as rend to the prefervation of , Truth 5 either in our

Declarations or Aflertions.


LTING, I eaflng , ( OVER- SATING, per bole, Boafling, Oftenta-

Jorge^ fib, flaw,) tion, vapor , cracky brag, vaunt, Jwagger, Bo- faft, perjury. ) dowontade.

^ UNDER-SATING, Detraction , Diminution , difparage, traduce , depreciate.

{ Obligations or Promiles.

FIDELITY, tru fly, true, loyal.


FULNESS.? TREACHERT, perfidtous,falfe,faithlefi, unfaithful untrufly , difloyal, Recreant , Traitor , Ambodexlet, betray, falter, undermine , prevaricate.


PE ACE ABLENESS, gmietnefi, Concord Accor cf, Agreem ent, Uni- on, appeafi, atone, pacific , reconcile , compofe.take up.compromizi, ft Id, calm. Jet at peace, part a fray.


BLENESS. ? CONTENTIOUSNESS , Strife, Diffenfl on. Diford, Variance , Controverfte , Difference, Broils, Con t eft, Combuftion , Debate , Divijion, Bickering, litigiosst , quarrel, wrangle , clajh , jarr, brabble, jangle. Gar- boil, Odds, Brangling. Conflict , Squabble, Brawling, Cavilling, captious. Incendiary , Barret pr, Bouto- few. Shrew, Scold.

[^Manner 3 fuch as regulate our Carriage with a due relpett of [ Things j in

  • Saying what is fit to befaid.

^FRANKNESS, Freetrffs, plain, open-hearted.

  • JCTOQ MUCH OPENNESS, Tell-tale, Blab ,

RESERVEDNESS, fly, nice , coy , denture, fiauneb , wary, cleft. 'Concealing what is fit to be concealed.

C TACITURNITY, ftaunch, cloft,ftill, cousft I- keeping, ftcrecy,

5. < fiience.

C LOgUACITT, Babbling , Garrulity , talkative , babble, blab, chat* ter, gabbling, tattle, prate- ttle.

[Perfins'-, inobSvinga juft Decorum.

‘ GRAVITY, Serioufuefs, fiber, demure, fage, flayed, earneft, fettled,

6. ft folid.

VANrrr S FORMALNESS, Coxcomb JostdffoppiJh.

} ?LIGHTNESS , fiafhy , Freak,} Levity, Petulance .


Chap. VIII. Manners . 2

i pleaflmt to each other 3 ferving to regulate ,

. 'Our Outward carriage towards others* both Actions and Speeches, at to a Facility for Converle, together with our defires and endea- vours by all honed wayes to pleafe others, and care not to offend them.

C COURTESY, Comity, manncrlinefl, civility, affability, hjndnefl',hu*‘

7 . \ manity, gentle, fair, humane, benign, trail able, fmooth.

(C FAWNING , Ajjentation, Adulation, objequiouo, fmooth, glavering i T I glo^e.cogg, cajole, curry favour, collogue, wheedle, crouch, creep- \ flat ter, Jooth, clawing, Blandifl:ment , Parajtte , Sj -

) cophant, Claw-bach.

( MOROSENESS, curfl, crabbed , cynical, froward, churl f, uncivil, boijleraut , rude, full en, fur ly, unmannerly , hard to pleafe , humor - fome, rough , harfl), four , tefly, fnappijb, dogged, currijh, wajpijh, tetchy, wayward,pcevijh, pettijh.

Jj Our Words and Speeches 3 either in ' More feriom &ebztes 3 making due allowances to others, affording • T — them juft liberty.

1 g S COMPLACENCY, Civility, fmooth, foft, popular,

  • * C S ASSENTATION, Flattery , glazing, foot king, fawning, mealy

1 \ mouth'd, trencher-friend.

(.■MAGISTERIALNESS, Arrogance, Imperioujhef, Lordlinefs, maflerly, pedant ical, rough, over bear, Roifler.

Lefl ferious matters 3 by fuch honeft mirth whereby Conversion is to be fweetned.

( URBANITY, Facetioufnefl, Raillery, Drollery, jocular, jocund,

9. \ merry , Conceit, JeJl, Squib , Clinch , Quibble^ Wagg.

CC SCVRRILITt B uffoonry, Abuflvenejl, Pafquil, Zany , Vice \

£RV STIC ITT, Clownijhnefl, boifierovo, blunt, barbarous, rough , rude , Kerne ; home- bred, Slouch , uncivil, unmannerly, dirty.



Part* IL

V. homil. V. HOMILETICAL VERTUES whereby we are to regulate our

vfrt. to- Demeanour towards our SUPERIOURS, may be diftinguiQied iato wards 8U- r ,

PERiours. lucn as are

More general, denoting the Habi t of behaving our lelves as we ought towards all in a fuperiour relation.

5 Dtn IFULNESS, fubmijfrve.

)*• gVNDVHFVLNESS) Sturdinefs,fliff yuntoward, untraBable.

More fecial) ex parte

\Subjetti $ as Inferiours, and ata diftance from them.

S HUMILITY, Lowlinefs , abafe, humble ,, gent le^JubmiJJion 3 demiJnefi. 2 ‘ £ PRIDE , Haughtinefs , Loftinefl, high-minded. Lordly, elate, fiatdy, j per k.,fef conceit, arregance^agjflerialnefs.prefumption^verween,

I f H ff up,look. big.

Objefii 5 as to Superiours id f Place.

( REVERENCE, Honour , regard , rejpe& § veneration, awe 3 dread,

3, ) lVorJkip.

\.IRREVERENCE 3 Petulancc 3 Saucincfs,malapert 3 perk i ) prefusnptuou K 1 Gifts.

^ RESPECT, Grace, Honour 3 deference , civility 3 efleem, obJerve y

4. < veil to.

L DISREPECT 3 Dijhonour 3 negleU, flighting) undervaluing , difl regard ', vilifie.

Authority 5 General. '

C SUBJECTION, Homage 3 Loyalty,Allegiance 3 at ones command) 5. < ferve under.


Special; as Governing.

, S LOYALTY, Allegiance , Fealty, Homage.

' 2 .TREACHERT) betray , Traitor, difloyaL Commanding.

C OBEDIENCE, obfequiotss, obferv ant, pliable, fubmijjive, tra -

7. < H able, towardly, Conformity, follow 3 ferve 3 be fubjc&to.

C DISOBEDIENCE , Contumacy ,Obflinacy,refraSory 3 fllfwiUed 3

unruly, untoward, tranjgrefs, treflafs, breaks, violate 3 take headyjliff-neeked, wilful 3 maflerlefi, reflive.

[Punifliingt, fubmitting to Juft ice, and fuing for Mercy, or contri. t SUBMISSION, give place to 3 give way , yield) rejign, furrett -

8, < fifer, 4/ diferetion of.

CCONTVMACT) Objlinacy , it elf will, ft abhor n, Jit lie nflijf, un- traUable , way ward, flout 9 flifl-neckpd , refra&ory.



VI. HOMILETICAL VERTUES whereby we are to regulate our vi. homul. Demeanour towards our INFERIORS, may be diftinguilbed into fuch ST’n£ as are tERioti&s.

S More general.

(GRACIOUSNESS, Favour , Indulgence, gentle, fynd, mild, ferene,

I. < Joft, benign, propitious.

{. HARSHNESS , Ruggednefs, Jburneft,roughneft.

More particular ; ex parte

f Subject j in relpefl: of our Superiority , from which we are ready upon

I occafioti to yield and ftoop down*

5 CONDESCENSION, deign, vouchfafe, bear with, Juffer.

■I 2, ^INSOLENCE, Magifterialneft , imperioufneft , roughneft, ftriUneft,

Jlately, domineer, injult, /dagger, Roifter, Ruffian.

Objeai } as to Inferiors , in

Place or Gifts . ,

\ 5 AFFABILITY, Court ejic, gentleneft,facil,fair, demeanour.

✓?* ^SVPERCILIOVSNESS , rougbneP fern, four, fcornful , j lately }

J arrogant.

( Authority ; in

Y General ; || preferving fuch in their juft rights, or invading of them.

V (PROTECTION, shelter, defence, guard, patronage, refuge, j £TTRANNT. .

{Special ; as '1 Governing.

5 GOOD GOVERNANCE, Tjifcipline, Regiment.

5* £ MALE- AD MINISTRATION, mifgoverning, ill governance. Commanding.



Punijhing when one ought.


'‘^FONDNESS, Indulgence, cocker, dote, makemneb offender,

• chary.

Remitting, when there is jufl: occafion.

« 5 CLEMENCY, Gentleneft,favourableneft, Unity, mildnefs.

  • catVSTERlTTy ftern,ftri£f, inflexible, afferity, rigor, ftijf, ri-

gid, harfh, jharp, tart, rough, crabbed.

•Though feveral of the Vertues and Vices enumerated under this and the former Head, may be aferibed fometimes to perfons in other capacities; yet they do primarily and originally appertain to the Relations of Supe- riors and Inferiors .



Scnjible Quality .

Part. II


IV. “OY SENSIBLE QUALITY is meant fuch kind of Quality as falls un- |J der our outward Senfes , or the Affections of Bodies confidered as they are the Objedts of Scnfe : To which may be oppofed the Notion of OCCULT QllALITY. Thefe do relate cither to the i r Eye and things vilible. j 5 Primary , LIGHT. I.

  • ^Secondary, COLOUR. II.

\ Ear, SOUND. III.


Touch 3 viz- fuch Qualities as arc more

  • 5 ACTIVE. V.


In this diftribution of Senfible Qualities, thofe that are Vijible and Tan- gible are, both becaufe of their Number and Variety, each of them redu- ced under double Differences. Whereas thofe that belong to the Senfes ’ of Taft and Smell are, for the cpntrary reafon, contradted under one. The gradual Differences belonging to every one of thefe are fb very nu- merous, that no Language doth, or indeed can.provide for them 3 but we • are fain to denominate each of them from that fubjedt in which it is moft

commonly found and known. And, for the farther help of the common defedf of Languages as to fuch things 5 I have in the following Tables . (. where it could conveniently be done ) reduced things to double Op- pofites, which, with the addition of the tranfcendental points oC-Augmen- tative and Diminutive, will much faVffitate the exprefiion of the feverai degrees of thefe things.

. light.

I. That is fty led PRIMARY VISIBLE, by the help of which we are inabled to fee other things 3 being inherent chiefly either in *

' The Air 3 according to the more

' General Nature of it 3 denoting the intermediate or extremes, the lat- i ter of which is properly a total Privation. •

f STWILIGHT, Dawning.

1 C.S L IGHT,Lux,lightJbme,i illuminate, enlighten, glimmer, glimpfe.flajh.

£ DARKNESS , gloomy , clofe , dim,dusk}e,Eclipfi,obfcure, fad,fwart, brown.

Particular Kind or Degree j the Oppofite to which doth fuppofe fome fecondary Light. %

2 SLIGHT, Lumen, lucid, Luminary, irradiate, Sunjhine* •

  • c^HADOtF, Shade', “Umbrage , adumbrate , Screen, Canopy, Curtain.

, j The Superficies of folid Bodies 3 from which a ftrong or weak, reflexion is fty led.

f BRIGHTNESS, Luflre,ff>lendor, refulgence, glfter, glitter, darling, ) Jhine, corufcation, clear, fair, orient , polite , glofi, rejplendent, iUu -

    • / ftrioua,furbifh, polifh,burnijh, irradiate .

^DIMNESS, gloomy , cloudy , blink.


Chap. VIII. Senfible Quality ..


The Bulk. and Solidity of Bodies 5 according to their |J capacity , or inca- pacity of conveying Light.

5TR.ANSPAR.ENCY, Perfpicuity, pellucid, diaphanous, clear, thin-.

  • '£OPACnrf Thick;

{ Both the Superficies and Bulk, of Bodies -, fignifying || a freedom from : or lidblenefiunto , any jingle ox inter faerfed impediment.

S CLEAR NESS, fair, immaculate, unjpotted, clarifie.

5 ‘ ^SPOTTEDNESS, B/emiJh,. Blot, Blur, Mote, Mole, Freckle sped Stain, Soil. *

If. Secondary Viftble Qyalities, are by a general name ftyled CO- it CO, LOURS, TinBure, Hue , Complexion , Stain, Tinge 5 by which are meant thole various Appearances in the Superficies of Bodies which do more im- mediately ajfe& the Eye.

They are diftinguifbable into thole that are more t Simple, and counted either

I (Primary, whether || the intermediate, or the tiro extremes;

5GRAYNESS, Free%,grifly, hoary, rujjet.

1 ‘ £ 5i WHITENESS , blank.) blanch, bleach.

2 BLACKNESS , fable, jad,ju>art, brown, Negro.

Secondary -, moft confiderablc according to their order in the Rain- bow .- the uliial Colour of \Bloud: or of Gold.

C REDNESS, Crimjon, Vermilion, Scarlet , Stamml, ruddy, Mur-- •

o 3 a pc •

’ (YELLOWNESS, Sailor*, Tawny.

Vegetables : or the appearing Colour of the Heavens.

. 5 GREENNESS, Verdure.

^BLEWNESS, Azure, Watchet.

[Juice of the Filh Mwrex.


I Mixed-, according to the more General names.

S VARIEGATEDNESS, motif, pyed,f*ttieefoitrcd, divers colours, embroider, inlay.


Particular kinds $ being made either by Points : or Lines:

ry 5SPECKLEDNESS, Freckled.

^STRIATEDNESS, brindled, ftreakfdjtriped'

Roundles , ox Squares,

5 dappledness.


HL Senfibl^


2l 6

hi. SOUND*

Senjible Quality.

Part. II*


HI. Senfible Quality perceptible by the Ear, together with the Priva-

tionof it, is ftyled by the name of . ,

• SOUND, Noife,refound,Report,Coil, Rout, Rac\d flow Jo uAdinn, quitch, , E<ho,Euphony.lo which may be adjoynedthofe natural words(/5///* d fono) bounce, buz, chatter , chink, clacks clap , clajh flatter ,clnk, chnf, craAcrufiJeri, hum,h t fjar,jwgle,)erk . r f‘>

rufsle , Waller, ringjlream , Jhrsek,f»*P,fi***i> ^"f.J, rgar .i

1 SILENCE , Stilnejs , Zsa/Z 1 , ones peace, mum, tacit , quajh, quiet, wbiji, Jr.

c The feveral Notions belonging to this Head, tcf which different names

are afligned, do concern cither the

f C<«S/ o/ // »* confidered , . , ,

C Formally 3 according to which feveral Sounds are made* either by an intermediate, or a jZrwger and quicker : or iw<4?r and (lower per- cuilion of the Air.

CMEAN, 2e»w, Counter tenor.

$ACVTE, JkriU,Treble, Canto.

(GRAVE, low, Bafe, deep 1 Materially 3 when it is made by things

Metalline, or other folid brittle bodies 3 either || clear : or interrupt- ed by fome difeontinuity of the parts. ,

SR1NGING, jingli, finite, Bell, tole, chime , Veal, Knell. ^JARRING, Clattering.

Animal 3 being either.

More general to the more perfetf Animals : or to Man.

5 VOICE, vocal j call ; cry, invocate , Tone.

3* £ ARTICULATE. Voice, fpea^eloquution, pronounce,

Mor efpecial, and peculiar to fome brute Creatures 3 which may likewife be imitated with artificial Inftruments, by the forcible compreffion of Air through a rimulc : or through an equable concavity.

SHISSING, Whizzing.


Relations 3 as a

Single perfeft Sound : or near half more or lejs then fuch a Sound. SNOTE, Tone, Key.

5 * ( $sharp.

(FLAT. '

Perfect Series of Notes : or aggregate of fitch Series *

, STUNE. Lejfon, Chime, Ayre, Strain *


\Affe 3 ions j either of

I * Single Notes 3 being either \\fu3 and perfeflvOr imfedite and lfflperfcth SC LEAR NESS, Jhrill.

7 ' 2H0ARSNESS, Harjhnefs.

< Notes together 3 in relpcff of their || dgreement : or di/agreement.

1 0 S CONCORD. Symphony.

  • (DISCORD, Dijjonance , untun able

Tunes together j in refpeft of their || agreement : 01 dif agreement. SHARMONY, Melody, Muftc.

9' (Jangling, Tintamar.

IV. The

Digi ed by v^ooQle

Chap. VIII. Senjtble Quality. iij

IV. The Senfible Qualities belonging to the TAST and SMELL, are ^ ****, , _ of fo near affinity, that feveral Languages do affign to them the fame Dames.

They are diftinguilhable into the _ ,

'• £ More general and extreme, as to the |) dgreeablenef : or dijagreedblenejs [ of them to the Palate or Nofe.

J C SWEETNESS, Pleafant , lufeiont, toothfom, fragrant, odoriferous,

,|i.< Perfume.

1 1 c VNSAVOVklNESS, Stinky) Stench fetid, noifomjulfom, rohks 1 1 More facial and middle , from ' ,

r 7hin and Kaarih matter, like that of Oil or Butter: or that of Pep- per. „

0 5 FATTiNES?; Oily, unUueut, grofrgreafie.

£ ACRIMONIOUSNESS, bitir.g, keen, cutting. l Cooling and confiringing matter, like that in Green fruit: or in Galls.

CAUSTERENESS, Harjhnef,fev>r, tart.

\ 5*J> ACERBITY, Afiringency, ftyptic*

Penetrating vellicatingtaaxter, like that of Vinegar and Limons : or

  • that of Aloes and Wormwood

J C ACIDITY, sharpnef, eager, hard.


Matter of a moderate conjijlency : apt to corrode by its ficcity.

, 5 SALTISHNESS, faliue , brackjjb, briny, ft afoned,

^FRESHNESS, nnfalted, flajhy.

The vividnef : or decay of the Spirits in any thing.

, C FRESHNESS, SmartneS, brisks, quicks, lively, farituoue.

6 2DEADNESS, vapid, decayed, injipid, wearijb, flajby.

The beginning: ox farther degree of Putrefa&ion.

SMUSTINESS, Moldinefi, vin$md,fnfy.

7 ; /ROTTENNESS, addle , putrid. ■

V. Taitile




Senfible Quality.

Part. 11

V. TaSile Qualities more ACTIVE are commonly diftingui ftiedby* their being

j - Primary , from whence the others proceed , being either || the interme- diate : or the extremes of that Quality, whereby \ Homogeneous or Heterogeneous things are congregated , or feparated.

| S TEMPER ATE NESS, Warmnefl, TepidneJ % Inkgroarm.

J 1 * c ^ HEAT) hot, flukey, ardent , torrid, fervent, fwelter, inflame ,

1 2 fiald , Parch , Scorch.

C COLDNSSS , hie a I q, piercingj)iting,chill, cool, frigid, rtfrigerate. A Body is eafily || bounded by it felf : or conformed to any other Bo- dy, wherein it may be contained.

S MOISTNESS, dank^, damp. *

C $ WETNESS, Humidity, liquid, majh, flabber, daggle. qDRINESS, Siccity,exficcate, arid, fear, parch.

Secondary , fucb as are derived from the firft } referring either to f The Texture of parts, as to || nearer : ox farther diflance. f CLOSENESS, firing, Couflipation , conjolidatt , compaS.

\ f DENSJTt, Crajjitude, Thicknefifiotsdenfe-ationjhrengedjpreJJcd. \RARITT, Thmnefl, attenuator or c-ifie. ,

Inclination to Motion || downwards : or upwards.


2 C CRAVITT, Ponder oufnefl, Heavinefl ’ htmpifh , weighing, prefflng < down.

C LEVITT, Light nefs.

Aptitude or Ineptitude to Motion.

' Common to l iquids and Solids.

S CONSISTENCY, congeal, fland.

  • c $ HARDNESS, indurate , callous , brawny.

£FLVlblTT, liquid, flow, diflolve.

Proper to Solids.

6. J FLEXIBLENESS, Pliahlenefs, pliant, bend, bow, fioop,

' i C LIMBERNESS, fupple, lank, y, lith , ling , gentle , pliant, plia- < ble, flacky, flagging.

C STIFNESS, flarJi, tite, rigid, harjh, inflexible.


VI. Tatfile Qualities more PASSIVE, are diffinguilhable by their de- noting either the

I Giving way to : or refilling of the Touch.

J f YIELDINGNESS, give place.

I \ $S OFTNES S , Tendernefs, moUifie, relent, give.

I c HARDNESS , obdurate, indurate, callous.

1 Fabric of Bodies, as to rheir

i r Superficies $ being || more : or lefs plain.

2 f EVENNESS, plain, level,

\C SMOOTHNESS, Sleekpefs, glibber j, fiippcry, terfe, polite, poliflj, < < burniJh,Calender.

j C KOVGH NES S , Ajperity, Ruggednefs j uneven, harjh, ruffle, rumple,

| puckered, cragged.


Digitized t ^ooQie

Chap. VIII.

S /chiefs.

f [Bui \, being in its felf,or in its parts, of [] an indifferent : or of bgrtat- V er or fmaUer magnitude.

a SORDlPJARlNESS, of the molt ulual and common fize.

^ C 5 COVRSflESS, & ro ff» thick,

£ FINENESS , Tenuity, subtilty , thirty Attenuate.

Adhefion of parts, in T Fluids.

I SSL IMINESS, mucilaginous, roping.

1 ' * C S CLAMMINESS , vifcous , adhering , flick. to 3 clingy cleaving, glib- s tinous, Bird-lime.

C VFlCIVOVSNESS, Slipperinefi, Lubricity, glib.



’ c S TOUGHNESS, duSile , malleable.

• £ BRITTLENESS, Friablenefi,crifi,fiort, frail, fragil.

ineptitude or aptitude td Local motion, chiefly in Solids.

SSTEDDINESS, eftablijh, stability,

  • C (FASTft&SS , Fixednefi, Firmnefi, fiedfaft , fit, fettle,

s clenching. Rivet, flick, In,

C LOOSENESS , jleaffe , Slackjtefi, unfaftned, unfixed, unffeddy, unjledfajl , unfettled Luxation.



2 19


T jdofe kind of Impotencies of the Body, as to its natural Fun&ions, i » which are ufually accompanied with Pain, are fly led by the com- ’’ mon name of SICKNESS, Difeafe, ill. Malady, Relapje, unhealthy, unwhol- Jom, crazy, Di/lemper, Indifpofition, ail, Fit, mortality, taken with, Spittle.

To which is op poled HEALTH, Sanity, Soundhefi, heal, incurable, wholfom , recover, fife and found, well, clear , how do you.

The principal Notions referring to this Head may be diftinguilhed in- to fuch as lignifie either ,

SThe more general CAUSES OF DISEASE, ti

^The Difeafes themfelves ; whether

C Common to the whole Body, and the various parts of it,in refpedt of ) ^DISTEMPERS. II.


(. Peculiar to fome parts 5 either the CHEAD, or ARISING THENCE. IV.

■) MIDDLE REGION, the Breaft, or its parts, v.

CLOWeR BELLY or Bowels. VI.

Befides the Dileales enumerated in the following Tablet, there are di- vers others not here provided for, becaule they may be otherwife fuffici- ently exprefled : Asforinftance, thofe that belong to the Appetite, may beexpreft by the notes of Excef,Defe&, Depravation.

P f a And






And thus likewife may it be with thofe other Functions of Costco Sion y Sanguification , Nutrition , Augmentation , &c.

Thole that belong to the Organical parts, io refpeft of any Imperfe- ction as to their juft Number, Magnitude, Conformation,Site, Connexion* &c. may alio be otherwife fufficiently exprefled.

I. The GENERAL CAUSES OF DISEASE, may be diftinguiflied into fuch as are either

, f Extrinfecal, and without the body ; whether from

f Other bodies of a malignant dangerous quality , Jleither Ipreading i J their efficacy by infenfible Effluvia : or fuch as being taken in a J fmall quantity, pxo\t dejlruSive to life.

  • ^CONTAGION, InJeQion, taint, catching, run,fpread, diffufe.

< ' ^POISON, Venom, envenom, virulent.

Violent motion ;caufing either || \diJJolution of continuity ;or too great a prefjure upon the parts, when the skin is not cut*

S WOUND, Hurt* Sore, vulnerary, cut, breaks ones head, Scarr.

2 £ BRUISE, Contufion, crttjh, batter, flatter.

.^Intrinfecal ; with relation to the

Humors', whether || as to the error ofExcefi : or had difiofition.

5 PLETHORA, Fulnefi

J * ^CACOCHYMIA, IU humors.

Qualities ; f| according to the general name , denoting Excefs or '< Defedt: or that particular Indifiofition which is moft frequent, name- ly, too much Heat.



.Parts and Vejfels ; with refpefr to the ( Stopping, or blowing of them up.

) $ OBSTRUCTION, Oppilation.

j ^INFLATION, pujfedup , flatulent , windy.

k Putrefying, of them 5 confidered according to the ufual C Antecedent , or Caule 5 || a Colk&ion of putrid matter.

< 6. ABSCESSUS, Apojleme.

C confequent, or Effect; in relation to the ( Aperture or Cavity made by the Corrofion of this putrid mat- 's ter-; being either || roundijh, or oblong.

J 5ULCER, Sore , Botch, Canker.


( Defeft of animal fpirits, whereby Senfe and Motion is to be com- municatedjlb as a part becomes cadaverous and mortified, ac- cording to a || leffer : or greater degree. cSCANGRENE.


II. Difeafes

Chap. VIII.



II. Difeafes belonging to the whole Body, or the various parts of it, in H hisxeM- j-efpeft of DISTEMPER, are diftinguithable into fuch as do a rile either fFrom fome putrid matter, cauflnga preternatural heat 3 being either ' ^Not infeSiout 3 feated in the

S Humors ; whether |] continuing : ox intermitting, according to cer- tain feafons.

SEEVER, Calenture .

‘ ^ AGUE, quotidian^ tertian^ quartan,

| v Habit of the Body } which is ufually accompanied by a Wafting away of '■ I the farts.

liefe&iou* 3 by

' Effluvia 3 being ufually accompanied with j Spots in the skin , || according to a leffer ♦ or greater degree of dan- ger.

SM ALIGN ANT FEVER, spotted fever ' a Purples.

  • * £ PLAGUE, Tejlilence , Peft, pejitferous, pflile»tiol 3 the Sichjtefs\

1 Murrain.

Breakings out in the skin.

C More dangerous 3 according to degrees greater : or leffer.

). SPOX.


•( J \ Lefs dangerous 3 accompanied with pain of itching and burning , from bilious matter i || either that which doth ufually over- Jpread the whole body : or that which is commonly only in fome parts. being apt to diffufe it felf gradually, being accompani- ed with redneji and fturfinefs.

SITCH, Mange.

c TETTER, Ring-worm^ Shingles* *■

Reughntfs in the skin .

, (LEPROSIE, Lazer , Leper.

  • (SCURF, Morphew, Scald.

ContaS in Venery.

, 7. LUES VENEREA, French-pox.

I^From fame humor not in it felf corrupted, but by its luperfluity diftending the inward membranes of the Bones, the Mufeles or Nerves : oxdif- colouring by Rednefs , and heating the outward skin 3 being a thui light matter that may be ealily difcufled.

0 SCOUT, Arthritis.

  • ^ERYSIPELAS, St. Anthony s fir t.

III. Thofe



Part. II.

III. Thofe Difeafesby which the parts arc fvvelled and diftended be- yond their due proportion, arc ftyled TUMORS, Rijingjwell, turgid , node.

Thefe may be diftinguifhed into fuch Tumors as are either in the SCuticle , or upper fkin, with little or no fain s being || fmall collections of watery matter hindered from tranfpiring : to which may be ad- joy ned that which is fubfequent upon the drying of this and fuch other putrid matter, caufing a roughneis upon the ikin with little exulce- f ration.

5 PUSTULE, W heal, Whelk > Pimple, Tujh , Sty.

, 5 SCAB

j skin it felf and Flejh. '

7 With purulent matter.

Not poifonous : either ]j of a bigger magnitude , and apt to pals from one part to another, of more difficult cure: or of a lefjermagni- J tude, more frequent, and lefs dangerous.

! 2 SWING’S EVIL, Scrophula, Struma,

I ' ^BOIL, Blain, Sore, Whitlow, An come.

I [roifonom and corroding 5 being either \\hard and unequal , dilco J louring the skin by palenels or blacknels, with Veins about it re- fembling the Leg of a Crab, and exceeding difficult in the Cure: c or elle a collection of thick putrid bloud violently hot, with fret- ting and malignity.

. JCANCER, Wolf. c CARBUNCLE, Sore, Plague-fore.

{Without purulent matter* f Not difeolouring the skin j whether of a C digger magnitudes cither || foft: or bard, l), < WEN.


1 ^Leffer magnitude ■, being kinds of Plants footed H/Vs the skin: or below it.

- 5WART 5 * aCORN.

Difcolouringthe skin withrednels, and occalioned by Cold.

6. CHILDBLANE. Kibe. 1

Veins or Arteries immoderately dift ended.



Tendons .

8 . GANGLION, spavin « 



Chap. VIII.




IV. The DISEASES belonging to the HEAD, or NERVES, or a- IV - disfa- riling thence, may be diftinguilned into fuch as relate more head* and

I Immediately to the Brain it felf, the leaf and organ of the principal Fa- nerves. culties, either in regard of its Sulflancc', when it isindifpofed for the

j" More principal and noble Faculties j either by || fome hot Vapour or Humour diffufed : or from (brae particular Hurt or Inflammati- on, caufing a depravation of the Intellectual s,Fancy and Memo- ry $ either |j with a Fever , or without*

SJTRENSY, Delirium^ frantic, light-headed phrenetic.

' ^MADNESS, out of ones wits , raving . , difir ailion, befides ones felf, woody brain-fick . , crack: brained, crazed, lun^ac. ■

[Lejs principal Faculties by the ^

[ Superfluity of cold pituitous matter, caufing || ex cejfive dronfinefs : or by crals crude vapours riling from the ftomach, working a kind of Suffocation in fleeping by a fenfe of weight upon the Brea ft.


EPHIALTES, Night-mare, Incubus.

Corruption of lome crafs phlegmatic humor, either |] in the Brain , caufing much drotofinefs and deliration : or in the Arteries which Jliould convey the Jpirits to the Brain , caufing firfi a giddinefi, and then an abolition of Senfi and Motion.



I Defluxion of Humours ('which are (ometimes (alt or (harp) ei- ther || on the Lungs : or other parts of the Body, Limms , or Jeynts . ^CATARRH, Diflillation, Rheum, Defluxion.


\Ventricles 5 || when any hot Vapour doth agitate and difturb the motion of the Jpirits, (bas obje&s feemto turn round : «or when any cold phlegmatic humour doth obflruS their motion, caufing a privation of Senfe, with convulfive motions in Jeveral parts. f VERTIGO, Giddinefs, Swimming in the head, Dizzinefs, S cote my.

5 ‘t EPILEPSY, FaUingficknefs.

Mediately to the Nerves ; which may be either

j ObflruSed 5 whether || the greater Nerves , and for d longer continu- ance: or the leffer Branches , for a fhortcr Jpdce, whereby Senfc and Motion is hindered. ( z SPALSIE, paralytic. cNllMNESS, Stupor, ajleep.

Controlled more generally : or diflended in fome particular part.


7 *2CRAMP, stitch.

\oppreJJed withjuperfluous moifiure, caufing an unequal growth of the parts, fpecialjy the Head and Joints.

8. RICKETS, Rachitis.

Throat by (iichan inward Swelling and Inflammation as doth hinder Swallowing and Relpiration.

9 - SQUINANCY, gmnfie.

V. The




Part. IL



A- V. the tiifeajes belonging to the MIDDLE REGION and its parts.

    • e may refer cither to the

Lungs $ in their being

ObftruSed by lome craft phlegmatic matter adhering to the fides of the r Pipes, from whence follows jToo frequent Refpiratiop.

| f i* SHORTNESS OF BREATH, Anheldtio , Panting , Pnrfinej T.

< C difficulty of Breathing , according to || a leffir,ot greater degree: by the latter of which men cannot fetch their breath, unleft in an upright 1 S ASTHMA, Tiffict, broken- winded, wheeze. (pofture.


< Vlceratem, and by degrees putrefying > from whence fometimes doth proceed much purulent matter to fill up the cavitf of the Thorax :

„ 5 CONSUMPTION, Pbibifis.

3 * Jempyema.^

Heart j by fome noxious vapours or humours, which do either c Provoke *o too frequent and vehement motion for the freeing it felf ) 4. PALPITATION. (from them,

{ Hinder the motion of it $ according to || a' lefier : or greattr degree. 5FAINTING, Failing, languijh, Qualm.

5 * JSWOUNING, Swound, Leipothymia.

, [side j from (ome Inflammation within the Membranes covering the in* fide of the Ribs, cauling difficulty of breathing, and provocation to coughing,upon which great pain follows, accompanied with a Fever. 6. PLEURISIE.

(. VI. Difeafes belonging to the LOWER BELLY or Bowels, maybe • e diftinguifhed into (uch as do concern the

Stomach by (harp humors corroding the mouth of it, cauftng fometimes Fainting and cold Sweats.

I I. CARDIALGIA, Heart-burning. .

Liver and Gall $ being caufed by fome impotence in them for the doing of their F un&ions, in not digefting & difrributing the humors belong- , i ing to them ycaufing either || Palenefiqf colour , Faintnefijndifl ofition to fiir : or Tellownefi and Swarthinefi of colour, accompanied with faint ntfs and nau/eoujhefi.

^GREENSICKNESS, Cachexie. j ^JAUNDISE, Tellow-jaundije , Blacky aundije.

Stomach and Liver, and other Bowels jointly 5 which,being defective in the works of Concoction and Diftribution, do occafion a Juperfluity of ferous matter diflending the skin of the belly and other parts of the body, accompanied with Come windeand fometimes a windy vapour, accompanied with fome watery humors, firetching the belly ♦

5 DROPSY, hydropical.

3 *$tympany.

Spleen 5 by its difper finger and feculent humors: 01 noxious vapors, into other parts of the body 5 the former of which is ufually accompanied | with faintneft, wearineft, loofnefs of tceth,fpots on the body, and fpe-

  • cially on the legs.’

^SCURVY, Scorbhte.


Guta v

Chap. IX. Sprit ml Affion. 225

Guts i || from JomeJharp humor that corrodes y>r vapor that dijiettds the Co- lon : or from fome hardned excrement 3 or fome other like matter, flopping the Ilia or faJaller Guts.

5 COLIC, BeUy-ack,


Faculties of excretion; whether by ,

r Stool either as to the excejs of this : or the voiding of blond, j, 5 DIARRHEA, Lax } Loofenefs 3 Flux. •

> 6 * ^DISENTERY, Bloody flix. ....

j C Vrhte 3 either by fomeftony concretion in the Kidneys or Bladder ;

or a continual involuntary urining by drops, i 5STONE.

'• 7 - ^STRANGURY. .

Lower part of the belly or Scrotum 5 ||iy a breach of the internal Mem- •

. branes^pr too much detention of it, or by Juperfluity of veaterifh or windy matter : or in the Veins about the Fundament.

  • 5 RUPTURE, Hernia , Burfl, Broken- behy.
  • JH^MORROIDS, Files.

i Mother or Womb}by||cauftng convuflve motions: or flopping of the Breath.




Concerning .the Predicament of A&ion, the fever al kinds of it ; I. Spiritual. II. Corporeal. III. Motion. IV. Operation*

N Ext to the Predicament of Quality may fucceed that of A&ion 5 the fcveral kinds of which may be diftributed into Inch as have for their Agent a

<: Spirit 3 or fpiritual faculty, called SPIRITUAL ACTION.

'/Body, or material fubftance, refpe&ing chiefly cither the f Anions of Animate bodies, called here CORPOREAL ACTION, s Paflage of bodies from one place to another, fty led MOTION, v. Sundry kinds of works, about which men of fcvcral callings ufeto imploy themfelve 9 , fty led OPERATION.



He Genus of SPIRITUAL ACTIONS, may be distributed into j. fuch as do belong either to GOD. I.

The Soul , with reference to the Vnderflanding.




Fancy or Appetite j the Anions of which are fty led Ajf eft ions or Paiiions,arid may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are either more .




t .

^ oQle

l. action} I- By ACTIONS OF* GOD in this place, are meant only his tranfi - Of god. ent Aftions, which are terminated in the Creatures. As for his immanent Actions, becaule we can frame no other conceptions of thefe but fuch as are futable to the aft s of our own minds, therefore may they be fufficient- ly exprefifed by tbofe that follow in the next Differencef;Thefe tranfient Afts here enumerated, do primarily belong to the Divine Nature 5 though fbme of them may i* a ficondary manner ,and by way of allufion and participa- tion, befometimes aferibed to other things : To which may be annexed upon the account of Affinity the general name of thofe Aftions which do exceed all Natural power, MIRACLE, Wonder, Juper natural.

Thefe are diftinguifhable into fuch as do concern either the r Tutting of things into their firfl being : or reducing them to nothing.

) 5 CREATION, Making, Creator, Creature,

• j * c ANNIHILATION, Annul, difinnul ', aboliJh,extinguiJh,bring to nought , ( Government or difpofal of things i ( call-in , cancel, put out.

More general 5 whereby he doth moft freely and wifely take care o£ and provide for all thingstTo which may beoppofedby fomeAna- j l°gy fach a neceflary Concatenation and unalterable order amongft : things as doth jiot admit of any liberty : or fitch a blind contingency of ^ things as excludes all wifdom, exprefied ufually by the Words,

J PROVIDENCE, Forefight, Kore-cafi.

  • i SFATE, Defiiny.

j‘ c FORTUNE, Chance, Accident^ Venture , Adventure, cafual,Haf 3

Luc A, Hazard, fortuitous, a Hit, per adventure, perhaps.

• [More facial belonging either to Animate Creatures by T Contributing to their §well : ori#being. i SBLESSING, Beatitude , Benedict ion.

’* cCU USING, accurje, ban, MalediSion, Execration.

Continuing them in their particular kinds of Being 
or depriving
' them of it.

< (PRESERVATION, Confervation, Protection, Keeping, main- 4 « ) t *in, fave, Saviour, falter, guard, keep, cherijb. j (.DESTRUCTION, Perdition , Confufion , Bane, Devafiation, Loft,

' pernicious , fiubvert , undoe , mine , confound, extirpate , abolifb,

bringto naught, firoy, defiroy, cafiaway,perijb,cut off, vafi^on- l fume, dijjolve, exterminate, extinguifh, fall, gone.

! keeping or taking them from any evil felt or feared : or leaving ! [ them to it*

j L DELIVERANCE, Refine, S ave-iour, Salvation Jr ee, quit ,rid,

j 5- \ clear, exempt.

C DERELICTION, defiitute,forlorM,defirting , give vp, relinquifh , cafi off, deliver up, forfake, leave, forgo.

{Rational Creatures as to their

[ Minds 5 by difiovering to them ,*or imprejfing upon them, in an j extraordinary way, fuch Truths or Inclinations as humane in*

,i duftry could not of it felf attain to.

1 1. S REVELATION, open,diJclofi,difcover,Vifion,Enthufiafm,Fa *

I 2 INSPIRATION , infufe. ( untie, Oracle.

. . [States, by delivering them from a condition of (ervitude & mifery.

7 . REDEMPTION, deliver )fave,ranjbm, refine.



Chap. IX. Spiritual A&ion. :

II. ACTIONS of the UNDERSTANDING and Judgment SPECULA- TIVE, Contemplation , Theory are fuch as do concern the various excrcije of our Vnderflandings about the Truth and Falfl.'ood of things, with refpeft either to Vnderftanding •, being either (the

f Preparative ; in the firfi Objectization of a thing : or the reflexive Thought about it, together with what elfe one knows of that kind. (THINKING, Cogitation, bethink., deem , imagin.efleem, Conceit, Notion, < < Thought- ful,penfive, mind it,fuggeft, put in ones head , ..

(MEDITATING, Study, conjt dering, caji about in ones mind, mufi,con-

  • template, E lucubration, thinks ,fore think^premeditate, ponder, extempore*

^.Operative $ in ||the comparing of things to find out what is Truth : or the Thought refulting from fuch companion.

C INQUISITION, Examination, Search, Scrutiny , exploration jnvefligate, a. < Difquifition,feek^difcufi, hunt, canvafe , caji water , Quefl, Inquejl.

C DISCOVERY, ’ detect, find, perceive, [fit out pick out, Invent ion, exccgi- Judgment 5 (# ateyAuthor,. Inventor ,tell , inkling,’ tis out.

Primary in judging luch dilcovery || agreeable to Truth: or dfiagreeable.

( More general.

\ C ASSENT, Confent, accord, agrec,concurr, allow, acknowledge, yield, fuf- ' S f ra £ e > Voice*, Vote, of the fame mind, think^good. ,

’ J ( DISSENT, differ, diftgree, of another, mind, Di fiord.

1 (More Jpecialj according to its arguments 3 as {Proceeding from Caufct

rExtrinfical : \ Teflimony \\fujficient : or insufficient.

J S BELIEVING, Credit, credible, Faith, Trujl. j V* ^DISBELIEVING, Difcredit, incredible, Diflrufl.

I C Intrinfecal in the thing it felf^ that it is || conclufive : or not fo conclu- 1 ' I Jfoebutthatitmaybeotherwile. . ■

•« < f KNOWING, C ognit ion, c onf low, wifi, witting,aW art, privy, Intel-

  • J ligence , learn, inform, acquaint , cognizance,* notice, inhjingpre-

) fcience,omnifiient.

’ ( DOUBTING, mifdoubt, mifiruf, diflrufl, fiijpence, hanging fiagger-

ing, hep ate, pendulous, dubious , ambiguous , at a fland, flick. at, Quandary, Scruple, Sceptic, uncertain , apocryphal, ’tis a quefiion. [Productive of thelc Effects in || higher, or lower degrees.

(.CERTAINTY, djf ranee, Jure, evince,convince, demonfir ate, evi- , ■ 6. < dence, undoubted, out of doubt, without doubt, doubt lefi, infallible.

( OP IN ION, Conceit, judgment, Sentiment, Mind,Tenet, think., juppofi, furmife , ween, overween, unanimousjikgly,. probable, prejudice, appre- hend, fancy, repute, deem,Vcrdict, Sentence, foot oner bolt. Secondary $ judging of Truth found, as to the

! C onfi queue it, in refpeft of other things to be concluded from it, or

to follow upon it$ in Theft : or in Hypothefi 5 REASONING, Difiujfing, Arguing, Ratiocination, Logic. ^CONJECTURING, Guffingjurmije,divine,mind gives , conceit, Pre- Importance: or frivoloufnejl of it. (jumption, probable.

C ESTEEMING, accounting, prizing, valuing, rating,regard, reflect, re- 8. s pute, count of, care for, thin l^well of, fit by, Jland upon, credit, prefer. L CONT EM NING, defpifing, flighting, undervaluing, dtjregarding,fit at nought, fiornfllifdain, abjectnefi, defpicable,vilifie,dijefleem,neglect,fit

light by, make nothing of, l pafi not for it. Nickname , pifli.


v^.00 Le




of the IJ n-




Spiritual AUion.


2 .

III. ACTIONS oF the UNDERSTANDING anti Judgment PRACTI- CAL, do concern the enquiry after and taking notice of the Nature of things, vpith reference to their Goodnefiox Fitnefs to any purpofe.They are diftinguilh- able, ;ts the former, by their refpect to the \ Vnderfianding ; being either

r Preparative , in the firjl ObjeBizatioh of a bufinels : or the reflexive Thought about //, together with what elle one knows of that kind.

I S DELIBERATING, ponder, weigh, forecafl.

<■ ‘ ^ OBSERVING, advert , animadvert , give ear , attend to J heed , regard » give ones mind to, looh to, mark, g note, ri/irid, pry, peep, watch, take no- tice, notable , remarkable, overfee, overlook:

Operative , in (J the comparing of means to find which is expedient .* or the Thought refulting from fuch companion.

CONSI DERATION, revolve, fcan,advife,forecajl, recognize, premedi- tate ponder , perufe,Jludy .recount, refleS,, review, revife, weigh, bethink., confult, ca(i in ones mind, retrojpeftion , ruminate.

INVENTION, deviflng, excogitate, find out, make, Author.

Judgment ;

I Primary j in judging the thing found to be \\ agree able to its endror dif agree - r More general. {able.

APPROVING, likjng, allowing, thinks good, take well, fancy him, find 3 - \ a "Bill, currant.

C DISAPPROVING, difiiking, difallowing, difavow, miflikg, condemn, explode , reprobate.

iMore /pedal-, acco rding to its motives ; as f proceeding from Caufis

Extrinfecal Warranty \\fnjficient : or infi/jficient ♦

C TRUST , Confidence, betrufi, entrujt, rely , repofi, enfeoff", reconr 4 . \ mend, credit, charge, refi upon t

1 C DISTRUST , Mijlrufl, Diffidence , Sufpicion, Surmize , Jealoufit,

j ' Umbrage , call in queflion, mijgive.

{Intrinfecal in the means it felf, || conclujive thatitislo : or not Jo con- clufive but that it may be otherwile.

5 SATISFACTION, Content jacquiefie,refolve.

• 5 ‘ £SCRVPLE, Doubt, dfiatisfie.

[ Produ&.ive of thele Fff :3s , in j| higher : . or lower degrees.

, s ASSU R ANC E , Confidence, jure, certain, refolvedffecure, confirm. ^PERSWASION, think, believe.

{Secondary 5 in judging of expedients found, || as to the ufi of them, how they are to be ordered and managed .* or what is like to be the event of them.

C CONTRIVING, projeSing frame, machinate, plot, forecajl, cafi about,

7. \ or in ones mind, find away, devife. Conveyance.

C EXPECTING, loofl for, wait, gaping after, mind gives me, make account, flay for , watch for.

IV. ACTIONS OF THE WILL. Under this Head are to be confidered the Kinds of fuch Actions , belonging either to the End as future > comprehending Adts more Simple 1 jlmperfeChxnA diminute \\for:ox againfl one thing rather then another, C INCLINATION, Propenfity, Proclivity , Pronenefi, Forwardnefi \ I. < hankering, having a mind to, Prejudice for, bent, addiQed. AVERSION , Prejudice againjl, uuw/PingneJS’. coynefifiand off.


fchap. IX.

SpiritHjl ABiort.


Impcdi'te and conditional \\for or againft a thing, if left to it fdf.

C VELLE 1 TY, Woulding, Wijhing , Dejire , Lift, Vote, Will. Mind,' 2. < Option, rather.

CNOLLEITT, Backjvardneft go againft, grudge, loth. Regret, Rein-' Clancy, thinks much, rather not, unwilling „ with an ill will.

Forfeit 5 denoting || the determining of it felf to do, or not to do : or the taking of farther time to conjider.

^‘PURPOSING, Intention , Decree , deft ine, determine, appoint, de- ft^ fts n i refolve, ordain; mean, nonce, bent, minded. Jet himfelf Jet ’* / onet mind, predestinate, preordain.

DEMURRING, bejitatingj)anging,juftence, flick. at, Quandary. {Complicate 5 towards an objeft confidered as difficult, hgnifying || the purpofe of doing it notwithftanding fuch Difficulties : or doubt- ing becaufe of fuch Difficulties.

S RESOLUTION, Fixedneft, determined, c WAVERING, fluctuate, hanging, pijpenccftrrefolvte, flaggering. Means', t *

f Antecedently', determining what to || take: or leave.

I C ELECTION, chufing,fele 8 , Choice, cull, picking, prefer l, Jet aftde,

J 5« < Option , Pre election, predeftiuate, rather.

'i C REJECT ION, refuJe,Preterition,paft by, c aft oJf,caft aftde, cafi away,

I reprobate, repudiate , renounce , explode , out-cajti [Confequently ', || continuing in the purpofe of ufing fuch means : or ceajing fuch purpofe.

"PROSECUTING, perfevere,perfift,holdon.

\DESIST INC, giving off, leaving, ceafejurceafe, end, terminate, de- ter min, ft ay, reft, pauje, forbear, withdraw, falter, fuperfede, break, off, go out, give over, lay ajide , or down.

[End obtained ', as to the || rejliugec r not rejiing of the Will in it as good. DELECTATION, Fruition,Rejoyciug,Joy,Gliedneft, Delight, Com- fort, Complacence , Fleajure, Solace, Satisfaction, Content. placid, pleafe, affect, acceptable, delicious, Jweet, welcome. DISPLACENCE, Sorrow,Grief,Difcomfort,unpltafant,irkyom,grie- vous, Offence-ive,DiJguft,DiJlike,DiJlaft,flomaeb, unacceptable gra- ting, male content.

Affections 5 either of the

j Will it Je/f in its a flings confining in || its having a power of applying it I felf to the doing or not doing thisor that : or not having fuch power. Jo S LIBERTY, arbitrary, free, may, may chufe.

d. DETERMINATION TO ONE, muft, cannot chkfc but, limit, Ne-

, , ce ff lt J'

Actions of the Will 5 denoting y the doing of things according to the free inclinations of our oxen minds : or the being necejjit ated bf fome external impediments to do any thing againft fuch inclinations.

C SPONTANEITY, of ones own accord, freely, willing. Voluntary, 9. < with a good will, unbidden, gratis , ready.

( CO ACTION, Compn fton, Conftraint, Force, enforce, Violence, unwil- lingncfs, manure, perforce, extort, wrench, wreft, in fpight , will or nill , driving, prejjing, bear down, over-atbe.

6 .

V. Acts

3 °

Spiritual A&ioti .

Part. IL

v. simple V. Alls of the Senfitive part, namely of the Fancy, and chiefly of the PASSIONS, Appetite, whereby the mind i$ moved and difturbed with the: apprehen- fions of things, are fty led PASSIONS, AffeSion, Perturbation, pathetic.

Thole amongft thele are called more SIMPLE which confift onejy of one Angle Aft. They are diftipguilhable into fuch as concern things under the notion of

i New unexpected furprizing 
or elle things over-common and too mucfi|

‘ repeated ; without refpeft to the good or evil of them, being chiefly a difturbance of the Fancy 5 ftyled ,

S ADMIRATION, marvel, wonder^amaze, aftonifi.

' ^.TJEDIVM, glut, loathing, cloy, darol, naufeate.

[Goodot Evil which we r Wtjh to happen to them.

(.FAVOUR, Benevolence, Benignity, Gr acc,Good mill, kind propit i- 2. \ out, ingratiate. Favorite , Dilling, Well-rcifier, make much of.

LmALIGNITT, -Malice, Spite, Pique, Grudge, Prejudice. Defiite, Difeotrtejie , Disfavour, Jinifter, virulent , malevolent, ill will, ill minded.

[Apprehend to be in them 3 whether -

fAbfolute 3 flowing from ||our general apprehenfions of the Worth of things, aec! our need of them : or the Evil, and our being hurt by them.

LOVE, AffeOion, in amour , dote on,fmittcn , amiable, befitted, amoroua, dear, endear. Darling, Minion , Paramour, well- belo- ved, Likings, Fancy, Philtre.

- HATRED , Malice , Rancour, Spite , Virulence, odious, abhor, abo- minate, deteft, cannot endure , Grudge, Pique, Heart-burning , can- kered, exulcer ate.

| Relative to different notions concerning {Both Good and Evil 3 confidered as \ Prefint .

•MIRTH, Glee, Solace, Chearfulnefi, Sport, blithe , blijjbm , buxom, frolick . , jolly , jocund, jovial, merry, exhilarate, glad, cranky, debondir, comical, pleafant, finguin, Jubile ♦

, GRIEF , S adneft, \ S orrow, Melancholy, Heavinefi, doleful, de- plorable, difionfilate, bitter, penjive, dejelled , tragical, rtfful, amort, moan, bemoan, wail, bewail, lament, Dump, cafi I down , vex, trouble, cut, take on, whimper, pule, woe, ogony,

< nnguijh, mourn. Plaint .Cry, take heavily.

» Abfint and pojfible.

DESIRE, Affection, covet, crave, fain , long for , luft, greedy,

1 Inclination to, hankering , wifi, Cdncupifcence , eager , earn- eft, importunate , thirft after, have a mind to.

■ AVERS ATION, Antipathy, Regret, Reluetancy,Diftaft,irkjom, efehew.ftjun, avoid, abhor, loath, execrate , cannot endure, or abide.




Chap. IX.

S fir it ual ABion .

lAbfent and probable , as to | The nature of the AS.

6. Trufi, Recumbency , Affiance , J^ely.

  • ZFEAR, Awe, Dread, Tetr our, Honour, Conformation, bide -

ous, difmal, afraid, agafoformidable , horrible, terrible '.i i f ra y> terrifie, fcarejartle, daunt, deterr,difmay 4-

ntate, appale, dare not, terrible. Bugbear, Hobgoblin.

The greater: or leffir degree of this Probability.

C CONFIDENCE, Affiance, Trujl, build upon, reft upon, rely 7 S' repofe,fecure,pert, in heart, dare, prefume, take to. * L DIFFIDENCE, Sufocion, JealouJie, Mifirufo Diftrufooui of heart Joint- heart ed, cajtdown, leartlef, mifdoubt, mif- giye. J

The ijjitc and event which as it isreprefented to have Diffi- culties in it || either fuperablo: or inoperable x foit excites

C BOLDNESS, C^e, AudacitjXing,fiurdy,Zd h

«. < font ^venturous, pert,malapert,embolden, prefume.

c DESPAIR , Defpondency, forlorn, hopelefi, dajh, eaji down i deadnefi, of heart, beartlefi, pajl hope.

Evil alone, or oppontion from others, wherein there is contempt : to which may be annexed by way of affinity ( though it be not properly a Ample Paffion ) that particular dejire of making Juch adieus whereby others have been injurious to us, to be- come hurtful to themfehes, lo as they may be lenGble of it.

f ANGER, /re, Paffion -ate, IVrath, sharpnef. Rage, Out- rage, Pett, Choler , Gall, fume, form, fret, pelt, chafe, vex, take on, inflame, 'kindle, irritate, ittruge, exafperate , in- cenfi, provoke, move, fullen, bafo, furious, outragious , mad, look, big, placable, afpeafe, fomaek., AnimpStj, , heart- burning, irafcible, rough, hot , curfo frappijbjnarle, jnuffle.

[REVENGE, avenge. Vengeance, vindi8ive y wreak.




  • i

Spiritual A3 ten.


VI. MIXED PASSIONS, areluchasdo not conilftof any Angle Att s but are made up of more then one, to be diftinguHhed by the'Objeft they are con verlant about, and by the Simple Paffions of which they confift, into luch Determined either to Good or Evil 5 with reipett to ('as are

\The particular interfi oi Repute $ being converfant about 1 Good , which we apprehend to be in it (elf honourable and worthy, im-

plying || Confidence and Love in the promoting of it : or Confidence and

Joy in the owning of it.

5 ZE hL,ardent,Dc votion, ear nefi y fertent. hot yo arm, intent,^ agerfLelot. K * ^GLORYING, Triumph , Exultation, hoafi hr agyBr avadoyRodomonta- do , Thrajbnica /, crac crdw,vapor, vaunt, Ofientat/on.Jwaggery vain - < glory, flourijbing, lake a pride.

fivily which we apprehend to be in it (elf dijhonourable and unworthy i implying || a mixture of Hatred and Averfatioh againft the commit- ting of it : or Sorrow and Diffidence for the committing of it.

, 5 SCORN, jet light by, flight, defpife, contemn.

  • £SHAME -facedfuU-lefi, abajhybajhful, afhamed.out of countenance, con-

found y quajh, dajh, Impudence , Turpitude, put tofi)atne.

The more general interefis belonging to ^ r Our felves rtfteBingt ither *

f Good that is deair to usy implying a || mixture of Love , Anger, and Hope ,

I that we may excel others in it : of a mixture of Love, Anger , and < Fear , left we (hould by others be deprived of it.

I ^EMULATION, vy,firive 9 fituggle.

I ^JEALOUSIE, Suspicion ? furmize . . lEvit j whether as done

By out filter j*being either |] a mixture of Sorrow and Fear upon did < fatisfaftion in having committed it : or Sorrow and Defire, as wifh- ^ ing it had not been committed.

! S^EMORSE, Compunction, Contrition, telent, bejhrew, trouble of

    • £ R EPENT ANCE, Penitence , rue. (mind.

'JSy others $ || either a vile thing b) any perfon 9 or any evil by a vile perfon-, implying a mixture of Anger and Hatred: or of Anger and Averfa'

S INDIGNATION, Scorn,, dudgeon. fume, mur mure. (Hon.

I ** ^DISDAIN, Scorn.

^Others 3 in refpeft of the

’Good befalling them, (as we think) \] worthily, or unworthily 5 imply- ing a mixture of Love and Joy : or Hate and Grief.

I CJOY FOR THE GOOD OF OTHERS, Gratulation, congra*

! ) 6. y tulate, Sympathy.

1 C ENVY, Spiteful /, invidious, grudgCy repine , malign.

_ Evil befalling them, (as we think J \\ worthily, or unworthily j imply- ing a mixture of Hate and Joy : or of Love and Grief.

5 'EnixAiPEKAKi'A, Joy for the evil of others.

'* £PITTY, Companion, commifer ate ycondole,relent,ruthful,tender,woful 9 yearn yBowels. bemoan, bewail, lament, deplore, Sympathy, fellow-feeling. Indetermined either as to Good or Evil, but concerning both confiding in a diftra&ron of the Mind by a conflict of any two contrary PaJJions : to which maybe oppofed (though not lo proper to this place) the tranfpo rt of the g SACONY. (Mind.being wholly poflefs’d with one Pajjion : ftyled ' ^EXTASIE, Tranjport, Amazement, Confiernation, Maze 9 lraunce. Ru- pture, ravifi}, afionijh , extatical. COR-

Corporeal Attion.


B Y CORPOREAL ACTIONS are meant fuch A&ionsirjta/e Agent is a £ IL' i Body or Material fubftance. They are diftinguifhable into fuch as are j More peculiar to Living creatures 3 either more

I fAbfilute 3 belonging to

\ (. VEGETAT 1 VES. I. .



( Relative to the


^GENERAL Notions belonging to DEMEANOUR. V.

Common with them to other things, to which by Analogy they are afcribed , the different kinds of GESTURE. VI.

I. Corporeal ACTIONS belonging chiefly to VEGETATIVE Bodies } tnay be diftinguifhed into fuch as arc either. vege-

! Primary and more general 3 denoting the making : or uhmaking of a thing 3 Ta- the motion towards a new form : or from the precedent form 3 ftyled Tl E ’ ^GENERATION, get, beget,procreate propagate Jbr eedittg,engender, Gene- ’^CORRUPTION, Diftolution, confitme-iion. (j£r.

Secondary and more particular 3 relating unto the ' Conveying , or receiving in that firft matter which , is to be formed into an a- nimate Body. '

(IMPREGNATION, beget, pregnant, breeding, teeming, conceived, get a. < with child , big , great with chi Id, ox egg.

(^CONCEPTION, with child. Superfetation. ( foon .

Bringing forth what hath been thus conceived 5 either in due time : or too ('PARTURITION, Bearing, Birth, Nativity, bringing forth, travail,

J groning, in labour, lying in. Child- birth, eaning, farrowing, kindling, j filing, whelping, deliver, Midwife, brought to bed, cry out, lay egg. * v ABORTION, mifcarry , Mifchance, caft young, C aft ling , untimely birth. Slinky, fill- born.

Improvement of what is thus brought forth 3 either v f Pmmliar to the Toung 3 implying that more then ordinary tendernefsto

j be ufed towards things in that ftate, || whether more general : or that } which is proper to viviparous Animals.

SEOTION, cher ijhing,f oft er, foment, brood, Incubation, hatchings C LACTATION, giving Jucl{_, fickle,

  • ■ Common to Toung and Old 3

( Antecedent 3 |j the taking in of fitable and fijficient aliment : or the fit- ) ting of this aliment by fermentation, f 5 FEEDING, living upon. Aliment , Food.

^DIGESTING, Con cod ion, put over,

( Confequcnt from the’

( Union of the Aliment to the body : and its improving thereby.

^NOURISHING, Nutrition, maintain. Nutriment.

  • ) cGROW 1 N Q, come up' increase, improve, thrive,. Spring, Proficient

{.Union: or d/Jumon, of the Body and Soul.

{ LIVING, Life , quick .■> olive, enliven, vivifie, revive, Jurvive. 7 * s vital j RefurreQion.

C DTING. Death, dcad-ly, mortal, fatal, dy,dcceafi , depart, expire,' give up the ghoft, defund, kill. Jlay, mortifie , difpatch, Slaughter,' Mortality, capita!. H h U. CoY~


Corporeal ABion.


11. Corporeal ACTIONS belonging to SENSITIVE Bodies, may be di«  ftinguifhed into fuch as are either

'More principal and natural * denoting the kinds of natural Appetite, toge- ther with fuch Ad ions as tend to the fatisfying of them 3 relating to the \ Preftrvat ion of the Jndividuum, as to the defire of r Nouriftment , for the fupply of Decays ; and that either by [Food: or Meat.

j. ( HUNGER, Appetite, Stomachy eager, greedy, ravenous. Famine ,

< I* S ftiarp -Jet.

| (.EATING^ devour, gorging , fall to, Meal, Rep aft, Refefiion, Food,

I Meat, Aliment , edible. Viands , ViQuals, fall to ones Meat.

I < I Liquor.

I $THIRST, dry.

a * £ DRINKING, Potien,potulent, potable, quaff, foopffoakpng, lap,fwiU \ caroufe, ftp, tipple, bibble, guzzle. Draught, Drench, Water , Butler ,

I Buttery, Cellar.

< (Reft and refrelhment after labour and wearinefs comprehending the ^ r Appetite or inclination after this: or the Satisfaction of fuch Appetite ,

I confiding in a cefiation from all Addons of the outward Senles, by I a relaxation of the Nerves.

| 1 S DROWSINESS, Heavineft.

3* ^SLEEPING, afteep, dormant, a Nap. lull, Slumber, narcotic,rooft. [state fuppofed, belonging to this Appetite, or theSatisfa&ion of it, de- noting the general Action of the Sevfes : or the workingof the Fancy in fleep.

5 WAKING, awake, watch, Reveiles, raife from fleep.


^Propagation of the Species.

fLUST, Salacity, Lechery, Vinery, Concupiftence, libidinous, carnal, $. \ fleftriyfbtiftdm, client, proud.

. ( COIT 1 ON, coupling, gendring, lie with, know carnally , Copulation,

rutting, tread, venery

Left principal and preternatural j referring to feveral afiettions of the Touch, and different kinds of Pain 3 being either • Proper to the Skin and outward parts 3 caufed by an agitatiorftffftf fome thin Vapours flopped in their expiration, which is remedied by fuch d

kind of affriction with an edge as doth open the Pores, that the Vapors

i may tranfpire.

• , 5 ITCHING.

6 * ^SCRATCHING, Scraping, clawing , Scalping-iron.

‘ [common to other parts 3 and caufed by

i r Diftention or comprejjion of the parts: or Jljarpntftof humours. MAKING, Ach.

' ‘ £ PRICKING, C rick, pungent JJjarp, Stitch.

! Dijftpation of the Spirits in the fofter parts by a light touch : or corro-

  • ftonof the membranous parts.

a 5 tickling, Tmiiation.

^SMARTING, piercing.

Obftruction either in the Nerves or Mufcles 3 cailfing || fbme vellications in the Nerves : or a hot pungent pain in the Mufcles.

5> TWITCH ING, Vellication, Pinching.


III. The

Digitized -by

Chap. IX. Cor fore cil A 3 ion. 235

III. The Corporeal ACTIONS peculiar to Men, or the feveral wayes ni ; ACT!- - of exprejfing their mental Conceptions , are either by liar. P tC) U

Articulate founds^ confidered according to * MEN.

■ The pfheral name, together with the privation of it> . .

f SPEAKING, talk, utter- ance , mentioning, Elocution^ pronounce,

J expref, deliver , Prolation , Spokgs-man,ejfable,volubl.e.fluent,Jay,

I./ tell, mutter, mumble, jabber, jargon,vein,Grammar,Rhetoric, Or a-

) lory. Eloquence , Prolocutor, nuncupative , by word of, mouth. ’

( MVTENESS, dumb,fecchhf, filent, blank, tongue-tied.

The / 0/ freaking, as to (] the continuity of feect : or the prolati-

on of fome particular letters. # ^

S ST UTTERING, Stammering, falter, hammer.

2 * ^LISPING. ‘ ;

The 0/ loudnefla fpeaking 5 either }| without any vocal found:

or with much noife. •'

“ 2 5 WHISPERING, mutter,roundintheear.

  • ' 2 EXCLAMATION, Reclamation, hollow, kwt,hoop,fkout, haul, da- •

« mor, cry, Lure,Out-cry, roar ,fcreech,fcream,fqueak ,jqueal, loudjift

| up ones voice, fit out ones throat.

The particular hinds of freaking, referring . f ( To fuch words as we fee before 5 either II more perfrit : or impede#.

). ^READING, Leff ure, LeJJon, legible, ptrule. '


^ To the manner of ordering our voice according to muf cal Tunes 5 ei- I ther || the more perfeft : or the more imperfeB attempt.

! * (SINGING, S ong, Ditty JS all ad, C arol, Canticle, Lay, Ode, Madrigal,

! 5. < Eclogue, canorous, Modul ati on, chant, ChoriRer. §>uire.

j l CHIRPING, quefting, quittle.

fThe feveral relations of fpeaking, 5 when we fay that to another which we

expeB fould be || repeated: or written by him. • ’

i , 5 DICTATING, prompting, fugged.

6 *2enditing.

[Figures reprefenting either words or things, and made either || immedi- ately by mens hands : qf by the imprefjion of Types.

. j WRITING, j penning,, drawing, engrojjing,Hand,Manuf rip Jubfcribe,

1 fuperfribe, inferibe, tr anfcribe,P offer ipt, inter line, indorf,fcrawlc 9 fcriblc, rude draught, Pen-man, Scribe, Writer^crivener, Secretary ,

7. < Clerk) Note, Ticket, Docket, Short-hand,Tachygraphy, Brachygraphyy Cryptography, ft ones hand, ft down , take or put in writing . , en-

ter into book, write out fair. 9 PRINTING, Imprint, Imprejj

.[PRINTING, Imprint , Imprejfion , typographical, Type , Pre&putin Print.

IV. The


i .%6

Corporeal AUion .

Part, II.

it. signs IV. The OUTWARD SIGNS OF our inward PASSIONS, areei- of PASii- ther

OKS. fMorepeculiar to Ibme fingle Paffions ; as to

r Admiration : or Settings Straining the |] eyes t or the brows.



Love : or Hate , expaujion : or cohtra&ion of the Mufcles of the Face.

£ SMILING, fmirking,fnearing, Jimpcr.

2 * 2 LOWRING, powting,fcowling,frowning, grinning , look^fovre.

\ Mirth: or Sorrow.

J LAUGHING, deride, ridiculous, giggle, chuckle, tihi, flicker. 'WEEPING, mourn, cry. Tears, wailing. Plaint, bemoan ^ bewail, la- ment, blubber, filed teats, whining.

\ De/ire : or Averfation 5 fcruihg the body : or wigging the head.


< 4 ‘ ^MOVING THE HEAD, Noddi | Hope : or Fear 5 excelled either by the .

|" Body or parts of it » being [| moved once and quicks or oft and con- tinuedly : or deprived of motion.

"7 ST A RTING, flinching.


AT RE MB LING, qualfing, /baking, fliudering, Trepidation, qufr I, \ veringifhiver, quaver, chatter.

I C RIGOR , Horrour , Stifnefl.

[ Breath || emitted fhort and quicks 0r emitted flow and long : or Juckedup juddenly.

S HUFF 1 NG, fnuff, puff,

‘ 2 $SlGHTNG, Sobbing.

£sVCKING up the breath, fitiff.

[ Confidence and Diffidence : or Boldnefl and Defair 5 Jetting the hands againfl the fldes : or heaving up the Jhoulders.



Anger: or Revenge', by emijflon of the breath 5 either || vocal, but not articulate: or articulate, but not diflinQly»inie]liSLihle. o 5GRONING. ,


More common to feveral Paffions by difcolouring the countenance |( with. a greater degree of Rednefl then doth belong tpthe natural hue 5 appertaining either to Joy, Love, Defire, but chiefly to shame : or elfe with ivbitenefl; belonging to thofe more violent perturbations’ of Grief, Anger, &c. but chiefly to Fear. •


°* c Pd LENESS, wan, ghaflly , pallid, appale v

V. The

Chap. IX.

Corporeal Attiori.


V. The general notions belonging to DEMEANOUR, Carriage, y. Deme^u Comportment, Deportment, Garb, behave, or the manner of our couverfmg ^OUR. towards one -another iq refpedt of fuch Corporeal A&ions as either cuftotn or common opinion hath put a decency and fitneftupon, are cori- fiderablejeither according to the *

fMore general kinds 3 denoting

’The endeavour to exprefi our refpeft to others $ fey || going id them .* or flaying bp them or for them. t S^ISlTlNG, go to fee.

' £ WAITING, Attend- ance, ferve , Retinue } Train, Valet, Page, Lac- quey, Hay for, tarry for, tend .

The congrefl or meeting of others , in refpeft of || our applying our fehei to them: or their receiving or ufing of s/s.

5 ADDRESSING, accofi.

^ENTERTAINING, treat, entreat, Ufage, reception, welcome.

[The kinds of geflure, or words, flguifytng rejpe&.

3. SALUTATION, car effing, accofl, greet , hail, commendations.

More fpecial kinds 5 confiftirig in

f Gefiures . . 1 ; ,

At a diftance 3 by bowing bf the || Body : Or Knees.

SCONGEEING, cringe, duc\, make a leg, crouch.

'* 2 CURCHEEING, Genuflexion.

Near 3 either more

Ruflic. • . •



Gentile 3 by joyning of the |j Body : or Face '. ' ■ *

6 . SEMbRAClNG, clafping, clip, coll, grajp , hug, twine,

  • £ KISSING, Smack:

! 1 words 3 whereby we exprefs .

Our || efleem of others: or our buff nef with them. '*

^COMPLEMENTING, Court linef, Car effing.

  • "'CONFERRING, comniune, parley, tali i, treat, Jpeak. with, Dia-


Oar good wifbes to others 3 either at otfr || firfl meeting: or parting. g JSALVEDICTION , accofl, greet, hail.

’ ^VALEDICTION, adieu, farwell, take leave.


Di - ed by v^ooQle




Corporeal A ft ion.

VI. GESTURE, Adion, Behaviour, Gefiiculation,Aiin:ic,dox.h denote fuch an minimal action or motion at alters the fit nation of the whole or parts of the body : To which the word POSTURE, Portion, may be ^mnexed by way of affinity fignifying the fltuation in which fuch moti- on it determined. The feveral kjnds of thefe Gcflures and Poftnres (which are applicable likewife to inanimate things) do refer either to the weights being incumbent upon famething.

Below it : And theie are diftinguilhed according to the imaginary /w- grefloi that body or the parts of it,

^Upward'-) either more Direct.

C RISING, arije, raife, roufi, ly up, jit up, fland up, rear , elevate, I. < lift up, erect, exalt, Resurrection

CSTANDINGj Station-ary ,F ooting,P erch, Rampant ,


I Keeping the height, and Inlarging the terms .

C STRETCHING, retching , extending, DiHentron, Expatflon, 2 . produce, Jprein,flrein, draw out.

cSPREAD, Jquare.

Harrowing the terms.

S SHRINKING, contracting, C oat ctation, conch, gather up.

3 ' ^CRUMPLE, fnudge. .

'Altering the height, by ^notion of the Trunks

S STOOPING, crouch % bow , bend, couring.

4* 2. LEANING, lollin&Recumbency .flay or rejl Upon:

Lower Limps*.


SITTING, fet, fedentary, feat '

SATE, fqkat.


A £ KNEELING, Genuflexion, fall onfatect.

. 6 - JON'KNEES.

[Downward 5 either mofO ,•

k 5-


Direct .

^FALLING, fell, cqft -down, flnhj

’ ^ LYING, Proflration, groveling , lay , along , all along, flat, level, couch ♦


8 .


REVERSE, inverted.

lAboveit', whether \\ partly : or wholly $ each of which is cither motion or reft.


CHANGING, pendent, fujpended, dangling.


  • v

' v^

Chap. IX.



T Hat A&ion Whereby things do pals from one place to another is ftyled HI.

MOTION, uieve, remote, Jiir , ,wag, feake, quetch , feog, jog , ftart, jerky budge,di/lodge, flitting, Jhufflc,jhuttle,rummage, agitation, going, pajfing,transferr, place, make * fiirr.

REST, Quiet ,flill, unmoved, repofe,fedate,fettle,ftand, Jldyfeand or ly fiill± Requiem , eaje, Paufe , acquiefee , fettle. Jit, lodge , lull. Sab haw, dead of the night 9 take teft.

By the word Motion here is meant Local Motion, which doth altoayes ac- company Corporeal Adion, upon which account many of the Species under this Head might,if there were convenient room for them, be reckoned under the former 3 but their places here may (erve fufficiently to exprels and diftin- guilh them. This Local Motion of bodies may be diftinguifhed into f Natural.

r Of the whole 3 more . ,

) General, relpeding the Rinds of Animal PROGRESSIVE MOTION. I. j Particular, referring to the VARIOtlS NOTIONS OF GOING. II.

Cof the parts 5 considered

SMore largely,**, belonging to ANIMAL ACTION IN COMMON. Ill £As referained to the Ads of 5 PURGATION. IV.


VIOLENT MOTION according to the feveral kinds of It. VI.

I. Kindsof ANIMAL PROGRESSION, may refer either to r Beafes 3 more'^perfed t or imperfeeQ.

VGOlNG, grejfeve, a Step, Pace, Cate.

‘^HALTING, Cripple, lame, limp, hobble, foundred.

Birds 5 th the

f Air 3 by the motion of the wings ? to which may be annexed that other | kind of Motion of the wings whereby Birds ufe to keep themfelves up ! in the fame place with little or no Progrejfeon.

  • 5 FLYING, flutteringjoar, volatile, toure.


\lFater 3 cither || upon it .* or into and under it.


5 * ^DIVING, duck., plunge:

Fife 3 either || more generally within the water : or more fpecially down- 5 SWIMMING, launch. C wards into itv


Infeds 3 as

Grafeoppers and Fleas, &c. the more || perfect} : or imperfect}.

^LEAPING, skipping, jump, ferisk->fepring, taper, curvet, bound.


Ants : or Worms, &c.

, SCREEPING, crawl, Jprawl, reptile.

’ ^WRIGLlNG, injinuate, ferue or wind hi&felf in. .

Though each of thefe Motions do principally belong to fuch kinds of li- ving Creatures, yet are they not lo to be reftraihed to them but that they may bfe truly alcribea to others.

ft, Thfc











if. II. The feveral MODES 0F GOING, may be difti'nguilbed into of GO- Self- motion or hi on of Animals 5

lNG. I \On an ordinary Plain or declivity 5 according to the f Leflcr : or greater degrees of V elocity .

C WALKING, Ambulation, Procejfion, Perambulation, go.jwade, Ford, 1. < to addle. Lacquey, Path, foot it, trip along. • (man.

I RUNNING^ galloping , Career , Courfe,Race , fiart. Goal , oUtJlrip,Foot - I Different Motion of the four /eg/} || either thofe of one Jidc move l together : or when they move croft and diagonally .

' S AMBLING, pacing, thoroughpaced.

? TROTTING, prancing.

Different Extenjions || ofthe body according to height : or of the legs ac- SST AL¥ANG,jetting flrutt, portly going. {cording to widenefi

£STRADLll>lG, firide,ajlride,divaricate.

[Different Modes, whether more [j regular : or irregular.


^STAGGERING , reeling. Vacillation, Tottering.

On a very fmooth Plain.

^SLIDING, glide, flipping.

d STUMBLING, Titubation, blunder, falter, lapje,flip, trip . .

I On a difficult Declivity , || upwards : or downwards.

, 5CLIMR1NG, clambering, Haling. b ’ ^TUMBLING.

\flhc being carried by fomething elle > on || the Land : or Water v SRID1NG, being horfed or mounted, taking horJe,Pofl-ilion. d SA ILING, Navigation, Voiage/aunchjtake water or Jhip, embark^, waft

iti.'MO- ’ -Animal MOTIONS belonging to the various parts, are either

TIONS j" More principal j

Of the Heart originally, and from thence of the Bloud in the Arteries : to which may be adjoyned the 4 lotion of the Guts.

WULSE,throb,beat. q


Of the Lungs , || more general , or the Sound made by feme impediment if I breathing through the Nofe.

I { RESPIRATION, breathingffetch wind.draw breath, takg breath .

[ ‘ISNORTiN Gffnoring.

. {.Lefl principal j of the

Mouth and Thorax 5 by the forcible*!! emilfion, or attraUion of Breath. SBLOWING,/*^, blaft.

2 ^CiION,fuppingJip,joop, drawing, emulgent, fluff up. j Diaphragm or Stomach ; agitated by a convulfive Motion II upwards.or

I 4 SSOBBING. {downwards*

I I 4 * ^HICCOUGH, rejr.

\ Jaws j by a

Repeated Motion in the \\firjl, or fecond preparation of Food.

^MASTICATION, chewing , champ, gnawing, browzing, mumble.

5 * ^RUMINATION, chewing the cud.

Single Motion 5 to which may be annexed that Motion if the mufculous parts of the body ,caufed by fomc flatulent vapours;

, S YAWNING U a P'>°S<it«tion,gafp.

  • ^PANDICULATION, retching, fetching, .




Di; tized by

Chap. IX.


34 1

\Tongue,<xr Threat. ,

Slicking, lap, flap.

'* £SW ALLOWING, gulp,ing urgitate, devour, poach, gobble.

IV. Thofc kinds of Allions whereby feveral Animals do tuft off tech txcremtntitious parts Iv - asarcoffenfiveto nature arc flyled PURGATION, voiding,evacuatin£,Exerement .fluxing'. GAr ' to which may be oppofed the Notion of BINDING , cofii-Pe, / fpptic , reflringent,aflringtnt.

Thefe Motions may be diflinguifhed by the kinds of parts fo amoved ; either the more f Vaporous and windy •, from the CHead. ... *

< i . SNEEZING, neeze, Sternutation.

( Stomach upwards, or Guts dove nit ar As*

fBELCHlNG, far break., breaking wind upwards. *

  • C FA RT ING, breaking wind doftnwards, Scape.

Serous and watrj ^ from the ,

Spyhole habit of the body.

SSW EATING, Exudation, diaphoretic, fudorife, all in a water.

    • ^TRANSPIRATION, breathing. Evaporation, Effluvium, Per fpiratich.


5 SPITTING ^Salivate • ion, Spittle,befpit,fpawl,bffpawljlaver, drivel, Flux .

4* ^ BLOWING THE NOSE, mucous, Snivel, Snot.

Lungs and C heft.


  • S-

\ c EXC R E ATION, baking, hemming.

Greater or lejfer Veins.

A 5 BLEEDING, opening a Vein,Phle(otomy, let blond, draw blood. Lancet. '

‘ ( SCARIFYING, lance.

ski*' * « 

\ BLISTERING, Veflcation,cattflic.

7 * (CUPPING. .

l Bladder .

8 . URlNING,p»y>,iw«^ water, hold ones water, ft ale, diuretic, Diabetes , Djfurj.

\Confiftent a nd grofs parts j from the j| Stomach upwards, or the G uts downwards. fV OMIT ING, f pc ft ing, rafting, difgorging, pu^e, regurgitate, retching.

^DUNGING, Purging bp fsege, going to ftool, fcour, "Draught , task, , laxative,. Loofnefs, muting, foluble, f Motive, Muck, , Ordure, Siege, Stool, Sir’ reverence, excrement, eafment,eafe the belly, Jakes, Privy, Houfe of office.

V. By RECREATION, piverfion, Paftime, Sport, Exercife , are meant thofc feveral v. re- lands of A&ions which are ufed/or divCrtifement or Exercife : to which may be annexed £Sf ATl * the word GAME, Play, Prize, figrtifying fuch kind of Exercifes, wherein there is an en- ~ Mind , depending upon ( deavoar/or Mafterj. Thefe are either of the

f Chance onelj v according to || the more general name : or that particular kind which is

I mod frequent bp marked Cubes.

SLOT, Sortition, Cuts , Ballot, caft or draft Lots.

  • 2 DICE, a Dfsoek-aS, rifle.

Chance and Skills

, r charts. •

2 * (.TABLES.

L Ski M onelj.



L Body in refped of

r The whole-, requiring •

I c Strength and Skid.


4* T BALLING, Tennis, Foot ball. Stool-ball, Sto- Bad. Pel-mel .

. ^ Agility and Skid.

  • j DANCING, Masking, Revets , a Bad, Morice, Mumming.


Strength, Agility and Skid •

a 1

I I"’

I Uft

6 SWKESTL1NG, i r *pli*g SI* *£}**£% h*nJf gripes, fir ike up ones heels* , ]

  1. ^FENCING, GUdiAtar^Tilting^eHrnafmni^jHftlingyfUp at weapon or foils.

f tThe Eje, er the Ear.

€$lGHT$ % ShcWf y Tb?4tre f Amphitbfatre r Pdtgc4nts,Speftdcle. *

' # c MUSIC, Scrtn*drflrein t aer t tun : t prelude, fruits. Cr$r$d i Fiddle- er^ Minfirtt % pUp on an In fir urn fit* li Vh Tbcf

24 -


Part. II.

^violent VI.The general kinds of VIOLENT MOTION, may be diftributed motion, according to the effects upon the thing moved, into fach as denote Tr inflation into a new place 3 comprehending

\ Motion together 3 when the Mover Juflains the thing moved : to which may be annexed By way of affinity that other A 3 ion , by which one thing ffiftains, or hinders the falling of another.

1 {CARRYING, bring,convey, bear, fervejmport, waft, weare about one ,

/ r . 2 portable, portage, porter, baggage , vehicle, fare, heer.packhorje.

C BE AR 1 NG, ppporting, fuftain, hold up, prop, fore np, flay up, up- I hold, carry, fland under, poulder up, bojfler up. .

L Amotion, when the Mover and Moved do at the beginning ceafe to be contiguous .• or Admotion, when the thing moved doth end in a contiguity of fomething elfe. ( co *t> fling.

5 CAST 1 NG, throwingfling, hurl, projt&, injett, ejetf, ding,pelt,tofs , 2 ‘ ^ CATCHING, apprehend, lay hold, fnatch, lay hands on, grapple, grafle, pamblc.

I Often returns into the fame place ; according to || greater or left degrees.

  • | ( SWINGING, Vibration, waving, brandifl), agitate, ex agitate, to and

3* s fio.flourifl),rock., fve ay, dangling, pendubtts, wield.

(.SHARING, guajjation , Concujfion, jogging, agitate, dandle, wag, fragflwaj.jott, totter, fatter, patter, waving.

$ome impre jion from the Mover i ' according to the more J General name : or that which is from an obtufe har d body.

STRIKING, Percujflon, fmite,bang ,beat, baji, bnfet, cuff, da/h, bit , fringe, thump, thwack., Blow, Stripe.flap flap, rap, tap, tyck., wince, 4. < fl>urn,boby box, fillip, whirret, per ke, pummel, punch, rebuff,repercnf- Jion,coUiJion,gnaJh,skittifl , interfere , let fly at,

_ KNOCKING, beating Blow, butt, Mallet, battering, jobbing, Ramm. [ Particular kind 3 by the end of a thing , more || obtufe, or acute. ^FOUNDING, braying, Contnfton, flump. 9 5 ^PECKING, Mattock., Pickax. j DiJJolution ofVnion in the fame body $ according to r The Stiffnefs , or Limberncfs of the body wherein it is made.

| ( BREAKING, FraSurc , Rupture, burfl, Cracky Crafl, Squafl , Dap ,

16. ) Flaw, Shatter, jhiver, crumble.

“i (TEARING, torn, dilacerate, rend, rent, ragged, tattered, flittered,

I jagged,pull in pieces.

[The Figure of the body by which it is made 3 either || an edge , or a point. GUTTING, Incijiongafl, flap, hack., bew, chop, rip, chip, fnipflice, flQion, figment, cari%flijjett , whittle, barb, pare, top, lop, curt ail, 7 * dock., parpe,kgen, Hat chet,, Pole- ax.

PBACKING, flubbing, Goad, fungentyunn in,thruft in, goar.




Chap. IX.

  • *



T He (undry kinds of works about which men of feveral Callings ule to i. IV.

imploy themjelves , are ufually ftyled by the name of '

OPERATION, Labor - iout , Pains, travail , Toil, moil , Turmoile , drhdg, dr oil , works handy-work., Ply , cooperate, take pains , lay about him .

PLAT, Sport, lufory, dally.

The(e are either

( More Common and general, relating to }$MECHANICAL FACULTIES. I. y^MIXED MECHANICAL Operations. II.

\ More Particular \ belonging to the providing of Food, AGRICULTURE. III.

) Houles, or Utenfils, FABR1LE Arts IV.

| Clothing, SARTORIAN Trades. V. •

• Phyfic, CHYMICAL, Pharmaceutical Operations. VI.

I. OPERATIONS belonging to the MECHANICAL Faculties.are ei- I. ME&i; ther (iich as do refer to the nical d-

Lever 5 for the forcible motion of a thing || upwards, or downwards. Ons?**

1 S LIF ™G, heave, hoife , advance , elevate, exalt \ Lever, Crow, Crane.

’ ^DEPRESSING, Slreinflrefi, neigh down .

Balance for y trial of the weight of things, or th e preponderating of one SUBRATING, balancing. r fat*

  • c. BIASSING, preponderate.

Wedge’, for the dividing of hard tough bodies-, to which may be op- poled the thrujling of them clofe together. a. 5 CL EAV 1 NG, rive, fit, fplit, Cleft ,Chink>Chap,Crevife.

5 * ^COMPRESSING, crib, gripe, pinching, prefifqueezJng, draining, wring, nip, twing. throng, crowd, crujb, Confipation, bulge.

Putty when the moVer and moved continue their Contiguity in II ad- motion, ox amotion.

rPULLlNG,/»/#<^, tow, tug, lugg,twing, twitch, draw, drag,Draugbt,

4* s hale, Revulfion , velli cation, dijlraCt . ,

(JHRVSTING, puJh,Jhove, drive , rujh, jujlle, repell, extrude , intrude, pref, throng, crowd, crUmm, farce, wedge in, vettnue, run 4 t,foin at.

Wheel’, by || continued turning about, or rolling backward or forward.

£ VERTIGINATING, turning round, Revolution, wheeling, Rotation 5. < twirl. whirl,Jjrinn, role round. 9

(y OLUT ATlONj tumbling, rolling^ wallow, welter, rock. ,* trundle waddle. 3

Screw 5 to which may be adjoyried for fome affinity the d&ion of that concave Inllrument ufidfor the projell ion of water.

, ^SCREWING, Winch.

■ * cSYRINGlNG,^«7>//»g, Jf>irt } f>outing.

^Spring 3 whetein there is a motion ■ of reditution • to which may be annexed for its affinity the forcible putting a thing out of its natural tenjion and pofture.

^SPRINGING, elafliral,fillip. ,

  • £ BENDING, bow. Warp, croohg.
  • « * kThofc


Digi , ed by




Part, it

II. Thofp are ftyled MIXED MECHANICAL OPERATIONS, which are not appropriate to arty one kind of Art, but are general and common to many* Thefe do concern the.

^Uniting or feperating of fever al bodies 5 confidered more / Simply.

\ ( BINDING, gird, Band, Bond, Bundle, Packet JFar die ,fheafe faggot ,

\ I* < tack, lace,fipaddle.Jwarhing, truffing,girt, furcingle.

) l LOOSENING, unbind undoefblve , lax, flacky relaxation.

1 Relatively to the affettions of binding 5 viz. f alining of the bond || by 4 knot, or confufed kinds of knots.

2 STY IN Q, Knot, Node, bracing .buckling, coupling fajining, kgsit furling. C TANGLING, entangle , hamper , ravel, perplex, fnarled,felter, in- tricate) involved , intrigues , extricate , complicate , infnare , Laby- rinth.

1 { Concealing , or manifefting 5 either more

  • . *

j r COVERING, heal, Veil,fhroud , J*/?, whelm , ft op. Canopy, Hood,

<» ) Lid, .palliate , doakg, overlay , overrun , overfhadow.

]* j VNCOVERING, open, expofe , difcover.Jhew, reveal, nakgd, unmask^ j (. unveil.

' special 5 relating to Containing bodies.

r SHUTTING,/^, clofe, incloftng, immure, exclude, ficlude, reclufe „ ) obftruS, IVinksfola up, pinn vpfowe up, feal up, cor kg up, lute up * ^ ) lockup, put to the door .

v OPENING, breaking up, difclofi, difplay, Expanfton, gap, Slade, Aper- ture , unftop, expofe, lay or Jet open.

Putting of things || nearer together , or farther afunder 5 either r t More general.

J q GATHERING* Co Sell -ion, affemble , convene, compile , /et^,

ox money. Receiver, rake or fcrape together , rally, glean, pickup. •

SC ATTERING, difcuft, difperfe, diffipate, ffrinkfe , ftrew, infperfton.

I Afore particular j with reference to the \ Capacity of .

I f Coujifient bodies, and fuch as are not fuppofed to be contained.

| <■ HEAPING, accumulate , ty «p, flow, pile, Stacks Mow,

. ^ 6. CtoA* Rick, Shock., Drift, Dunghill, mixen.

I j (SPREADING, diffufe, Expanjion, difplay, Suf Upon, ftrew, run, j plafb, lay cloth.

< iNluid Bodies , and fuch a3 are fuppofed to be contained in fbme* thing.

\ FILLING, replenijh. Repletion, full, plenary, fated Jlow, cram,

7 - \ ftuff,farfe,recruit.

C EMPTYING, evacuate , vacant , Vacuity , rid, void, exhauft,

• ■ C hafm, clear, lankg, lave, draw dry.

[A/otiou of bodies, chiefly fluids according to (j the more general name : or that which is involuntary , and beftdes intention. o SPOURING, Effufon, Infufton,pufh,guggling,yewer, Tunnel.

  • C S PI L LIN Q,fhedding, run out feet h over.


Chap. IX.


2 45

III.OPERATIONS belonging to ACRI C ULTURL'.jdo concern either ni. AGRI- I The Ground , or Land 5 in refpett of , cUvruk*.

r Loofnitig it s either || byfingleperfons : ox by the help of drawing teafis .

j ^DIGGING, delve, breakup, ftit, (fade.

, „ PLOWING, tilling, breaking up, coulter, fiare.

< Breaking the clods , andfntoothing the Jurface.



Helping or dire&ing the Fertility of the ground, by Jj adding /bate new mailer, or removing the impediments of noxious Plants.

SM ANURING, cultivate , dunging , matting, (oiling, Tilth, culture . ! ^WEEDING. . . '

The Crane or Seed , chiefly of Herbs ; in refpe& of ^ Tutting it into the ground, or taking it off from the ground upon its turity.

^ SHOWING, feint nate.

  • ^ R EAP1NG, mowing. Crop , Harvefi , Sithe, Sickle, fiubbbtjwarth .

Separ ating of it from II the fir aw, or teller husks-.

- ^THRESHING, Flail.

, [' d WINNOWING, Fan, Ventilation.

.{.The Propagation of frees or shrubs ctiiefty, by

f Putting the Root efthe Plant in the ground 5 to which may be adjoyned theputting of Grain figregately into the ground, which is fometimes U- fedforPulfe. # '

s 5 PLANTING, implant.


Joyning a part of one Plant to another 5 either ff to the top of the body, or fome branch being cut, or to the tides cf the body. . * ,

_ SGRAFTlNG } /»^r^, imp.


- Xf^tting off I uperfluona tranches 5 to which may be adjoyned the cutting down of the whole. "

8 S PRUNING, dr effing, cutting, coping. ‘ c FELLING, grubb, wood-fall.

IV. By





IV rA- *1V. By FABRILE OPERATIONS, (Smith, Carpenter, Mafia, &c.) BRiLtOPE- are meant all fuch kind of works as do primarily concern our Houles or > rations. Utcn fij S} whether for neceffity, or ornament .• to which may be ad joyh- ed thole Operations which concern the making of Earthen ware, llyled FIGULATORY, Potter. Thefe are diftinguilhable into fgch as denote 'Diflolution of Continuity cither by \Seperatingof feme thin parts from the furface of a body by rubbing with an edge •• or breaking the body it Jei f into minute parts by percuf- lion with lome obtufe body.

5SHAVIN G,fcraping,ra%e,razour. .

, U P CONTUSION, bruifing, pounding, ftamping,braytng,mortef,pmle, Dividingfrom body fome finall parts 5 cither || by affrittion upon a ft one , or with an iron inflrument.

5GR1NDING, attrition , Grift , guerne,MiU.

2 - ?FILING,fi^e.

Dividing the parts of a body , by cutting it, either || in roundijb cavities , or in oblong feifliitres.

( BOR I N G, perforate, for animate, pierce, Bodkjn,Drir,Awk, Gimlet, 3 . < Wimble, Trepann, Awgre.

■ C SAWING, Saw, whipfaw, &c-

  • l Vniting either of metalline or other bodies by fome tbtrd body adhering.

SSODERING, Cement, luting.

4 * ^GLUING, cementing, glutinous, conglutinate.

Shaping of belies into particular figures } either by Hammering, or melting. tm 5 FORGING.

■f* ^CASTING ,ihelt, founding, fuftle,molde.

< Cutting, either {{ afilid and bulky , or a flat figure*

, S CARVING, Sculpture.

, ^GRAVING, ingrave, etching. _ j

j V Cowprefling of a foft body? or circumagitating either a toft /or hard 1 " body.

5 KNEADING, moulding, plaftic.

7 *5TURNING,£4*A

L Adorning the fitrface of the body , either by || variety of colours : or ad - ding an external luftre to it.

S PAINTING, limn, draw, enamel, fucus, penjil.

  • ^VARNISHING,/**.



Chap. IX.


V. SARTORIAN OPERATIONS do concern either the • Preparation of fluffs |» by

Making feveral vegetable oj^nimal fubftances into Thred.

5TWTSTING, tortion, wmith, veritbing, twine, win ding.

  • £ SPINNING, Spinjler, Rock,, Dtftajf.

i Jojxiugfitcb Thred s together into f loth.

J (. WEAVING, Texture, Contexture , Loom , Web, braid , woven, Hur - i. < die , Shuttle , Wicker, Matt.


Tbickning and colouring fueh Cloth. *

5 FULLING, milling, Fuller.

^.DYING ,ftain, TinQure, tinge, ingrain.

Making of Stum into Veftt ; either by Uniting necejfary, and cutting ojfunneeejfary parts. %

(SOWING, Stitch,. Seam -per. Suture, Welt, Needle, dearn, quilt, 4. ^ dram cloth, rip.

C CLIPPING, SciJfors,p>ear,Jhorn , cut.

Placing together the parts in || greater, or lejjer plicatures.

5 FOLDING, wrap, lap.pleit, clinching, clutching, t doubling, invelop £ CURLING, criming, }r idling, furling. * •

\Preferving of luch Studs or Vefts clean ; common like wile toother things.

. r^the help of Water or liquor 5 either when

j Things are put into , and agitated, in the water 5 to which may be op- posed the putting upon them other bodier of a more gr of confidence 5 ftyled

WASHING, fowr Lotion , rince, Laver , Laundrefs , gargling. SMEARING , daubing, anoint, ointment, UnSion , greage , ehrifm •, and many with [be~] as befpaul,jf>it,]fue,Jj>rink!c.

1 Water is imbibed and the thing ; to which may be adjoyned,for its affinity, th c putting of things into liquor, in order to the communicating offome new quality to fitch liquor. t SOAKING ,fieeping, embrening, macerating, watering Land,&c. '

7. < bathing jmbibe,finkg, fop, brewis, embrew. t INFUSION. watering Fi(b, &c. macerate, DecoHion, impregnate.

By external Motion of or upon themj || more, or left violent.

( RU BBING, fcrape, FrHJion, Frication , ferub, chafe, Attrition ,

8. s fret. gall Jcowr, taw. grate.

(, WIPING, firoke, terfe, handkgrchief, towel, napkin.

By Infiruments to leperate thofc minuter bodies which adhere to the fuperficies. s

S BRUSHING, Jweeping, Beefom, Whisk., Bruffi, Broom, Mauk^n. ^COMBING, carding, currying.

6 .



Vi. By

Digit*zed by t^ooQle






. VI. By CHYMICAL OPERATIONS , are meant fuch kind of works as tend to the charging of bodies, with refpeft to the Pofition and Figure fif their min titer farts. By this, amongft other ends, Medicaments areu- fually prepared 3. for which reafon , tAfe kind of Operations ftyled PHARMACEUTICAL, belonging to tre Apothecary, may be hereunto annexed.

The Operations belonging to this Head, do concern the changing and preparing of Bodies 3 either liy

j Infiruments , for the reduction of them into minute parts 3 |] by compref [ion and afiriotion betwixt two hard bodies : or by feparating the parts fe reduced, through a porous Plain. x ^GRINDING.

‘^SIFTING, boltings Sieve, piercing ranging .

Liquors 3 either

  • r Changing the Confidence of bodies 3 by reducing them into || a mote

liquid: ora more dry couffience.

~ DISSOLUTION, melt, liquefie.dijfirlve,thaw , fufil,flux, run about . COAGULATION , congealing) Clod , Curd, Geliy , Clutteted , Gore , Concretion , grumous.

^Dividing hard bodies into minute parts 3 |j by an acid liquor, through which fuch parts are difperfed : or the finding down of fact parts to the bottom , by the mixture of (bme other liquor.

S COR ROS I ON, eating, fretting , gnawing, caufiic.

3t ^PRECIPITATION, fettling.

[ Separating of thefe parts from the liquor 3 bypajjing them through d po- roses body 3 either || downward : or both upward and downward.

- ^STRAINING, Percolation, Jqueeze, Colender.

7 ^FILTRATION, filtre.

Heat 3 applicable chiefly either to

Liquid bodies 3 which being kept for feme confiderable time in a gen- tle heat, upon this ulualJy follows 3 either the Loofning the inward parts of fuch bodies, fo as by agitation they work one upon another 3 Ityled


' cFERMEN TATION, wor k, fret, Leven, Teafi, Farm, Rennet. Separating of the finer parts, by railing them up in the form of a Liquor : or the farther Jeparating of the more fiirituous from the watery parts of this liquor.

/ *5 DISTILLATION , Still, Limbeck , cohobation; ^RECTuTiNG.

\Hard and folid bodies 3 either by

Driving away the more watery and volatil parts, and leaving the more folid : or raifing the volatil parts in the form of a Salt ♦

5 CHARRING, chark. Tinder.

^SUBLIMING, sublimation.

Burning away the combufiible parts of a body : or turning the parts re- maining after fuch burning into a liquor. s SCALCINATION.

‘ ^LIXIVIATION, deliquiate , Lye, Buck


Chap. X. Oecotiomicd Relation.


Concerning Relation more privkte, namely, I. Oeconomical or Family Relation , together with the fever kl kinds of things relating to t'hoje in that capacity , either as, II. Pofieflions 5 or, III. Provifions*

T H E Species of Relation are the moft numerous amongft the Tables of Accidents, by reafon of their mixed natures, comprehending both Subfiances. , Qualities and Allions, as they are circumftantiated by lome pe- culiar relpe&s, according to which they are here conlidered.

More private Relation may bediftinguifhed into fuch as denote $ either ( Thofe Perional refpe&s or A&ions, which belong to the firft kind of Ado- 'S ciation of Men into Families 5 called OECONOMICAL RELATION. vThofe 1

LThofe things which are neceflary to the well being of Families , either as 5 POSSESSIONS.



T Hat refped wherein one man may ftand to another, according to the I.

firft and moft natural kind of afiociation 'of men into Families, is ftyled OECONOMICAL RELATION, F entity, Houjhdld, domefiic, menial, liauf, Home.

The Notions belonging to this Head, may be diftinguilhed into fuch as fig- r Perional Relations, of ' ( nifie j either



C Oeconomical Duties referring to Education 3 confiding either in SWORDS. V. .


1. Thole who partake of the fame Bloud, are ftyled Relations of CON- *• C0N ' SANGUIN ITY , Kin, kindred, Bloud, Houfe , Stem, Stock. sangui.

Thefe are diftinguilhable into fuch as are; either more

i r General s denoting fuch as have || preceded, or fucceeded.

PROGENITOR, Anceftor , Forefather, Extraction, Parentage , Elders , i.< Pedegree, Genealogy.

1 (DESCENDANT, Lineage, Off- firing. Race, tffue. Progeny , Generation, Po * ferity , Stocky, Freed, Kind, Extraction , stent, fpring frohi.

ISpecial $ whether

! Dire8\ \\afiending, or Defending.

C PARENT, Sire, Father , Mother, Dahi, paternal, maternal, Grandfre^

U < &c. Orphan.

C CHILD , IJJue, Son, Daughter, Brood, Litter, filial, adopt,' "Pofihkme.

Lateral 5 either |[

C Afcendino , or defending.

} 2 J SUNCLE, Aunt.

/ ’’ £NEPHEtr, Niece.

Equal ;

C Immediate •, whether || by both Parents , or by oke y 5 BROTHER, Sifter- hood.


Mediate either || Brothers Children, of theft Defendant/.

^URST COSIN, • German .

5 ' /COSIN, K k II. Thofa

Digitiz >y v^ooQle

S 50



Occonomical Relation, fait, tl.

II. Thofe refpe&s which do either refer unto or arifefroma ftate-of Marriage, whereby perlonS' are mutually iogaged to Fidelity and Con- Paneyt, are ftyled Relations of AFFINITY, Alliance, Kindred.

Thefe ate diftinguiftmble into fuch as do Concern either 'That date preceding whereby perfons arerendred capable of tt as to their || net being married : or net having coupled with any other perfon.

, . JCOELEBS, Single life , Bachelour , Damofcl Maid.

1 '? VIRGIN, Maid. A ,,

The endeavour after Marriage > wherein. if leveral peFfons fraud in com- petition, there doth thence arife this double Relation.

SSUTER, Par amor, Smit-heart,Mifirefi, Servant, tfioo,canvafe com,

, VRl VAL, Corrivdl, Competitor, , (make love;

\“fhefirfi beginning of this Affiance, by a mutual PromrlC in order to the eonfummating of it.

3 ♦ BETROTHED, contracted, Spoufe , efpoufe, Affiance, fere.

The full completing of it by all its Solemnities.

4. MARRIED* Matrimony, Wed- ding. Match, Mate, nuptial, conjugal, Husband, Wife , Tokg-fttfoio, Spoufe,tfide-groom, Bainl, Dolter. Bygamy, Polygamy, Hymen , Epithalamium.

[jhefiaie refultmg from a delation of it by Death. _

5. WIDOWER* Dowager yReldt, Jointer.

III. Relations of SUPERIORITY, Betters, and INFERIORITY, “Underlings, do originally belong to Families, in which was tfte fifft kind of Government, and from thence are derived all the fecomfary Relati- ons which follow ; refpe&ing either

r Alin or s ; as to their Souls and Religion.

5 GODFATHER, Godmother, Goffip, ft and for.

  • • 2 godchild . ’*

Bodies • m refpe& of || nourijhing : or being nourifhed. •

5 FOSTERER, Nurfe, educate.

■ 2 * NVRSLIKG . t ;

I Minds i || injlrutting : or being injirutted in any Science o* Art.

TEACHER, Mafler,Tutor,inftitnte,inJiru£l,inform/ndo 8 rinaie, Dotfrine, Document , docil,Leflure, Lefien t train,difcipline, enter, ^ read to, Rabbi >

LEARNER, Apprentice , Difciple, Pupil , Scholar , Puny, Neophyte, young beginner , Student, dates.

SGUARDIAl^, Tutor } Tuitiott.

4 “ ^PVPlL, Minority, Ward jhip, under- age, non- age.

Majors or Minors 5 in refpeft of

r t Habitation ’■> a sjupremc: or fubordinate whether in a relation Afore fixed. . ■ , •

f MASTER OF THE FAMILY, Houfe-wife,' Good mati of the 5. \ houfe.

(DOMESTIC, of the houjhold, menial.

More occafional.

t HOST, Landlord, boord, tabling, Jbjourn, entertain , iitw, Hojff/- 6 * s tality,' In holder. ; ,

LgVEST , Boarder, Sojourner , quarter, lodge , lie , tabling, at livery.



Chap. X. 0 economical Relation .

(Power to c^mhtand: or Duty fo obey.

4 £ MASTER, Lord) Sir, Mijirefi, Dative, Madam, Lady:

< ' * C.SERFANT, Servitor, Mtniiler, Man,Ma,d, Handmaid,fervile, ad- I mini ft er , H/W, Journeyman, Prentice , IVaiteir 3 Lacquey , Footman j

Page , Livery .

Bent fits || conferred: or received.

, C BENEF ACTOR, Court efie, Kindneft, Favour , Service , Good turn , 8 . < Pleafure, gratifie, oblige, ingage, good office, Patron.

(. BENEF IC I ART, beholding, bound,obliged,ingaged bumble Servant. General obligation of||/>r<tfetf/#g others: or being under Jitch ProteUion .

SPATR ON -age, jupport, dedicate. .

° C DEPENDANT ', Retainer, Cadet, Client, Follower, Retinue,wa it.

IV. Relations bf EQUALITY or Fellowlhip (as was (aid concerning iv.EQuiit- thofe of the former Difference •) do originally belong to peffons in an TV. ©economical capacity 5 though they are hot in the ftri&eft fenfe to be fo confined, but they are likewife applicable to perions upon other con- siderations.

Thefe are founded * either upon

'Mutual Love : or Hatred, which Should be chiefly upon the acfcount of Vertue : or Vice.

C FRIEND -Jhip, Confident , Privado, intimate, all one, being in with,

I. s Amity , amicable , befriend, great with, jin be in with. kind, at tone.

• C ENEMT, Adverjary , Foe, Ant agon ift, Oppofite, Opponent, Feud,Hoftihty,

Odds, Spite , Enmity, being out with Jail out with , adverfe party. j Converfation with others, chiefly upon the account of Piealure 5 or Se- .

1 gregation from others.

C COMPANION, Compeer, Ajjociate, Fellow Match, Mate, Con fort.So- £ J ciety, Soci able- nefi Comrade, Colleguefiomplice, Concomitant, Gojjip, h * j ajjociate , accompany , Crew. Gang , k§ep company with.

C SO LIT ART, lonefom, a 'one^onely, reclufe, foie, Jingle, Solitude, by it ft If,

. retired, defolate, fiver al,ajide.

. hear : or remote Habitation.

SNEIGHBOUR, adjacent, vicinity. ,

i {.FOREINER, Alien, exotic, extraneous, peregrine, outlaudifti.

■ Particular Knowledge : or Ignorance of others.

, S ACQUAINTANCE, Familiarity, converfant.

‘ J £ STRANGER-^ ft range, alienate, unacquainted,uncouth, alien.

, ^Dealings with others . f Joint 'y, as one party.

J 5* PARTNER, Copartner , Partisan, sharer, impart, joyn, comma J me ate, Communion , halve ifjoyntfiock.) partake.

C Mutually ; as party and party.


V. The

0 economical Relation.

Part. II.

V educa V. The chief Oeconomical Duties (which are likewife %pplic. ble to TION fpeci- other Relations) are thofe which concern the due Government of per- aHy. relating f or $ j n t y s ca p ac ity, chiefly of the inferiour and younger fort, ftyled by to WORDS. the general name of EDUCATION, inflitute, traits, breed , bring np.femi-

Education Duties confifting in WORDS do refj>e8 either 1 'A thing to be done ,or forborn , exprefling toothers our Dfefire$,or their Duties.

Simply 5 to perfbns 1 Inf erior •, |] for it : or againft it.

(COMMAND, require, bid, irnpofe, charge, injoyn, exalt, appoint, f ) prescribe. Mandate, Precept , Injunction, Commandment, Impe- / rative, Warrant, will. • .

C FORBID . Prohibit ion, interdift , inhibit, barr, contraband,coun -


< Equal j jj for it : or againfl it.

/ PERSUADE, exhort, fuafory, move , pref, win , cajole. Motive,

< ) inducement, du8ile,exor able, pliable, flexible, draw in, Elo-

’ ) quence.

, I ( DISSUADE, dehort.

Superior •, ^ for it: .or againjl it.

! INTREAT, befeech,pray, dejire, crave, ask, petition, fupplicatc, . Population, invite, implore, obtejlation, Obfecration, requeji, fue.fupplicate, folicit,pre$, urge, infant. Importunity ,conjure, exorable , inexorable.


. ^Argumentatively ( i. ) with teutons reprefenting it chiefly as f Honejl: or dtfkonefl.

S ADVISE, counjel, confult,w>iJh one.

4* £IVARN, admonifh , Monition, advertife, Caution, Item, Precaution, premonijh, notifie, Provifo , Cavpat , forewarn.

\ Pleafant : or unpleafant.

t ALLURE, tempt , tice, entice, till , drill, inveigle, 1 move, draw full, 5 . < lure, lead, tole, train, egg on, win, trepan , baitfale.

IdETERR, dijhearten, fright.

{ Profitable : ox hurtful.


’ £ THREATEN, Comminution, menace, denounce:

A thing already done 5 exprefling our || liking : or dijhke of it 5 whether 1 To themfelves , in their prefence.

j 5 COMM END, applaud, extoll,magnifie, hem, recommend,

j 7* ^REPREHEND, reprove, rebuke, chide ; blame, check) fab, quip,

5 rate, rattle , contr oil, take up,jhent,find fault, fhrive,Redarguti -

on, culpable, Satyr, fcold,

\To others, in their abfence.

C PRAISE, Fame , Glory, Renown, Encomium, extol, ex alt, laupabk, 8. ^ plaujib.’e, applaud commend, Doxology, Panegyric.

( DISPRAISE , difeommend.

VI. Oecono-


  • r ' *

Chip. X. Oeconomical Relation.

2 5 ?

. ED ™ N . confiftiog chi^TTT v,. £ Duci. ULLU5) may be dutinguifhed into fuch as are either tion ,

j Precedent • figoifying the |] ojjfling .* or hindring another in the DE£DS ’

• 'Way of doing

DIRECT, Jieer, guide, lead, govern.

SEDVCE 3 tempt, err-or,afiray, mijlead, deceive ^delude,

4 , 5 ", invei tfe> Miftahg, Overfght, FaOacy,SophiJlry,dratv

in, lead ajide , Fools Paradife.

[Will of doing.

\ INCOURAGE, animate , hearten , comfort Jolace,abett Jack, cheer ,

/ -rhp+ifa /Za nil . r* ■ . . , ^ ^

1 .


a - ■ ™ * lufnjuri'yjvtacc^vmpacki cheer

2. < -chenjh, countenance,fet on, l land by, patronise, quicken ,

C DISCOURAGE , dijhearten , difanimate , weaken, dijeomfort baulk , « daunt, droop, quail, out of hearty crejl-faln, exanimate.

i Concomitant 3 fupporting againfi Evil.

3 I rajl : or prejent.

1 JCOMFORT, ConfiUtion,filace.

C DISCOMFORT, difconfolate, uncomfortable »

Prefent, or future whether of j 5 either || /» whole : or /» part.

I S M * IN T* 1N f - f“ft di ”J*rt'’r‘>]i*d,ks'P>prKicU fir, Suiffluct,

I ^ mMce > ExkibitisHjcnji.., Annuit^,Scho-


loqJSTSoffi £**»*•*** V*t,fO«A,

' Pe f* J 5 II endeavouring to better them by punifimentt while there it hope or ceajing to punijh them as being pali hope.

6 - |«WNG C ™ER- <*****

Event of fuch dealings 3 by making them || better : or worfe. PREFORM, reclaiming, mend, convert, corre£f.

HA RDENj inc orrigible, indurate, obdurate, feared.


  • 54 ,


a 1 1 . jyy OECONOMICAL POSSESSIONS, Eftate poods, Subflance,Stoc{, K Ability, Chattels Jsold, injoy, feized of, occupy, indow, in hand, Outer upon, are intended fuch kinds cf things as are neceilary upon feveral accounts fot the dfe.prefetvation, and well-being of a family. And though divers of thefe things, as Land, Buildings, Bsc. be common as Well to Political and Ecclefiaftical Bodies, yet do they(as was faid before)originally belong to

  • Families to which all other Aflociations were fublequent, and in which

they were founded. To this may be ad joyned that other Notion fignify- ine the benefit accruing to us by our Pofleffions, ftyled REVENUE, In-

come, Intr ado, Patrimony, Rent, Profit, Endowment, Steward,Fee,Vai Is, Perqni-

Thefe Pofleflions do refer either to things {fitesy he proceed.

^Natural, as LAND. L 2 Artificial ’, whether

Buildings, confidered according to their 5 KINDS* II*




[ Things ferviceable far 5 CARRIAGE. V.

^FURNITURE, Vtenjils. VI.

f. PoiTcfsions I. That part of the Earth wherein any man hath a propriety, is ftyled LANDS. LAND, Earth. And if he commonly refides upon it , *tis called his DWEL- LING, Habitation , Manfion,Home , inhabit ,refide, Inmate, Defert.Wildernefi, Solitude, abide, fettle, Jiay.

The feveral Notions belonging to this, may be diftinguifhed into nich asfignifie

Both Land and Habitation, || fnfficient for one Family: or a fmall aggre- gate of Jucb.

CFARM* Grange, Mefuage, Tenement, Tenant, Copyhold. r l ' 2 MANOR, Lordjhip, Pillage, Thorp, Homage, Tithing, Liberty 4 r Land alone’, according to the-

General name : or the name denoting a larger extent of it.

^ ^ FIELD, Grounds, Croft.

I 2 * 2 FORREST, Chafe , Verderer, Purliew.

'Particular kinds-, diftinguifhable according to their j Vjes -, either for ||

> Herbs: or Fruit-Trees. .


I* ^ORCHARD, Nurjeiy.

Corn: cr Hay.

5 AR ABLE, tilled Land, ear Land , Fallow, Lay Land.

4 * ^MEUOW, Mead.

Tame Beajls : or wild Beajls.

SPAS JURE, Down, Lawn, Herbage, fiayward, Leaje, Panage. ^ PARK, Warren , Paddock., Keeper.

\FiJh : or Fowl.

S FOND, Stew.

? DECOY. F expel 1


Chap. X.

Pojfeffiom . ,

f [Fewel 3 || greater : or left.

I SNOODS, Sylvan ,Thicket, Cops, Crave,

' "Sheath.

\ Qualities', being either of

(Equal wet nefi 3 \\fromfreJh: or from fait Water.

>0 S^EN.


^ Unequal wet nefi • whereof the excels is either Jf on the Jurface : or under the furface, within the Land.

$MOOR, plqfhy, flabb.

    • £BOGG, Quagmire, Slough, Fafinefi.

II. Thofe kinds of Helps or Contrivances whereby men prefervethe Fla - n. build- ces of thiir abode from the Injuries of Weather, and other Inconvenien- ING * cies,areftyled by the common name of BUILDINGS, Edifice Structure*

Fabric, ere&, Archite&ure, Superftru&ure,Subfiruffion.

TV which may be oppofed the Notion of buildings decayed , called MINS, dilapidate , demoUfh , raze , Difolution, Wrack* Rubble. Rubbith , faU, break .» Jubvcrt, throw down , lay Waff. - '

Thelfe may be diftmguKhed, according to their ltles,into filch as are fir

'Ordinary habitation 3 whether || immoveable 
or moveable.

CHOUSE, Manfton, Mefuage, Cote. , Cottage, Hut, Shed , Hovel Ledge, i l.< Place, domefiic, Ining. 3 ^ * .

CTENT, Tabernacle , Pavilion , Booth, BoWre.

Grandeur: or Strength. j S PALACE, Seraglio .

CASTLE, Cittadel.

‘ ***** and beauty^ either w//A|| 4 flat: or fharptop.

, JTOWER, 7*rre*. J r °P

< S*^STEEPLE, Pinnacle, shaft, spire.

i Religious worjhip 5 fdr Invocation or Preaching : or /ir Sacrifice. j C TEMPLE, Church, chappel , San&uary , Synagogue , Catbi-

\ 4X dral^Chancel) g>uire.


urmth, Cleanlfnefi or Health 3 whether by [| warm Air : or Wi/er.

, -\STOVE, Hot houfe.

, 5 ?BATH, Stew, Bain, drencht.

JPaJJage 3 either

ground 3 || wer the Water : or dry Land.

> SbRlDGE, Pontage.


[ Upon the ground 3 denoting || p4^ge betwixt Buildings : to

I rcTo annexc< * more general term of the paflage place.

1 j - S STREET, Piazza ^ Lane 5

I *, AY> Cauftvay, Courfe, Avenue, conVey ^grefi, Ally, Tatb,P*fi~

lUnder ground. ■

{.tor Perfons.

< 8. VAULT, Gro//.

( F^r Water 3 1| ufeful ; or fuperfluous.

SAQUiEDUCT, Conduit, Water- courfe. . cSINK, -Jewer, Kennel.

nt. io y



III-TotheGREATER PARTS OF which BUILDINGS docon- fift, and into which they may be diftribatfcd, may beadjoyned that ufu- al kind of divifion ftyled BAY.

Thefe are either ‘ More general j concerning the

Main defign of the Timber- worh.: or the dividing pari.

SFRAME, Comp ages, skeleton.


Principal places i whether Wflgregate i 1 or aggregate.

• ^ { ROOM, Chamber , Cabbin , Cell, Hall , Parlour, &c. Kentiel, StJ,

< 2. < Stable , &c. Lobby, Loft , 8tc.


[Vacancies or VaJJages 5 |j without : or within.

0 5COURT, Backzfide. t 3# J ENTRY , Paflage, enter.

More particular 5 djftinguifhcd according to their Ufes and Situations * ’Support. ( (being either jfor

7 Intern . . v

! Lower whether || erccf .* or tranjverfi.

^FOUNDATION, Ground work^, Subfiruction,Bafe 3 Bottom , 4 - S fundamental underpinning, ground-pinning.

FLOOR, Ground, Deck , Continuation.

Higher 5 || erect .* or tranfverfe.

"j ( Oblong and narrow. < . ; 1

) _ S PILLAR, Column, Pojl,Jambe, rile, Pillcfler. ■ f £BEAM, Sparr, Rafter, Mantle, Tranjbm, Summer.

4 {Flat; or Curve. -

I ' , 5 WALL, Sepiment, immure , counter mure, mural

  • ^ ARCH, Vault, embowed.

Extern |) put to : of built to the part which it fupports . * ■

( PROP, till,fupport , uphold, flay up,Jhore up, Jhoulder tip, under - 7. ■) prop, under Jet.


Covering-, whether || highefl : or Jubotdinate. o SROOF, Covering, 'lilt, Penthoufi, Leads .Thatch, Tiling, Slate, '

  • JSIELING. (Shingles.

■ Warmth either || Simple : or with a Tube to it forpajfageof the Smoke.


    • ^CHIMNEY, Tunnel, Mantle.

IV. LESSER PARTS OF BUILDINGS are diftingaifhable into fiich as are ferviceable s either for

rrafcge upwards and downwards being either 11 immoveable: or ntoveable.


) u J LADDER, Seale.

( Pajfage in and out 5 either of\\ Perfons : or fre/It ^/rjconfideted according e whole. . (to the

J £DOOR, Gate, Port-er, Wickpt, Poflern, Hatch, Torch, Portal.

/ *C WINDOW, Cafement, Balcony. v Parts relating to a Door chiefly, or Window, j " Without it ; || above ; or below.

5THRESHOLD, Sill,Groundflll.

•'■^JUNTEL. . Vfon


Chap. X.


iVpon it 3 for the ~—~

'Opening and Jhuttin^ of it.

{Afore artificially \\the fixed: or hole part.

) 1 LOCK, Padlock.

^ 5 4 ‘ jKEY.

! ^ Afore Jimple 3 to open || from within onely i or both waits. f BOLT, Barr, Sparr.

5 * 1 LATCH.

Motion of it 3 || concave : or convex.


6 * ^STAPLE, Uodii

'% By CARRIAGE is meant the Conveyance of things from one place v Tkiogsfol to another: to which may be annexed byway of affinity the Notion of carriage; the thing to be carried , BURTHEN, {Load, lade, overate. Fare ,

Praight^chargefurchargefuggagefumbe^disburthen, exonerate, overcharge 3 .

The provifionsof this kind do ra/4/e to fA/ag/confidercdas ( overlo ad. )

Whole', being ufcd for the Carriage either of Perfons or Goods, and moving either {With Wheels',

( Four Wheels 5 either II the more elegant : or the more plain.

)_ SCOACH , Chariot.

J ) eWAIN, Waggon.

It ( Two Wheels ; either \\the more elegant : ox the more plain. a JCHARIOT.

  • c^ARTj Carr , Dr ay, Tumbrel.

Without Wheels 3 being either to be

( Carried between the Movers ^either II the more elegant'.ot the more plaid.

. ) 5 SEDAN. Litter.


C Drawn along after thetn.

< 5 sled.


P arts of the thing upon which the weight is drawn or carried 3 ferving cither for

( Panning to the Animals which draw or carry 3 ufcd either || double : or ) SSHAFT, Thittt. , . {fau:

^Motion-, being for figure and fit nation \\

C Round and ere& : or oblong and tranjverje.

Jc S WHEEL, Truckle, Trundle.

) * £AXIS, Spindle.

'•The central: or femidiametral parts of the Wheel . 5 NAVE.

"; 5 SP 0 KE , FeUow.

F umiture of the Animals which draw or carry 3 either for c Supporting of |) the Trunc : or the Feet of the burthen.

J o SSADDLE, Packf addle , Pad, Funnel , Pillion.


^ Directing the Motion 3 by the {j Head: or Sides, o SB^iDLE, Rein, HeadjlaU, Curb, Snaffle, Bit. y ' 2 TRACE. LI VL tit


25 §


Part. It

vi. FUfe.Nl- VI. By FURNITURE (fiJtenfils, implement s,HouJholdfinff, Moveables, TURE. Goods, furnijh, fit. provide , procure , ready,) is meant thofe moveable things

of various kinds requifite to the feveral ufes of a Family. Thele are either j More fimple , intended chiefly for A&ion, according ft The general name.

J i. INSTRUMENT, Implement, Tool.

.Some j fecial hinds of Inftruments , || for cutting : or for knocking. * ShNlFE, Razor.

2 HAMMER, Sledge, Mallet, malleable , duHile, Beetle, Poleax.

Lefi fimple, being made up of feveral parts joyned together; according to The genera! name : or that kind ufed for the drawing vp of water.

) „ 5JUGAMENT, Frame.

I 3 ’ 2 PUMP.

.Some facial kinds • being ufed for ‘ Putting things upon being either H moveable t or fixed* f TA p LE, stall, Drejjer,Bord,Cupbord. p* \SHELF.

[ Sitting upon onely 5 to which may be annexed by way of affinity, that other Utenfil intended for the eafe andfoftnefs of fitting or lying.

f STOOL, Seat, Fourm, Bench.

  • • (CUSHION, Pillow, Boulfier, Pillion.

| Sitting and leaning : or lifting and lying upon.

> f CHAIR, ihrone, Settle. b ‘ \COLlCH.

[lying and fieeping upon 3 to which that may be annexed of the lame affinity as in the Fifth.

. f BEDSTED, Settle , Cradle , Tefior.

' * \BED, Pallet , Hammock L, Mattrejs, Nefi, tCeunel, Litter, VphoIJler. [More complicate, by realbnof the mixture with Wheels or Screws, &c. according to

The general name: or that particular kindnfedfor the taking cf Animals. SMACHIN, Engine, Frame, Gin.

  • >TRAP, Gin , Springe, Vitfal, foyle, Weare,ti'eele,Buck> t Net,. M-

jhare ••

Some facial kinds 5 for \\ grinding of Corn , Sec. or dijlingui/bing Of Hours .

TMILL, guerne.

9 \CLOCK, IVatch.

. « 



III. T 1 Nder this Head of PROVISIONS ( Accommodations, Equipage, fur- \jl nijh, provide, procure, purvey,) are comprehended Ibmc of the fame kinds of things as under the foimer, with this peculiar Difference, That feveral of the particulars under this are more occaflonal and tranlient,



Chap. X.



< <

and not of fuch continual ufefitlnefs as thofe under the other. Thcfe are diftinguifbable into fuch m

l" Have particular references, cither to '

Food, as to The kinds of it.



The manner 0/* PREPARING it* HI.



Ate of <* COMMON MIXED Nature. Vi.

I. By SUSTENTATION ORDINARY ( Comnso ns. Fare , Cheer, Diet, x gUiTEN- Meat, Viands, fujlenance, Vi&uals , Manciple , Caterer , Pantry ,) is intended fuch kind of Food as is uiual for ordinary perfens, and ordinary times $ *

either according to the

General name j whether \\gr eater, more fated, conjlant and nfital : or l’efi 9 and more occajional.

. SMEAL, Dinner } S upper , RefeSory.

  • ^REFECTION, Bait, Bever, Breakfajl, Collation ,Repafi 9 Nunchion.

Particular kinds $ diftinguifbable according to the matter 5 whether f Solid and confident 5 being made either of I Grain ot feme Vegetable , , \bakgdin a drier febjlance without any confer derable mixture, of all other the mod common and neceflary : or elie being made up And mixed with feme other eatable febjlance .

C BREAD, Loaf Mancbet, Caks,Dough 3 Biskst 9 Pafi 3 Batch 3 Pantrf 9 2 . s P antler.

C PUDDING, Haggis ,Saufage, Dumpling, Link.

Milk. || condensed in the finer part : or of Milk coagulated and prejfed .


Animal mujculary febjlance $ either || alone: or put into feme bread} febjlance , which is lilcewife capable of fome other ingredients.


  • £PIE, Pajly, Tart , Cujidrd , Flawn, Pafl 9 Pafiry, Pajllef.

\lJquid , either for

Eating 5 contorting of

f Water boiled with feme other ingredients, \\for the Jlrettgthening of I it for Food: ox for the coagulating of it.

1 C B ROTH, Pottage, Porridge, Caudle Cullice, Grout, Gruel, Pan a - 1 5* ) do , Pojjet, Ptjfane 9 Frumenty , Hogwajh, Potherbe.

I CGELLY, congeal.

{Fatty juice of feveral Vegetables , femetimes of Animals, eaten •

with other things, andufefulfor Medicine* to which may be ad joyned the Watery juice of UreJfedFleJh .


°;JGRAVY , Juice.

| Drinking j the infufion of Barly or feme other Grain firjl macerated 3 either || without Hopps : or with Hopps.

_ 5 ALE, Whort, Brew.

'■ | BEER, Drink., Whort } Brew.

L 1 a


5 6 6

Provifidm r.

Part. II.

5A1 I VIl ,



h. sUstEk- n. SUSTENTATION EXTRAORDINARY {Cites, Delicates^Dain- tation ties,Liccorotfs,') may be confidered according to the

fc vm Att General name •, fgnifying abundance, variety and delicacy s, either of^ more

£ FEAST, Gaudy. {jubfiahtial Meats: 01 of Street- meats.

  • ' ^BANQpET, Juncfet, Sweet- meat, Defirt .

Particular binds j uied for (Eatings, comprehending

Common requires, for the better relifidng of other Poods, to which inay I be ad joyned the various mixtures of things , to tender themgratefiil o SS AUCE, Sallet. (to the Palate.

  • ^CONFECTION, Confine, Confit, Suckpt.

Vfual ingredients of Sauces, being either for the Taft Sweet 5 viz. the juice of the Jweet Cane, || concreted : or deliquiated or 5 SUGAR. ( dijjolved into 4 liquor of a thickjconftfience.

3 * 5SYRUP.

Of tot and Javory Gufi and smell. ;

4 . SPICE, Aromatic, Grocery.

Sour s, || the juice of Grapes , or injstfon Of Batly being eager t or the 5 VINEGAR. (juice of crabs.


prinking j whether more *

A Jaturals, being either]} ware fimple: or the juice of Fruits, chiefly Grapes ; or other drink* made by mixture.

, S WlNE,Sider, Perry, Stum, Mufi^FtMtage, Vintner, Sack., Claret, See, f *<> BEVERAGE, Syllabub, Mede,Wa(faL

Artificially difiillation with //^according to || the more general name: _ SSPIRITR (or that particular kind mofi in ufi.

• 7 * Jrrandy.

id. prfI»A- Aftions relating to the PREPARATION OF FOOD (drejfingl

kation or crude, raw,) are either .

  • , General and antecedaneoms, fignifying either |J the bjUing and dividing

of Beafis for Food: or the more common notion of fitting both Flefis and. other proper Materials , in order to their being eaten . ±

. S BUTCHERING, Shambles, slaughterhoufi.

’ ^COOKING, drejfing , Kitchin , Scullion, arefi Meat.

■ special and fitbfiquent s, ^noting the feveral kinds of Cookery 5 either f More principals, the preparing and drejfing things. r Wet , in a |I wider, or clofir vefiel j in a greater, or lejfir quantity.

. DccoQion, Seething. Cod,, Ebullition, parboil, poach,


Dry 5 [J ly holding it to, or turningit about near the Fire : or by laying it % on a hvt Hearth, or in fome clofi heated Cavity.

S ROASTING, Tofiing, Spit , Broach, Jack* j ’’ ^BAKING, Baker, Oven, Pafiry, Batch.

[Mixed,part being wet and part dry ', either || in an open broad vefiel:

. 5FRYlNG,Fi:^ece,Fr///erj^tM\- for by laying it on the Fire, c BROILING, Carbonadoing , Grilliade , Gridiron , Rafher..

\Ltfi principal ; relating to the f Preparing of it', by

J f Cutting , •

1 if Into pundim or cafim\ point wife or edgewifi.

5 PIN KING, Pouncing ^ Pricking.

^SLASHING, goJhing,haJhing, carbonado, jagg. Through',

Chap. X.

Provij |

j {.Through 3 either in |j laminated : or more minute particles. f , 5 SLICING, Collop, Haff.

’ £ MINCING, j&reif, chop , cut final!, application of other things 3 either U voet : ot dry,

5 BASTING, Dripping, ffrinkje, Inffer/ion,

£ FLOWRING, powdering, corning, fairing.

Mixed , (i.) both cutting and application.

« 5 STRATIFY, Lair, interlacing , interlard , la y in.

  • ^LARD, pricks in,fiick, in, interlarding. •

[Prefixing 3 either || in wet or in dry. o 5 PICK LING, fencing.

°* c CONDITING, prefirving, embalming , caudyingjeajoning , . . ;


IV. Such things as are requifite for the covering of our nakgdne j£?,and the ING * preferving of us from the injuries of weather, are fty led by the name of CLOTHING, Vefi, Apparel , attire , Array , Garment , Raiment , Habit, Garb,

Stole, Robe, Weed, accoutred , clad,dight, drejjing, make ready, wear , invefi ,

Li Very, put on or naked, ftript, hare , T ay lour , Wait dr ope.

To which may beadjoynea, for its affinity, the dual name of thole other things of the like uie amongft men upon particular occasions, and toore generally required for labourite beafts 3 ARMAMENT, Harncfc Tackle, Array , Habiliment , Trappings, accoutred, Furniture,Traces.

The feveral particulars under this Head may refer 3 either to • 'The matter of which Vefis are made 3 which is either ‘ r somc Animal fithflance 3 either of Seajls.

f The hairy parts.

) SWOLLEN, Cloth.

< ) *’ £ HAIRY, Stuff, Sackcloth.

C The Skins of Beafis prepared. /

2. LEATHER, Buff, Cheverel, &c. Tann, Curry.

InfeQs, viz. the Silk- worm.

3. SILK, Mercer, Sattin , Velvet , fluff, Taff :ty, 8 CC.

[Some Vegetable fitbfiance 3 either || the Rind of Plants, as Hemp, Flax,

Nettle, &c. or growing upon Trees,

5 LINEN, Canvafe , LawnJDamatk ., Diaper, &c.

  • ^COTTON, Bombafi, Fujlian.

The ufe and faffion 3 either for

f Ornament onely 3 being elegantly diftinguilhed with Apertures and SLACE, garded,gaikon, &c. (InterafioftS.


Ornament and bindings being d 1 Long Lamin 3 1 [ narrower : or broader, c S RIBBAND, Fillet, Tape, Favor, Knot , Hair lac It. b Y SCARF, Carter, s' Long pin • || flendtrer i or thicker.

$ THRED, Line , JF/re, r<ir», Pachfhred *

^■fCORD, String, Halter , Rope, Slip,Line, Reid,

Lamin 3 ffeciallyaf Leather: ot Loop and Pin. o f THONG, Latchet, Strap.


[Ornament and covering of (| the outfide : or Me . ( FACING.

9 *\L1NING. V. Such




{Wvc to,

ijton j*.


v. ves- V. Such kind of Vtenftls as fwe to contain other things, are ufually cal* sees. J e d VESSELS, Cask,, Receptacle, Pan, Plate, &c.

Thefe are diftinguifhabJe by their Matter, Shapes and Ufes,into fuch as ferve r Keeping and carriage of thingt 5 being either (Jor the

Pliable to the things they contain whether (] More looje : or more clofi .

C BAG, Sack.> Budget , Pocket, Pouch, Purfe, Sachet, Scrip , Wallet, Poke, IX Male, Knapfack., Portmantue, Cloak: bay.

CCASE, Sheath, Scabbard, Shrine, Covering, guivcr,Ti{e, PMowbear. Stiff j for

, Arid > beiflg made either bords : or twigs.

BOX, Chef, Trunk., Ark* Coffer, Cabinet, Casket, Bin, Clapper, Cupbord, ) Hutch, Locker , Safe, Spence, Preff,ryx, Coffin, Sumpter, Desk., F l*fi 9 2 * 1 Till, Drawer , Cap-cafe.

. BASKET, et,Maund, Frail, Hamper, Vannier,S cuttle, Wetl,Dotfer. Liquids in

Greater quantities : either || clofed at both ends : or open at one .

f BARREL, CasJ() Put, Firkin, Keg, Hogjbead, Kilderkin,Pipe , Tun, 5. s Butt, Rundlet, Cooper.

(.TUB, Bucket , Coul,Vate, Ciffern , Pale, Piggin.

Leff quantities whether (Earth, &cv

r shallow 5 being made either || Metals or other Materials, Wood,

1 5 DISH, Platter, Pan, Charger eider, Bafon, Laver, Patin,Plate,Por- 1 £TRAY, Pan, Boul, Trough » (ringer, Saucer:

Deep b of \\a bigger : or kffer aperture.

5 POT, Flagon, Tankard, Jack. » Jar, Pitcher, Jugg, Mugg, Noggin , 5 ’ £ BOTTLE, Creriet, ffgg,Crufe. ( PoJinet,Vrne .

Dreffing or boiling of Meat 5 either || without : or with feet.

, 5 KETTLE, Caldron, Copper, Furnace.

6 ’ ^SKILLET, Pipkin. i [.Spending ; either by

j Taking out, the Tube of effujhn : to which may be ad joyned the isfflrument 5 FAIICET, Spout. ( for flopping it.

7 * d^AP, Spiggot, Stopple.

Receiving in : j whether || of droundifh : or oblong Cavity.

7 SPOON, Ladle, S cummer.

J SCOOP, Shovel, laving.

[ Laying on of Meat : or pouring out of Drink- ^TRENCHER, rlate.

° £CUP, Boul, Goblet, Beaker, Conn, Chalice , Mazer, Glaff.

VI. The laft Head of COMMON MIXED Materials, muft be acknow- mixed k'^ged to a veI T Heterogeneous heap. But the feveral particulars under it

  1. ATERi- being very necefiary in their kinds , ana not reducible to any.of the other

ALS- Heads, I am forced to put them together here, not knowing at prefent how to reduce them more properly. They are diftinguifhable by their Ends or Ules 5 being fuch Provijions at concern

CFood for Cattel 5 either || of dried Graff: or dried ffemsof Grain .

5 HAY, Fodder.

Y STRAW, Fodder, HalM, Litter, Thatch.

| Warmth , and preparing of Food for men. '•

2. FEWEL, Firing, Logg, Collier, Woodmonger.

| Giving of Light 5 being made either || of the dried Fat of Animals : or of Oil. 5 CANDLE, Link., Taper, Torch, Light, Lanthom.

^ C LAMP. Curing

8 .




Relation Civil

  • 3.

Curing of Wounds or Sores by outward application, being aConfeOionof Medicaments , which is fimetimes Jpread upon Jome Veft matter.

^SALVE, Vnguent , Ointment.

4‘^>PLAST£R, Cataplafm , Sere cloth, Poult'k.

Cleaning or Stiffening of Clothes.


5 Jstarch

Communication by Writings denoting either the Inftrument : or Liquor to write With.

, 5 PEN -

g 2ink.

Matter to write on 5 considered either || fimply in its nature : or as it is com - patted in Aggregates.

5 PAPER., Parchment , Vellum , Schedule , Biff-et, Ticket, Stationer .

£ BOOK, Volume , Time, Treatife , Manuel , compile , compoje, Library, Tratt, Pamphlet , Mankfcripty Stationer.

[ Ornament by reprefentation of the likened of things |' /* plain: or in folid. C PICTURE, Pourtraiture y Effigies, Draught , !/<*/>, Chart , Landfcapfim- 8. < blent, Image, Projettion, Scheme, Diagram, Analem, Arras, Enammell (.IMAGE, Statue, Puppet , LsW, Colofs , Crucifix .


t oncer nihg Relation more public , whether I. Civil. II. judiciary.

III. Military. IV* Naval. V. Ecclefiadical.

M Ore publick relation may be didributed into fuch as do concern thole feveral refpcfts,^/<?»/ and Things 5 belonging either to Several Families afiociated under Government, CIVIL RELATION. tCourts of Judicature, and matters of Law, JUDICIAL RELATION.

  • A date of Warr, MILITARY RELATION.

)Mens Affairs and Traffique on the Water, NAVAL RELATION.

Matters of Religion and Worlhip, ECCLESIASTICAL RELATION.


T Hat Relation ariling from the adociating of Families under Government i j;

for mutual benefit and defence, is dy led Political of CIVIL, Republic , Commonwealth, State, political, ficular.

To which may be oppofed ANARCHY, Confufson.

The Notions belonging to this do refer either to Perfoni in a political capacity, Confidered according to their k DEGREES. I*

< PROFESSIONS or Vocations. II.


! Things or bufinefles, relating to c RIGHTS. IV.

  • CONTRACTS for the Alienation of oUr Rights. V. :

(.OBLIGATIONS for the Confirmation of Contracts. VI.

t Thole


- ' -- — ■ ' ■ !

Relation Civ ill.


i. DEGREES l * Thofe differences whereby men under a Political Relation.arje di- dr men. ftinguifhed from one another, according to their feveral ranks, are ftyled, DEGREES, Place, Quality, Ran k., Order, Scutcheon, Coat of Arms, Herald. To which may be oppofed the word PARITY, Levelling.

Thele are either

More general ; according to the firft common Difference of || govern- ing varndy fuch to whom doth belong the power and care of direct- ing others in their duty, and rewarding or punifhing them accord- ingly .* or governed,x\amt\y fuch as are under this Power. r MAGISTRATE, Rettor, Governoitr, Regent, Rstleer,Dominion,Sway, ) Con fttl, Prejident , Provojl, Warden , Head, Territory , Seigntory,Ma- 1 * / J or, > Syndic* States , JurifdiOion.

( SUBJECT VaJJal, fubmit , Homage , Liegeman , Private perfin, truckle , Vnderling.

I More particular •, relating to

Kinds of principal Magijlrates which have great variety of Titles in feveral Countries, not neceffary to be diftin&ly provided for here, excepting onely fuch as are either •, || Sovereign: or Homagers tofome other.

KING, Sovereign , Emperor, Imperial,Monarch,§ueen, regal, royal, Majefy) reign , Kingdom, Lord, Dynajiy, Sultan, Cham , Liege Lord, 2. < Regent, Realm , Diadem , Croton , Coronation , Scepter, Throne, «*- throne. Viceroy.

PRINCE, Potentate. j Orders of Subjells. f Higher.

.More general i comprehending theU greater: oxlejjer Nobility.

C LORD, Peer, Nobleman , honourable , Patrician, Duke, Mar- 13 - s Q uc f> Earl, Count, Vifcount , Ear on.

(GENTLEMAN, Gentry, Knight, Ejquire, Sir, Madam , Wof- Jldp-ful, Gen til • it 'y, Wellborn .

More fpecial ; with relation to the Degrees in liberal Profejjions 3 either || perfell : or inchoate.

J GRADUATE, commence, Degree, Doll or, MaJ&er, Rabbi. CANDIDATE, Batchelor, Incept or, canvas, Jue.Jland for. Middle confidered Aggregately.

5. PEOPLE, Folk., Commonalty, Community , mean , objeure, igno- ble, Plebeian, Populacie, popular, populous.

.Segregate If ’, as they are Inhabitants either in [jC/V/e/.’or the Countrey , 5 CITIZEN, Free man, enfranchije, Denizon,Ton>nfman. ^YEOMAN.

\Lov>er fort confidered

e Aggregately,

< 7. RABBLE, Vulgus, Tag-rag, baje.

( Segregately • according to their want of \\ Dignity: or Wealth, g 5VILLAIN, Varlet,Rafcal,Peafant ,Boor ,Jervile,Sirrah.VaffaljbaJe,

  • ^BEGGAR, Rogue, Mendicant , Shake- ragg,

IjConditions of men , as having j| a right to dtfpojeof themfelves : at not. 5FREE-MAN, liberal, enfranchije, Burgej T,

£SLAVE, emancipate, manumit, fervile, illiberal. Bondman, Bon- dage, Thraldom 3 enthrall , enjlave , ferve, Droyl, Drudge.

II. That


Civ ill Relation .

1 1. "That courfe of life about which one is ufually employed, and to «' p s«uon<: which he applies himfelf for the getting of aSubfiftence, isftyled his PROFESSION, Vocation, Calling,Trade, Function, Occupation, Courfe of life.

Crafty Ms fery.

To which may be ad joyned the word denoting the adual Ufe of fucfi Callings, PRACTICE, ExerciJiyVfe, follow, put inure.

Thefe may be diftinguilhed, into fiich as are either jMore necejjary and beneficial to humane life * whether

Liberal Prrfejjions, (uch as become free and generous men * relating ei- SThings. (ther to

I S acred 5 as || difcovered by revelation: or as the knowledge of them is attainable by nature.

f DIVINE, Theology , Clergy Schoolman . u \ PHILOSOPHER.


J Civil and political ; namely, (| the more generally received Laws and I Conftitutions : or thefe belonging to a particular Nation *


< ^COMMON LAWYER, Pettifogger.

Natural * with particular reference to the difeafes of mens bodies and their cure', either || by direction : or by manual operation « 

( PHYSICIAN, Medicine y Patient , Empiric f Mountebank 3 - ) jgUath^falver, Farrier, Leach, Receipt.

CcmHURGION, drefi a wound.

Words or l anguage : or the ornaments of difcourfe. w SPHILOLOGER, Critic.

^POET ry, Poen/y Bard,Mufe.

. Illiberal 'y belonging more peculiarly

To a Town * confiding of Trades §f\\ exchange : or manufacture,

( MERCHANT, Market, PeMer, Huckster , Rodger, Hawkgr,Regrd- 5. s ter , shopkeeper , Traffic, Dealing , Merchandize , Fair , Mart. (MECHANIC, Handicraft, Artificer, Manufacture , Artizan, Work.boufe.

| To the Country $ relating to the m<fl ancient Profeffions of

< r Tilling the ground : or feeding of Cattel.

I j, S HUSBANDMAN, georgic, Hinde, Agriculture, Tillage, Baylifie.

I * ^HERDSMAN, ^shepherd, Pafior , Cow-herd , Hog-herd »

(1 Catching of wild Animals.

  • . 7. HUNTSMAN, Hunt-er, Fowler , FiJBer , chafe, trace, courfi, Ve-

nijbn, Game, P ocher.

I Both to Town and Country 'y for the carriage of things by || Water: or Land.


  • ^CARRIER, Ripier , Cargo .

Not necejjary * comprehending thole feveral Profcffions Which tend to the diverjton of others* || by a&ing or terfonatingfome particular Story or Fi&ion : or by amuftng of men by toe Agility cf body or hand;

C PLAYER, Actor, Comedian, Tragedian, Playy Stage, Theatre, 9. < Enterlude, Perfbnate.

(PRESTIGIATOR, Shewer of tricks, juggle. Legerdemain , Hocaspocasy Tumbler, Dancer on the ropes, 8cc. Mountebank,..

M m

III. The


Civil Relation .

Part. IL

iu. CON- 11 *. The feVeral Aggregates of men under Political Government; MENTION . are ufually ftyled either By that more general : or facial name.

s CONVENTION, Affmblf,ALeeting, Congregation, Convocation Company, ) Rendczvouz, Concourfc, Confluence, guire, Chapter, Committee, Club, Hall, ) convene , Conventicle, Stjfient , Affbyfjlock. or gather together.

( SOCIETY, Gyld, Gang , Tribe, Clan , Fraternity, Club , Knot, Crew, Fell orb- Jhip , Company

Thele are either fuch ashafc the fame (General inducements 3 in refpeft of

I I C Language and fupr erne Government 5 Whether ^primitively : or de- I I rivatively.

! I C NATION -<*/, epidemical , naturalize. People, Country, vernacU- I 1 1* s lar. Patriot.

I I C COLONY, Plantationt


{.P/^e of Habitation 5 confidered Recording to the f General name y denoting fuch as inhabit \\more difarfedly in the I open fields: or ware c/0/e together , ufually within fenced places %

J (COUNTRY, rural, rujtic,PcaJant, Boot, Hinde,l(ern,Svpaih, la. S Clown ,

(TOWN, janw«A.

L SpeciaUynds ) figni fying 4/? that part of a "Nation under the fame + Subordinate Government $ \\ dwelling more at large: or fuch as \ dwell chfe together , with peculiar Liberties and PriviJedges J in common amongft them.

V s PROVINCE, Circvi/.

^CITY, Suburbs, Metropolis, See, Boroiigh, municipal .

^ Lowefi Government 5 whether |l with : or iritbout JUrifdidioA. SSHIRE, County , 7r/£e, Diftrid , Riding .

    • £ PARISH, parochial, Parjon, Vicar , "lborpe. Village.

.Special inducements 5 ||

Attendance on Governottrs : or advice in the Government.

S COURT -rer, aulical.

5 * £ COUNCIL, Senate, Parliament, Diet, Conclave, Confifiory, San- hedrim, Synod, Committee.

Education in Learnings, either [J of the Adult, with a power to licenji them for the Liberal prefefjions : or ondp of Children or young be- ginners.

) S UNIVERSITY, Academy, School,

& * £ SCHOOL.

Regulating the affairs of iomc || Trade : or Profejfion 5 effect ally if they cohabit for sbofe ends in a hind of Political family.

1 C CORPORATION, Gyld, Brotherhood, Fraternity, Company, So- 7. \ ciety , community, municipal, incorporate, t COLLEGE -iate. Fellow.

Driving on of fame deftgn * || in general : or with particular reference to the oppo/ing of what is legally efiablijhed.

C LEAGUE, Confederacy, Combination, Alliance, Complice, Parti - S. < fan, Party, fide with, joyn, hold together, Pac{, comp ad.

C FACTION, Sed, Jun&o, Gang, conffire, fide with ,com bine, P ar-

tyzan, Oligarchy.

IV. The


Chap. XI.

CiviU Relation.

26 y

IV. The thtngi which in JuJlice or Equity do belong to perfans, aye W.WOHTS. called RIGHTS, Title , IutereJl,Ejlate, Tenure Holdings Freehold , Gift,CoL lation , Rcverfun , Landlord , Paramount , endow, enfeoff., To which pay be adjoyned the word LIBERTIES, denoting whatsoever is permitted, or not forbidden to them.

Thefe are confiderable according to their f Original being either ^Primary and unwritten.

Not voluntary $ but according to || the condition of its firjl being: or common practice and continuance, •


£ CUSTOM, accufiom , Vje,W out, GuiJe,FaJhion, Rite, Vfige , ufhal 9 _ currant j common , ordinary, ure, enure, Habit, PraCf ice, Haunt, pre^ feribe, unufual , obfolete , familiar , received , convefant, Habit ,

, tn seiner, courje, Han Exercifi, Prefcription, Deff etude.

Ifoluntarys according 1 0 the || choice of the Will: or a determined order.

J| SELECTION, (hoice.

I I * c SUCCESSION, devolve, follow, Place.

j ^ Secondary and written.

General 5 whether ^perpetual: or temporal. f 5 ^ y ^/ >J *&' Statute > Decree ? SaK 8i° n > Confiitution,Canon,Rulc, legal,

3 . ^ legitimate, ena3,ordain,order,abrogatefepeal,preJcribe,Legiflator.

LEDICT, Ordinance ,. Proclamation, Order , Breve, A&JRule,

SanQion, Refer ip t.

Special conferring |J to have : or 2 Wg& /v J P ATENT, Charter, Brief Letters Patents. Placard.

4 ‘ ^COMMISSION, Brief

IpartS 5 conjijiing in {Power over that which is

One's own cither [| fvtafy .♦ or as /Ac ufe of it. r S PROPRIETY, Concern, Owner. Proprietary. y 2USUS-FRUCTUS. J

Another's either as to \\ his perfon : or his affairs.

AUTHORITY, Power, Dominion , Prrfetf, Prefident,Head,Pro- 6. <( Rafter, Plenipotentiary , authentic, clajfic, govern , ratifie,

RHfe,jwaj, infye8ion> diftoje. Precinct y Territory ;

OFFICE, r/^ce. Cure, overlook^, officiate, fuper intend, fitrveigh,

Oterfight, charge, conduct , Commtjfary, Prefect , Collegue Groom ,

Liberty 5 with refpeft to

Advantages by ftecial Law 5 either |] e/ /i>e fupreme Magifirate : or of fome particular ranb^ of Subjects.

- ^PREROGATIVE, Royalty.

c 1 ^ I LEG E , Franchife,enj'r anc hife,fre edom,Gracejprceminekc6.

Remijjion or exemption from the rigour of a general Law, in its H Commanding : or prohibiting. n


LICENCE, Permijjion, Sufferance, Leave, allowance, Faculty*

Connivence, Placard, Pra Iticl^, let,, may, fuffer, admit, drfbtnce,

Pof port, Safe conduct, Letters of Mart.

Punjfbrng: or impofing burthens.

9‘ * Co »™ve»ce,fujfer, let alone, Quarter.

^IMMUNITY, free, Difiharge, Exemption, Quarter, fcotfree.

Mm 2 ip. The


Civil Relation,

Part. !i;

V. COK- iRAtr.

V. The mutual negotiating betwixt been in their ordinary converfe with one another is fly led CONTRACT, Commerce, Entercourfc, traffic, Trade, Negotiation: to which may be annexed for affinity the mod general occafiori for fuch Inrercourfe, namely, the parting with one thing for the getting of ano- ther, caWed EXCbAKGE, barter, chafer, cope, (wap >truck., chop, Commutation y S courting) Bargain, A/atch. . . •

The principal matters belonging to this Head do either refer to { ASions

f General) whether *

Abfolute i transferring a thing from one to another 5 whether | ffor his ufe t '6 whom it k transferred : or for hk nfe that transfers. r C ASSIGNING, conjtgning , conveying, refgning , deliver , put over.

  • • ^DEPOSITING, Trnfee,ftoffee,cnfeoff, charge, commend, recommend,

entrnjl, commit, Fiduciary, Sequejlration.

Conditional ; || giving : or having right ttf an Eftate after the death of hint who dijfofeth of it.

BEQUEATHING, deviting, Legacy, Teftament,WiU,Exec*tor,Intcftdte.

►INHERITING, Heir, hereditary, Heritage, Patrimony, Fee ftmple,En- ' tail, dijherit. Hereditament , Portion, Primogeniture.

I Specials, either by

j" Parting with: or proenringpropriety in any thing, upon the confideration fir fimething elfe to be taken or given in exchange.

( SELLING ,vent, utter, Waretommodity, Sale- able, venal,vendible, fid- 3. < ple, t put off, retail, afford. Jsandfel, monopoly,makf mony offeree one with.

C BUYING, pkrchaje, Cater, Chapman, ( nfiomer, tn gr offings anfom, re- deem, regrate, forefal, interlope , preemption . the refnjing.

Parting with : or procuring the temporary nfe of fomething belonging to The more general name. (another.- according to

SLENDING, Loan, Creditor, proJlitute, 1 rnJl.

4 * 2 BORROWING, take up. (given.

The particular kinder elating to feme temporary reward to be f| taken, and f DEMISING, let, let out, let to farm , leaf, Lcffor, Landlord, Broker, 5. s Rent, Principal, tnterep, put to ufe.

(HIRING, farming, hackney, mercenary , projlitute. Tenant, Lejfet,

. . Leafs, Rent, Interef , %)fe, at livery, Gratis.

[ Bejlowing skill crlubeur about any bufinejf: or compenfiting of it.

> ^EARNING* Merit, Defer t, Meed, Demerit, fupererogate.

?' J WAGES, Pet, Salary, Pcnjhn, Stipend, Fails, fare, freight, gratis* [Things 5 whether more r Private •, tobe exhibited by the

1 Buyer 5 either j| the whole value : or a part of it, for afiurance of the reft, t PRICE, Rate, Value JVortb,Ranfom, Jiand in, cofl, cheap , deat,preci* owfkmpntom, rich, inhaunce, depreciate.

(EARNEST, Gage, Pledge.

Seder 5 either |) the thing bought : or fome part, for fecurity of the whole. . g S BARGAIN, Ware, Commodity.

, C ‘(*SEJSIN, Liver}, inf all, admit , Entry, inthrone, inaugurate, invejl.

5 towards defraying the charge of Government 5 whether lj ordinary : or occafional. 4

^TRIBUTE, Cujlom, Annates, Gabel, Excije , Toll, Tmpojl , Publkane.

^ TAX, fttUC, Contribution, Colled ion, ajjefi, Publicane, Sitbfidy , Tun- - nage, pontage, pannage, Pole , Colled or, Scot , S cfment.

VI. Thole



Civil Relation.

2 69

VI. Thofe feveral kinds of Affurances which men offer concerning «  what they intend to give or do, are ftyled, OBLIGATIONS, plight, en- ti'oS* bind y Bond) Bill \ evidence , See . undertake for* *

And when luch Obligations are reciprocal, they are then called PA- CTIONS, Agr eement, C ompaQ, Coven ant, Bargain, Conditionfihdeut, Match

Stipulation, sponfion , Warranty, Article, fir ike up a bargain. 9

Thefe are either '

ylmperfcU 3 or degrees towards Contraffs more " Remote 5 in th'efirfi overtures of a Contrail 3 whether II as begun by one •

L I K.t A 1 ING, driving a Bargain, capitulate , chaffer .par ley, cheapen ) buck » baggie. car*

Near 3 in proposal of thofe terms according to which one obliges himfelf ho |j

2. 5SS > °f er > huc k baggie. (buy; or fell.

^DEMAND, cheapen, asi,exaH.

' \Perfe 8 3 either in \ Words 3 \ Spoken.

j Co r m || i "gaging oitr Veracity , fometimes with the addition of luchfolemn exprefflons as may teftiiie our reality.

C PROMISE; Word , Parol , plight. Covenant , League, undertake 3 * ) J or i P a fi ones word.

(PROTESTATION, Affeveration , averr, vouch, [land in.Atte - fiat ion. • ..

L Sacred 3 ing aging our Religion , awd appealing to Cod as [| a Witnefi. \ and as <* Judge, to punilh us upon our falfhood. {Oath.

4 * ^ e P°f ,r, i> abjure. Perjury , adjure , purge upon

C IMPRECATION, Exccr ation, Malediction, CHrfing.

[Written 3 attefied wit h\\ our peculiar name, or Iplarkj or Impreffino fome figure in Wax , or fotne like matter 4

r SIGNING, Obligation , Evidence,Bill, Indenture, tnfiru. a , ; P "te«t,Writing,AIuniment, Conveyance , Policy, fubfiribe. under ) ones hand, fet ones hand.

Isec t ^ ea ^ si S net s S’&d, Bond, fiecidlty.

J f , w . h , ether II "=?"/» promising for another, and mating

I bimjelf liable to the fame Penalty upon the other s failing: or impli - I c H>by jpeahing in one’s behaff

I S SP °NSION,tf Bail, vouch. Undertake for , tfarr/t -Jbip,

1 0, < Hojtage,Security,Warrant,CaUtion } engage t re(l>or]fible for.

( INTERCESSION, Mediate. or, interp&le, Jbeakfbr.

[Real, of ones Goods 3 either V

' AbTo/ute 3 by ingagingfor the truth of a Promifi either \\ tke Goods in ' Jpccie, or only hk right to them. .

. - 5 p AWN, Pledge, gage, engage.

) C MORG AGE, Security , Statute, Caution ,

^ thefuccefs of a thing contingent,

\\enher as Principal, or as Acceffbry.

8 . S WA GER, Stake, vy, lay, pri^e.

’ Stake, iy, revy.

J U D j-

2 JO





T He fcveral Notions referring to matters of "Law and Courts ot judicature, are comprehended under that which is ftyled JUDL Cl AL RELATION, forenftcal , Court, Hall , extrajudicial.

Thefe are*diftir1gui(hable into fuch as concern ("PERSONS. I.

CAUSES and A&ions. II.

{ Faults.

  • scapital. in.





I. PERSONS confiderable under this Head of Judicial Relation* may be diftinguilhed into fuch as are either j More principal.

I Ferfons judging.

j Legally conftifuted || Principal : or Atceffbry.

1 JUDGE, Chancellor , Commifjary , Cenfor, Modtfator,qfficialj jury , Inqueft , Doom , Sentence , decidejetermine fenfire, Judi- catory, judicial, Court , Bench, Tribunal »

ASSESSOR, Bencher, ' Alderman, Canons, Trebends ,

, . Chapter , Fellows, ajfifl, Sides- men,

[Voluntarily confented to by the parties 5 \\ to deter min the Suit : or teafe the Entnity between them.

^AKhlTKhTOK,Vmpire,Days man, comprimi&e.Refetree, award 2 - ^MEDIATOR, Incercefjor, deal- between, intermediate, Mian. [Ferfons judged-, whether |j active : or pajfive 5 in ( Criminals.

r ACCUSER, Informer, challenge , Endite-ment, charge attaint, j } peach, empeach, arraign, tax, lay to ones charge, call in quejlion J Prejentment, Bill- profecute, Pron/ooter.

C PRISONER , or reputed Criminal, Delinquent, Malefactor, Defin- Judiciats. (dant,

SPLAINTIF, Accufrr, complain , blame.

£ DEFENDANT , Apology , excwje, vindicate.

\j-cfi principal 5 relating either /0 the "Judges} fir U ,

(Writing: ox faying publicly.

J 5 NOTAR.Y, Regifler, Remembrancer, Secretary, Ckrk^, Scribe, V' £ CRIER. ( Protonotary, Rolls, enroll.

v Fetching : or keeping,

- SPHRSEVANT, MejJenger, Catchpole, Serjeant,

^MARSHAL, Keeper, Jailour.

Parties j || to advife and fjeak_ in behalf of either party: cr to declare the truth indifferently betwixt both ot them.

( ADVOCATE, Counfel , Pleader, maintain, defend, vindicate, j. d Lawyer, Barrejler, Proctor, Clyent.

imimbS, Evidence at tefiteppt,reJlimony, Affidavit.

II. To

Chap.Xt. Judicial Relation . 2 ^ I

£ ?* 1 T J— C w^ generaiwordsof A&ions or PROCEEDINGS C*u. it. j>«o

t! ? fe Iefi ^neral words of SUIT ««>«&.

Thefc arc either

^Antecedent \ on the part of the •

W” 0 ""-- w feeing on tho perfin or goojt of

L ) »*'**">***, S*»n'r, Am .

(ARREST, attach, apprehend, diffreiujei&e. My hold on vmU - w k ^ Speani,Baflj,Catchpole,Beadk,Rep%vr, * r “*"**»

Prfendant ^ gMnz afiurance ofanfwering in Com i ot caminohin, s *bfiiiute 9 to 4*^rr^/ accordingly.

C APPEARANCE, forth- coming.


I Preparatory $ by the 1 ^ parties 5 |) .• or pafftve.

L S AC tJl OI S f xdiaf »'”h Ptocep) arraign, implead. Cue coni -

3‘ 5 ”* ce f kit >»a&l*»,y Batrelor. * * / s

r t-PLEA, dipolcfjf,

J %i^ziiri,?on! c ^ Mi ^ t>v +«*«*-«*


oitt goring jnqujjition, interrogate ,

Decijwe. * view, eview, revife, canvaje, gage, pnmpe out.

'‘ZStiASSfr ^ ' °* *****

s , 5J oy NlNG ISSUE;

^ SE ^ T ^W NG J f Md & deftt > Krditl) Cenfire , Decrw, 0r -

1 Paffrue in tt? U ^ a< be, determin, award \ definitive.

< A*,

f*,tr r, ^ >Ce ? 3 deli *r ent > peccant, convitt, culpable. faulty I ^0/V* ll ^l nd& ^ a m r ^r, propitiate , , expiated ■

f ^Ipte^Ncf ' * >te Mw ”' ; t£* -

1 8 * ^APPEALING higher Judicature,

^ (I Vunijhmcnt : or freeing from it.

9 Executioner, Hangman.

C ■/ f or i 1vtt1 S,prmit,releafi, venial, Indulgence. put up.






Judicial Relation.


Til C^IMESCAPITAL, {Enormity, facinorcus, criminal, Malej a- •Itfr|)fuch as are or ought to be punilhed with Death^tnay be diftinguitb*

a d into fuch Offences as arc more immediately

inaVbe ad joyoed for affinity f though not counted capital) thefre- Sngtti/Mtr/ecreVttd /«««' /«<«« /«'# M'dd*


■ < c fit bunt, fafemte , forefitak.. Chirm. .pell,C»mnitg nittn.

( WIZARDING. M*»t, I*. Divining, GjpJic,, Stoth- riling, svrcirj^ngnr,, Jfirologjfi'O'ninyMrcmimtfbrfigmm,,


\Mttn-, whether .

\ ( More ^general °L P \^U‘cUrcd hgpility igninjl him : or expifng

hint to hit enemies.

STREASGN, traitor, betray.

I 2 * /CONSPIRACY , betraying.

More particulars \\ a forcible oppofmgof him by Arms: ox occajwn- ing Come illegal tumuitnom dsjjenfon in the Multitude. ^REBELLION, Rifing, Infurrection , Defection Revolt, tahpead. 3 - /SEDITION, Commotion, Combufiion, Riot, Zfproar, Mutiny, Ju~ mult, Burly burly , Scuffle, Stirn .gHoil , Racket, Route- feu fine m- . diary, turbulent.

1 Any private perjbn-, according to the V General name by which it is called m our Englilh Laws.


l Particular kinds s diftinguifluble by their Objefts, as being againft r Life 5 by taking it away illegally.

I f. MURTHER, Ajjajfm -ate, Homicide, Manfiaugbter,MaJJacrt,

I Parricide, cut- throat, blood- thirjly.

1 Cbajlity s by unnatural coition, either |1 with Beafts : or Males.

, f BESTIALITY, Buggery.

64 \SODOMY, Buggery, Catamite.

Elate smith reflect to another's ... ... r „

‘ Goods s taking them away cither || openly and forcibly : or feertt- ly and by craft.

( ROBBERY, Rapine, Sacrilege, Thief Bandito, Pyr ate, Ticks- <’ 7. < roon, pillage, tak$ apurfe.

1 CTHEFT, Jleal, purloin, lurch, filch, pilfer, nim , furreptttiotn, I Plagiary, SacriUgefiut-purfe, Pickpocket, light-fingered, Larceny.

1 Habitation I! by burning it : or breaking into it.

  • ■ CHOUSE-bURNlMG, Incendiary.

84 /BURGLARY, Houft-breakjng.

IV. Crimes

Chap. XL Judicial Relation. 273

. 1V ; primes or FAULTSNOT CAPITAL, may be diftinguifoed iv^faults into fuch as are (fen. not capi-

GeneraJ-^an'j a&ion againjl ones Right , efpedaily with contempt of the Per - T * i ’

I < Wron &} Harm, TreJpaJ?) Hurt, Grievance, AbuJi,Dammage.

^ Contumely, Outrage, Slur ^effitejndignityput a tricky on.

chaflity whether || by a Jingle : or a married perfin.

r FORNICATION, Whore dom/ourtefan, Concubine .Harlot, Trull,

2 J Th *K » Leman, guean,Drab,$tru mpet, proJiitute,dcflour, Jiuprate]

  • ) vitiate, wenching, Brothil. Stews, Bond. Pander.

'•ADULTERY, Concubine.


Ge c £ TK ’ N h> Mn i*flZ etti ”Z * or keeping of another's Right, o < incroach , , intrench, grow upon , invade , intrude.

3- 2 DETENTION, (tM%.

Particular $ as to the manner of* it 5 by abuflng Skiflb in || taking advantage of another man s ignorance, efpecially in actions of Commerce : or mifufing his own skill in the folk - | | fvngofathing. ' 3

f FRAUD, Deceit, Guile , Cozening, Delufton. , Collufioh, tUufion , j dodge, trepan, over-reach, prevaricate, circumvent, go- beyond,

4* \ '*?jT 3 beguile, defraud, Impofiure, Knave, Rook., Cheat ,

) Shift, Shar k.,cog,Jlur, wheedle, come over one,Juppldnt.

(FORGERY, counterfeit, falfe,adulterateJopbifticate,coin,de -

vi fiJorge,falfifie,foifiing, Interpolation, Impojlar, fuptw fam- ous, furreptitious. •

Power-, by j| taking advantage of another mans neceffity or impo- tence : or exceeding the allowance of the Law.

X OPPRESSION, Force, Violence, exaS, overcharge.

(EXTORTION, Ex ad ion. Rapine, Rapacity, wrefling , wring, griping, ravin, poling, pilling.

Courfe of Law * by endeavouring to corrupt || the Officers of Jufiice i or the WitneJJes. JJ

, ^BRIBERY, Corruption, dawbing.


Good name', endeavouring to rentier another \ Cri JyJ a ^ j? accH fa* ons II not trHe • Or made unlawfully agaihft ad

S ^lender, A^erfi9n,opprobriom,Detradion,

7* ) » \ car P™g-> belie, defame, dijparage, traduce.

C BACKBITING, Libel, Tale-bearer, Tell-tale , Whifffiring, Pick-

Infamous j by objecting || another s failings : or our own favours. g S taunt 3f co ffi ithit, Opprobry, obloquy, tax,

1 ^UPBRAIDING, caftin one’s ieeth, exprobrdte, twit.

[Odious: or ridiculous. •

x 5 RE ' VI , LING ; rail, fold, brawl, Contumely, inveigh, ihvedive,

9- p foul-mouthed, Cue king-fool,

.CMOCKING, deride, flout, ieet, feoff, twit, gibe, quip, gird, frump, bob, taunt, wipe, jerk., Sarcafm , Pafquil, Irriflon, Hhi- fion, S atyr, Burlejque , play upon.

N ri tr. By


Judicial Relation.

fart, li;

v. PtlNteh- V. By Pundkment is meant the evil of Suffering, infiiftcd for the evil MENt8 CA- jvX* nrtjnp • to which may be ad joyned the lots or Extinction of a maos ™“- Right inathing which he formerly injoyed, fty led FORFEITURE. ;

PUNISHMENTS CAPITAL are the various manners of putting men to death in a judicial Way, which in fcveral Nations are or have been either

r Simple $ by , ,

{Separation of the parts * || Head from Body * or Member from Mem-

1 sheading, jM? of ones bead.

'•^QUARTERING, Differing.

, 1 Wound. - .

J At defiance * whether |j from Hand : or from iufteunimt, as Gim,

Bow, 8tc.

5STONING, Pelting.


At hand s either by

^ r Weight t, \\ of fomethingtlfe: or one sown.


| }*£ PRECIPITATING, threaping or rafting headlong.

| V weapon $ any may : or direct upwards.

5 stabbing.


Titkfng atoay ntteffary Diet .* or giving that which is noxious.

. SS TARV1NG, famijhing.

5 5 POISONING, Venom, envenom, virulent.

'-Ihtetceptton Of tht Air 5 at the

r Mouth 5 diftinguitbed according tothe place of the patty, ||«* the r Air : Ot Pn the Earth . 5STIFLING,yW(7t^er 3 Jnjfocate.


( 1 Water : or P/rt,



throat j || by weight of a man s own body : otthejtrengthef others.


• I STRANGLING, throttle } choh$ 3 jujfocate.

Mixed of wounding and ftarving } the body being || erett: hr lying OH awheel.





. . > 1 * * - — -

Chap. XI. Military Relation . 27 5

VI. PUNISHMENTS NOT CAPITAL are diftinguiibcd .by the vi. PUNISH- things or Tub je&s receiving detriment by them, as being either of the MfcNTS

'Body--, according to the* ' pijAL^

r General name -, jiguifying great pain- •

< 1 . TORTURE, Torment, excruciate.

{Special kinds, by

! Striking-, with || a limber : or a fiiffi Inftrument.

(^Viil?VlNG,laJbing,Jcourging,leaJbing,jerk., Rod,fiaJh, Switch,

2. \ ftripe , Beadle .

( CUDGELLING, bafitnado , bajle, fwinge, Jir addle, Jhrubb, fiapjp, thwack-

Stretching of the limms violently -, the body being || laid along for that purpofe : or liftSti Up into the Air.



Liberty •, of which one is deprived by Refiraint ||

Into || a place ': or isifirument for enfiody.

^ \ (IMPRISONMENT, Incarceration, Durance, Cnjlody, Ward, clap J ) up, commit, confine, mue. Found,? inf old, Gaolour, Counter, Cage, t y{ Coop, Toleboth , Dungeon, Marjhat, releaje,jecure,jetfajl. * j. ) ^ BONDS, Fetters, Gyves, Shackles, Manic les, Pi union , Chains,

^ Out of a place or country j whether \\ with allowance if any other: or con- finement to one other.

5EXILE, Banijb-ment , exterminate, proJiribe,ejetJ. expel, outlawed.


Repute 5 whether || more gently :ot more Jevtrely by burning marks in one's r SINFAMATION, Ignominy, Pillory. ( fkfli.

’ ^STIGMATIZATION, Branding,Cauterizing, burning in the hand ,

Efiate-, whether |l/« part : or iti whole. (Mark.

5 MULCT, Fine , amerce, fionce. •

,1 1 ’ ^CONFISCATION, Forfeiture.

Dignity andpower -, by depriving one of || his Degree: or his capacity to bear o ^DEGRADING, depeftng, depriving. (office. •

1 . " ^INCAPACITATING, cajlner, difable, difeard, depofe,disfrancbisui


' I "'His Head of MILITARY RELATION, is intended to contain luch J; Notions as concern the various refpeds and capacities belonging to a Rate of War. The uftng of the united Force and Arms of massy agdinfi others, is ftyled WAR fare, martial, polemical. Militia, Chivalry.

Aim the being without mktnaloppofition is called Peace*

The Notions appertainipg tothis Head, do relate either to Military . ACTIONS. J.

'EVENTS. 11.

Petjons. Wr



Injlruments necefiary to War, AMMUNITION. V.


N n 2 I. Military,

$. Ill;

i. mili- tary


< ^

Military Relation, Pairt. II;

I. Military ACTIONS may be diftinguilbed according to the Central name, denoting the endeavour of || doing f.urt'.ot prefer ving front hurt,

(OFFENDING, Offence -ivc, Annoyance. A , ■ '

1 • \ DEFENDING, protect, guard. JlielterJlirowd^ard.prefervc ,kcep,maintat* t Particular kinds or degrees} whether (uch as arc ftuake good, tutelary #

r OppoJite and in fiver al.

r Declaring enmity on the \etffenfive : or defenfive fide.

S PROVOKING, challenge, irritate, invite, bait, Jtir up, dare, vj.

2 * 5 DEFYING, dare

"Beginning of actual \\ offence : or defence. ,

< t ASSAULTIN G,affail,attaqueJnvade,encounter,Onfet,fet upoif, charge, 3 . < Inrode, Rencounter, Licurjion, Jail on, run upon*

C RESISTING, n>ithjland,jland againjl , hear $p againjt,turn head,Jtrug‘ gle with, Antiperijlafis* ^

Endeavouring || to di/pojjefi one of hk place: or tofrujlratejucb endeavours. j Keeping from necejjaries: or fupplying with necejjaries. (either by fj

5 BESIEGING, Siege, beleaguer, befet , block, up, hem in, lay fiege.

4* ^RELIEVING, Juccour,jupp r y, help, recruit yreinf or ce,fubpdtary,Ayd.

I Vnder digging the Sepiment either j|/o make a breach in it:ot to hinder 5 MINING ,undermine,Sapping. (the making of Juch a breach.

5 * ^COUNTERMINING. ^ , . , _

Entring forcibly to ajjault the bejieged : or going out to aJfau.Vthe bejtegers * STORMING, ajfaulting, boarding, attache, fiahng, onslaught.

6 * ^SALLYING, ijjue out Reciprocal and in common •, whether by wayes of

f Force $ viz. the mutual endeavours of corporeal mijchief to one another } f General name: or that which is betwixt two. ( according to' the |j

V . 5 FIGHTING, Combat, Conflict, encounter, cope, bicker, Fray, impugn,

, ) 7 '^ DUELLING, Single combat,Champion,LiJl. (Jctifflc,Liji.

< \ special kinds, betwixt numerous parties, according to Jet order and ap- pointment } either of || Jomepart of the Army : or the whole

o> (SKIRMISHING, Fray ,Vclitation,pickger.

\B ATTELLING, Set fight. Set battel, joy n battel, shock ,

[Sk/tf, or feme fccret art to deceive an Enemy} according to the |J general name : or by concealing Souldiers for the fudden fnrprijalof others.

SSTR ATAG EM,enfnare,Device,7rick, T rain,jurj>rize.

9 * ^AMBUSH, Ambujcadoi infldiatc, lay wait, lurk, tray lay, furprize.

II. Military EVENTS may be diltinguilhed into fuch as are either EvENrs. ^Of Importance } when || one keeps as before : ox gains from the other : or lofts his

own } relating to the

r \ erudition ufually befalling fuch at are || equal : or Jlronger or weaker. COhJiNQ OFF UPON EQUAL TERMS.

VfClOR, overcome , defeat, difeomfit, beat , win,vanquijh,get the day , .the better , ■ the upper band, quell, predominant, prevail, fubduc,

/ fitpprefi, overbear, 'mafler. ,

C OVERTHROWN, jubdued.Mded, fupprefied, routed, worjted, beaten, * Place of fighting/ W ( defeated, difeomfited, brought undfr.


ADVANCE, get ground.

^RETIRE, retreat, give back., /brink, recede, recoyle.

Country of fighting.


T PURSUE, chafi, courfe, follow, prof cute. Hue and Cry.

£ FLTjrUn away, rout, Jugitt ve,take ones heels, put 1 0 fiight. TefWJt




y~4 r~?~i — : — —

Chap.XI. Military Relation.



Town ajfiu'.ted.

S HOLD OUT, makegood, maint ain, fl and out, hold tac\.

4 * 2 5 TAKE, witt,

\tOSE, yield, fisrrender, Rendition.

Goods of thoje that fieht.


BOOTIES, Forage, Plunder, Pillage, Quarry, Prey,Prif.e, Free- hooter,

< Letters of Mart, Letters of Reprize.

( S POlLS, harr its, havoc^avage, rife, fackcjranfac^VreckjDevafation,

Perfins concerned. . (Ruitt,WaJl, depopulate,

, S ESCAP E, evade, fiape,efihew, get rid, get quit off, get ojf,Jhift aw ay, get

  • 2 S CAPTIVATE , take prifiner. . ' (clear.

■ £TlELD, give up, render, fir render, refign, deliver.

I Final ifjite if the War.


7* ? r cONgVER, bring under, majler^atefuekvanquijhyeprefifippref,

| tame fubdue, win.

SUBMIT, give up, humble, yield, firrender, come in.

Of Shew on the Vidor’s fide, (for the conquered .makes none •, ) either by fome || folemn A3 ions to be publicly performed : or Things and Stru&ures to remain in memory of the Vi&ory.

Q 5 TRIUMPH, exult, crow, exultation. Bonfire.


III. Military PERSONS ( Souldicr , Warrier, Reform ado, firve,pref,) yS-'ift.Miti- gregate, may be diftinguifhed by thole feveral imployments for Which they JJ 3 «seI a re defignea being either for Fighting ; || on foot .*^or on horfi-back 5FOOTMAN, Infantry, Lance-kjtight.

1 £tiO&$MAN, Cavalry, Ligbt-borJe,CuraJfer,D r ago°hs,Treoper,igiJler,Rider Si^ns to the Army , belonging cither to (J Foot : or Horfi.


S ENSIGN. Ancient, Colours, Standard, Pennon, Banner.

2 * ^CORNET, Banner, Colours.


5 DRUMMER, Drum, Tabor, Tabret. *

^TRUMPETER, Trumpet.

Dijlributing Orders 5 1| ordinary, belonging to each aggregate part : or eXtraor - SSERJEANT. . C dinary Jbelongingto the Army*


Dijcovery •, either || of the Country in general : or amongjl the Enemies.

^ SCOUT, crujtng, defery.

^SPY, Emifjary, Setter, Intelligence.

Prevention of danger that anight happen either #o|| Perfins : or Places.

, SGUARD, Convoy, cufiody^ep, ward, beep guard, relieve the gUard^Corps ' £ WATCH, Ward, Corporal. . (du guard

Both Difcovery and Prevention j denoting fich a one as \\Jlands and examines*, or lies on the ground to lifien and obferve .

SSENTlNELj Sentry,

7 * $ PERDUE.

I Digging: or other fervilworkj j denoting fueh Servants of" the Arrhy asfol- ~l'IONER» Yfow the Baggage;




JCAJLO, Pedee, Blackguard".

IV. Mi-


2 7 8

Military Relation.


iV.Miiiti. ry PER- SONS AGGRE- GATE.

V. ANl-



IV. Military PERSONS AGGREGATE( Party of Souldiers, Forces, disband) tnay be diftributed according to fuch different names as do dehote either the

Whole being an armed Multitude fittoaflault or rcfift, confifting of many i. ARMY, Hofi,Forces, Battalia (fubordinate divifions.

Farts according to

Ty he firji : or the fecond greatejl fubdivifioni.

5BRIGADE, Battalion, Terce.

2 * £ REGIMENT, Legion, Tribune) Colonel.

The third: or fourth fubdivtfion, belonging both toHorfe and Foot;

5 COMPANY, Troop , Band, Captain, Centurion.


Order and Situation * whether with || the fide of every one towards the fide of the SRANK. (next: ox the face of every one towards the back, of the next,

. 4 ' £FILE, Roe.

[Vfis and Services for which fuch perfons are defigned » whether •

\To march before the Army , for clearing of the way : ox to follow after , for 1 SVANCURRIER* (help and fupply in cafe of ncceffity.


To begin the Fight : oc to ingage in the tnojl difficult fer vices, being ulually a , 5 FORLORN HOPE. (felefted Company.


[To take care of and defend the Baggage.


V. The Provisions neceflary fpr Offence and Defence, are ftyled by the general name of AMMUNITION, Magazin, charge, difiharge, Arcenal.

To which may be adjoyned the word BAGGAGE, Impediments, Lug- gage, Lumber.

They are diftinguilhable according to their Shapes, "and thofe ftveral lifts for which they are defigned, into fuch as are more General , denoting the common names belonging to things of this nature \ whfc- 5WEAPON,,*r/*/ off en five. (ther fuch as are || offenfive :or defenfive.

1 * £ A RMOUR , defenfive Arms, Mail, Headpiece, Helmet, Scull , Gorget. Gaunt- Special 5 for (let, Habergeon, Sic. Armorer, Armory.

'| Offence.

j Comminm , near hand being either for

Striking chiefly 5 whether || bruifing : or cutting,

7 CLUB, Bat, Ratoon, Battle-ax .Mace, Vole* ax, Cudgel.

>SWORD* Stimitar , Hanger , Rapier, Tuck. > Fenyard^tilUttoJDag^ ger, Fauchion, Glave, Cutler.

Thrufiing chiefly $ of which the latter is fometimes ufed for finking. SPIKE, Spear, Launce , Javelin, run dttilt.

3- ^HALBERT. Fartizan, Trident.

Ennnua, at a diftarce , whether j Ancient and lefi artificial denoting either the

Infirumcnt giving the force , being of a curved figure and elafticat power, to be held in the hand, either j| immediately : or by the fiock. to 5 BOW, Jhoot, Archer, Fletcher. (which it is fixed.

i 4 ' ^CROSS-BOW, Jhoot.

Infirument or Weapon projected-, whether || immediately out of the hand: % DhKTffaveltu, Harping- iron. (or mediately from fomething elfi.

. HARROW, Shaft, Bolt.

< Modern and more artificial, (i.) fire- Arms 5 denoting either the j Vcfiels giving the force j according to the name of\\ the whole kind :or of | the bigger kind. 6. £UN,


Military Relation.

C GUN, Jhoot, Snaphauce, Firelocfa Mmfa,Carbine,Blunderbup, 6. < Piece, Arquebus, Petronel, Pifib l, Dagg, Potgun,play Upon.

^ C ORDN ANCE, Cannon , Artillery , Safa, Minion, Baptist ^ , Dr a fa

&c. j (boot.

Vtenjils -, f'gnifyikgthe thing |J enkindling: ox enkindled.

S MATCH, Tinder ,Touchwood, Spun L ' " £ POWDER* Gunpowder. vThings difcharged 5 cither |] filed: ox hollow. o S BULLET, Ball, Pellet, shot.

^GRANADO, Petard.


9. BUCKLER, shield , Target.

VI. Such kind of Places, together with luch kind of Contrivances belong- ing to them, as relate to a ftate of War, may be ftyled MILITARY PLACES Or fTorfa (Munitions , Fortifications, fenced. Hold, dfmantle.)

To which may be adjoyncd for its affinity the common notion of fuch things as are ufed for the fencing of Places 5 SEPIMENT, WaU, Pale , Fence, Thefe may be diftinguiffied into fuch as are (Enclofire, Fold, Mound,

x More principal

r Comprehending the Area contained within them.

(Greater 5 in || Country : or Town.

) , SCAMP, encamp, quarter.


. C up 3 more || independent : or dependent.

S SCONCE, Fortrefi, Platform, Fort.

  • c BLOCK- HOUSE j Fort, Bajlion, Strong-bold.

INot comprehending the Area contained within them. ( Earth).

( General 3 denoting a Sepiment || Ridge-like of Earth : or Furrow-like in the ) SRAMPIER, Watt, Bulwark, Line, Counterfcarf, Mound, Out-work, y*2DlTCH, DifaPof, Trench, Mote.

C Special-, fignifying the j| outward: or inward Watt.



^Lefi principal-, whether

( Greater 3 cither of ^a round i or many- angled figure.

S f HALF- MOON. , *

^ ) 5 * \HORN-WORK.

i ( Eefier 3 either || angular to defend the J ides of a place : or the flraioht (idei I 6. B-BDOUBT. (to he fi defended.

j * \FLANKER. - J

^Accefjions belonging to the

i r Out parts \ being a Jeries if || great Pins fretted: or Holes dkg in the earth. \ PALL 1 SADO.


'< Entrance 1 Military Doors II to /but tranfverfe : or to let doWn ditett.



.Walls', fignifying anerett crenated Margo upon the Walls 5 \\ either bnitt upon them: or made by fitting on Baskets filled with earth.




$. IV.


T Hc Head of 'Naval Relation is intended to comprehend the various Notions and Expreflions, belonging to mens affairs and traffick on the


(Waters 3 refpetting either

SK1NDS OF VESSELS ufed for Paflage. I.

(Tarts of VeJJels 3 relating to fueh as ferve for

} ( Containing 3 HULL. II.





I I. The KINDS OF VESSELS which are ufed for paffage on the Waters,

sfiLs. are in feveral Countries of fo great variety and names , by reaion of their being dift inguifhed by (bme little accidental Differences, that it will be very difficult for the moft expert perfon to give a Efficient enumeration of them : and therefore I (hall in this place diftribute them onely according to their various Magnitudes , and the Vjes for which they are defigned .* according to which they may be diftinguiffied into ffich as are denoted under the (■ General name > belonging to the (| lejjer , or greater kind.

> ^ BOAT, Oars, Wherry, Scnl/er, Canoe, Cockboat, Waterman,

f T * ^SHIPj Pink,, Pinnace , Shallops Sail, VeJJel, Navy, Fleet, naval. {.Particular kinds 3 either

( Lejffer for the Sea , or greater for Rivers.

) SKETCH , Bark., Flyboat.

) 2 * ^ BARGE, Lighter, Galljfoift, Brigand we, &c.

^ Greater 3 being moved either by

\ Sails and Oars .


^ Sails onely 3 and ufed chiefly for .


4. G ALEOT, Caramojtl, C arrack^ Caravel,

Irajfici 1 and Merchandize.

- 5. MERCHANT-MAN, Bottom.

Fighting ,

4 - MAN OF WAR, Frigot, Caper, Armada, Privateer,



ii.HLiL. II. By HULL is meant the main Bulk or Body of the Ship, conlidered abftraftly from its Mafts and Rigging. The parts of which may be diftin-

Timbers. (guiffied into fuch as relate to

Fixed at the

Bottom of the S hip 3 lying either || direct , or tranjverjc. r , SKEEL.

< )• Jrung*

y End-, either the ^former, or hinder part.

S STEM, Prove.

J '.r ASTERN, Poop,

' ^STERN, Poop,

[Moveable upon a Centre ox Hindge3 Wfirlifting up the Anchor or any great weight: ox for fearing the Ship. °


j ^RUDDER, Helm, St eer. J Places


Naval Relation .

j" Places or rooms . ; relating to the I f Former, Or hinder part its eve.



{^Middle fpace j 1 1 betwixt the Mammdfi ami Fore.cafile, or the rooms built above this towards the Stem.

- 3 WAST. •

5 * l HALF-DECK. 7

Apertures j in the

< ^ rloor Dee ^' Applying tte office of Doon and Windows } [| gr eater % or le fieri

<6 5 h atches.

f ' ^SCUTTLE, Gratings.

\. s ‘* es i II for fatting out the Ordnance, or far pa fag e of fpaterfrom the P toil


7 ' d SCUPPER.

Interfile es } betwiit |j the edges of the plonks, or the fidr timbers of the Ship. ;



Shape or figure of the Hull •, with refpeft to H the gathering or jojning together of the plankt upon the Ship's quarter under Heater , or fo much of the Hull as hangs ever both

ends of the Keel-, ftyled

  • 3 RAKE OF POST, tuck
  • 1rake of stem.

0 H the gathering or jojning together of tke ) > or fo math of the Hull as bangs ever both

1IF. Parts of Veflels ferving chiefly /or the PROGRESSIVE MOTION or Stay- W. Parts ing of them, may be the matter of which they cpnfift,into Inch as ateaf fpvood ; according to the more _ ■ JjJ* MOTP!

General names • denoting fach woody parts as are either T Fixed ahd upright j or the upper farts of tbefe , round and prominent ♦

I n «* aim mmw »rw» i v* »«* m


I 2TOP, Boul.

1 Moveable and tranfverfe $ a\

typified either to the || top , or bottom of the Sadi

. 1 4 JYARD.

I 1 {boom. ,

‘ » i- Separate •, fi rrving for thrufiing againfi l| the footer. Or th r Earth.

I 5^AR,rcjr.

^pole. ,

{Particular kinds of Mails - t (applicable likewifc to Top, Yard, and Sails,) bei*g jj placed either in the

C Fore * pirt ; whether )| leaning , or upright * »


< ) 4> ^FORE-MAST.

" Catching and oppofmg the triads either 1 1 prineipaSj, ot additionaUj,

I DiftiaBion of Nations , or the feveral Officers 6f a Nary j fet tip either | \abovi, in 1 the Mafis, or btlcre, at the Stern.

m tFLAG.

J 7 1ancient;

I {Ornament andfbeW, Or tifid Umarl^okt the Windti quarter « 

lire# •, for \\fiayi»g and holding the Ship,oi the fa fining *f it to other Skip. • M t ANCHOR, Kedger.

9 ‘ i GRAPPLE.

IV. Bf



Naval Relation .

Part, ii;

iv.RiGGCsO IV. By RIGGING is meant the feveral kinds of Cordage belonging to a Ship ) in refpett of the ' Majls , ferving either for the

Keeping them upright * namely, || that are more declive on either Jidt of | the Mafts : or thofi that are more tranfverfi.

’ f SHROUDS, Futtocks. « 

P 1 ST AYES. ;

Afcent up to them ; thofe /mailer ropes which croft the Shrouds as tie 2. RATLINGS. {rounds of a Ladder.

Tardsj Jerving for the

Tying of them : or the fulling of them to and fid. #


3 * 1 JEARS.

Squaring or tranfierfing i or mating then* to hang higher or lower ♦ .



Sails $ ferving for the

f of them to the Tards : or the fulling them to and fro. * e S ROBINS.


Furling tbemacrofttox to raife up the bunt or protuberant fart of the Sail,



Making of them to ftahd clofer by a wind-, being faftned cither to || the Clew or corner of the Sail r or the middle fart of it.



Anchor 3 according to||^e more general name: or the name belonging to n SC ABLE. (the lejfir kjnd of fitch ropes.

^HAWSER, Hafir. ...

V.PERSONS belonging to the management of NAVAL Afuirs^Alari- nbrtjSeafitring-OKu, may be diftributed into fuch whole Charge doth [ Defence of the Ship by fighting '■> either (icern the

' More principal 3 the Chief who in Fight is to make good the Half- deck : or his Deputy , whole place in Fight is the Fore cattle.


Lef principal j having the charge of the |]

Squadrons for the Watch : or being to take care for the fitting and re- . lieving efthe Watches id that theSGuldiers keep their Arms clean.


Ordnance^ shotfowderf/LZ.



I Sailing of the sbip 3 and the care of its parts and Lading 5 either f More principal j whole chaTgett is to

1 4 1/ Q

r , Direft the courfi 3 and command all the Sailors t or to bring the Ship \ SMASTER. {fife to harbour.


( Keep account of the Goods, what is received and delivered.


£ PURSER. Prefer vc


itized by

Chap. XI.

Naval Kelation.


l Prefirve the Rigging arid Tackle and the Long boat : or to attend the Skiff with a peculiar gang to go to and fro upon occafton .



I Left principal y ferving to ^Keep the Deck} clean.


- Manege the Sails below : or to ajcend for taking in the Top-fail f, Sect o JAILERS, Mid {hip-men, skipper.

’ ^YONKERS, Fore-majl-men.

Vi. NAVAL ACTIONS may be diftinguiihed into foch as are done \To the S hip y , for the

{Securing of the Seams betwixt the Plank} y either by || beating in of Ok urn, (i.) pieces of old Ropes or hards of Flax : or putting a lift of Canvas along the Seam, and then pouring hot Pitch upon it. 5CALKING. tm <>PARSLING.

Smoothing theoutjide y by || waftsing or burning off att the filth with REEDS or Broom y or p/earing over fo much of the ship as is to be in the water with a mixture of Tallow, Sope and Brimfione, boiled together , to preferve the Calking , and to make the Veflel more flippery for paflage.

5BROMING, Bt-eaming. -


Defending it againft Wdrms y by || caftng that part of the Hull Within wa- ter with Tar and Hair, and then nailing over thin Boards : or inlar - ging the Breadth, by ripping ofi Tome of the Planks;and then, having added other Timbers, to put on the Planks again, ftyled , 5SHEATHING.

3 ’5furring.

[varying the Pofttionof a ship-, either \\for the mending of it, by ma- king it to lie on one fide, the better to come at its lower parts : or for the motion of it, by fo ordering the Lading and Rigging that it may be in the beft condition for (ailing.



By the Ship y either

C Rafting y when t is \\ftaid by the Anchor : or laid leaning to one fide.


/ 5 ‘ ^HULLING.

^ In motion y either more

Dirett y when it || goes as it fhou\d: or runs its bead in the wind mote , SLEEPING A. WIND. (or lefts then it Jhould,


2 falling to the leeward.

Lateral y when it || doth lean too much on one ftde.'oc doth turn too much , SHEELING, feeling. (on each fide.

  • 2 ROLLING.

VI. havAjl actions:

O o i




Part. It


A. V. X 1 Nder thfa Head of ECCLESIASTICAL RELATION ( ckr & , II spirituals C hutch ? ) arc comprehended the leveral Notions and rdpefts belonging to a Churcb-ftate. By Church is meant a Society of men asagreeing in the famekind of ioward apprehensions of, and ex- ternal demeanour towards, the Divine Nature : to which may be oppo* fed the word TEMPORAL, Civil, Humane, Secular Lay , Prophane.

Notions of this kind, may be diftinguilhed into fuch as do denote 'KINDS OF RELIGION. I.

P efforts \ in regard of their s ECCLESIASTICAL CALLINGS. IL , ^STATES OF RELIGION. III.

< Actions $ belonging to

s WORSHIP, iv.



I. R.EU- I. That habit of reverence towards the Divine nature, whereby we gion. ?re inabled and inclined to ferve and worlhip him after fuch a manner as

we conceive moft acceptable to him, is called RELIGION, Piety, God *

Unefs. The Privation of which is ftyled ATHEISM, Irreligion, Impiety. Men are diftinguilhed by their kinds of Religion into fuch as Are wholly without any revelation of the true God and hu JVorJhip ; hut that knowledge which they have is either (Simple, from the dictates of mere Reajbn.


I Mixed, and corrupted with theworjhip of falfe goat*

2, PAGANISM, tie athenifm, Ethnic, Infdd,Genti\, Painim.

Have revelations : or pretend to them , whether by

! Moles, in which they reft.

3. JUDAISM, Judaical,Jew.

Chrijl and his Apoftles, added to Mofes.


Mahomet , fupeiadded to the reft.

5. MAHOMETISMj Tufcifm.

II. Thofe


Chap.XL Ecclefidjlical Kclation . 285

II* Thole who apply themfelves to the bufinefies of Religion as their 11. eccTLe- p articular Calling may be Riled ECCLESIASTICAL PERSONS, Cler - gy, Churchman, fpiritual, Hierarchy.

To which may be oppofed, TEMPORAL, Lay-ic, civil, fecular, pro- phane.

Thefe may be diflinguifhed into fuch as are ' Injoyned 5 being let apart to forte peculiar function in the Chilrch, and by way of office devoted to affift in the duties of Religion, Whether fuch as were in ule

Before the Law »* being |J the chief Adminifirators of religious Services , as Mafiers of Families : or Jhch others as then and Jince were extraor- i din arily called and gifted to foretell future things.

] 5 patriarch.

  • ' c P ROPHET ■ icaf divine, prophcfie, foretell, prefage, prognofiicate,

Pr e did ion. Seer, Sibyl , ,

"'i Under the Law 3 || appointed for the principal works of divine Service ‘ or fuch as were Jubordinate and ajjtfiant to them.


2 ^LEVITE-/V 4 /.

' j VndertbeGoffel', being either

I ^Temporary 3 || who were firjl indued with the power of Miracles, of [ I V whom there were onely twelve : or fitch others at thefe took, in for < J their help, to travel up and down for the fj> reading of chrifiianity.

\ S APOSTLES -ical.

P ^EVANGELISTS-^*/, Goffel.

>> Permanent , and to be continued 3 whether

{Afore principal $ denoting Me chief Ecclefiafiical Officer \\ of a Pro- vince, with feveral Cities: or fome particular City and the terri- tory adjoyning. Quince.

t PRIMATE, Arch bijbop , Metropolitan, Mufty , Patriarch, Pro- < 4 * \BlSHOPj Prelate , Ordinary , Epifcopal - acy , Suffragan, Superin- tendent, Pontificial, Diocefi,See , Cathedral, Mitre, Cr offer, Hie- rarchy,

JLefi principal 5 fuch as are || the chief Ojfjicersaf particular Parifh- churches ; or others Jubordinate and affiant to thefi.

(.PRESBYTER, Priefi, Elder, Minifies, Incumbent, Citrate >

5* < Chaplain , Parfon.

( DEACON, Minifies ■ ‘

' Not injoyned 3 but voluntary, to be further diftinguifhed, according to the *

■ f General name 3 denoting thole that are under a vow of Poverty, C<a- I libate,and obedience to their-Superiours, to whom rtay be adjoyn- I ed for affinity , fuch others as oblige themfelves to certain offices •<, with them.

, S REGULAR, Religious Perfon, order, rule,

' £ PENITENTS, Confraternity, Convert.

' ^Particular kinds-, fuch as live either || together in Society : or alone by themfelves.

. . f MONK, Frierry,Nunnery , Novice, Abbot, Abbefi , Abby,Prior-ry,Ge-

J neral. Provincial, Gardian, Monajlic, Monaffery, Minfier, Cloifier,

'* f Covent, Society, Cowle, Father.

C HERMIT, Anchorite, Cell , faclujc. 1 IL Perfons


28 6



Ecclefiaftical Relation. Part. 1 1.

III. Perfons confidered according to tnt-ir feveral STATES and Conditions in refpett OF RELIGION, may be diftinguilhed citherby

Faith and Judgments } whether |) true , or fafe, as to the effentialpoints of Religion.

^ORTHODOX, Believer.

    • {'HERETIC -a/, Herejie, Mifireant.

Charity to and communion with the body of thofe that agreee in the fame Frofejfion : or bein 9 the faulty caufeofthe breach of fetch Communion.

\ CKIWOIAC^ Communicant, Communion , Son of the Church. a * ^SCHISMATIC, Schifm-atical , Sedary, Recufant, Separate. Suffering upon the account of Religion ; being cither V. Great , but not unto Death.


C Great unto Death. To which may be oppofed the wfli&erof ftfii- inis upon account of Religion.

5 MARTYR -clom.


Eminent degrees of || Religioufnef: or Irreligioufnefs.

C SAINT, Hero- teal, canonize.

. ^SCANDAL ~ous, profligate, Offence.

I Former Jlate 3 inrelpeft of the feveral terms from which and to which men are changed , either || from bad to good: or from good to bad.

CCON V ERT, Profe/yte , regenerate , reclaim , turn, come over.

64 £ APOSTATE, Backslider, Renegado,Defe&ion, revolt, draw back^ turn, forfake,fall away , relapfe. Fugitive, Tergiverfation.

IV. that inward and outward reverence whereby we acknowledge the Efteem due to the Superiority and Excellency of another, together with the two extremes of this, viz. Redundant, when men give this to fitch things as they ought not for the Matter , or in fucb a degree as they ought not for the Mealure 5 and Deficient, when men do either contemn or »eg- led facred things and duties, are ftyled

(WORSHIP, Adoration, Veneration , Devotion, devout, Liturgy, Divine j fervice, Matt ins , Vefjers, Even-Jbng.


L ^PROPHANENESS, Impiety, impious, ungodly.

The more fpecial ads of Worfhip w&y be diftinguiflied into fuch as are more

Ordinary and conflant 5 whereby we r Apply our Jelves to God •, whether more

I ' General 5 whereby we || addrefs to him for relief in all our wants and fears, upon the belief of his infinite Goodnefi and Power: or making folemh and religious promijes to him. j < C PRAYER, Invocation, Colled, Orizon, Oratory, Ejaculation, I 1 1. < call upon.

I I (.VOW,. Votary, devoted.

Special 5


Chap.XI. ~ Ecclefiaftical Rdaikn.

I [special •, whereby we do either ||

j < ^ ct VJ*>kdgeo H r own faults and deferts: or intreat his favour and

< j J 3 5 CONFESSION, acknowledge, Shreeve.

j J ^ PETITION j. fupplicate , jite , heg. Lit any , crave, requejl, Supply - 7 dtitj Boon..

'‘Return bur acknowledgements to him for the good things me enjoy \ either | \gnore general : or by Singing. JJJ

STHANKsGIVING, praife, magrtifte, extol, Grace. j . cPSALM, Hymn, Anthem. . ,

[InftruS others publicly , or exdite them to religious duties j either [j in a more continued folemn Difcourfe : or by the asking and anjwering of guejlionsin the plaineft manner about the moll neceflary points of Religion.

5 PREACHING, Homily, Sermon. Voflil, Pulpit. ^CATECHISING, Catechifm.

Occajionalj relating unto ' Solemnities of \\ joy : or fadnefs.

\ FESTIVITY, Fejlival, Holy-day , High- day 3 Sabbath, jubilee, 5 »< Wakg, genial, good time.

C FASTING, Humiliation Ember-week,, Lent, Vigil Eve. Ritual offices obferved amongft Chriftians ^ pertaining to •j Entrance into the fate of Wedlockj or dijjdlving of that fate . '

C MARRIAGE, Pfedd-ing , Matrimony, nuptial, Bridegroom 6 . < Hymen. 9


Return into the Congregation after Parturition.


Attual taking upon themfelves the Obligation made by their Sponfors in


[Performing the Rites due to the Dead by putting their bodies \\ into the ground : or under fome Monument 3 to preferve the memorial of them (BURYING, interr, Grave, Funeral Obit ,Obfequies, Her fe se- pulture. Church-yard, charnel- houfe. 3

(.ENTOMBING, Tomb, Sepulchre , Monument , Epitaph.


V, Adions




— - - --- 1 * - 1 %

Ecclejzdflical Relation. Part.II.

V. A&iotis relating to Ecclefiaftical Authority or DlSCjPLINE,do concern the due ordering of the circumftances of Ecclefiaftical or Sa- tred things to the: beft convenience. The Notions belonging to this Head, do refer either to the work of.

Setting things aftde te a peculiar ufe 3 according to the ' More general Notion belonging to Things, and Times, and P laces, as well as Perfons 3 namely, the || feparating of them from comao f uje : or ahufing them as being but common.

^CONSECRATION, facred, fan S fie, hallo* , devote, dedicate, !♦ s Holinejt.

C PROPHANATION, unhallowed , impious, common , Luferatiort. More particular kind, appropriated to Perfons.

ORDINATION, Confecration,


[ Regulating of abufes in Ecclefiaftical matters 3 according to the more ( 'General name.


{.Particular kinds ; confifting in a (Temporary privation of <fhurch*priviledgei.


C Permanent , being the higheft Ecclefiaftical punifhmerit 3 by a [| cutting off from all Church • communion and privileges : or the re • fioring one fo cutoff.

S EXCOMMUNICATION, Anathema, Curfe, cut off, feparate.

  • * ^ABSOLUT ION,loo(ing,diJckarge,afidile : purge, clear par don, acquit.

VI. By INSTITUTIONS or Ordinances are properly meant fuch kinds of things or duties as we could not have known or been obliged unto without particular Revelation, Thefemay be diftioguilhed into

r Rules for our InftruSion in Religion 3 which, according to the feveral manners of conveyance, were either || written : or unwritten.

C SCRIPTURE, Bible, Word of God, Holy Writ, Text, Tefia- I, \ ment.

£ TRADITION, Delivery, Cabala.

Services to be done 3 according to the more ( General name 5 confifting in our offering or giving things unto God.

\ a. OBLATION, Offering, offertory. •

t Particular kind, proper to the time sunder the Law 5 which required the offering of fetch things by Fire as were either \\for Food : or for Perfume.

S SACRIFICE, ViSim , Holocanfe , Hofe, Oblation , Hecatombe.

3 * ^INCENSE, Cenfor.

[certain external fegns and means for the fegnifying and conveying of in- ternal Jpirit ual Grace 3 according to the more ( General name.

■S 4. SACRAMENT -al.

{.Particular kinds.

! Under the Late 3 for the |) initiating : or confirming men in that Re* ligion.

^CIRCUMCISION, Cutting off the fore-skin.

5 ’ $ PASSOVER. Pafchal, Eafeer.

Under the Gofpel 3 whether for |) initiating : or confirming. BAPTISM, Cirfien, Font, radobaptifm EUCHARIST , Communion, the Lord's Supper, The Sacrament ,* Hofe, Majs, Aiifjal. C HAP.

6 .

Digi ' >y v^ooQle

  • X

Chap. XII. Fore-going Table. 289


I. A general Explication of the defign of the foregoing Tables. I I. Par - ticular Infiances in the fix principal Beads of it. Ill, Some things to be noted concerning rf«d.Synonyma. IV. An enume-

ration of what kinds of things are not to be particularly ptovided for in fuch tables.

T He principal defign aimed at in thefe tables, is to give a fufficient 1 »

enumeration of all fuch things and notions, as are to have names * ‘ afligned to them, and withall fo to contrive thefe as to their order, that the place of everything may Contribute to a defeription of the nature of it. Denoting both the General and the Particular head under which it is placed 5 and the Common difference whereby it is diftinguifhed from other things of the fame kind.

It would indeed be much more convenient and advantageous, if thefe Tables could be fo contrived, that every difference amongft the Pre dica- ments might have a tranfcendental denomination, and not depend at all upon a numerical inftitution. But I much doubt, whether that Theory • of things already received, will admit of it 5 nor doth Language afford convenient terms, by which to exprefs feveral differences.

It were likewife defirable to a perfedt definition of each fpecies,

.that the immediate form which gives the particular eflence to every thing might be expreffed 5 but this form being a thing which then do not know, it cannot be expefted that it fhould be deferibed. And therefore in the ftead of it, there is reafon why men fhotfld be content with fuch a defeription by properties and circumjlances , as ma y be fufficient to deter- mine the primary fenfe of the thing defined.

Of thefe deferiptions I (hall here give an inftance under each of the jj. fix Principal Heads.

The word Goodneji is a tranfcendental, one of the General differences TRANS- of things, or affeftions of entity, implying a refpeft to fomething with- outitfelf, namely, to the Will, by agreement to which things are ren- dered lovely and defirable , as by their difagreement they are tendered hateful and avoidable, which is the oppofite notion of kvil.

• The word diamond doth by its place in the Tables appear to be a Sttbftance, a Stone, a pretious Stone, tranfparent, colourlefs, moft hard stanCf. and bright*

The word F lower or bloffbm is one of the peculiar parts, belonging to ■ -

Plants, an annual part, more principal, antecedent to the feed,confidera- ble for its beauty and colour.

The words Newnefs and Oldnefs do fignifie notions belonging to guan- QUAtftiTf; tityf. o fpace,to time, and more particularly to time paft, according to the degrees of left or greater, as the next pair, fo'onnefsznd latenefi^ doth relate to time future, according to the laine degrees of Left or Greater.

The word Moderation is a Quality , a Habit, an Affeftion of intel- miAtrrt.

P p le&ual


290 Explication of the Part. It

hftualviitue, whereby we are concerned for any truthaccording toa due mcafure, not mere or lels then the evidence and importance of it doth require, to which .the notion of fietcenefi or fanaticali h(H isoppojed as the deficient extreme.

ACTION. The word Pitty, doth by its place denote an Aftion,fpiritual, of the foul in refpeftof the Appetite, whofe actions are commonly fitted Afi feftionsor Paflions : 'Tis a mixed Pafficn, confiding of Grief and Love, occafionetj by feme evil, which (as we think) doth unworthily befall others. As Envy doth of Grief and Hate upon account of feme good befalling others (as we think) unworthily.

RELATION. The word Parent by the place of it in the Tables , doth denote the thing thereby be a Relation,Oeconomical,of Conlanguinity, dire ft afeending ; as Child is direft defeending.

And thus is it with all thofe other particulars, which are placed either direftly or collaterally , either by way of Oppcfition or of affinity.

Only ’tis here to be noted.

0 - HI. i. Thatfome of thofe which are plaeed as Oppofitet, donotalwayes fall out to be under the fame Predicament or Genus with thofe things to which they are adioyned as it mud be in fuch things as are privative/p oppofed, isBlindneJs, Dtafneft, Darkpefi, See. And 10 like wife for feme of thofe fpecies which are put in for their affinity, as Point, Center, Pole, find fuch other things as are not diredly , but redudively only under any predicament.

2. T hat fbme Radixes , befides the redundant and deficient extremes, have likewife an Oppofite common 5 fo to the word Jufiice, there is oppo- fed an Oppofite common , Injufiice, befides the excels Rigor, and the defeft Remijfion. So to Veracity, the Oppofite common \s lying-, which maybe either by way of Excels, over-faying', boading, flattering ': or of Defeft, under-faying , detraction. So to h quality, the Oppofite common is Inequality, imparity jdifparity 5 the excels of which is Superiority, and the deleft In- feriority. This is natural to all Radixes that have double Oppofites, though indituted Languages have not provided words to exprels it.

3. Many of the Synonymous words put to the Radixes , are referred to more heads then one, upon account of their various equivocal accep-

, tions. And befides fuch words or phrafes as are more plainly Synony- mouSjthere is likewife an addition of luch other, as are either more im- mediate derivations, whether Adjeftives, Verbs, Adverbs : or more medi- ate, being by compofition to be made off from thofe Radixes to which they are ad joynea : Of which I fhall give an indance or two, under each of the fix general Heads.

SONDiN I nt be Table of Tranfcendentalsf T. III. 2. the Radical is GOOD* TALS. NES% to which thefe other words are ad joyned, Weal, welfare , right, re- gular, well, rcClifie, better, beji. Amongft which, the wads Weal, welfare, are mentioned as Synonoma , denoting fuch a date of being as is defina- ble, and are luppoled to be Subdantives Neuter. Wed- doing cr Good aftion, is the Subdan. Aft. The words Good.right, regular, are the Pcfitive adjeftives from the root, Better, befi, are the Comparative and Superlative adjeftives. Wcl/yightflkc.are the Adverbs. RcChfieisgccd make, and to be exprefled by compofition withihe Trrnlcendental particle of Canfe .

. So lor the Oppofite to this, LVII NESS to which thefe words aread-



Chap. XII. Fore-going Table. 291

joyned , ill, badi* naught, wrongs asnifs.Jhrewdfcurvy, lewd, horrid, horrible', corrupt gravity, deprave, Jin, fault , trejpaji , tr angrefs-i on , Peccadillo, worje.

Amongft which, the words Badnefi gravity , are Synonymous to the Ra- dicals, ancUTuppofcd to be Subftanti.ves newter. The Words Sin, fault', trejfaji , trangrejjion , will be Subftan. Aft., Which being compounded with .the Tranfcendental Particle, Diminutive or Augmentative , will denote a Peccadillo or (mall fault, or an Enormity or heinous crime. The words EviliU, bad, naught , strong, cor rupture Ad jefttves of this root, and being compounded .with the Tranfcendental Particle of Augmentative, will De of the fame importance with thofe other words, shrewd, feurvy , lewd, horrid, horrible , 8 cc. The words lll,amifs,wrong,hadfy, naughtily, are the Adverbs. The words denoting to fin,trefiafs,traujgrefe,are the Verb.- Aft. which being compounded with the Tranfcendental Particle of Caufe,will fignifie Corrupt, deprave. ,

So in the Tables of Subjlance, Be. II. I. the Radical is KINE, fignify- suit- ing the Bovinum genus ; the other words reduced to it are, Bull, Cow, Ox, WANCEl c2f, Heifer , Bullock^ Steer, Beef, Veal, Runt , Bellow , Low, Heard, Cowbeard,

Some of which are to be made off from this root by compofitions with the Tranfcendental Particles.

r Male. "I [Bull, Bullock, Steere.

Female. 1 I COW, Heifer, Steere*

So the Root Kine Young. | will | Calf With the Tran-< Voice ?figni-< Bellow, Lowi feendeot. Patt. f Dimin. I fie | Rtint. •

t. Patt. | Dimin. fie Rtint. •

I Aggregate Heard.

lOfficer. j [Cowheatd.

Hie reft are to be made off by other Compofitions i So Oar is lintefticled or gelt Bull 5 Beef, Veal, is the flefh of Kine or Calf.

le. II. a The Radical is SHEEP 5 to which are adjoyned the words,'

Ram, Ttw,Lamb, Weather, Mutton, Bleat, Fold, Flecks, shepheard. Each of

which words site to be made off from this radically feme kind of compo- >


[Male. Tj [Ram.

' Female* I Yew.

The word Sheep being Young. J will Lamb,

compounded with the < Voice. >figni- < Bleating.

Traofcend. Pirticle of Sepimeht. jfie Fold 5 Sheepfbld.

’ Aggregate. Flock.

. , .Officer. J (.Shepheard.

•Celt Ram is PVeather, Flefh of Sheep is Mutton.

Mag. 111. A. the Radical is FIGURE, to which thefe other Words QjJAtrfTTT, are annexed, viz. Shape, Feature, Fajhion, Form, Frame, Scbeme,Linedhtent, the mobs, well Jet or proportioned, transform, transfigure, dtfacej disfigure.

Amongft which the former words, shape. Feature, F ajhion, Form, F fame.

Scheme, Lineament, the make, are, according to one of thofe ienfes wherein each of them is commonly uied, the more mediate Synonymd , the reft,

Ote to be made 6 ff by compofitiori, either with

S Tranfcendental particles of tlief Perfeftive, well-jet or proportioned.

2 Word ebastge, transform, transfigure.\C6ir\iptlve, defaced, disfigured.

Sp. 1. 1 . The Radical is PRESENT, to Which is adjoyned, 4 * tbit time, etowjmntedidtcly, infant ly. current, ready ♦ The more immediate gynony-

P p 3 Utu




Explication of the

Parr. II.

ma are , T bis time or infant. The words Current , ready 4 are Adje&ivcs. NW) immediately injtantly, arc* the Adverbs of this root.

One of the Oppoutes to this Radicals PAST, or timepafl to which thefe other words are pvt, Expired, former, foregone, ago.alrcady, even now, heretofore gone$ over , put ,a^ late, erevpbile , long fince , which are thus to be made, off The words Expired , former , foregone , over, out , are the Adje- Sives ofthis root. The words already, heretofore , are the Adverb* 9

which being compounded with the Tranfcendental Particle* v

5 Augment. ? will fig-S-^ & rt ** while ago, long face.

<*Dimbu 5 n 'h e * c Eve * now^a-lateytrewhiU,a little while ago.

. The. other Qppofite is FUTURE, to which thefe words are ad joyn- ed, Time to come, after time, hereafter, prejently,anon,by and by,Jbortly.jlrait- may, ere long* henceforth, procefoj time,after a long while. Amongft which thefe words or phrafes. Time to come , after timeyproceji of time , are Syno- nymous tiibftzntivestfereaftfrybenceforthyiirc Adverbs, which being com- pounded with the Tranfcendental Particle of 5 Augment. ? will Qg-S After a long while.

<Oiminut. 5 nifie £Prefently,by and by^no»,Jhortly, fir airway, ere long .

Sp. II. 3. is the Radical NEARNESS, to which thele other words are added, .Vicinity^ Propinquity, Proximity, nigh, nextylofi , adjacent , adjoyn, neighbouring jmminent, impendent, immediateyeady at kand,accoJ},draw on, approach, at, by ,bard by ybefidejuthermqf. Amongft which, the words Vici- nity, Propinquity, tProximity, are Synonymous fubftantivfs. Nigh, cloji, ad- jacent , adjayning, neighbouring, imminent , impendent, immediate, nextfbi- tbermofi , are Adje&ivCs, . Py,\ hard by, at, at hand, bejides,ire Adverbs, Approach, accojl, draw n{er or on, are Verbs,

So for the Oppose to this, REMOTENESS, to which are adjoyped the words, farr ^farther, aloof wide ffylifiantyttm(fbj»ltimate,great may off, Amongft which thtf. words , far, farther, dif ant, utmojl, ultimate, are Ad* je&ives. Aloof, wide of, a great way off, are Adverbs.

N P. II. a. the radical word is MEMORY, to which thefe other words are aq joyncd,KecoUe3 ,recal, commemorate,rememher, call or come to mind,put in mindyjitggyft , record, recount, con over, getting by heart , by rote, without hookey at ones, fingers ends , memorable , Memorial, Memorandum, mindful, Amongft which the words. Remember, commemorate, record, re- count , are Verbs, which beiqg compounded with the Tranlc. Particle^

C Caufe, will fignifie Snggeil, put in mind, or caufe to remember.

< Endea* P will fig- CForthe prefent, Recaly recollect, call to mind.

C vour. Snifie. ^For the future, Con over, get by heart , by rote, get. Mindful is au Adjeft. Neut. Memorable is an Ad j. Pals. Abftr. Memorasu dum, Memorial, is to be compounded with die Tranfeeud. Part. Signac* noting* Sign for remembrance.

N P. V. 9. the Radical is SWIFTNESS, to which thefe other words' arefldjpyned, Fleptnefs , Celerity, Speed, fajl,, apace,, quick.* fudden,r*pid,hur- ry, accelerate, hajien, curjbry,hye, expedite , runjeud, whisky pojl. Amongft which the words, Fleetnefs, Celerity ^Spetd, are Synonymous fubft. gut'cl^, Judden,faJl, rapid, expedite, attfiryy are Adj.Apace,quicJ{ly -er, are Adverbs. Pfye, hafien, run fioft, hurry, fend. whisky , are Verbs. Accelerate, expedite, as al (o hqjleu, hurry, when they derate a Tranfitive efficiency , are to b#- evpreUedby composition with the Tranfe. Particle of Caufe or make.'

So for the Oppofite to this, SLOWNESS j to which arc adjoyned ■%k . the

Chap.XII. Foregoing Table . 293

the words, Heavineji , flackjtej }, dul^uggy tardy , leajitrely, foftly , dilatory , retard, f0reJlowdelayyLobyLubbery’^flffb,Lurdanytorpid.unwieldy, gingerly.

The words, Slackjtefs, heavinefs, ar^ynonymous fubftantives. Du lly /lug* gifhjardy jumpiflijorpidfinwieldj, dilatory 3 xxe the Ad je&ives of this root 5 which being compounded with theTranlb. panic, of Per fon, will be of the fame fignification with thofe other words, Slugg, Lob, Lubber, Lurdan.

. The Words,. Slowly 3 leafier ely 3 foftly 3 gingerly j are' the Advetbsof this Radical. Retard, ' for t flow 3 delty, are the Verbs.

So Man. I. O. thfe. Radical word is VICE v to which thefe other words are reduced ySinfirmeybifbdheffyylmprobity,Treffafs, TranJgreJJion t Fault , Failing 3 Infirmity , overflight 3 turpitude , unrighteous 3 unjufl 3 vile 3 baft , lo«fe,evil 3 ill,bad 3 naught 3 corrupt , venial 3 wickgdy heinous 3 debaucht 3 level jaw lefiyli cent ious 3 f owl 3 flagitious , enormous , Profligate , Mifcreant , ELuffiany Cai- tiff Villain, Rakgbelf Libertine , defile, pollute , which are thus to be made on from this root*

The words

Sin 3 DiJbonefly Jmprobity, are Subft. N.

TreJj>afe,TranJgreJJton 3 are Subftant. Ad* which Siibftantives Being com* pounded with the Tranfcendental Particle.

SAugment 5 wiIl*fig- 5 fr/>^e, £/»ffr««///, Turpitude.

^Dim <jnihe '^Faulty Infirmiiyy Failingy Overfight,

Evil/, illy body naughty corrupty vicjous ^ unrighteous , uhjufl , are the Ad- je&.Neut. which being compounded with the Traflfcend. Particle,

, Augment* will be of the fame importance with thofe other words,

Bafe 3 Fouty Levdy Filthy , dtbauched 3 flagitious , EnorntUus, profligate , heinous y mortalL If it be compounded with the Tranfcendental Par- ticle Dim. it will fignifie Venial. If with the Tranfc. Partic. for Per- (on, it fignifies, Ruffian , ViUain 3 Rake- hell, Libertine y Mifcreant, Gaitiffe.

Corrupt y defilty pollute , dehauchy are the Verb compounded with the Tranicendental Particle of Caufe, or Make*

In the Tables of Aftion* AS. V* 4. O* The Radical is ORIEF5 to action which are adjoyned the words, Sadnejiy Sorrow, Melancholy, Hedvinefs y doleftdideplorableydiflontfblate jitter ,pcnflveydej c 8 ed } tragical } rufulIy 4 ntorty moan, bentoan 3 waif bewaily l ament 3 dumpy caff down 3 vex 3 trouble. Cutty take ou 3 whimper ypuky woe t agony , augmjh 3 mourn , cry 3 takfi heavily . Which are thus to be made off from the Root.

1 'Sadnefi,(brroW,Heavi*uJs } Melancholy yTrouble, axe Synonymous Subft - .' which being compounded with the Tranlc. Particle Augmentative, will exprcis thofe other words, Anguifby woe. Agony.

Penflne 3 Jady Heavy , Melancholy , forrowfuUy dejeSed, di/conJbUtey caff doWnjaxe AdjeQiveti which being compounded as the former, will 1 be of the fame importance with thofe other words, bolefnlly rufully rf J bitter , tragical :

^5 * Deplorable y dolefully may be the Ad P . Ablh .

Si Moan, bemoan , wail , bewaily lament, moum y cry y plain 3 are the Verb' of this Root, which in (ome Acceptiohs is to be Compounded with the Tranfcendental Particle of Sign*

Takg ohy take heavily to be compounded v/ith^y Augment,

whimper y pule, whine £ the Tranfcendental Particle (fDimih,

VexyCuty cafi down, are Verbs A&ive.

' {Dumpyall amort ,to be compounded with the Tranfc. Paftic. Impetus.

AC. i


Exflication of the


AC. I. 7. 6. The Radical is DYING =, to which thefe other words are

adioyned, Death,deadly,mortall.fat4flye,deceafe, depart. expire-give tip the gheji,defu«a,lqll,fiaj,mortijie,difjatcW,Jlaughter, mortality, Capital-, which

are thus to be made off. . ,

Death is Subft. N. Mortality is Subft. N. Abft. Slaughter is the Subft.

compounded with the Particle Caufe.

Dead, defuntt, is Ad j N. Deadly Jat all, mortall, capital, is Ad j A. Abft. Dye,deceaje , depart , expire, give up the Chojl, is the Verb 5 which being compounded with the Tranfcendcntal Particle Caufe or make 9 will fignific to Kill. fay, difpatch, mortific. .

AC. 111 . 1. The Radical is SPEAKING j to which thefe words are ad- ioyned, Talkp,utter-ance, mention, Elocutionpronounce,cxprefs,deliver,Pro- lation , Spokesman, effable,voluble'fuent fay, tell, mutter, mumble, jabber, jar- gou,Vei«, Grammar, Rhetoric, Oratory, Eloquence, Prolocutor, nuncupative, by word if mouth.

Talking, Telling Sayiny,Expreftng, Delivering, Mektionikg, are SubffanL Synonymous to the Radical j which being compounded with the Tranfc. Particle of Manner, will denote the fenfe of thofe other words which denote a refpeft to the mode of fpeaking, viz. Elocution, Pronunciation, Vtterance, Vitn : And being compounded wfth the Particle Officer, it fignifies, Proloquutor. If with the Particle Art, it ihay denote the feve- ralA&sof fpeaking. So the Art of fpeaking congruoufly is Grammar ornately is Rhetoric, Eloquence Perfwadingly is Oratory , Eloquence . If with the Particle Corruptive,it may fignific, Muttering, Mumbling, jabber, jargon. The words Fluency, Volubility, aro the Subft. Abfl. Aft. with the Particle Perfe&ive. Nuncupative ly, by word of mouth, are the Adj. and Adv. of this root. Tainted, fay, utter, are the Verbs. Spokesman, is the pro, or inftead , fpeaking perfon.

AC, III. 7. The Radical is WRITING 5 to which thefe other words are annexed, Penning, Dr awing, Engrojftng, Hand, Manujcript,,- perfcribe, injcribe, tranfcribe, pojlfcript , interline , indorfe, fcrawk,fcrible , Penman, Scribe, Scrivener, Secretary , Clerks, Note, Ticket, Docket, shorthand, Tachygrapby, Rrachygrapby , Cryptography , jet ones band, fetdown, take ot put in writing, enter into book;

Which words are thus to be made off from this root. The words Pen- ning, dr awing, and the Phra (es,jfet ones band, take or put in writing , enter into book., are the more immediate Sjnonyma of the Radical. Hand, Ma- nufcript, draught, are the Subftantive Pafhve.

r Scribe,Penman , Writer j 3 : r Perlbn

S ecret ary, Clerl^, Scribe > Ad). Aft. g.‘ Officer ^

Scrivener. ) g. Mechania

H Note, Ticket, Docket Adjed. PaC Thing


H Note, Ticket, Docket <T short- hand,trachjgra- pby. Stenography o Tacbygrapbf £■ I Cryptography

Engrojs, write out fair , Scrible,Jcrawl SubCcribe. litperfcribe. it







(Short j Art of < Speedy >1 (Secret )



tbfcribejHperfcribe,infcribe, &c. are the Verb, compounded with the Prepofitions. Subjuper, /»,& c.

J • r — — *

Chap.XII. Fore-going Table . 295

In the Tables of Relation. R.O. I. 2. The Radical is PARENT ; to relAtiok. which are adjoyned the words Sire, Father, Mother, Damns, paternal, ma- ternal, Grandjire, &c. Orphan , which are thus to be exprefled.

Sire, Father ? ^Male

Mother, Damm^*™ ^ arent |>FcinaIe

Paternal, Maternal, are the Adjeftives of Father, Mother ; Grandjtre is Fathers Father, or lecond Father ; Orphan is un-parented.

So for the Oppofite Radical CHILD 5 to which thefe other words are adjoyned, iffite, Son, Daughter, Bread, Litter, filial, adopt, pojihume , which arc thus to be exprefled.

Clffite, Brood, Litter 'j . f Kind

) son vBy compofltion with the^ Male

! Daughter ( Tranfcendental Partic. y Female

'•Adopt ^ ^Caufe

Filial is the Ad j. Pojihume is a Child born after the Parents Death. ,

RC. I. 3. The Radical is KING , to which thefe words are adjoyned.

Sever aign. Emperor, Imperial, Monarch, Queen, regall, royal -tj,Majejij , Reign,Kingdom .Lor d,Dynafiy. Suit an ,Cbam, Liege Lord, Regent , Realm, Dia- dem,Crown,Coronation, Scepter, Throne, inthrone. Viceroy.

Which are thus to be made off. The Radical being a Subftantive of the Perfon, thefe other words muft be Synonymous to it, viz. Soveraign ,

Monarch , Emperor, Lord, Liegc*Lord, Sultan, Chant, Regent. The word Emperor being fometimes uled for (itch a one as hath other Kings under his Dominion, may according to this notion of it, be exprefled by com- pofltion, with the Tranfc. Particle of Augmentative* Queen by the Par- ticle Foem. Majefiy, Royalty , are Subfl. Abft. Regal, rcyal,Soveraign , Im- perial, are the Adjeft. N. Realm, Kingdom, are the Ad j. PaflC with'the Particle, Thing. The Reign is the Subfl. Aft. ToReign is the Verb.

Viceroy , Regent, k Adj Aft. withTranC Part. Perfon and the Prepofltion F ro, or inflead. Craven, Diadem, is Head-Signof Majcfty. Scepter kStafP Sign of Majefty. Throne is Royal Seat. Coronation, intbroning,\s fblem- nity of King-making, or King-declaring.

By thefe Inftances, it rtiay appear, what courfe is to be taken,with that great variey of Words, adjoyned to other Radicals.

The things atid notions provided fot in thefe Tables, are fuch only A as are of a more jtniple nature; others that ate of a more mixed and com- plicated fignification, are to be exprefled peri phrafKcally, as may be feed in the Dictionary. Such words ofily, are abfolutely neceflary for filch a defign, as arc purely Ample ; which if they could be acurately diflingui- flied, would be much fewer then thofe here enumerated ; But for the preventing of frequent and large periphrales, it may be convenient to take in fome others that are not purely fiftiple.

There are fome kinds of things that are not capable of being provided; for in a Charafter and Language, propofed for Univerfal ufe, as namely all fuch as are appropiated toparticular Placet or Times.

I. Such as are peculiar to feme particular place or Nation, As

1. Titles of Honour, Duke, Marquefs, Earl, Viicount, Baron,BafOflcl,

Knight, Efquire, &c. Which are to be exprefled by the feveral degrees which they belong to in the Nobilitas Major, or Minor.

2. Titles of office and Place, as Sheriff Maior* Baylifl^ See. Mattel,



- - ■ i

Explication of the Part.II.

Warden, Prelidcnt, Provoft, Principal, Reftor, &c. which are all to be exprefied by the common notion of FrefeSure.

2. Degrees in Profeffions, Doftor, Mailer, Bachelour, Serjeant at Law, fearrifter, &c»

4, Law Terms of Tenures, Writ, Sic. Copyhold, Freehold, Knights- fervice, &c. Habeas corpus , ttiji priuf, Defeafahce , Certiorari , Replevin fuperfedeas ) Subp£na i Sc.c.

5. To which may be added the leveral terms of Heraldry ,as Fels, Che- vron, &c. which are not comtbon to all Nations.

Ii, Such as are continually altering, according to feveral ages and times, As

1. Vefts and Garment /, to which there are every day new names af- (igned, according as leveral falhions do arile. '

a. Kinds of Stuffs , as Baile, Flannel, Serge, Kerfey, Grograin, Tammy, Tabby, Sattin , Plulh, Velvet, Tiffany, Lawn, Doulels, Canvas, Buc- krom, See. Diaper, Damalk, &c, which are to be periphraftically ex- prefled by their matter and figure.

3. Games and Plays , of which the old ones do continually grow into difufe, and every age produceth new kinds.

4. Drinks , The Wines of leveral Countries, and Grapes, as MaJmfey Mulkadell, &c. And lo for other made Drink, as Tei, Coffi, Chocolate, Rambuze, Syllabub, &c.

5. Meats, as leveral prepared Dilhes,Cul lace, Bilk, Oglia,&c. The

variety of Breads, Bilker, Cracknel, Bunn, Simnel, &c. Several confe- ftions, as Marmalade, Codigny, &c. Confeftions in Phyfick, as Dialcor- dium, Mithridate, &c. .

6 . Tunes forMufick, or Dauncing, as Coranto, Galliard, Sarabrand, Jig, Pavan, Almain, &c And lb for the various kinds of Mufical Inftru- ftruments, Sackbut, Hauboy, Cornet, Lute, Theorbo , Viol, Cittern, &c.

7. The names of leveral Tools belonging to Trades, which are not the fame in all Nations, and are every day multiplycd.

8. To which may be added the names of divers fe&s, whether Phi- lofophical. Political, or Religious } which are various according to fe- veral places and Times, many of them being derived from the names of Perjons , and therefore not to be provided for in luch a Theory of things as is propofed for ifniverfal ule. But as any of thefe may be periphra- ftically exprefled in the Latin , or in the Language of any other Nation, which has no one word for them 5 lo may they likewife, with the fame facility be delcribed in a Philolbphical Cha rafter or Language.


Goo ;le

Chap. I. . Concerning Statural (jrammar. ipj '


Concerning Natural Grammar.


t. Concerning the fever al kfnds and Parts cf Grammar. a* Of Etymo- logy ^ the general Scheme oflntegralls and Particles. 3. Of Nouns in general. 4. Of Subfiantives Common , denoting either Things , Acti- ons, or Perjons. 5. Rules concerning Nouns of A&ion, 6 . Of Sub- ftantive abftra&s. 7. Of Adje&ives according to the true Pbilojbphi - cal notion of them. 8. The true notion of a Verb. 9. of derived Adverbs. 10. A general Scheme of the fore-mentioned Derivations.

H Avingnow difpatched thefecond thing propofed Ttobe j # treated of, namely, the Scientifcal part, containing a ■ regular enumeration add defcription of fuch things and notions, as are to be known, and to which names are to be affigned, which may be ftilcd Vniverfal Philofophy\

I proceed in the next place to the Organcial part, or an enquiry after fuch kind of neceflary helps, whereby as by inffruments we mud be affifted in the forming thefe more Ample notions into complex Pro* portions and Difcourfes, which may be (filed Grammar , containing the Art of . Words or Difcourfe.

Grammar may be diftinguifht into two kinds 3 1. Natural, and. Ge- neral 5 7. Injlitutedznd Particular. -

1. Natural Grammar, (which may likewife be (filed Philofophi- cal. Rational, and Univerfal) (hould contain all fuch Grounds and Rules, as do naturally and neceflarily belong to the Philosophy of letters and fpeech in the General.

2. Infiituted and Particular Grammar, doth deliver the rules which are proper and peculiar to any one Language in Particular 5 as about the Inflexion of words, and the Government of cafes, &c. In the Latin , Greeks, &c. and is defined by Scaligeria befeientia loquendi De c*ufis l . ex ujit. L.caf.'jt.

The fir(i of thefe only is upon this occaflon to be conlidered. It hath been treated of but by few,/whieh makes our Learned Verulam put it among his Defiderata 5 I do opt know any more that have pur* pofely written of it, but Scotsss in his Grammatica Jpeculativa , and Caramuel in his Grammatica Audax.aad CampaneUa in his Grammatica Pbilofophica. (As for Schioppius his Grammar, of this title, that doth wholly concern the Latin tongue Befldes which, fomething hath been occaGonally fpoken of it, by Scaligeria his book de caujis lingua latina 5 and by Vojfius in his Arif arc but. But to me it feems, that all thefe Authors in lome meafure (though fome more then others) were fo far prejudiced by the common Theory of the languages th6y were acquainted with, that they did not fufficiently abffracf their rules

Q^q according


Concerning Natural (jrammar. Part III.

according to Nature. In which I do not hope, that this which is now to be delivered can be faultlefs 3 ic being very hard, (if not im- poffible) wholly to efcape fuch prejudices : yet I am apt to think it lefs erroneous in this refpedt then the reft.

The parts of Grammar are principally thefe three.

1. Concerning the kinds of words, or thofe feveral modes and re- fpe&s,' according to which the names of things may be varied in their Acceptions 3 being made either derivative Nouns, or Adverbs 3 toge- ther with their feveral inflexions and compofitions 3 which may be ftiled Etymology ♦

7 ♦ Concerning the proper union or right confera&ion of thefe into frofcfitions or Sentences 3 .which is called syntax.

3. Concerning the moft convenient marks or founds for the ex- preffion of fuch names or words 5 whether by writing. Orthography > or by Jptocb, Orthoepy.

The firft of thefe concerning the Do&rine of Words , may refer either, 1. To the formal differences or kinds of them 3 or, 2. To the Accidental changes of them, inrefpe&of Inflexion, Derivation, Com- fofltion.

Words, according to their formal differences ,and kinds, may be thus distributed.

Q Nouns f Substantives — Neuter.

Integrals s • \ Adjectives— — A dive.

CAdverbs derived — Paffive.

r ESTential and perpetual in every com- r pleat fentence. The Copula.

r f Integral, Pronoun.

All words Q 2 Subftitutive in the jSentence,or com- are either^ 3 n room of feme j plex part of it

3 ^ t Inttrje&ion.

g.< g f Confer udion of word

S I I with word.

All words I are either 1

w g

3 n

3 B

« < a o I

05 | 03

g" Connexive,ex- J Prepojition.

(Particles . " " prefling the 1 Contexture of fcn-

£ fence with fen-

( tencet Adverb.

L § IConjuu&ion.

Declarative f Integral, Article .

  • «*•

longing to £ Integral or Cop. Tenfe*

' TranScendental. See Chap. 6 .

By IntegralS'Ot Principal words, 1 mean fuch a9 fignifie Some entire thing or notion : whether the Ensox Thing it felf, or the EJfence of a thing, as Nouns Neuters, whether concrete or abftrad 3 or the Do- ing or Suffering of a thing as Nouns Attivc or TaJJive 3 or the manner and affection of it, as Derived Adverdr .

Thofe inftituted words which men do agree upon for the names and appellations of things, are (tiled Nouns. Every

Digi , >y v^.ooQLe

Chap. I- Concerning Natural (jrammar. ipp

Every Noun which in conjunction with a Verb makes a compleat fentence, and fignifies (imply, and per modum jubfiftentit per ft, is called a Subftantive. That which fignifies per modum Adjunct, or adjacent k alteri , is called an Adje&ive.

Subftantives belong either to one, called Proper : or to many, and are therefore ft y led Common.

The former of thefe are riot to be brought under the rules of any fcience, becaufe Individuals are Infinite 3 and therefore fuch proper turner as pertain each to one only, (hould be efteemed as fo many Ar- ticulate voices , to be exprefled by fuch particular vowels Snd confo- nants as will make fuch refpe&ive founds.

Noun Subftantives Common are fuch names as areaftigned to the fe- ^ jy veral kinds or fpecies of things or notions 3 which, though they are ^ . very numerous, yet are they capable of being ftated and fixed accord- ing to a Philofophical method, as is endeavoured in the fore-going Ta- bles. Concerning which thefe rules are to be obferved.

I. Every Radical word in the Tables is fuppofed to be a Subftan- tive 3 though they could not all of them be fo exprefled, becaufe of the defed of proper words for them in the prefent Languages 3 upon which account there is a neceflity of exprefling fbme of them by Adje- &ives, and fome by an Aggregate of words : but they are all of them to be underftood as being Ample Subftantives.

a. Thefe Radical Subftantives may be of various kinds, either 1. Of the thing. 2. Of the A&ion or Pajfion. Or, 3. Of the Perjon , Befidesthofe other kind of Subftantives which proceed from thefe 3 whether Abftra&t Neuter , as Deity, Regality , &c. or fuch other Ab- - ftraCts, whether ASiive or Pafjroe , as denote a proclivity or capacity, as Amoroujnejs , Amiablenejs, &c. which are provided for by the Tran- foendental Particles.

3. When the Radical is a Noun Subftantive of the thing, the moft immediate derivations from it, are the Subftantives A&ivc and Pafjive, to be exprefled by the mark of A&iveor Paflive upon the Radical.

And the Subftantive of the perjon , whether Agent or Patient , by the Adje&ive, A&ive or Paflive in the AoriftTenfe, with the Tranfcen- dental mark of Perjon 3 So Dux and Color , Light and Heat, are Sub- ftantives of the thing t llluminatio and Calefa&io, En'ightning, Heat- ing, are the Subftantives A&ive, or of the A&ion 3 ri illuminari , cale- fieri , the being Enlightned and Heated are Subftantives Paflive : or of the Pajfion 3 Illuminator, Cole jailor, or illuminans & caleji tciens perjona , the Enlightner and Heater, are Subftantives of the Perjon agent 3 lllu- minatus and Caleja&us , the Illuminated or Heated, are Subflantives of the Perjon Patient.

4. When the Radical is a Subftantive of the A&ion , then the Sub- ftantive of the Perjon, is to be exprefled as in the former rule 3 fo Liga - tio, Paftio, Salivatio 3 Binding, Feeding, Spitting, are Subftantives of the A&ion 3 Ligator , Paftor, Salivator 3 Binder , Feeder , Spitter, are Subftantives of the Agent 3 and Ligatus, Paftus, Salivatus 3 Bound,

Fed, Befpit, are the Subftantives of the Patient. And the Subftaotive of the thing whether Aftive or Paflive, is in this cafe to be exprefled, by the Adje&ive, A&ive or Paflive in the Aorift Tenfe, with the Tran-


Gc jle


Concerning J\(atural (jramtnar. Part III.

fcendental mark of Thing. So Ligans ret , a binding thing, is Ligamen- tum, a Bond or String* and nutrient or pafcent ret , a nourilhing or feeding thing, is nutrimentum, food or nourilhment ; fo ligata ret, a bound thing, is Ligatum , a Bundle or Fardle ; Co excreta or falivata ret , is Excrementum , or Saliva , Excrement or Spittle.

5. When the Radical is a Subftantive of the Perjbn , then the Sub* ftantiveof the Adion or Paffion ("as was laid before) are the moft immediate derivations from it, and to be exprefted by the Mark of Adive or Paffive upon the Radical 5 So AJagijiratus, Rex 3 Judex , &c. Magijlratf, King , Judge, &c. are Radicals ot the Perlon ; The Sub- ftan fives of Adion belonging to each ofthefe, are Guhernatio , Regno - tip, Judicatio , Governing , Reigning , Judging * And the Subftantive of the Thing whether Adive or PaJJrve , is to be exprefted by the Adjedive Adive or Paffive in the AoriltTenfe, with the Transcendental note of TArag ; So Guhernant ret a governing thing ; regent ret a reign- ing thing ; and judicant ret a judging thing, vis. A Canon or Rule by which we judge of (freight and crooked, right and wrong 5 So Gubernatares , the governed thing, is Dilio, Territory, Dominion, Ju- rifdi&ion > Regnat arts, is Regnum the Kingdom 5 Judicata res, is Judi- cium. Judgment.

As thole names which are alligned to lignifie things themfelves, and do not denote either Adion or Paffion, are ftiled Nount neuter: fo thole names which are affigned to lignifie the Doing or Suffering of things are ftiled Adive or Pajjive. The lame notion which in the Greek. and Latin is exprefted by the Infinitive Mode Adive or Paffive, is that which I here intend by the Subftantive Adive or Paffive =, and that it may properly be lb ftiled, 1 (hall endeavour to prove afterwards.

Though every Noun Subftantive have not an Adive or Paffive be- longing to it either in the Greek . ., Latin , Englijh , &C. yet according to the Nature and Philofophy of things, whatloever hath an Ejfence, muft like wife have an Ad $ either of Being or becoming •* or of Doing or being done : or of making or being made : to be, or do. And consequently every Radical Subftantive which is capable of Adion, fhould have an Adive or Paffive formed from it, which is commonly called a Verb,

As for foch things which have not of their own any proper Ad of Doing , they arc not capable of the derivation of Adive and Paffive, ob defedum materia 5 as in the words Stone, Mettle, &c. But the Verbs belonging to fiich Radicals can be only Neuter , denoting the Ad of Being or becoming; unlels when they are compounded with the Tranfcendental mark of Caufatio, which will adde to them a Tranli- tive fcnle, asPetrifie, Metallifie, &c.

As for fuch other Radicals as are capable of Adion or Paffion,thefe Rules are to be obferved concerning them.

1. More Generally thefe two.

1. Things which according to common acception have belonging to them any one proper Ad of Doings their Verbs Adives will denote this Ad: For inftance, the Verb or Subftantive Adive of the words Fire, Water , &c. is to burn, wet 5 and lo for thole Ads of the feveral parts, Tongue, tooth, Mouth , Throat, Foot, Heel, whole adive by this


Digitized t v^.ooQLe

Chap. I. Concerning Natural grammar. 301

Rule will be to lick., bite, devour, fro allow, trample , kjc\, and tlicf Adive of Bow, Gun, is ioshoot as with a Bow, Gun.

2. Things which have not, according to common acception, any one kind of peculiar Ad of Doing appropriate to them; the Adives belonging to fuch things, willfignifie in the General to Ad or do ac- cording to the nature ot fuch things.

2. More Particularly thefefour.

1. The Adives belonging to fuch Radicals as ar e$nb fiances, whe- ther Abfolute or Relative, do fignifie to Ad according to the nature of fuch Subftances ; loin abfolute Sub fiances, the Adiveof God, Spi- rit, Man, will fignifie to Ad as God, Spirit, Man; and foin Relative Subfiances, the Adive of Father , Judge, Magiftrate, is to Ad as a Fa- ther, Judge, Magiflrate.

2. The Adives of Quality, whether Predicamental or Tranfcen- dental, do denote the Ads of thole Jpecies, with particular reference to the differences under which they are placed i So the Adive of Eajl,

Weft, Obliquity, & c. being under the difference of Situation, muflfig- nifie to fituate a thing Eafterly , Wefierly, obliquely. The words of Line,

Surface , Body, being under the difference of Dimenfion $ the Adive belonging to them mufl fignifie to Dimeniionateas either of thefe.

• The words under the differences of Figure, mufl in their Adives fignifie to Figure according to fuch particular ffaapes.

Thofe under the difference of Time, the Adives of Prejent, Simul- taneous, Newnejs, Oldnefs, Soonefs, kc. mufl fignifie to Ad with fuch refpedsof Time.

TheAdiyesof the Differences and Species under Meafure, fhould regularly fignifie to Meafure by Humber, Magnitude , Gravity, Valour, Duration. The Adive of Inch , Foot, Face, Fathom, is to Meafure by Inch, Foot, &c. and fo for thofe other Species of Grane, Drachm, kc.

Farthing, Fenny, &c.

The Adive of Minute, Hour, Day, Night, Ike. will fignifie to conti- nue for fuch portions or meafures of time, according tathe fenfe of the Difference, Duration, imdex which thefe fpecies are placed.

The Adive of Infancy , Childhood, Adolefcency, kc. may fignifie to pals the time of one’s Infancy, Childhood, Adolefeency, &c.

3. The Adive of fuch Radicals as are Qualities, whether Predica- inentalor Tranfeendcntal, fignifie to do ordeal according to the fig- nification of the faid qualities $ So the Adive of Fidelity, Severity, kc m willfignifie to deal or Ad, Faithfully, Severely, &c. The Adive of Goodnefs, Evilnefs, kc. will fignifie to Ad or Do well or ill, &c.

4. The Adive of fuch Radicals as denote A&ions, need no other ex- plication but this, that feme of them are Adive Abfolute , which in the ufual Grammars are filled Neuter $ as Sto, Sedeo, Curro 5 others Tran- fttive, denoting a tranfient efficiency 5 into which latter kind, the former of thefe may be chaoged (as was faid before) by compofition with the Tranfeendental mark of Caufation.

There are feveral Englifh Verbs, which, without admitting any change by Compofition or Inflexion, have both a Neuter and a Tran- fitive fignification * as Corrupt, Feed, Starve, Famijb, Move, Reft , Hang,

Extend, Shrink , , Stagger, Stay, kc. whofe fenfe is to be diflinguifht by theconftrudion.



Concerning J^jiural (grammar. Part III.

There are fome Verbs of the lame Natural Philofophical Radix, which a re yet exprefled by different words, as Laugh, Deride, Weep, "Bemoan, mujl, need, Nscejfitate, &c. And the different notion of thefe and fuch like Verbs, is not capable of being exprefled by the T ranfeen- dental point of caufation : but by placing after them fuch a Noun Sub* ftantive, or Pronoun Subftantive, as may denote the objedt of thofe feveral adb. So the word Laugh , being put without any Subftantive following, doth fignifie in the Neuter fenfethe bare aft of Laughing ; but if the word me or him, &c. doth immediately follow the Verb, then it is to be rendered deride or laugh at, me, him, &c.

S VI. Befides thof e Concrete $ubftantives, which fignifie the Ent or thing " it felf, there are other Subftantives which denote the Efience of things,

fliled Abfira&s. And thefe may iikewife be diftjnguifhed into, Neuter, A Stive, Pajjive.

That is Ailed Neuter which denotes the naked Eflence of a thiog, without any inclination to A&ion or Paflion, as Deity, Regality.

That is Ailed an Abftrad Attive, which implies a proclivity to Aftion,as Regnativity, Amativenefs, or Amor oufnefs.

That is called Pajjive, which denotes a capacity or fitnefs for re- ceiving or fuffering of A diion, as Regibility , Amiablenejs.

Such Radicals as are Concretes , are capable ( according to the nature of the things denoted by them) to have all thefe three kinds of Ab- ftra&s formed from them. W hereas fuch Radicals, as are themfelves AbJtraSts Neuter, (as namely feveral of thofe under the Genus's and Differences of Quality and AStion) are capable only of the two latter kinds to be formed from them.

§ VII, As Noun Subjlantives are the names which are given to things, con- fidered Amply, and as fubjifting by themfelves : So Noun Adje&ivts are the names which are given to the Adjuntt natures of things, the noti- on of them conflfting in this, that they fignifie, the fubjeft or thing to which they are aferibed, to have in it fbmething belonging to thena* ture or quality of thofe Adjettives, which are predicated of it, or li- mited by it.

And befides this common notion, they do fometicnes Iikewife in the inftituted Languages refer to other notions; as, i. To abostndattce, fo the words populous, pretious, fumptuous, &c. fo in Latin, fiuvists pifeofus, aquoja regio. 2. To likenefs, fo the word dogged, currifh,

wafpifh, Seraphicus, Angelicas, &c. 3. To Poffeffion fo Domus regia,

a royal houfe. 4. To the matter of which any thing doth conlift ; fo feutum aheneum , A brazen (hield. But each of thefe notions may be otherwife more diftin&ly provided for. The two firft by the Tran* fcendental marks of Augmentative and Li be ; and the two next by the prepofitions of Pojfeffor and Material cauje. And fb the true genuine fenfe of a Noun Adje&ive will be fixed to confift in this, that it im- ports this general notion of Pertaining to, or being Affe&ed with.

Thofe Adje&ives are Ailed Neuters which do not denote either A&ionor Paflion; as Calidus, Lneidtfs, Hot, Light.

Thofe are Ailed Attive or Pajjive, which denote the A&ioaor PaP ' fion of the Adjuntt thing or Eflence. And becaufe thefe according to


Digitizec >y

Cfcap, I. Concerning S\(atural grammar .

->■ — ■ - - - ■ ■■■ — ■■■ — ■■ ■■ ■■■■■■ ■

the common Theory do Participate both of Noun and Verb 3 there- fore are they by Grammarians (tiled Participles 3 Active, as Calefaci- enty illuminanSy Heating. Enlightning : or VzfRvc ) Calrfa&iisf i lUumtsa’‘ tttty Heated, Illuminated*

And as Abftrad Sub(iantive9, may be formed from the Concrete 3 fo likewife may Adjedives, which are al(o diftinguifhable into Neu- ters Adive, Paflive. ?,

That part of fpeech, which by our Common Grammarians is (Hied a Verb y (whether Neuter, Adive or Paflive) ought to have no diftind place ^roongft integrals in a Philolophical Grammar 3 becaufe it is re- ally no other then an Adjedive, and the Copula fum affixed to it or con- teined in it : So Caleo,CalefacioXCalidus. Concerning which Copula ,

Calefiojs the fame with fum <Calefaciens. and the ufe of it 3 more

C CaUfa&sts. (hall be (aid hereafter.

That kind of word, which is commonly adjoyned to a Verb, to fignifie the quality and affedion of the Action or Paflion, is Ailed an Adverb 3 which may be diAinguilhed into Derived and Vnderived. The former of thefc is here particularly intended, and doth generally belong to Languages. The latter is afterwards treated of amongft the Particles.

As every Radical is fuppofed naturally to have its Adjeffive t Co like- wife its Adverb 3 and though no Language in ufe doth admit of (o general a derivation of Adverbs, yet the true reafbn of this is from their imperfedion and deficiency 3 for the Signs ought always to be adequate unto the things or notions to be figoified by them.

As Adjedives were before diftinguifhed into Neuter, Adive, PaJJive, fo likewife ought Adverbs to be. And as every Adverb isimmediately derived from fome Adjedive, fo every kind of Adjedive hath fome kind of Adverb derived from it.

For the more eafie under (landing of thefe things, I (hall here adjoy u a general Scheme of the fore-mentioned derivations; wherein I (hall be neceffitated to form feveral new words according to common analogy.

AH Integrals are either.


1 1 fSubftantive.

1 1 I £ Neuters tl ealtrt vtl color. Lucertvel lux. ">Heat, Light.

< Adive. C altfa&io. A. lUumtnatio. (Paflive. CaltfaOio. P. I Bummari.


r Neuter. Calidtu. Lucidui . j

jf Adi vc. Colefaciens. lBtminans. : (Paflive. CalefdQus. JUuminatus. u

^Heating. Enlightning.

> Being Heated. Enligntned.

'Hot. Light.

•Heating. Enlightning. kHeated. Enligbtned.


j V Neuter. Calidi. Lucid c. p Hotly. Lightly.

{ ^ Adive. CaltfadtMiT.lUumiiianter i SHeatingly. llluminatingfy.

j ^ Paflive, CaltfaQe. Wum'mstl. .^Heatedly, llluminatedly.

!. Abftrad.

L \m

Concerning Natural (grammar. Part III*

r Subftantive.

cNcuter. Caltritas. Lnciditat. "j Hotncfi. Lightncfs.

<Afttvc. CalefaU ivitas, Muminativitat. SCalcfaftivity. IlluminatWity. cPaflive. CaltfaSibilim. UuminabUitm.JCalch&ibiUty. Illaminability.


_ Neuter. Ctloritativus, Luciditativut. ~ Caloritativc. Luciditativc. ,

J Aftivc. Caltfaftivus. VHummativMs. SCalefa&ive. Illuminative. cPaflive. CalefaSibilis. lUttminabilu.^ Calcfa&iblc. Uluminablc.

'^Adverb. ' ^ ,

rN cuter. Caloritative. Luciditativc. ^Caloritativcly. Luciditativefy.

5 Aftivc. CalefaOive. Illuminative. SCalefaftively. Ilium inatadvely. iPaffive. CaltfaSibilittr. iUuminabiliter. yCalcfaftibly. Illuminably.


I. Of Particles in general, a. Of the Copula. 5. Of Pronouns more generally . 4. More Particularly, 5. Of Inter je&iont more gene-

rally. 6. More Particularly.

H Aving thu9 explained what is meant by integral words, which figoihe entire things and notions, with the feveral kinds of them. I proceed in the next place to treat, concerning Particles , or lefs prin- cipal words, which may be faid to confignifie, ferving to eircumftan- tiateandmodifie thofe Integral words, with which they are joyned, being ’ftiled by the Hebrew Grammarians DiShones.

The words of this kind are exceeding numerous and equivocal in all Languages, and add much tothe difficulty of learning them. It being a very hard matter to eftablifh the juft number, of fuch as in all kinds are neceffary,and to fix to them their proper fignifications, which yet ought to be done in a Philofophical Grammar. I (hall in this Efiay, lei eft out of Inftituted Languages, fuch of the feveralforts, as Icon* ceive fufficient for this purpofe.

Thefe were before diftinguifhed, into fuch as refer, either to Gram- matical, or Tranfcendental notion.

Thofe are ftiled Grammatical , which fuppofing words to retain their primary fenfe, do ferve for the circumftantiating of them, either by union, abbreviation, inflexion, or feme other way forthequali* tying of their fignifications or conftruftions;

The moft neceffery amongft all the reft, which is efiential and per- petual in every compleat fentence, is ftiled the Copula 5 which ferves Tor the uniting of the Subjeft and Predicate in every Propofition. The word SubjeS i ufe, as the Logicians do>, for all. that which goes before the Copula $ which if it confift of only one word, then it is the fame which Grammarians call the Nominative cafe. By the word Predicate , I mean likewife all that which follows the Copula in the feme fentence, whereof the Adjeftivc(if any fuch there be)immediately next after the Copula, is commonly incorporated with it in inftituted Languages, and both together make up that which Grammarians call a. Verb.



Chap. 1 1. . Concerning Natural (grammar. . 30 $

Amongft thofe Particles which arenot effential and perpetual, but ufed according to occafion, fome are (tiled Subftitutive 5 becaufe they fgpply ,the room either, 1. Of (bone Integf&l word, as Pronouns, or *

2. Offeree Sentence or complex part of it, as Interjections.

As Nouns are notes orlignsof things , fb Pronouns are of Nouns 5 (S jj[ # and are therefore called Pronomina , quafi vice Nomtnnm , as being jiff, scalig. de placed commonly inftead of Nouns. . They reprefeot things either cans. l. l.

1. Immediately and in kind, without refped to the names of thofe Cap ' 127 ’ things. So when its faid,I exhort thee or him : The Pronoun I repre-

fent to our thoughts the perfon (peaking, fuppofe John 5 and the words thee, him, the perfon fpokcq to or of, luppofe William or Thomas.

2. Mediately by their names, which are either

1. Exprefi with the Pronoun^ ascommonly it happens upon the firft intimation or mention of the thing '■> as this ox that man *or book, and in thefe cafes the Pronouns are commonly called Demonjlrative.

2. Supplied by the Pronouns , as is ufual for Brevities fake, at the re- peating. of the mention of a thing lately before fpokenof; as he , it,’

&c. and then the Pronoun is called Relative. Examples of both forts are to be had in the Grammars of Inftituted Languages.

More commodioufly for our purpofe, the Pronouns are to be con- lidered either according to their, 1. Number. 2. Modifications.

. 1. As to their Number $ there arc twelve which may be .(tiled fimfle Pronouns, and three other that are Compound.

The Simple Pronouns, for the better convenience of and comply- ance with the Characters, are reduced into thefe three combinations 5 whereof the firft and laft combinations are (ingle, the other double.

Cl. ) C This. That. j C. Any one.


.Certain one. Some one.

vi Every one.


Of all which it is to be obferved, that they are in fome kind or other, Quantitatives 5 that is to (ay, every one of thefe Pronouns makes the vybole Propofition, or at leaft that part of the Propofition, which is affefted with it, according to its own nature, to be either Sin* * gular, Indefinite, Particular or Univerfal.

2. The Modifications of Pronouns, whereby thty are varied into differentfignifications, are of two kinds.

1. Pojfejfive, denoting a relation of Propriety or Pofieffion unto the ' perfon or thing lpoken of, which is applicable to all Pronouns, as I, Mine 5 Who, Whofe, efre.

9. Reduplicative , denoting a particular Emphafis, whereby a word is railed and intended in its fignification 5 as I my felf. Thou thy felf ,&c.

MoreoVer it is to he obferv'd, that the Perfonal Pronouns, and any of the reft being us*d Subftantively, are capable of Number and Cafe 5 and that all other Pronouns befidethe.Perfonal, are capable of Com- pofition with the Tranfeendentals of Perfon and Thing, of Place, Time and Manner.

All thefe Pronouns I have thought fit to reprefent more largely un- der four combinations in thefe following Tables;

R r . The


. Concerning ^(juural (grammar. PartHL

s I V. The firft Combination of Pronouns denoting the three Perfoos are

s ‘ Subfisittivts, and for their Quantity fhtguUr, and cannot properly re-

  • prelent any other then fhdividual beings. 1 have here adjoyned to

them their plurals, for the lake of their Poffcffives 5 onrs i yonrt i tbeirs 9 which without themcanoot be fo conveniently exprefted*

Sing. Numb. r i. J*me t Poff. My, Mine.

<Rednp. Even 1. 1 my lelf. cPeJf. Red. my own.

< a. THOV. Thee.

CP. Thy. Thine.

■sR.Thy fel£ even thou. -P.R. Thy own.

. 3 . H E. Him. She. Her.

(P. His. Hers.

<R. He bimftlf, even he*

  • (P.R. His own, her own.


CWCj us.

I (Ours

< We our (elves. (Our own.

Tee, you.


“s Your (elves. (Your own. *

. They , them, thole. (Theirs.

■sThey themfelves (Their own.



Not ipf/ t nofmet.



Vos ipfi 3 vofmet. Illi.

Snus t torum. tUi ipfi 3 sfee.

The lecond Combination of Pronouns as likewife the reft that fol- lo w,are properly AdjeStvet 3 though by reafon of EUtpjit they are fomc- times uled Subftantiveiy. The three (irft of them, this, tbat 3 tbe fame 9 are for* their Quantities finguUrs, and do denote' feveral relations of Identity 3 The three laft, viz. Another , A certain one , Some one, are for their' Quantities, Singulars or Particulars indeterminate. The (irft of them implies the Relation of Diverjlty.

"i. THIS.

P. Belonging tothisJPerfon* R. This very P*T. IThiag. PI. Here.

T. Now.

M. This manner

<2. THE SAME. *

P. Belonging to the lame.

R. Self-lam?





P. Belonging to a certain P.T. P.L. A certain place.

T. A certain time.

M. A certain manner.

r THAT. ilhyify ijle.

Belonging to that,it. IlHnt.

That very. Ille 9 ipfe ;

There. IlHc 3 ibi 3 iJtic

Then. Tunc.

That manner. ifHnfmodi. A N0THEA,other,elfe. Atint. Anothers. Altefint.

Wholy or quite ano- Ellewhere. (ther. Alibi.

\ Otherwhile. Otherwifc.


Somebodies. Somewhere. Some time. Some manner. Some whe.




AUcnbi. Aliquant to.


Chap* II. Concerning Statural grammar*

The third Combination of Pronouns are f General or Particular indefinite >

VUus. I. A NT , ought, ever a.

P* Any ones, any bodies.

VBibi, ufqnam. PI. Anywhere.

Ttnquae T. Any time.

I JSomodo. M. Any manner.

III. ' • General dijlribntive 5

Vnujquifc 3 .ErERTONB. . .

P. Every ones, belonging to* or concerning every one, Perjon, Thing.

PI. Everywhere.

T. Every time.

M. Every manner.

General Collective 3 Omni*. ALL .

P. Belonging to all.PerJons. Thhtgr.

Vbitf PI. All placid

Semper. T. Always, all times.

Omnimodo ♦ M. All manner of ways.

The fourth and faft Combinatioa is of the mixed or compound Pronotms 5 lo ftyled, becauletfeey arc made up of feme of -the other Pronouns, compounded with the three firft and aoft fimple of the Conjunctions. The firlfof them g*is ? If HO} is the Pronoun All y taken in pieces, with an interrogation 5 For he that enquires who did this, means, doubting of all, did fuch a one? or lUch a one ? &c. of all them that were capable to doit : but he that doubt9 only of one, enquires,. did he do this? where Quit is plainly relbl ved into a Pro- noun incorporated with a Conjunction interrogative. And as for the lecond of thele, gni it is commonly tranflated And be. And the third Wbofoever is the fame as If any one. They may be diltinguilhcd into,

"i. Interrogative $

WHO? which ? what? jjtaw?

P. Whofe£ Cnjus?

.1 PL Where? Vbi?

T. Whenf gnmub)

I M. How ? guomedo i

jy #< a. Relative \

WHO , which, that. g*L

1 P« Whole. Cnjns.

I PL Where. Vbi;

j T. When. tg u andq * .

! M. After which manner*

[[j. Reduplicative 5

whosoever , whomfoeVer, tvhiph- Ifcdfqm, £*kw *4$ ioever, whatsoever.

P. Whofefoever. Cujmteunqy

PL Wherefoever wictmqi

T. Whedfoever. &**4oettuf$

M. Howfoever, after what mamagt faeve*, ^uomodo cu*qv>

Rr a And

5©8 . Concerning 3 \(jtural (grammar. Pant III.

And thus much may ferve for ftating the number, nature, fignifi- cation and ufe of this fecond kind ot Grammatical Particle (tiled Pronoun.

§ V. Thofe Subftitutive Particles, which ferve to fupply the room of ' fomefentence or complex part of it, are (tiled InterjcQionr. Thefe are by fomedenyed to be words, or any part of diftind fpeech, but only natural figns of our mental notions, or pa (lions, exprelTcd by (uch rude incondite (bunds, feveral of which are common with us to Brute Creatures. And as all Nations of men do agree in thefe kind of na- tural paffions, (olikewifedo they very much agree in the figns or in- dications of their mirth, forrow , love , hatred, 8c c.

Thefe kind of Particles are generally exprefled by afpirated founds, Scalig. l. L. affetfumenim not ant, &ideo confcrtns editur Jpiritus, becaufe of that c * p ‘ ‘ affe&ion and vehemence, which is commonly denoted by them.

The kinds of theie may be very numerous, according to the various motions and pa (Hoffs of the mind ; but thofe that are of the mod fre- quent and general ufe, may be reduced under thefe three combinations, whereof the fir ft only is (ingle, the other two double.

£ yr The two firfl: Combinations may be ftyled Solitary and PaJ/tve, be-

O' in/v ii/a/I kn nt tnVipn (UP orp n/\f Cr\ /IippAIvt Ponrlinn S/t Jlf*

'Judgment, denoting either i.( Admiration. Heigh, a.') Doubting or confiaering. Hem, Hm,Hy. ^.(jDeJpijing. Pi(h,Shy, Tyfii.

L Affe8ion 5 moved by the Apprehenfion of Goad or Evil.


j * Mirth ♦ Ha, ha, he. t Sorrow. Hoi, oh, oh, ah.

II* « Prefentt

2 ) Love, and pity, Ah,alack, alas*

1 Hate, and anger, vauh, hau.

. Future i

. SDeJire, 0,othit.

■ LAverfdtion , Phy.

Thelaft Combination may be (filed Social and ASive, being never ufedby us when we are alone, but immediately tending todifeourfe with others, in which the party fpeaks with defign to procure fome mutation in his Hearers. Thefe may bediftinguifhed into fuch as are CPrecedaveouf to difconrfi.

TTT T Exclaiming. Oh, Soho,

j L Silencing. St, Hu(h.

^Beginning of difiourfi.

C General i to difpofe the fenfes of the Hearer. a

J. SBcJf taking attention. Ho, Oh. j lExprefjtug attention. Ha.

^Special 5 to difpofe the Affe&ions of the Hearer by Way of . a> f Infatuation or blandifhment. ^ Eia, Now.

  • ’ LTbreatning. *1k Vat, Wo. • CHAP.


Chap. II I. Concerning Natural (grammar.


§ I* Of Prepofitions in General. §11. The particular kinds of them. § III. Explication of the four lafi Combinations of them, relating to Place, or Time.

T Hofe are ftiled Connexive Particles, whofe proper ufe is to ex- t prefs, either i. Th c Conjlruttioncf word with word called Pre- " ‘ portion 5 or 4. Th e Contexture offentence with Jehtence, called Adverb and Conjunction,

Prepofitions are fuch Particles, whole proper office it is to joyn Inte- gral with Integral on the fame fide of the Copula * fignifying fome re- °f Cauje, Place, Time, or other circumftance either Pofitively or Privatively. Thefe having (fuch a fubferviency to Nouns , in re- Ipedof which, they are by fome ftiled Adnomia , or Adnomine and Pranomina, as Adverbs have to Verbs* They are therefore here trea- ted of before Adverbs, whole office is chiefly to wait upon Verbs.

There are thirty fix Prepofitions or eighteen paires of them, or fix Combinations, which may, with much left equivocalnefs then is found in inftituted Languages, uiffice to expreft thole various relpe&s, which areto befignifyea by thekind of Particle. 41

The two firft Combinations of Prepofitions, do comprehend liich as are ufed to expreft Caufality , and may be ftiled Caufal. "

The firft Combination of Caufal Prepofitions are either*

fMore General, denoting either the Author , SubjeK, or PoffijSbr of any thing $ exprefled in the Latin by the Genitive cafe : or the Formal, or luflrumentalcaufc , or Manner of doing, ex- prefied in the Latin by the Ablative cafe : Neither of them having any Particle in that Language appointed for them.


1 .


WITH, By . . . x •

LMore Particular } denoting either ^The Efficient , or the Final caule.

fsr ■'


r The Material caule, ex qua, or circa quant.



The fecond Combination of Caufal Prepofitions doth contain fuch as do (elate either to the notion of

Ideal and exemplary, or Subjhtntive <AC CO RDING TO

J 1 instead

II* 4 Social or circumftance of fociety; Affirmed, or Deuyed.


| LfTlTHOVT, voidof

1 {.Adjuvant and agreement with: or oppojtng and enmity again!!




Ab. a* per* Oh,pro, prop ter.


De, area*

toiler, fccua- dtrni.

Pro, vice


Sine, .



- Concerning Sutural (jrammsr. Part IIL

r FOR, o» this fide.

%'IAG A INST, oppofiteunto..

The reft of the Prepofitions do primarily refer to P lace and Situa- tion j Secondarily to time s And fome of them, by way of Analogy, to ComparifonJg ome of thefe are Absolutely determined, cit her to Motion y or to Reft, or the terminus of motion.Otbets are relatively applicable to both 5 Concerning which this rule is to be obferycd. That thofe which belong to motion, cannot fignifie reft ; But thole which belong to reft, may Hkewile fignifie motion in the terminus.

The third Combination doth confift of fuch as rcfpeft jpacc in ge- neral being eithcT

Abfolutely determined to

t Motion 5 either || of Coming, or Going

}i.$ To

) 1 FROM

II W t Re fi 5 or the terms of this motions, denoting either l Near- nejs and contiguity / ro Difiance

  • l AT

10 PF

• Relative both to motion and reft, with relpeft to the Interme- diate Jpacc betwixt thofe T erms, either (| Direct , or Indirect.



The fourth Combination doth corifift of fuch Prepofitions, as re- fpeft Space, with a particular reftri&ionto the notion of Containing , being either.

Abfokte ly determined to {Motions Whether of (j Ingrefs , or Egrefi T tlN to v 2 t&Vt OF

• IV. < tlheft or thcTerms of thefe Motions* .

•••• • - ; f WttHIN ' • •' . : •••'


j Relative both to Motion and Reft, with refpeft to the Inter me-

diate jpacc either || DireCt or Indirect: V !


  • 'IBE SIDE ’ ^

The fifth Combination doth contain fuch Prepofidcins as relate to the Imaginary parts of a thing, , whether the >

"Headot f*#, Being afifelttifelydeterinBied to C Motion j eitherj] Af cent ox Deft cut,

1 y VP IV ARDS' ' ' '


V. " or terms of thefe motions,


IF ace or Back^ being Relative both to Motion and Reft. f BEFORE t

%'LAFtER *

The fixth Combination doth comprehend fuch Prepofitions as are applicable both to Motion and Reft, relating to the fituatwnof


Chap. III. Concerning Natural (grammar.

feme third thing fpoktn of, which the Speaker confiders as being p Higher or Laver then that third thing, denotii^ a contiguity or nearnefstoit

tVPON Sntti

iVNDER ^ *"•

VI. -j Nearer to it, or Farther from it


7, \betond '

In the intermediate (pace unto two other dungs, or oppofite to one i of them.

„ XMETW I XT, between tow

Z’lAQAINST, over egaiufi. * Adwfi ”*

For the clearer explication of thefe Local Prepofitions, I {hall refer £ jrr. to this following Diagram. In which by the Oval Figures are repre- " fented the frepofitions determined to Motion, wherein the Acuter part doth point out the tendency of that motion. The Jquares are in- ' traded to lignifie reft or the Term of Motion. And by the round fi- gure? are reprefented fuch relative Prepo(ition9, as may indifferently refer either to Motion or Rejl. ^




m mojjr



< 3 >


' \


CjOoq le

Concerning Sutural (grammar. Part ill.

Some of thefe Prepofitions, Above, Below , Before, After, ate by

common Analogy applicable tofignifie comparifon, which ufe being

    • generally received, and the words having in them a natural futable-

nefi to this purpofe, there is no danger of any ambiguity.

Several of the Prepofitions are fometimes ufed Adverbially, as Ante , Pojl , Prater, Contra, Inter, Infra, &c. which ufe when it happens, the ' fenfe will eafily diftinguifti. The difference between thefe two parts of fpeech, Prepofitions and Adverbs , being fo nice, that 'tis hard in feme cafes to diltinguifh them 5 upon which ’tis qaeftiOned, whether every Prepofition as it compounds a Verb, do not put on the nature

of an Adverb 5 and it feems to be fo, becaufe it Modifies thd Aft after

the fame manner as Adverbs do, as in the words Pfaficio, Benefacioficc.


I. Of Adverbs in General . II. The V articular kinds of them. III. Of ConytnBipns.

hap. r.

Sea. 8.

a As.So.From This. That. b Yea. Nay. Perhaps. Truly.

  • Rather.


T Hofe twflkinds of Connexive Particles which ferve for the con- texture of (entence with fentence,are called Adverbs and Conjun- ctions. The firft of thefe are commonly defer i bed to be fuch kind of words as are for themoft part adjoyned to Verbs to fignifiefome kind of Mode or Circumftance, belonging either intrinfecally orextrinfe- cally to them.

Of Aduerbs derived from Integrals, enough hath been laid in the Chapter of Integrals. The reft of thofe words which are commonly called Adverbs, according to their true Original, are either derived . from * Pronouns , or elfe they are b Modes of Verbs, or elfe they are

  • * Conjunctions', And fome of them may be periphraftically exprefled by

Radicals. So that according to the true Philofephy of fpeech, I can- not conceive this kind of words to be properly a diftind part of fpeech, as they are commonly called. £ut until they can be diftri- buted into their proper places, I have fo far complyed with the Gram- mars of inftituted Languages, as to place them here together, and to branch them under the five following Combinations.

Ica, imtno, maxitne.

Non, nejjua- quam, minimi.

Forte, forfan. Profefto.


Whereof the firft doth confift offoch Adverbs as denote r The manner of our Apprehenfion of Complex things, or the nex- us betwixt the feveral terms of a Propofition 5 whether more C Simple j || Affirming or Denying


S iN AT, not , no,

< f Mixed •, applicable both to Affirmation and Negation 5 either \\ Conjectural doubtful and contingent : ox Certain and confi- dent, implying a kind of atteftatiorr or fomething fuper- added to bare Affirming or Denying.

SP E R HA P S, perchance ,

  • LTRV LT , indeed, fur ely, in truth, verily.

Similitude ', the former being Comparative General, the other _ the Redditive of it.



Chap. IV. Concerning ^s(atHral(Jrammar.

A S, even af










0 Jemblably.

The (econd Combination are all of them Comparative, either of ' Equality } the latter being the Redditive of the former ) SHOW

) >s0

.. Inequality } according to fcveral degrees 'Greater } *


The third Combination doth confiftoffuch as are} either

Eletfive ; whether of Pr elation and preference : or Freterition and poftponency.

r RATHER Poti&s.

I THAN 9si«n.

Local and Temporal^ implying a refpett betwixt fomething ab- Jent and pafl } either to |j that which is prefent : or to that which is at difiance and future.

CT E T, fiili, hitherto, Adhuc, hafte-


L ' temporal only } the former reprelenting time exifiing and pre- fent, the other implying a relation of pofieriority after lap- fing and expiring of fometime*


3‘IATLENG TH Tandem.

The fourth Combination doth contein fuch as denote the Circum- ftance of

C Society, || Affirmed, or Denyed } Conjun&ion or Exclulion I 1T0GETHE R SO HLT, alone ,

1V.-J ^petition, or refimblance and equivalence If AGAIN MS IF

( [Privation or Refiitution } the former lignifying the devefiing a thing of its form} the other the re-invelling of it with its precedent form } the firft of thefe hath no Particle that is ufed limply for it, but only in Compolition, both in Latin and Englijh : the latter we fometimes exprels in Englilh by Back.:

„ tVN, difi ton. dif.

H RE,bA ."• tmo

The fifth and laft Combination doth confift of three fingle Parti- cles, denoting Proximity or nearnels } being either 'Definite and determinate} whether

‘ Affirmingjome little defe& or Imperfection ' 1 * ALMOST, e'en , well- nigh, towards , within a little of Fcre * .Denying the utmofi perfection

2 . SC ARC E, hardly V*.

Vln definite, and indeterminate to more or lefs, over or under }

Sf. but

Uni, fimul. Tantfcm.







Concerning C^atural (jr&tntnnr* Part III.


§ hi.



Et, atqj Ncc.



















Videlicet, , nempe. Exemp. gr.

but affirming a nearnefs to the chief term 3 . THERE ABO VTS, under or over.

Conjunctions are fuch Particles as ferve for the joyning together^ words ) or rather of fentences. Of theft there may be reckoned theft four Combinations, or twelve paire 5 though all of them be not alike fimpleandof equal neceffity, yet there is none of them without its particular convenient.

The firft Combination doth confift of fuch as are cither Interrogative, || Affirmative, or Negative,



I. ■> Conjunctive , [| Affirmative > or Negative , c AND.


Conditional, || Affirmative , or Negative , f IF,fotbat,


The ftcond Combination doth contain fuch as are either r Approbative , or Dijcretive and reftri&ive,


l ‘l BVT

IF. *« Conceffive, or Exceptive jALTHOVGH 7 'iTET

Disjunctive, || Definite, or Indefinite,

3 * {EITHER.

Thethird Combination are all of them Caufal 5 either

r AdjunCtive of the end-, whether caufc or Event $ || Affirma- tive or Negative, f f HAT, to the end that, l '\LEAST THAT

HI. 4 Ratiocinative, belonging to the Antecedent S whether that 1 which makes it follow the Confequent .• or that which may indifferently precede or follow.



[Ratiocinative belonging to the Confequent whether || inter* rogative and indefinite : or illative, and demonftrativc, iWH T, wherefore, what is the caufe or reafon ,


The laft Combination doth confift of fuch as are either r Declarative , whether || of the caufe, or of the event,

$WtiE REAS , feeing that, Jitb that ,


IV. ^ Additional, and tranfitional, whether J| continuatrve,or fip- pletive ,

fLIK EWIS E, alfo, together with, moreover,

. 2, LAND SO FORTH, 8cc. .

[Expojttive either || by Synonyme, or by Injlance ,

~TO WIT, viz.

2 .



v^.005 *

Chap.V. Concerning Natural (grammar. 315

The three laft of thefe are not properly Particles or Angle words, but rather the Contractions of feveral words, they are here added to the reft for greater convenience, partly for compleating the number and filling up the vacancies , ana partly in Complyance with the ufe of moft vulgar Languages, when they write contra&edly.


I. Of Articles. II. Of Modes. III. Of Tcnfes. IV. The

mojl dijiinSt way of exprefpng the differences of Time.

B Elides thele fore-mentioned Particles which may be called more o r Abfilute-, there are others more fervile and auxiliary ,ferviog for the «  fuller exprelfion of feme Accident belonging to a word. Thefe were before diftinguilhed into fechas do belong either, i. To an Integral alone, as Articles. 2. To the Copula alone, as the Modes, or 3. Both to Integral and Copula as the Tenfis . Each of which are in feme Langua- ges taken in, or involved in the inflexion of words : But in others,

they are provided for by diftinft words to exprels them.

Articles are ufeally prefixed before Subftantives for the more full and diftinft exprelfion of them, they may be diftinguilhed into

Enuntiative , which may be ufed indifferently before any Subftan- tire, not already pofieft with the Demonftrative. A. An.

Demonjlrative , which gives a peculiar Emphafisto its Subftantive, and is applyed only to fuch a Perfon or Thing , as the hearer knows, or hath reafen to know, becaufe of its eminence or feme precedent mention of it. The

Though thefe be not abfolutely necejfary to a Language, becaufe the Latin is without them 3 yet are they lo convenient for the greater di- ftindnels of fpeech, that upon this account, both the Hebrew , Greeks, Slavonic and moft other Languages have them*

To Ihew in what manner the fubjeft is to be joyned with his Predi- cate, the Copula between them is affeded with a Particle, which from ^ H. the ufe of it, is called Modus , the Manner or Mode.

Now the Subject and Predicate may be joyned together either Sim- pip , or with feme kind of Limitation , and accordingly thefe Modes are either Primary or Secondary.

The Primary' Modes are called by Grammarians Indicative , and Im- perative.

When the Matter is declared to be fe, or at leaft when it feems in the lpeakers power to have it be fe, as the bare union of Subject and Predicate would import 3 then the Copula is nakedly exprefled without any variation : And this manner of expreffingit,is called the Indica- tive Mode.

When it is neither declared to be fe, nor feems to be immediatly in the fpeakerspower to have itfo 3 then he can do no more in words but » make out the exprelfion of his will to him that hath the thing in

S f a his

% t^.oc Le

Concerning Natural (jrammat. Part IH,

( Super four 7 C Petition

his po^cr, naoiely tohis^Eyw*/ >by<Perfwsjion And the man*

( Inferiour 3 C Command

ner of thefe affedtirtg the Copula (Be it fo, or fine efe, let itbefo) is called the Imperative Mode * of which there are thefe three varieties, very fit to be diftindly provided for. As for that other ufeof the Imperative Mode , when it figoifies Permifjion t, this may be fufficiently exprefled by the Secondary Mode of Liberty. You may do it.

The Secondary Modes are fuch, as when the Copula is affe&ed with any of them, make the fentcnce to be (as Logicians call it) a Modal Proportion.

This happens when the Matter in difeourfe, namely, the being or doing or differing of a thing, is confidered not fimply . by it Jelf, but gradually in its caufes from which it proceeds either Contingently or No ceffarily.

Then a thing feems to be left as Contingent , when the fpeakerex- prefles only the Poffibility of it, or his own Liberty to it.

1. The Fojjibility of a thing depends upon the power of its caufe,

and may be exprefled when ^conditional ^ b ? tbe Particle |’ COVLD.

2 . The Liberty of a thing, depends upon a freedom from all Obfta* cles either within or without, and is ufoally exprefled in our Lan- guage, ^hen^oSional ] b 7 the Part,cle jjtf JG HT.

Then a thing feems to be of Necejpty, when the fpeaker exprefleth therefolution of his own will, or fome other obligation upon him from without.

3* The Inclination of the willis expreffed, if ]by the

Particles £>.

, The Neceflit y of a thing, from fome external obligation , whether ' .S Abfolute

Natural or Moral which we call duty, is exprefled, lf^ Conditional

. . r> . .<MV ST, ought, Jhall,

by the Par tide 0Hg h tj jh 0H ld.

That kind of fervile Particle which doth belong both to thelnte- gral and the Copula, is ftiled Tenfe. . . ^

Tho Tenfesin inftituted Languages are appreciated oniy to^r^/, yet ’tis very plain that according to the true Philofophy of. ipeccbg they (hould likewife be aferibed to Subfiantives 5 And that this would in many refpefts be a great advantage to Language. As there is Ama- tie, fo there lhofuld be Amavitio and Antaturitio, &c.

Thefe kind of Auxiliary Particles, ftiled Modes and Tenfe s, are m the Modern Languages exprefled by fuch fervile fignifie any compleat Ad, but rather fome refpefts and circumflaacc* belonging to other A&s* and by that meansjiave id them a natural fitnefs tobefubfervienttothe inflexion of other Integral words. So the Conditional Modes are fupplyed by the words Pojlutn or Pojjtbie,

Chap. V. Concerning Natural Cjrammar.

Licet) Li bet, Volot, Necefe,Oportet, Debeo. And fo are the Tenfes, by thole fervile words of Facto, Habeo, befides the Copula, film.

The Tenfes are ufually diftinguilhed into r pre r en t Do, doji, doth,

FreJent \Paffive. Am, art, is, are.

I r y ACtive. Did, didfi,

ImperfeCt^ p a jfi ve , Was, voert, were, c Active. Have, baji, hath,

Faji < Pcrfe&^p a jji V g' Have been, hdfi been, bath been.

I . r „\Attivc. Had, h adit,

| \Pluperfe ~ip a jj] VCt Had been, badfi been.

Future S A & ive ’ Shall, mil, Jhalt) trilt, l \PaJJtve. Shall be, will be .Jhalt be, wilt be.

But the moft diftinft and explicit way of exprefling any Propofiti- on, is by affixing thefe Tenfes, both to the Copula, and the Predicate •, the latter of which will fhew the time of the Aftion, &c. whether pa ft, prefent,or future: and the former, the ftateof thePerfonor Subjeft, who doth this A&i- j ’Has been, . (Paji that ACtion,

on, whether he 4 Dnow, Neither s Acting in it.

Is hall be hereafter .) (.Tet to do it.

And a Propofition thus exprefled, is in the very exprefling of it, re- folved into its parts of Subject, Copula , and Predicate, according to thefe following examples.

("Have been 1 < Am 1 Shall be

["Have been!

1 J Am Lhaving been Hot

! Shall be J

(Calui ICaleo ( Calebo

fC ale bant 4 Calueram I Caluero

THave been" 1 I J Am {Shall be J

fHave been li Am 1 Shall be .

( Fuicaliturur to be hot hereafter \Sum caliturus (jEro caliturus

Xu ■



5 Calefacio, or fum cakfacierts [Cakfaciant

fHave been) fCalefecarant

^ Am /-Having heated < Calefaciebam, fium qui calefecit

, {Shall be > [Calefecero

THave been"! Am j {.Shall be J

fHave been -1


V ‘ . CFMcakfaCturut

>to Heat hereafters Sum Calefa&krus \ . {.Erp calefatturm .

Digitized t. )OQle

  • •8

Concerning ^(atural (grammar. Part III.

rHave been! f Fueram calefa&ut

iJAm * shaving been Heated <Calefiebam [Shall be J L Fuero calefa&ut

THave been"! I ~Fui "j

I ^ Am l to be Heated hereafter 4 Sum l Calefaciendus .

[Shall be J [Ero J

But if any (hould conceive this wayneedlefs or too laborious, as being too much diftant from the manner oflnftituted Languages) he may by putting the Copula in the place of the Tenfe, as well exp refs his mind in this, as in any other Inftituted Language.


I. Of Tranfcendental Particles , The end and ufe of them. II. The nfual ways for enlarging the fenfe of words in In- stituted Languages. III. The General Heads of Tranfcen-

dental Particles.

T Hofe Particles are here ftiled Tranfcendental which do circum- ft antiate words in relpeft of fome Metapbyfical notion ; either by enlarging the acception of them to fome more general fignification, then doth belong to the reft rained fenfe of their places : or denoting a relation to (ome other Predicament or Genus, under which they are not originally placed.

Whereas in a Philolbphical Language,, every word ought in ftrift- nefs to have but one proper fenfe and acception, to prevent equivo- calnefs 5 which fenfe is to be reftrained according to that place and relation, which the words have in the Tables: And yet on the other fide, it would much promote copioufnels and elegancy, if there might be any way (o to change and vary the fenfe of any word, as may with all, leave it free from ambiguity. For this pur pole, aslikewife for the Abbreviating of Language are thefe Tranfcendental notes fuggefted.

There are two ways ufed in Inftituted Languages, fpecially in La- tin for varying the leBfe of words $ either by Tropes: or by fuch a kind of Compofttion as doth alter the terminations of them.

t. The fenfe of a word is varyed by Trope 5 either in refpeft of fome

r Agreement and convenience , which it hath with the word for which it is ufed 5 whether more r General $ as in Metaphor:

(Specials when the

(Whole , whether Univerlal, Effential, Integral, is put for any < of the refpettive parts , or contrary wife. Synecdoche.

I ( Subje & , Obje& s Caufe , 8cc. is put for the Adjun& 3 Adje& 9

1 Ejfe& i &c, or contrary wife, Metonymy.

' yOppoftioni when oneOppofite is put for the other , Irony.

  • Of

Chap.IV. Concerning Natural (grammar; 319

Of all which there are ftore of examples in the common books of Rhetorick ; And there will be occafion to cite feveral of them in the following Chapter, amongfl the inftances that are given of the Tranicendental Particles.

Words are varied by changing their Terminations many ways 5 of which thefe that follow are fome of the Principal in the Latin.

1. Preparatives or Meditatives 5 are exprefled by the Termination (urio) Scripturio, Efurio, Parturio, MiQurio.

а. Inceptive/ $ by the termination (fee ) Lucefco, Calefco, Senefco.

3. Frequentative/ 5 by the termination (ito)Clasnito,Agito.

4. Augmentative / , by the termination (ofus) dquofus, Fluviojits,


5. Diminutive/ 5 by the terminations ({g, l us, la, lum, ajler ) Can-

tiHo , Scribillo, LibeUus, Lapillus , Homunculus , Merc at ulus, Vejicula Cor- pufculum, Corculum, Crepuf cults tn, Surdajier, Medic ajier , Grammati- cafier. #

б . The Notion of Segregate j by the termination (tim) Virhim, Verbatim, Gradatim.

7. Power and PropenJitj A&ive 5 by ( ivus, ivitas ) A&ivut, A 3 i- vitae.

8. Power and PropenJitj PaJJive 5 by (////, Hit as) Pojfibilh, PoJJibi- litas.

9. Caufe 5 by compofition with Facto, Mortifico , Magnifico, Prolifi-


10. Kind 3 by (/dear and farius and genus) Simplex, Duplex, Multi- plex, Bif arius, Mult if arius, Omni genus. Multigenus.

11. The notions of Officer, and Tradefmam, whether Merchant or Mechanic^ promifeuoufly, are commonly exprefled by the termina- tion ( arius ) which doth originally and properly iignifie the notion of belonging to, but is thus limited by reafbn of the words, officiarivs, Mercator, Faber , underflood.

Api arius, Armentarius, Caprarius, Equarius, Jccipitarius, Librari - us,8c c.

Lanarrus, Lin arius, Pijc arius, Aviarius, Pomarius, L a & arius, &c.

Arcuarius, Armament arius, Aur arius, Doliarius, 8cc.

la. Injirument or Jugament 5 by the termination {trusts) Haujlrum, Aratrum,PlauJlrum, Rajtrum , 8 cc.

13. Veffel by (bulum) Tburibulum, Infundibulum.

14. Houfe i by (tie, ale, arium) Equite, Ovik, Bubile, C aft ale. Avia - tium. Columbarium, GaHinarium .

1 5. Chamber or Room $ by (jna, arium, terium) Officina , Textrina, TonJlrina,Sutrina , Popina, Vejliarium, Carnarium, Apodyterium, Coni- Jlerium, Spharijlerium.

1 6. Place in General % by (arium, etum) Vivarium, Aquarium , Po- mauium,Colluviarium , Frutetum, Dumetum , Arundimtum, Ericctum,


17. Perjonor Agent 5 by the termination (or) Paflor, Foffor, Fron- dator, Vindemiator, Arator, Me for, 8cc.

Now if all other refpedts and circumftances, which are capable and proper to be exprefled by thefe kind of Particles, were in fbme fuch way provided for \ this would exceedingly abbreviate the number


Concerning Natural Cjrammar. P art III*

of words, prevent much circumlocution, contribute to perfpicuity and diftin&nefs, and very much promote the elegance and fignmcancy

What may be the moft convenient number of fuch Tranlcendental Particles, is not eafie to determine , But thofe mentioned in the eight following Combinations, (though not all of the fame extent and comprehenfivenef$p have each of them fome peculiar pretence of be- ing lifted under this number.

Thefe may be diftributed into fuch as are more C General . j \ Effential. I. j 1 Circumftantial. II.

£ Special , whetherijelonging to f Subflance . IIk I Quantity. IV.

4 Quality. V. •

• . I ASion. VI.

1 . Relation , with refpeft to cQuality and Anion. VII* i Affections of Animals. VIII.

The firft Combination doth comprehend fuch General Ejjentiai re*

fpefts, as are either , ,

f Comparative $ denoting fimilitude and refemblancej whether that which confifts chieflly || in words or in things 1 J {METAPHOR


  • \l ike

. I Pofttive 5 denoting the nature or effence of the fubjeCt fpoken of, as to thofe common notions of f General beings, either |) the common effence t or common

I circumftances \ {KIND I 2, LM 4NNER

L Individual beings, whether || irrational or rati onal { THING

  • ‘IPERS0N

The fecond Combination doth contein fiich General Ctrcumpanttat refpe&s as are % either more

CAbJolnte $ fignrfying, Portion or Duration -3 { PLACE

"•y'lTlME *

^Relative ^ as to f Effecting or Reprefinting {C AV SE

y'l SIGN t

lEeing in conjunction with others, or Jeparate from others c AGGREGATE 1*18 EG REG ATE.


Chap. VI- Concerning Natural (grammar.

The third Combination doth contain filch kind of Special relpe&s, belonging to Subfiance, as refult from their Application to other Sub- ftances, and the ufesfor which they are defigned $ namely, for Enclo- fnre and fervice, whether of {Places % or Things HI j iSEPlMENT S lARMAMENT {jlfen 5 either fuch coverings as are .

C Contiguous and fitted to their bodie?, ferving for defence ,

|| againft Weather ox Enemies . kVEST ‘lARMOVR

iMore remote , according to || the more General } or Special kind or part



The fourth Combination doth comprehend fome of thofe special refpe As belonging to Corporeal things, which do chiefly 'concern the figure of them, whether

C shape alone 5 Broad and Flat, or Slender and Long


W'y'LPiN {shape and Vfe

C More Simple * defigned, either for Operation or Containing S Z1NSTRV MENT y’lVESS EL

{ Lefifimple $ whether || fuch as are not necejfarily defigned for motion , being of a left complicate figure 5 or fuch as are defigned for motion , whole/ig«re is more complicate rJVG AMENT Z'lMACHIN

The fifth Combination doth contain fuch kind of Notions as re- late to the of Things or Perfons, whether confidered more

Abfira&lj 5 either the more General C&ality, whereby the natural Powers are perfc&ed, or more fpecial relating tti v , Practical matters (

• v * (HABIT

x lA RT . . :

ii Concretely 5 denoting perfonal Qualifications, whether '{Degrees and Buftnefs 5 or Faculty and SkfU J f OFFICER

y '\artist

{prrfejfions of MauufaSure ot Esc change (ME C HAH I C 3’LJdMRCHANT

Qigitized by

Concerning Statural (grammar. Part HI.

The fifth Combination doth contain fuch imperfeft fervile notions, as belong to Action or Pajjton, with refpeft to the ' Ability, or Difpofttion of a thing CPOtVER


VI. < Beginning or Repeating of an A&ion C IUC EP TIVE 7 :iF RE ENT AT IV E

Application of the Power 5 whether || in a common and ordi- nary , or in fome Jitdden and vehement degree cEN DEAVOVR 3‘IIMPETVS *,

The leventh Combination doth contain fuch kind of fervile Rela- tive notions, as are common both to Quality and Action 5 denoting either the

'Meafures and degrees of things CGreat or Little 1 \ A VG AIEUT A TIVE

vn J y* iDiMinvrivE

  • {too much, or too little


tiJAimrerofa Thing or Aftion, whether |f asitJbmldbe,ot as it Jbotildnot be



The eighth and laft Combination doth relate to fome AHedionsof Animals, either

r Sounds made by them, whether || inarticulate , or articulate rroiCE


{The fitft moft impotent and IstsperfeCt Ago $ to which may be

adjoyned, that more general name belonging to any whole, which is likewife applicable to inanimate beings. o r TOVNG

  • -\PART.


Digiti; by

Chap.- VI I. Concerning Natural ( grammar .


Infkances of the great ufefulnefs of thefe Tranfcendental Parti - cles , with direStions how they are to be applyed.

F O R the better explaining of what great ule and advantage thefe Particles may be to Language, I (hall give feme examples Seve- rally to each pair of them, according to the order premifed .* Begin- ning with the firft.



fi like

Thefe two are paired together- becaufe of their affinity, each of them'denoting an enlargement of the fenfe of the word 5 the firft more general 3 the other with reference to Similitude , properly (b called.

The note of Metaphorical affixed to any Charafter, will fignifie the Metaphor, enlarging the fenfe of that word, from that drift reftrained acception * which it had in the Tables, to a more univerfal comprehenfive fignifi- cation • By this, common Metaphors may be legitimated, retaining their elegancy, and being freed from their ambiguity. So






l Crooked j Obtufe l Acute

1 1 Ripe c§<c

{.Immature^ 1

5 Fertile n ^

l Barren )

o r Beautiful

    • i Deformed

f Ornate i cHomely (Light | Dark

'Rudiment, Principle Original Means

  • Groft

1 Subtle (Upright cPerverfe

S fDull

B IQyick

{ Perfeft Imperfeft

^Fruitful as to inventi- I ^Unfruitful (on,^c, 1 y Decent, Comely oAbfurd, Indecent (Elegant, Quaint IRude

(Evident, Plain JlMyftical, Obfcure

^ r Shining g* Hypocritical Banifh

^ Companying S. Strengthen S.

< Wriglein S. Prophefie ^ ET Conlecrate 3 K B Suiter a Woo § Rival • Raife

So in the Tables of Aft ion i thofe Afts which are primarily aferibed unto God, as Prcjerving, Dejlroying , Deliverings Eorfakjng> BleJJing> Cmrjing, &c. becaufe they may by analogy be applyed to other things, therefore this mark will enlarge their acception. So for thofe other Afts belonging to the rational foul 3 as, Thinkings Believing , Knowings Ohfervings Expe&ing } Conjenting , Dijfentwg^ Ejteeming , Contemning^

T t 2 WiUings

Digi ed by v^ooQle

Cowerning ^{aturai ^rmmar» Pant III.

•Willing, Killing, Fruition, Delegation, Fle&ion, RejeUion, 8<c. though they are primarily a&s of the Rational Soul * yet becaufe .there is fomewhat analogous to them in other Creatures * therefore fuch ' words with this mark may without ambiguity beufed in fuch a gene- ral fenfe.

So in ‘judicial Relation * Accufe, Complain, Excufe, WHnefs, Regtfier, Citation, &c. So likewife in Military Relation * Offend, Defend, Provoke, Reftji, Meftege , A fault, slfirnrijh, Fight, Stratagem,Overtome, Field, Fly, Parfuf, Efrape, &e. Each of thefe and many other words may by this note (when there is juft occafion to apply it) be made snore copious, and yet preferved diftimft in their fignifications.

The other Particle, Like, being affixed to any word, doth denote a varying of the fenfe of that word, upon the Account of feme fimi- litude, whether in refpeft of gyality and difpofition, Refimblance, effe&, and manner of doing, or ontupard Jbape and fixation.

I. This fimilitude may fometimes refer to the Quality and difpoft- tion of a thing* in which fenfe *tis frequently exprefled in our EngHfh Tongne by Adje&ives, with the Termination (ifb) Dtvilifh, Brntijh,

' Currijh, Wafpijh , Apijh : and fometimes without it 5 as Angelical, Dogged, Cynical, Viperous, Serpentine, 8cc. which do not always fignifie ac- cording to the ftrid derivation of fuch Adje&ives, but do many times denote only a fimilitude.

a. After the fame manner are the feveral varieties of Colours to be exprefled, namely, by their refemblance to other things commonly known. So Afhes-like, or Cineritius , is Afb-colour. So Flefhrlike is Carnations, Blood-like is Crimfon * Lyon-like is Fawny. So for thofe other rcfjemblances to the Sky, to Gold, Graft, Straw. So Pice as, or Pitch-like, is a deep blacks Cor acinus , or Crow-like, is a Jhinhsg black So for Milky, Snowy, Ivory, kinds of White, &c. And thus like- wife is it for the variety of Tajies and Smells * the differences of which are not provided for with diltintt words in any Language, but may this way be fufficiently exprefled * namely, by their likenefs to fuch other things as are commonly known.

3. Sometimes it may refer tofomekind of Refemblance in refpeft of effe&, according to which fenfe thefe words are frequently ufed J Inflame, Sparkle, Cloud, Exhalation, Fumes, Vapour.

4. Sometimes to the manner. rf doings fotofpeak Infant-like, is to Jabler * to graft-like Feathers is to Impe * to dart-like water, is to Spirt, Squirt 5 to tremble-like with the voice, is to Warble , Thrill * Dog-like crying, is Whining 5 Stealing-like, is Surreptitious, &c.

5. This


Chap* VI I. Concerning (atural (grammar.

5. This Particle is likewife applicable in refpeft of fhape and fitu- atiou. So

fDovvne r ThiftIeDowne H Lint of Lhnnea

«* Hoarinefs of Mold

Fibre ^ Grain of Wood o Apple £.• Pomander, Pommel o- iBuflet Si Pellet 33 [Arme ^ Ar me of Tree, Sear §1 Trunc jjji HulkofaShip Cj- Beake Stemm of a Ship

Foot Pedeftal

o Bridge Bridge of a Mufical inftruraent . n [Money c Medal, Counter.


The firft of thefe may be compounded with word's of Number, to Kind; make them fignifie under the notion of Multiplicative, which the La- tins exprefs by the Termination ( flex') Simplex , Duplex , Multiplex , 8 cc»

And the Englifb by the Termination (fold ) Twofold, Threefold, Ma- nifold.

In its compofition with other Chara&ers, it wiU ferve to exprefs thole words which are ufed to fignifie the general or fpecial kjnds of things 3 and being affixed to any of the diffe.rences,will make them fig- nifie as a Genus or Species. It is applicable both to Subftantives and Adjettivcs.

Some of our Englifh words of this fenfe, are expreffedby the Ter- mination 0*g0 as Herbage, Pafcuage, Foliage , Vintage , Cordage, Stoage,

&c. that is the kind of Herbs, Pafture, 8 cc. • - ■ ,

s? r People Populacy, Folk, jjrj’Bifulc Cattle

| ^ Commonalty, f I Stag a Red Deer

g. P?™* g 1 1 Buck g Fallow Deer

Child - < Offfpring, Progeny = < H f Swh)

« S’ Iflue, Brood, Litter S ® A . . ? *

I- FootSouldier Infantry | Domeftipbird Poultry

I [Horfe Sould. ^Cavalry [Guns ^Artillery

There are feveral Adjjeftires likewife expreffible this Way 3 as Mul- . tifarious , Homogeneous , or similar , Heterogeneous , or Dijfimular , &c.

2 . The ufe of the fecond Particle is by its compofitiop with R.e1a- Manncr * tiveand Quantitative Pronouns, to exprefs fuch words as thefe 3 Quo? modo, how or after what manner 3 Hujufmodi after this mapper 5 ejuf- modi after that mauner^ &c. It is applicable likewife unto Adverbia moris, Meatim,Tuatim 9 Suatim f i J Meo 3 Tuo, Suo More. The Anti- ents were wont to fay, Canatim , Suatim, Bovatim , that is, after the manner of Dogs, of Swipe, &c» Aod it is ftill in ufe to fay Humanitus } after the manner of men.

s ^V ag D S- 1 Buck

<g < Offifprmg, Progeny „

=p Ul'ue, Brood, Litter 5 ®

Infantry 1 Dom <

Digitized I *

This mark upon the word lS flic words


Concerning Natural (grammar. Part IIL

The Compofition with this Particle may likewife be ufeful in ex- preffiog thofe words which do in their proper notion contain a refe- rence to the Mode of things. So

• • ° i rrw • f .

Sentence < Joyning Ufing Right

Good, Well .Evil

‘Pronunciation « Eloquution - Phrafe , Style Connexion & Ufage <» , Tenure

? i Right [Wrong

f freight 2* Feeding I Vcft Face

I Air £ u Sound



Garb, Tire

Afpeft, Countenance





  • '\p ERSON

Each of thefe may be compounded with the Relative or guantita- five Pronouns, ferving to diftinguifla fuch as refer to Things from thole that belong to Per font. Tbis i That i The fame, Another , A certain , Some. Thing or Perjon.

The former of thefe being affixed to any word in the Tables be- longing to the Predicament of Quality, Aaion, Relation, or to any other word which doth primarily denote a perfon, will determine the fenfe of that word to a Subjiantive of the thing 3 as it hath been already declared in the Doff rine of Subftantives.

This note may be affixed 1. To AdjeHives Neater ♦ So H CObfcure 1 IMyftery

i 0!°^ /with this mark will GgnifieSlf ?^ anc * o jPremgiatory f 6 f Trick

"r Frivolous j iTriflle.

> with this mark will Ggnifiej>^?^" a i Srriflle.

2. To Adje&ivet AUive, commonly called Participles A&ive. So fNutrient ■* fNutriment or Aliment

£ Medicating ^ Medicament or Medi-

§ <j Purging £ with this mark will fignifie J Purge (cine

S. 1 Binding | Bond or String

[Buying j u Price










To AdjeSivet or Participles Paffive , in the Aorift Tenfc. So ‘Creature r Inherited r fnheritance, Patri-

Fa& Seen Speffacle (mony

4 Fides qua Urinated Urin

“J Phantafm s Dunged e Dung

e/ Pfophefie | ^ Spit «|*< Spittle

Knot - Seemed I 5 Pretence, Pretext

Bundle, Fardle Drunk Drink

Experiment Eaten Food, Meat


4 Fides qua Phantafm b.1 Pfophefie V Knot

Bundle, Fardle

( Experiment [Web

[Eleemofynated [Alms

I* 4 Spittle

I 5 Pretence, Pretext j Drink I Food, Meat

So the Adje&ives Paffive of the words Teachings Learning , Reading. , Singing, Selling, with this affix, will fignifie Dodrine, Lejfon, Lettnre % Song, Ware. The


Chapv V 1 1. Concerning Statural (Jrammar. yi y

The fecond of thefe Particle* may refer either to, i. The Quality p er fon. and relation * or a. The Agency * or 3. The Patiency of the Perfon.

If to the firft of thefe $ it nraft be affixed to an Adjetfivt Neuter ; if to the fecond or third, it muft be affixed to an AdhSive AUive or FaJJive.

Of the firft kind are fuch examples as thefe. rVile fRafcal, Varlet f Flattering

Wretch, Caitiff Facetious

Villain, T raytor Fornicating


Fool, Idiot |

Vagrant, Vagabond _ | Ruftic Royfter, Blade * 1

Vile Miferable Perfidious Crafty |. Idiotrca! ■?! Wandting a Licentious Uncleanly i Slow


Sloven I Lob, Lubber [.Truant





0) put in fubftitu-

Aulical (tion



fParafite Jefter, Wag Whore, Harlot Strumpet Whoremonger Boor, Peafaat Hind, Swain Souldier Clerk, Clergy Lay

Attourney, Sur- rogate Courtier I Artizan, Artift {New*

Of the fecond are fuch examples as thefe.



fAftfeg Creating Farming Lending

Owing s

Pronegotiating ? Faftor Beneficencing Behefaftor Interpreting [Truck* man

f A&or Creator Farmer . Creditor <i * Debitor


["Conveying Vowing . Giving


f Convoy Votary Donor Receiver






Beginning ‘f.llnceptor, Novice

T* it* En I nr« * a « 

Traveller, Paffenger Spe&ator Auditor, Hearer

_Of the third are fuch examples as thefe. ""Sent f Meftengcr

PEleemofynated jEleemofynary

jBeneficenced ^Beneficiary ..

.Tryed ^Probationer




Thls firftpair mthefecond Combination of Tranfeendental Parti- eksj are of more theoordinary extent and ufefulnefe, becaufe they may be ferviceable to compound other words befides Integrals.

. . - . . - 1 . ^ 0 * . . ' t

The firft of them may be Compounded with Prttfount^as Wallace, (hewed before in the do&rine concerning Pronouns } and fo ferve to exprefs Adverbs of place, as in this, that, every, &c. here , there, every .

Befides which, the Compofition with this Particle may be proper to exprefs other names of Places, which are commonly derived, either from, 1. The


The words ~ The words


Concerning Z^Aturnl (jtnnininr* ' Part III*

1. The things contained in them.

2. The njes to which they are defigned.

3. The Relations by which they are bounded.

Of thefirft kind are fuchas thefe.










r Mine Stannary Quarry Park Warren

Wood, Grove 3 . Coppice Orchard [Vineyard-

’Hops [Hopyard

Flowers Garden

Fire a , Hearth

d Staoke . e Chimney < < Ship refting fx Harbour, Haven, Rode


Abje&aneous L Water


Channel, Kennel Gutter, Drain


Of the fecond kind are fuch examples as thefe.

f Dwelling Cloyfter I Walhing


Oven ^


Afyluro, refuge |

Sandhiary, (helter Covert Rendezvouz Altar [Pulpit .

r Ambulation Teftifed High (low Baking-hol- Ffre-hollow s Proteftion 1

  • » <M








Flefli-felling PublickSpedacle| Deers Lying Birds Skeping Ship-making Unlhipping Wares

f Manfion, Meffuage Bath






Key, Wharf l Hyth

Of the third kind are fuch inftances as thefe.

j" Authority


Kings Authority Tribe I ] Academical & 1 Arch-Bilhops )

Bilhops ^-Authority [Presbyters )

Territory, Signidry #

Jurifiiiddon, Principality, Dominion Kingdom, Realm a j County, Shire “ ‘ Academy, Univerfity Province Diocefe Parifh


The fecond of thefe Particles, namely , time , may be Com*

^ 1. With Numbers, to make them fignifie as Adverbs Cardinals $ as Sensei, bister, 8cc . Dtcies, vicies,centies,miUies,usuUoti€s, Bcc. Once, . twice, thrice, ten times, twenty times, a hundred times, athouund

times, many times, &c. . - .

a. With Pronouns, to exprefi Adverbs of time 5 as in this, that, all,

Horn, Then, Alma;, &c.

3 . With

Chap. VII. Concerning Natural (grammar.

With Integrals 5 as in fuch examples, eftival ("Holy time

afchal 1 Eatter

lativity ' I Cfiriftmafs








' of Chrifi


Coming of the


Holy Ghofi

Grape gathering Forinfical tiNon-Forinfical

„ %CAVSE, or make '\SIGN.

When words are in their fignifications t<fte more peculiarly deter- caufe. mined to their Tranfitive efficiency, then is this firft note to be affixed.

It is frequently in Latin exprefied by a Compolition with facto fub- joyned, and fometimes in £ngli(h by aCompofition with (be) pre- fixed 5 as in the words, Befool, Befit, &c.

The infiances of this kind do frequently occur, and are very nume- rous. So

,fKnow Certain Wonder . l Anger Ffiar Love ^ Shame | Humble Contender 3. ? Boldnefs ».

Powerful g. i. Impotent n “ Great Little Healthy Dye Live Fade | Rife

'Acquaint, Advertife Certifie, afi'ure Amaze, aftonifh Provbke, igcenfe Fright, daunt, difmay Enamour, endear Abafli Abafe t Boutefeu, incendiary Embolden Enable Dilable

Magnifie, aggravate Dimintth, abate Cure, heal Kill, flay, mortal Enliven, quicken Wear out, confume Raife,roufe, ftart Fluttering, unkennel .Fell, throw down




Urine Child Ignoble Free £ Slavp a. . Money | j Erre g-.Evil Exceed Stay







J Set , Lay Sudorific • Diaphoretic Diuretic Adopt Attaint Enfranchize Enflave | Mint, coyne ^ Seduce

Deprave, marr Cloy

Detain, hold at bay Set packing Let blood Burniffi, polifti Illuftrate, clear Strike fire ' ^Endamage

This mark is applicable both to Subfiantives and Adjedives, as in Adoption, Adopting, Adopted, Sudorification , Sudorific , &c.

Concerning Natural (jrammar. PartHL

ign. The other Tranfcendental note of Sign is adjoined to the former,

by rtafon of fbme kind of affinity (though fomewhat remote) which there is betwixt them. As the Former Particle doth import the notion of efficiency or making 5 lo doth this of Ref relenting or figriifying. It is applicable both to Subftantives and Adje&ives. So "Anchor [Buoy Arming or [Alarum

, Foot Footftep, track incurfion pals.

Wound Scar Jugam. Ibvafi Beacon

j Percuflion Vibex, Black Future event Ominous

r t and Blew Evil ? Idaufpicious

^ Veft fervice gj Livery 3 Great evil s Portentous

Family, or Nobility Regaliry Magiftracy

s. Weathercock

  • Fane

Coat of Arms |



'Arming or incurfion pafs. Jugam. Ibvafi Future event Evil

jr Great evil i

Terminal or ti £ Limit I

“To head or 1 hand To grief


II. ' ' ■


Beacon Ominous Idaufpicious


'•< Meer, land*mark



Lament, deplore •bewail, bemoan Applaud


The firft'of thefe doth' denote a multitude in Society, unto which common fpeech doth nbedlefly affign fever al djftta&j names 5 whereas the Natural notion is the fame in all Of them 5 * gnd^erefore filth Va- rious names may juftly be reckoned arbongft. tHc redundancies of Language. So - ■ ' ’

•s [Bench ' ; [Young Dogs [

rs Party *j Foxes > .(Litter ■ -J i

ing Oaravatt “ -Pigs ) n " ^


Train, retinhe Navy, Fleet ; Armado '* "■ !


i ;









Chickens 1


j 1 Trees • • Small trees. . Shrubs ■ . Feme Hay Straw

Fewel Wood •-Twigs

Airy " !

‘ Team j _ j Brood ’ 1 ■ i ■ Scour, Fry Scull 1 ’ i (^5 Wood, Grove lljCoppice ' ’

j Thicket , . ,

J Brake ' i •' ‘ 1 Reek, Stack ; ! !■ Cock „ 1 1 Pile j


And fo likewife maytt be for thofb others words

'Jewels Feathers Berries ,1 Counters Cards Dice

.Silk, Cloth,



Clufter, Bunch 1 Set Pack Bale

Chap, VII- Concerning Natural (jrammar.

So the words Selling, or Hiring, with this mark, will fignifie to fell

by whole fale 3 and to hire by the Gredt.


The fccond of thele being oppofite to the former, will fignifie Scgrtgstt. things under the notion of difiribution j and being fegregated, which we commonly exprefi by the words Each and Every 5 it is applicable to the Numbers to make them diftributives : Singuli , Bini t Trim, &c.

Each one, every two, every three, or one by one, by twos, by threes,

&c. And ft> for all other things capable of the like notion. The La- tins exprefs it by the Termination ( tim),m was laid before. So

‘ SigiBatim One by one )viritim Man by man y)Jtiatim Door by door 'verbatim Word by word

’Paulatim By little and little )Pedetentim Foot by Foot \Gradatim By degrees

Seriatim ^y ranks or piaffes.

The Englifb, befides the above-mentioned peculiar way of Phra- leology , doth fometimes exprefs this notion by compounding with the Termination (ly) as Hourly , Daily 3 Weekly > Monthly , Annually , &c; . *

It is applicable like wile to Nouns of Aftion, or Verbs. So Giving « fDiftributing, DifpenGng

^Gathering “^Picking up | ^Selling ^Retailing

  • fr^Hiring ^Hiring by the Jay



  • 'LPIN

The firlt pair in the third Combination do properly refer to the figure of things ; and the note of thele, added to the name of the matter of which they confilt, will be uleful to fupply the words for feveral things.

The former of thele doth denote a broad and flat Figure.

‘Wood ("Board, Plank ("Fire |*Leam

h Glafs jL Pane S I Ice, Snow §s Flake

$J Paper » Leaf, Sheet ^ Pudding fryed Pancake

| < Mettal 1;1 Plate a I Bread Id Sippet, Toft, Wafer

fr Lead n Sheet * LStaffe ° [Lath

k [iron fupertinu'd [Latin

The fecond denotes a round and long Figure, and being affixed to f,t ^ the word fignifying the matter of it, or the thing about which it is ufed, it may ferve for the expreffion of feveral names. So

'Iron Wood - Veft 1 String [Cufpidated






Vv 2



Concerning Natural grammar. Part III.




7 '\v ES SE€,

This pair is intended to fignifie the General Names belonging to each of the two principal kinds of Vtenfils.

By Infirument , is meant fuch a kind of Vtenfil, as is of a more fisnple figure, and properly defigned for Operation. This mark is to be af- fixed to the Chara&er of that particular ASion or Operation, in which fuch inftruments areufed 3 and whereas there may be feveral kinds of inftruments, that may be uleful for the fame kind of operation 3 they are to be farther diftinguifhed by their Matter, Figure, Bignefi, or fome other circumftance. So




f f Shaving

Aule, Piercer Filing

Drill, Bodkin Sawing

Gimlet, Wimbel Graving

Auger Planing

Spade, Shovel Contufion

Pick-ax,Mattock Painting

Sythe Writing

Syckle Candle fup*


Dog, Creeper t? Weaving . Andiron, Cobi- jp. Clipping (ron | Brulhing Hatchet S* Combing

Axe Horary

Leaver Star mea-

Ballance fure

. 1 1 7 _ 1 O..L r • _

Wedge Wheel Screw Spring Flaile • Rake Fork L Sive

Combing Horary Star mea- fure

Sub- forging









Graver, Rile









‘ Brulh, Beafom Comb Dyal Aftrolabe



Scourge, Rod Spit

Spe&acles Colours , Aun- tient. Cornet, _• Banner

Under this fecond Particle Q^efieP) are comprehended fuch kind offimple Utcnfils, whole proper ufe is to contain 3 they are diftin- guilhable either

1 . By the things which they are defigned to hold and contain r.

a . By the operations and a&ions for which they are ufed.

5. By the matter of which they confift, together with their feveral figures and quantities.


The words Thc-werds The words

Chap.VII. Concerning J^aturd grammar.

Of the firft kind are fuch inftances as thefe.

[Water Oyle Glafs s Earth £ Drink *S Little S* . . Great Earthen


Cruet, Cruce H

J«r l


Cup, Pot, Chalice S'



Of the fecond are fuch as thefe. rWafhing f








Baton 4 Laver

fl Skillet

Wooden Leather Pottage Sauce Table fire Candle Tnke Urine

Melting Diftilling Straining Infufion Exfufion *

I Caldron, Kettle Gontufion §

Copper, Furnace Incenfe


Frying-pan |Baptifm

Of the third fort there are foch examples as thefe. So "Earthen fPot

Narrow I Broad Wooden Oblong Great LGlafiy

  • Urne
  • = Pan

fi .

S’ Trough Vatt° .Vial


Concerning 3^(dtutal Cjramman Part III;

cJVG ament Z'\MACH tN

This next pair is put to fignifie fuch kind of Utenfils as are of a Mi fimplc figure then the former.

The word j fugament doth comprehend fuch kind Of form* as are dijtenforis lotiga$ confiding of feveral diftinft parts united by Art, be- ing more complex then inftrument, and/e/} then Machin. The mark of it is to be affixed, either to the name of the A 3 ion or the Thing about which they are ufed : as in theie examples.


Sedan Litter Tumbrel | Plow <g^ Harrow Fan Loom

Rack, Cratch

Coop, Pen, Cage




Canopy,umbrel- la, Screen

‘Printiog Holding


Exterifion Feet imprifon Head imprifon 1 Neck < Sub-foot Broyling Fewel -Seftion


ClippiBg Circle making [Wiod mufic

Poefs Pincers Callows, Gibbet Rack Stocks Pillory Yoke <| Pattin Gridiron Grate Stoole, Settle Bedftead Cizzars Compals Organ

By the fecondare intended fuch Utenfils as are of a more complicate figure , being mixed either with Wheels, Scrues, or Pullies, and de- fignedfor motion. The mark is to be affixed untgthe Chara&er of the A&ion for which they are ufed. So

r Hour f f Rolling Hack

h Signing g Watch ^ Up- pulling f. Crane

1 1 Sounding g l Clock Holding Vice

8 | _Portatile g. j Pocket watch 3L j Comprcffing |[Prels

Grinding „ Little

Pocket watch i




[_Way-meafuring [Way-wiler



Thefirft ofthefc mayferveto exprefsand delcribe thole leveral kinds of things and names which are ufed for Enclofitre. So Lamin r Pale r Water fMote

,r £ I | Sheep | SheepfolB

j f I $ Military <§*« Line, outwork, &c.

Hedge g. of basket §> Gabion

iBank LTranfverfc (hutting * w Barricado



Chap. V 1 1. Concerning Natural (jrammar. $$5

The fecond mark for ARM AM ENT or Tackle, will ferve to Armament, defcribe fufficiently feveral thiogs of that nature, without affording diftinft names for them, ro be applyed unto the Chara&er of the A&ion or Part to which it belongs.



fHorfe,cohibiting inffigating Head Mouth Neck Tayl Foot

fBridle fHorfe back

Spur h Ruftic


Bitt, Snaffle « < Riders foot Collar Crupper


, ^Horfe (hooe

9 s

Leg Circumligating [Finger for fowiog

f Saddle Pannel Pack-faddle Stirrup Gambado Surcingle, girdle Thimble



2, larmov r

Thc firft ofthefe will help to defcribe thofe various names that are given to feveral forts of ^Garments, according to the P*rtj, Things , or other circumftances mod confiderable in their ufc. So

Head Margined Low

Reticulate Bilhops head • Votaries head Fore-head Linnen Face . 1

Chin Neck

Trunc / Sub-trunc - Super-trunc Loofe fu per humeral Inmoft Linnqn': Outmoft Linaen . Bifbops Litinett r* . Silk <1 j ° Service f^niog Chamber ;

Table Wotiien Linnen !

[Cap Hat Bonnet Cawl Miter Cowl

Frontlet, crofs- Mafk (cloth Muffler Band !

Doublet Waftcoat Jerkin, Coat Hood Shirt, Shift Surplioe, Frock Stole Rochet

Livery v Hanging , Carpet [Tabid cloth


Arm Hand Woollen Belly

Thigl^ $lofe Loofe Leg

Leather < i Foot








Upper loofe Clofe Long: loofe Bed! woollen Lirfeen Covering Penfil [ fhajdowing Concealing ■

fStomacher Bib, Biggin Sleeve Glove Mitten Apron Breeches Petticoat Stocken, Hofe Boot;

Shooe Slipptr Paniofle Sock 1 Cloak



Sheet (terpane 'Coverlet, coun- CuFfain

I :j - . ■

LWjttle, Veil I

The fecond Particle is defigned only for defenjive Armour , which Annour. bears feme Analogy to Vejis. The note of it may be affixed to the fc- veral Parts.. So


r Helmet, murrion Head-piece

| j Ntck Gorget | Trunc 11 . Habergeons Corflat Bread rt Bread-plate .[Back v Back- piece A

'Hand s

)Leg , £

jDefenfive to be * g. handed

Gauqtlet ireavcs,Jambeaux [Shield, Buckler Target


Digitiz . >y

Concerning Natural (jrammar. Part UL



Z'Xroom .

The firft of thefe will by its compofition ferve to exprefs thofe vari- ous names which are given to Houfis , in reference to the ieveral things or ufes they are defigned for. So

'Corn threfhed ♦

Not threfhed Hogs Dogs i Horfes , Hawks 1 Pigeons ' Bees Conny

Lions or Bears Ammunition

Bones of dead Water








Dove-cote Hive Borough Den Arfenal Magazine Charnel , Conduit

'Publick hofpitating Sale of Wine Ale Votaries

Sick perfons Eleemofynated i

Mad 4

Idlers I

Imprifonment Forinfic c

Difcipling Fornicat.




Abby, Cloifter

Covent, Monaftery

Spittle, Hofpital




Goal, Prifon



Stews, Brothel Bordel

As the former Particle may names of feveral Houfis 5 fo will Chambers. Sa

be ufeful for the expreffion of the this fecond for particular Rooms or
















Dining room Parlour Bed-chamber Dormitory I Gallery Clofet

Library 1

i , <

Kitchin Larder 1

Pantry Paftry Buttery Cellar

Jakes, Privy .houfe of office

f Cloths Clothii


Armory Selling Preferring I Drying

^ J Exter. dimin.








. Ecclefiaftic






Repofitory Kill, drying L loft ^ Lobby

s Anti-chamber , PalTage, room ! Loft, Garret , Cabbin | Cell I



Chap.-VII. Concerning J^atural (jraMmar. 357

V. Habit.



Each of thefe arc applicable to Nouns. Theufe of the firft Pani- cle is to denote the Ha bitualnefs of any fuch thing whofe Radix is . not primarily under that Genus of Habit. So thefe words Rejoycing , IVorJhipping, Obedient, Difobtdience, &c. with this mark) will be de- termined to the Habit of Cbearfulnefs, Devotion , Obedience, Contu- macy, 8cc. ’

There are many Radical words under other Predicaments, as that; of AH ton, Love , Zeal, Conspajjion , Envy , &c. Singing, Writing, &c.,

That of Relation, as Governing, Bargaining, Thieving, Whordom , Dcr ceiving, See. which when they are to be ufed under the notion of Habits, muft be marked with this affix.

The chief ufe of the fecond Particle, is to fupply the place of thofe fe veral names which are commonly given to Arts and Sciences. So

"Quantity Magnitude Number World J Star motion S 1 Land Times Harmony Vifion


»< OO 1




Mathematic , Geometry Arithmetic Cofmography Aftronomy Geography Cronology MuGc

Optic, perfpe- aive



Building Wars Military order | Swording Language Oration Arguing Manners l/franfcendent

fStatic Archite&ure Chivalry Tadic ' Fencing Grammar Oratory Logic Ethic

J c Metaphyfic

And fo for thofe other cheating Arts ©f Manteia or Wizarding , with which the world always hath been and will be abufed. In the naming of thefe it would be convenient to add the word Manteia , the better to diftinguilh thefe from fuch as are true Arts and Sciences . So

fStarmant. r AftrOlogy

£1 1 Hand mant. Chiromancy

><j Face mant. s-4 Phyfiognomy S I Fire mant. Pyromancy

[Water mant. iHydromancy




Tbcfc word*

Concerning Natural (frammdr. Part HI.



3 * \artis t

Though this fecood pair be not of any great affinity, yet are they here united, upon account, that they both denote perfonal relpeffs. 3


notion of Prefe&ure in any kind of place, imployment, relation 5 whe- ther Honourable^ or mean and Servile , as the Integral (hall denote : But if the Integral be compounded with the Prepohtion Fro, or Vice orinftead of, which fignifies the notion of Subfittutiou, it will then ex- prefi th c Deputy or fubftituted officer 5 if with the Prepofition Sub or tWer, it Will then denote the Inferiour or fubordinate officer of that kind. So


' Brigade



Military Pronfioo Ten Souldiers




J College








'Admiral, Vice-admiral Genera], Lieuten-Gen. Major General Colonel, Tribune Captain, Centu- rion

> Commiflary ' Corporal, Serjeant Sheriff Under- 1 Sheriff Major

« ChanceHour,

  • | Vice-chan,

f I Mafter, Warden, g ffr Prefident, Pro- 5 % voft, Reftor, S Principal " Abbot, Prior Cenlor



Auditor Burfar, Trea- furer Steward | Collettor Clerk of Market Overfeer Church-warden 1 Librarian Midwife Chorifter

Sexton . !

‘ Street Citing













’ Conics l

Hawks ' Provjlipa |

Meat ordering





Agriculture f Arrefting





r Scavinger Sumner, Ap- paritor Juft ice, Conftahle Herauld Secretary, Clerk Prolocutor Uflier, Beadle Curate.

Clerk Hayward Shepherd Cow-herd Hog-herd f Keeper = Warrenner N Falconer !\ Steward, Manciple, Caterer , Sewer Butler Porter Chamberlain* Groom, Hoftler Bailiff

Baily, Beadle, Serjeant, Catchpoie

  • Jailour,

Warder Beadle

I Executioner [Pander, Bawd The

Chap* VI I. . Concerning Natural (Jrammar. 35

The other Affix for ARTIST 3 is not of lb much ufe or neceffity Anift. as the reft, becaule it may be fufficiefltly expreflcd by thofetwo Par- ticles of Art and Perfon. It is here put in, becauie I could not think of any more convenient notion of the like affinity to fupply this place. So

H f Quantity [Mathematician

§[ Magnitude I- 1 Geometrician 3 4 Number l World

^ Arithmetician g 5 Cofmographer .Aftronomer, &c.



The laft pair in this Combination may properly ferve to exprels thole words which are commonly given toPerlons from their feveral T r ades and Occupations.

The firft, for the Trades of MarntfaffurCy according to the feveral Mechanic, employments or dbjed matters about which liich Trades are conver- lant 5 fome of which wiilbe capable of compofition with the PrepoG- tion Sub or Vttder. So

Stone i Wood ■ Metal 1 Gold Iron

  • Lead

Pewter . Brafi


a Gems §. Statues


Painting i Mufick

I .

Medicine 1 Printing I Writing Cord

Malon Carpenter Smith Gold-fmith Black-finith Plummer Pewterer 2. Brafier • Tinker g Lapidary A Statuary Sculptor Painter Minftrel Fidler Apothecary Printer Scrivener Roper



Cloth thickning Veft


Head-veft Hand-veft " Spinning Sowing Walhing Bed Tub Knife Bow Candle Book

'Tanner Clothier Fuller I Taylor Botcher Shoomaker Cobler Hatter Glover Spinfter Sempfter Laundrefs Upholfter Cooper Cutler Fletcher Chaundler Book-binder

And fo for other particular Trades which belong to other matters, as C/#f£, Watch 3 &c.

Xx a

C . zed by

Concerning Natural (jrammar. Part ill.

The fecond for the trades of Exchange , many of which were wont in their Englijh names to be compounded with the Termination Mongers as IVood-ptonger , Iron- monger , Fi/h- monger, 8cc. From the old Latin word Mange, which fignifies a Seller. So

"Flefti ("Butcher fLinnen fL. Draper

h Cattle s. Grafier Woollen « W. Draper

| Spice »<Grofler £•< Head*veft » 1 Haberdafher

I < Wine % I Vintner © Old-veft \ 1 Broker

ft- Viftuals " Viftualer « Silk n Mercer

L Medicament L Drugfter [Book [Stationer.

& Silk [Book


W A •

C POWER or Ability 1, IAPTITVDE or Pi

\AP TITVDE or Proneneft.

Betwixt thefe two there is an evident affinity, both of them being common fervile notions, and of very general extent; they are appli- cable to an Integral both Subfiantive and Adje&ive, and capable both of an AEfive and Pajjive fenfe : Being expreffed in Latin by the Ter-

mination (tivus ana bills') and in Englifh by the Termination (tivt and ble) And when the words to which they are affixed are compounded with any Ad verb of a Negative or Privative fenfe , they are by that Adverb made to (ignifie. Impotence or Ineptitude, either ASive or Pajfive.

Though the derivations of Abjtra&s before-mentioned may ferve well enough forfeveral of the following inftances, yet to prevent the ambiguity that may otherwife happen in feme of thefe derivations* it will be proper to make ufe of thefe Particles. We have not actually indeed fuch variety of words as may be fitted to thefe notions ; but this is from the deleft of Language, for the things themfelves are na- turally capable of this kind of inflexion. •

The firft of thefe may (ignifie either "Affirmatively

f Subfiantive, denoting Ability J f Aftive, to do, Senpivenefs , Pifivetieji • ' J ( Paffive,tobe done, Senjiblenefc Viubleneft 1 tAdjeftive, or Able

{ Aftive, to do. Sensitive, Viftve Paffive, to be done, Senjtble, Vijtble Negatively

CSubflantive, denoting Inability

1 j Aftive, to do, Infenfitivenefs , Invifvenefi ) tPaffive, to be done, Infenfiblenefs, Invifibility [Adjeftive, or Vnable

{ Aftive, to do, Infenptive , Invijive Paffive, to be done, Injenftble , Inviftble

Chap. VII. Concerning Natural (grammar.

By this Particle are all thefe common words to be expreft, Capable , Ejfable , Audible , Accejjible , Comprehenftble , . Evitable , Fallible , &c. which beiog compounded with the Negative Particle (V») will ligni- fie the oppofite, as. Incapable , &c.

In this fenfe, to render a man Vnrefionfive, is to Confound, Poze, Puzzle, Non-plus. A perlon infolutive , or fas we commonly fay ) infol- vent, is a Bankrupt j Vnvalkative ,is a Cripple $ Non-Jurre8ive,\s Bedrid » Vnfattable, is Flue , &c.

The fecond of thefe may likewifefignifie, either i

"Affirmatively, whether affixed to f Subftantive, denoting Aptnefs 1 fAdive,todo, Amoroujnefs,Creduloufnefs S tPaffive, to be done, Amiablenefi,CredibleneJs • £Adjedive, Apt

r Adive, to do. Amorous, Credulous 1 Paffive, to be done. Amiable, Credible • [Negatively, whether affixed to a C Subftantive, Vnaptnefs

1 r Adive, to do, Vnamoroujnefs, Increduloufnefi j l Paffive, to be done, Vnamiablenefs, Incrediblenefs ^Adjedive, Vnapt

{ Adive, to do, Vnamourous, Incredulous Paffive, to be done, Vnamiable, Incredible

There are great variety ef Integrals, to which thefe notes are appli- cable. So









'Agile, Nimble-neis Timerous,

Terrible Baffiful-nefs Haft yj Touchy, Peevilb, Froward, Choleric, Tefty, e PettKbjSnappim,^.


|» Quarrelfom Scornful,

. Defpicable Salacity,










1 Sleep

2\ Grudge


1 Break Sr

Corredion Afloqiate To be found Inhabit .Trouble

Volatile Mimical Abfterfive Corrofive Crazy Sickly • Drowfie = Querulous f 1 Skittilh I Frail

Brittle { Corrigible Sociable , Obvious

There are feme words in our Englifh Tongue which are ufed pro- mifeuoufly, both Adively and Paffively* as Changeable, Mutable, Al- terable, ?itiful,Fearful,Mortalfic c. whereby they are liable to mifoake, which may be prevented by thefe Particles, being duely apply’d either to a Subftantive or Adje&ive, A&ive or PaJJive, as the fenfe (hall



Concerning Natural (grammar. Part III*




Inceptive. The firft fignifies the beginning of Attions or Things; which being a

kind of Mode or imperfeft notion, is therefore fit to be joyned as a fir- vile and auxiliary. ’Tis commonly cxpreffed in Englilh, by the word Wax ox Grove $ And in Latin (as was obferved before} by the Termi- nation fio, Senefio , Lucefio, Calefio ; Wax old, Wax light , Wax bot 9 &c. There are in our Language fome peculiar words and phrafes, which do only import this notion, and by this mark will be rendred needlefi So

"Kindle, Tind, fPoflefs fT;


H i nreaK * i v^rawn. s I b j Relent




So the word Morning, with this note will fignifie, Damning, Day- firing, Aurora, Dilkcnlum ; And the word day or night, with this mark will fignifie, Creynfiulunt , twilight.


"Kindle, Tind,









Crack jjjT

Ufurp I Navigate


Encroach .



Take (hipping,^


3* |


Launch “



Set forth ]




L Proceed


L Set forward



The fecond of thefe doth fignifie the repetition or montedneji of A&ions, which is fuch a kind of fervile notion as the former , and therefore fit to be this way provided for.' It is of a very large exteat in the ufe of it) being (as the other notion of inceptive likewife is) applicable to moft Verbs; And there are lorne words in ourEnglifh which will by this note be rendred needlefs. So


fBibble, Tipple




Move in Water 1=



















' •

L Ingeminate


. L

Solicit, • Dunne Sob

Twinckle Glimmer Vellicate

It may be worthy confideration to enquire, whether theoppofite to each of thefe, viz. Dcflnative and Raritive or feldom, ought not to be particularly provided for in this kind.



Chap. VII- Concerning Statural grammar.



Both thcfe may contribute to the Abbreviating of Language, when they are compounded as ferviles $ there being fcveral diftind words and phrafes, which by fuch compofition will be rendred needlefs , their true notions being fufficiently exprefiable by the ufe of theie Par- ticles.

The firft denotes the Application of a Mans (elf to the doing of any Endeavour, thing. So







fLiften, Hearken, 1 Attend , Give s] Ear .

, Pryj Peep Grope Heave ^Catch at

f Strike Strike thruft- iogly Obtain Provide [Sell


era *


r Strikeat Foine at

.Reach after Purvey [Set to Sale

The lecond doth denote the particular fit, or fudefen violence of impetus, any Aftion or Thing. So

rRunoing f Career




Motion Thruft Pull

Percuffion Catch

Bite ^ n Exclamation

f Start, Jerk Rufli Twitch Rap Snatch Snap

Shout, Squeak, " Squeal, Scrfan,

. Shreek


Anger Melancholy «  Flame 1

Wind 1

Rain •

Battel LDifeafe




Flaw, Guft







Theie are of very general comprehenfive ufefulnefs in Language;

The former of them doth properly denote Tranlcendental Great- Augmenta- nefs, bot h Exteujwe and Intenjtve. W hen it is a pplyed to Bodies, *tis of tlv *' the lame import with thole ufual words , Great, Huge, Vafi , Main : and is by the Latins often exprefied in Adje&ivei by the Termination (ofus') whereby they lignifie the notion of Abounding.

When it is applied to Qualities or Aliens, it denotes Intention of Degrees, being equivalent with thofe Articles, very, much, bard, fire, ftarl^, found, greatly 3 Valde, multum, oppido, magnopere, perquam, ad - tnodnnt , ve be men ter, cumprimis , &c.

It is applicable likewile by way of Allulion to the Amplitude , Gran- deur, and eminency of any thing in its kind, which being a general Metaphor, may therefore fitly and lafely be this way provided for : As the Words Man, Phjrfician, Merchant , with the note of Diminutive af- fixed to them , do lignifie, meannels and conteaiptiblenefs : So the lame words with this mark of Augmentative , will denote eminency and confiderablenefj, being proper to commend and let forth any thing for extraordinarineis in its kind. 1 . This

Thcfc word*


Concerning ^{atural (grammar. Part IIL

I. This mark may be applied to the names of Bodies. So

fSea ifOcean [Cord f Ca |* le >

Wave a Billow , Surge 3 1 |

Z el ° a. I rva, B Chare<

A Wave a Billow , Surge 3 1 | ^.^P

I Staffe l] Stake, Batt J Dilh iJ ? h jf e

i < Twig 11 Pole 1 Spoon | Ladle

& Branch" Bow, Arme of ^ Hammer Sledge

L Tree [Wooden hammer (.Beetle

a Rope. EM Charger

1.1 Ladle


a. It may be applied to fuch names as figoifie Qualities or Aftions,

. ■ • rn. a. f A Mtinuo



! Grieve

1 Shame Wonder

• Malice Care

  • ' Willing

Defire Known Ask Labour

I Endeavour





'Abhor, Abomi- nate, Deteft Aghaft, Hideous, Dread, Terrour, ! Rage, Wrath,

« Fury, Rave, Take on Coofufion Aftonifh Confternation Rancor Anxiety, Solicitude ^ Forward Long for

Notorious j

Adjure, Urge Toile, Moile, Drudge Beftir, Stickle, Strive, Coil, Ado, Contend* Averr, Avouch, Vouch Renounce Loudnefs, Noife Clamour, Roar,

m Cry








| Price


Beat Swing

Pull Tug

Prove ' Demonftri

Reprove Rate

Solemnity Grandeur t Fame [Renown

‘Antique, of old Steep

Flagitious, Heinous, Profligate Greadinefs, Eagernefs Devour, Voracious Caroule, Quaf£ Swill Spawl

Torrid, Swelter, Soultry

Tormcpt, Torture Pretious, Goftly, Sumptuous,


Brave, Gallant, Gorgeous, Spleff* did, Sparke Swing Tug



Diminutive. The fccond of thefe being dire&ly oppofite to the firft, is of like extent and ufefulnefi, and will not need any further explication but only by Infiances.

i* ’T 1 *

Dig d by

Chap. VII- Concerning Jtyturdl grammar. $4.5

1 . Tis a 'Horfe Pike Houle h Bed 5 Door « < Rain | Skin

  • Bladder

Duft Branch [.Images

pplicable to bodies and things. So

fNag ("Chamber ("Cell, Cal

I Pickerell Jack Tower Turret

' Cottage Sword Dagger,!

Pallet Gun : Piftol, D

1 Wicket Stream g Brook, F

J?< Mizliog, drizliog I ^ Prominence (§1 Stud li | Tunide, Cuticle § Fofi » Wrinkle

” Vefide ** Script Ticket, S

Atome,Mote • Schedi

Sprig Piece Scrap, C

L Babies,Puppets, t

Cell, Cabin Turret

Dagger, Ppnyard,Stiliettd Piftol, Dagg Brook, Rivulet

Ticket, Scrole Schedule Scrap, Crum

9. Tis applicable to. Qualities and Aftions.









{? Haiidfomc | Pretty H Good SI

T epid, Lukewarm





Smack, Tang










tig H


A little Greater More Cheap W.g Trip Limp

Fray, Scuffle (.Nibble

Drink , Cognition Doubt Sin
















"Bibb, Si P-

Hint, inkling, idtimatioh Scruple

Peccadillo, Failing


•: JParch,Scorch,Sweal Parboil, reare Dally

§; Slumber, Nap £*< Jingle, Tinkle |« Ejaculation (tiori Glols,N otes, Annota- Jarring, Bickering Alate

Shortly, foon Steep, (lope Driblet.

Pittance, Scantliog .Parcel

3 ; This note may ibmetimes be applied in a Metaphorical fenfr to fignifie contemptiblenefs or littleuefi of value, as wdl as littlcnefs of hulk. So the word Man with this note may fignifie either Dandiprat , Dwarf, Elf, Zauy, figmy 5 Or elfe Serub, Sorry fellow, Companion, Jack So the word Phyfitian with this note, will fignifie Mountebank ^ gmack; fibver, Empyrick. : And the word Merchant being fo noted, will figni* fie Pedler, Huckjler, &c.



Concerning Natural grammar. Part III;



Thefe are joyned upon account of oppofitioDj the meaning of each

being very obvious. „ „ „ . . t

The former denoting all kind of excefs $ Particularly, 1. The re- dundant extreme in all Qualities , or Vertues together. 2. With fuch other notions as bear fome kind of Analogy or refemblaqce to thcle jo other things. As likewife, 3. The Vimitty of any Quality or Afcioi*

I. Ofthefirft













kind arefuch inftances as thefe.

'Double diligence Cu Ration Carking Obftinacy. Pertinacy ■5. Guriofity Craft

1 . 1 Slightnels, Neu- “ trahty Rigor Rafhnefs Inference Lentitude, ftupor




Frugality d Liberality frj Magnificence

fr Courtefie Taciturnity Urbanity Gravity

Gravit . Faith •[Hope

2. Of the lecond kind, thefe are fome InfUnces. So • fPlane [Mountain . f Parabola

3 Oblique | Direft ?(Mean

  • 1 Prefent , fJPaft « < Rtpenefs

§ Simultaneous 5> Preceding | j Equal

  • [Flet [Gibbous [Sufficiency


j Mean < Rrpenefs j Equal [Sufficiency

3. Of the third kind, there are thefe



"Over-value Over-weene Over-grown Over-charge Surcharge ‘ GSy, Gaudy Lufcious Giggle Precipitate. Scold

1 Inftances. So



. Extenfion § Dunging S* I Soon Repetition



kl Roafted

Abjeftnefi 1 Maceration Finicalnefs nicenefe Penurioufnefs Prodigality

  • ' riotoufnefs

Fawning Shinefi j Scurrility Formality



Hyperbole 1 Acute g" Over-ripe |> Superior ..Excels

f Tedious, prolix t Stale Sprain fL Scowring Over-foon i Battology, Tau- tology

I Over-baked [ Over-boiled 1 ' Over-roafted



Chap.-VII. Concerning Natural grammar. 54.7

The mark of Defe& is in each particular correfpondent to the Dcfc ^- former, denoting either

1. The deficient extreme in all kind Ads, Habits, Vertues, as may be feen by the oppofites to thole before-mentioned.

(Diligence Ctdlenefs

Confederation ’ <R.afhnefi (Heedfulnefs CCarelefneft ,,

2. Some kind of refemblancetp this in other things; .

v Plane ^Valley

'Oblique ^Tranfverfe

'Prefent c Future, &c.

3. The deficiency of any Adion, or the under-doing of a thing.

'Efteem rlinder-value

cOpinionate < Under- weenie 'Great (Notfufficiently big, &c t

rBaked ( Under-baked

"i Boy led t Under-boy led.



■ This pair may be of very general ufe for all kind of Alliens and Things.

Befides thole general notions referring to the meafure find degrees of things in the two former pairs, it may be requifite to provide the like way for expreffing the manner of thesn % as to Well ox Id 3 Right or Wrong 3 a3 it (hould be, as it fhould not be. The firft of thefe is in many Greek, words expreffed by the compofition with «v and ty*, and in EheUb bv Well and Rieht. So

Profper, Suc- ceed, Speedj Fortrinate, Lucky,



3 *







"Well-favoured Well come Well advifed


Healthy *

Well in health 3

3 .

< Put

Set right


State |i

Underftand * 1 .

Underftand aright |

Ufe "

Ufe aright &


Time J




Seaton, Good , ;


.1 il time


Yy a

Prove v .

Good plight Debonair Euphony Orthography



Concerning J^ntural (grammar '• Part 111.


The Second of thefe is Sometimes expreffed tion with thofe Particles Dif. or Mtf* or "On.

r Colour Figure




Place Order Proporti Service Temper Efteem Opinion Become











Disorder 5

j Disproportion

Name f.

DiSfervice I








in Englijh by compofi- So

Mif-confter MiSufe, Abufe Mifilead,


Nic-name Misfortune MiSchance MiS hap Misadventure

SUnSeaSonable, Untimely §j Unfalhioned, Defaced stf Unlucky, Unprofperou*, Unhappy,


5 Unfortunate, UnfucceSsful, Sinifter, [ Adverfe

This mark may likewife ferve to exprefi the true notion of Several other words, which are not ufually thus compounded.

Fancy SCaprichious,

Freakifh, nfHorfe 4 C Jade

Conceited jO Write "^cribble

Degenerate |SCut, Carve a. j Whittle, Hack •

I Buffoon s-£Coritent "£Male-content





Anceftor Jefter . tlTemper







Thefirft of thefe will by its competition ferve to exprefi thofe Se- veral words which are ufcd for the Voices of divers Animals : otfor the voices that are ufed in exprefling Sundry A&tons or Affections. So.









r Lion


’Sparrow r




Afs ;





Bellowing S

anger 4


Cow |

Lowing O’*

Whelp 1

4 * • o


Bleating 1

Frog a"


Wolf |

Howling *

Cock "


Yelling j


Hen j

Cackle ’

Owle i

Chicken ,


t Bee il


L Swallow *



Chap. VII- Concerning 2\(dtttrdl (jrammar. 3 ^

This note may likewife be applied to fuch kind of voices as belong to feveral affe&ions. So H f Grudging {"Mutter, grumble, murmur

s I Grief fL I Wail, mourn, moan

S’ 1 Anger • <g>^ Chafe, ftorm

I. j Contention §> Braqgle, brawl, wrangle

  • r [Praife [Plaudit

The fecond particular is paired with tl?e former for its affinity to Language, it. The proper Mjp of it is by its compofjtion with the names or cha- rafters of feveran^ountries or Nations, to exprefs* the notion of the Languagesfpokenby them. So the Charafter or word of Englijb , Spa- ni/h , French , Italian, German , &c. with this affix, will determine thele words to the fignification of thofe Tongues or Languages : And <t be fame note affixed to the name of any Tribe, may fignifie the Dia - leU of it. There feems to be Icafe neceffiry of this Particle $ and it might well be fpared, if any more proper could be. thought of ,to fupply the place of it.



The fecond pair in this laft Combination is for the diftin&oon of fuch things as have Sex. And all thofe names of Animals of Relati- ons, which are diftinguilhable only by their Sex , ought not to fyye any other diftin&ion in their appellations but that of their Sex : So that whereas we fay, Ram, Tew, Boar, Sow , 8cc. Father, Mother, 6 ok. Daughter, &c. It would be more agreeable to the Philosophy of Speech, if thefe things were to be exprefied ft male Jbeep , a female /keep , a male or female /wine 5 a male ox female Parent or Child, &c.

Thefe marks are applicable

1. To kinds of Animals 5 of which there are fuflh inftancesas thefe.

"Man r Woman r Dog {"Bitch

£ Lion s Lionefs g Cock * Hen

£>. Horfe = j Mare S' j Drake {=■ J Duck

.Sj-Bull s Cow |, Gander *S ~Goafe \

S 4 j Stag 3 * Hind 8- Drone ® Bee

.[Buck [Doe t Milter [Spawner

' J f "

2. To Relations of Perfons ^ as in thefe inftances. So

"Brother {"Sifter f Widower , "Widow

Uncle Aunt King , ‘ Qyeen

h Nephew « Niece Lord Lady

« ^ Sutor S;< Miftrefs jj? Matter — Miftrefs, Dame

8 • Servant 5. Sweet-heart % 4 Man-fervant (§*< Maid-fervant

®* Bridegroom * Bride % Abbot Abbefs

, Husband Wife, > Friar Nun_

[Batchelour AMaid , Sloven Slut

  • * A Whoremonger [Whore, Strumpet


? 5 °



Concerning Natural grammar. P art IIL



By the firft of thefe is meant the young ones or bro9d of any forts of Animals, for which we have no proper word in Englijb. So

_ * _ « «i*i« rrv rn tx7i







r Horfe







fColt,Foal,Filly fDog












4 < Hare








9 )


Puppy, Whelp Kitlin, Chitt Rabbet eret licken Tadpole (.Sprat


By the fecond of thefe may be exprelTed fuch kind of names as do comprehend in them the notion of Part, under the feveral relations of 1. Situation. 2 . Proportion. 3. Figurt or Colour. 4. Vfe.

1. Of the firft kind there are fuch examples as thefe. So if Ship


cFore (.Hinder Army Fore Middle Hinder JSide Oration Fore l Hinder

Prow, Beak Poop, Stern

Van, Vauntguard, Front MainF Rere,


Main Battel |i I Rere, Rereward

Preamble, Preface, Proem, Prologue Epilogue, Condufion

3. Of the fecond are fuch infiances as thefe. r A fecond rHalf

? A fourth « Quarter

^ A tenth ^ Tithe, e^f.

And fo a fourth part of a Circle is a Quadrant, a fixth part is a Sex- tant, &c.


3. Of the third kind there are fuch inftances as thele.


















4. Of


Chap; VI I. (jrtmmar. 351

4. Of (he fourth kind there are fuch examples as thefc.

TCovering h Stopping g. ! To be handed

i (.Shoo-faftning






Handle, Hafi, Helve, Hilt

<jsr > ‘


It may happen fometimes that two of tbefe Tranfcendental Parti* cles fhould concur to the compofition of fome words : In which cafe it will be worth consideration, whether it may not be more diftinft to exprefs one of them by an Integral, and thie other by in Affix.

It may likewise deferve fome farther inquiry, whether fome of thefe Particles here nominated, may not be fpaned to make room for others more ufeful j as particularly thofe fervilc general notions of



J Facility > ^

\ Difficulty j as likewife, Flower, Fruits, Difeafe, &f.

I have been fomewhat the longer in treatiog concerning thefe Tranfcendental Particles * becaufe being for the mod part »«r, and not all of them ufed in any one Language, they do thereupon ftand in greater need of being more particularly and folly explained and difeufled.

I have now done with the firft part of Etymology $ namely, con* cerning the formal differences or kinds of words, whether 1 Integrals

c Particles.



Omerning y^itural (jrmnun Part I1L


Of the Accidental Difference ef root is. I. btfexioH. II. Dt~ r'rvation. III. Compojttion.

T HE next thing to be treated of, is concerning the Accidental Differences of words $ and amongft thefe

» i. Concerningthe Inflexion of them, whichdoth confift in the fe

' * veral ways of varying the lame word to fundry modes of fignificati-

on. This is not arbitrary, as it Is ufed in feveral Language j much lefi ftould the rules to this purpofe, which belong to the Latina be ap- plied to Vulgar Tongues, to which they are not fuitdd (as many Grammarians ufe to do) but it ohgty to be founded upon the Philo- iophy of fpeech andfuch natural grounds, as do neceflarily. belong to Language.

Integral words are all capable of Inflexion.

  • I. Noun Subfiantives are inflcftcd in a threefold rdpe&.

By Number , Siugural and Plural, which being more Intrinfecal to them, ought to be provided for in the Chara&er or word it felf^ and not by an Affix.

2. By Gender, in things that are capable of Sex, which are naturally but two, AdafcuUne and Feminine: Thefe being lefi Intrinficaltothe primary notion of the word, may be more properly exprefied by af- fixes j and then the kind or fpCcics 6f every Animal (abftradcdly from the relpcftive Sexes of it) may be fignifyed by the Radical word it felf, without any fign of Sex, which will prevent much equivocalnefi.

3. By Cafes, which is not lo elTential add natural to Subfiantives, as to be provided for in the word it felf, by .varying the Terminations of it 5 For though* this courfe hath been ufed in the Greek, and Latin : yet neither do the Oriental' Tongues, Hebrew , Chaldee, Arabic, & c. nor thole Occidental of French, Italian, spanijb $ nor I think doth any Modern Tongue in the world this way exprefi them.

The true notion of the Nominative Cafe, is that which precedes the . Verb, and the Aceufative , that which follows the Verb 5 of which in Ipeechthatisfuiteato natural Stru&ureand Syntax, there ought to be no other fign or note then the very order. As for the Genitive Cafe, the proper notion of that, is its following another Subftantive in rtgimiut : But becaufethe following Subfiantive is not always go- verned by that which precedes. $ as Vrbs Roma, Rhenus Flavius, Taxus , arbor, &c. therefore *tis proper to have a Particle or Prepolition for It , as our Englife ( 'of ) and (De) in the French, Italian, spanijb, which was treated of before. The Dative Cafe is exprefied by the Prepofi- tion (Tci) the Vocative by the Interjection of befpeaking (O) and the Ablative Cafe by Inch a Prepolition as denotes Formal or Inftrumental caufe, or manner of Doing. So that the true notion of the Genitive, Dative, Ablative Cafe, is nothing elfe but that obliquity in the fence of a Subftantive, which is caufed and fignifyed by.fome Prepolition an- nexed to it, as the Vocative is by an Inter jeCUon.


Chap. VIII. Concerning Natural (grammar. 35$

And befides thefe three ways of Inflexion, I have (hewed before how Subftantives are capable likewife of Active and Pajjive voice, and of Tenfes.

Noun Adjectives need not have any note to exprefs Number, Gen- der, Cafe, becaufe in all thefe they agree with their Subftantives 5 unlefs fuch AdjeXives as are ufed Subftantively, by reafon of their compofttion with the Tranfcendental marks of Ferfois , Thing, Time,

Place , &c. In which cafe they have the feme kinds of Inflexion with Subftantives. But there is belonging to them,

1. A tranfverfe Inflexion by degrees of Comparifon , which may be beft denoted by the ; extrinfical affixes of more , mofl 5 lefs, leafit.

3. An Inflexion by Voice Active and Pajjive, which makes them of the fame nature with thole. words which we call Participles.

3. An Inflexion by Tenfes. And though ufually in the Latin there are but two Tenfes, viz. Prefent and Future, in each voice of the Participle, Amans, Legens : Amaturus, Lett urns : Amatsss, Led us :

. Amandus , Legendus : excepting in (bme few words. Sequent',' Sequu- tus, Sequuturus 3 Gaudens , Gavijus, Gavifurus : and of Ccenatum , which is ufed promifeuoufly both AXLvely and Paflively 3 yet this is a defeX in the Latin Tongue : For the natural notion doth render ' Participles as well capable of the Prefer Tenfe 3 and accordingly the >

Greeks have rW\«tv, TtrvfySf, tJ 4 w, fc mvwty&j : He-

that beats, he that hath beaten, he that will beat 3 he that is beaten, he that hath been beaten, he that will be beaten. The like would have been in -Latin, if the Philofophy of Speech had been as well obferved in the Inftitution of that Language.

Derived Adverbs are capable of Inflexion by degrees of Comparifon. Amongft the Particles, there are only tvvo that are capable of In- flexion 3 viz. the Copula, and Pronouns.

The Copuldis infleXed by Mode and by Tenfe 3 which I have fuffici- chap. 5, ently explained before : Only *tis here to be noted, that befides thofe definite notions of time paft, prefent, and to cdme, there is likewife „ Tempus Aorifiicum, or indefinite time 3 and that whenever the Copula is ufed in materia, neceffaria , it ought to be under flood as being inde- terminate to any of thofe differences of time. So for fuch fayings.

Homo efi animal. Dens vivit , 8tc. there is no kind of time, whether paft, prefent, or future,, wherein thefe fayings are .not equally true 3 lb that the fenfe of fuch fayings is eji, fuit , erit 5 Vivit, vixit, vivet.

And therefore it would be convenient to make feme diftinXion for exprefling this indefinite time.

Pronoun Substantives are infleXed by Number and Gender, and by Cafe, as Noun Subftantives p re 3 befides that kind of improper Inflexi- on, whereby they are made Pofiejjives 3 which is rather a kind of Deri- vation, and reduplicative , which confifts only in the doubling of them for the greater Empbajis.

The other Particles are not capable of Inflexion, becaufe they , do not denote any Efience or Att, which is capable of feveral modes or re- fpeXs, as Integral$,and two of the Particles do : but only the Circum - fiances or Modifications of other words S and therefore may be ftifed * indeclinable or invariable.

X t As

  • n

Concerning Natural grammar. Part IIL

S II. As to Derivation , there ought naturally to be but one kind of Root,

S from which the feveral differences of Integrals fhould be derived 5 and

this fhould be a Noun Subjlantive which fignifies the Thing , or the Ejjence. If it be a Noun Subftantive Neuter ,• then the firft branches of ' it are Subftantives A&ive and Pajjwe * after which fucceed the Adje- ctives belonging to each of them, and then the Adverbs , which denote the Quality or Manner of being or doing. All which belong to one branch. Another branch is the Subftantives Abffra& , which have Chap.I. the fame kind of derivations from them, as the former; as is more § XI. diftin&ly explained before.

As to the laft accidental difference of words, viz. Compofition. Tis to be noted, that the words of .a Philofophical Language fhould be fo futed unto natural notions , that there fhould be little need of other compofitions, betides thofe by Prepojitions, Adverbs, and Tran- fcendental Particles. But if this were defired for greater elegance, and copioufnefs of Speech, it fhould be capable of any compofitioo •whatfoever, which may be fignified in writing by fome Hyphen or mark of Union, to joyn the words compounded 5 and in Speech by pronouncing them together as one word, without changing the na- ture of either. So the word idolatry is tdol-worjbip , &c.


Of the fecond part of Grammar called Syntax.

A S the Hr ft part of Grammar doth treat, concerning the nature and differences of particular words : So the fecond part of Grammar fliled Syntax, doth concern the proper way of Union or right Conftruftion of words, into PropoHtions, or continued Speech. And this* may. be diftinguifhed into two kiods. 1. That which is Cujiomary and figurative : or 2. That which is Natural and regular.

1. That ftru&ure may be ftiled Cuflomary and figurative, which is ufed in the Phrafeologies or forms of Speech, peculiar to feveral Lan- guages, wherein words are put together according to a Metaphorical and tralatitious fenfe of them , as in thofe Latin Phrafes, Redigere in ordinetn , which fignifies, Privare vsagijlratu ; E medio toller e , for 0c- cidere. And fo for thofe Englifh Phrafes of Breaking a jeft, Hedging in a Debt, Taking ones heels and flying awpy. Being brought to bed. Lying in, Being in Labour or Travail, &c. All which ought to be rendred according to the natural fenfe and meaning intended by thofe Phrafes 5 which is obferved in the regular Translation of any Lan- guage. And he that would go about to render fuch forms of Speech, according to the ftri& and natural fenfe of the words, could not rea- fbnably expeft to be underftood in aby.other Language.

But befiaes thefe kind of Metaphors which are peculiar to fbme Tongues, there are others of a more general ufe, which may be well enough retained in a* Philofophical Language.

3. That


Chap. IX. Concerning Natural (grammar. 555

a. That Arudure may be called Regular f which is according to the natural fenfe and order of the words.

The General Rule for this order amongft Integrals is. That which governs (hould precede 5 The Nominative Cafe before the Verb, and the Accufative after 5 The Subftantive before the Adje&ive : Only Adjedive Pronouns being Particles and affixed, may without incon- venience be put indifferently either before of after. Derived Adverbs (hould follow that which is called the Verb, as denoting the quality or manner of the Ad.

As for the Grammatical Particles, thofe which ferve for the Infle- xion dr Cqmpofition of words Ibould naturally precede 5 and fo like- wile (hould other Adverbs, and Prepolitions.

Tranfcendental Particles are to be joyned in composition at the ends of words, to vary their termination.

Befides the order required in Syntax, Ibmething ought to be fob- joyned concerning the Quantity of Vowels or Syllables, together with the feveral diftin&ions or interpunHions to be obferved betwixt words and fentences.

As for that part ufoally treated of in inAituted Grammars, Ailed Frofodia , concerning the quantity of* Vowels, there needs not any thing to be laid unto that here; 5 becaufe in a Philolbphical Language every Vowel is fuppofed to be in the writing fofficiently diftinguilhed in this refped 5 every long Vowel having a note or mark to lignifie its prolation.

The exprelfing of any one fy liable in a word, with a little higher tune , and longer time then others, is to be expreft by aR accent 3 as in the words. Consent, Contrive, Compose, Having, Wildom, For- tune, Prdfit, Parentage, Privilege, Consider, Determine, &c.

The diAindions to be obferved betwlkt words and fenteoces, may refer either to 1. The time 3 or 3. The manner of pronouncing.

1. The foil concerns thofe Paufes or intervals of reft to be ob- ferved in Pronouncing, which were anciently diftinguilhed into three kinds 3 namely, Comma, Colon , Period. The firft of thefe being marked with a point by the middle of the Letter 3 The fecond at the cop ; The laft at the bottom. Unto thefe,' later times have %dded two others 3 namely, a mark to lignifie fomethmg intermediate be- twixt Comma and Colon, Ailed Semicolon $ and Ibmething more then a full point , which is ufoally expreA by a greater diftance betwixt the words, or by a Breach in the line.

The ufe of thefe Points is to dired what kind of paufe is to be ob- ferved, and how the tenor or tone of the voice is either to be conti- nued or to fall.

« A

a. The manner of pronouncing words doth fometimes give them a different fenfe and meaning, and Writing being the Pidure or Image of Speech, ought to be adapted unto all the material circumAances of it, and confequently muA have feme marks to denote thefe vari- ous manners of Pronunciation 3 which may be lufficiently done by thefe feven kinds of marks or Interpundions.

Zn > I; Patent heft.



Cdncernirtg Statural (jrmnur. Part III.

1. farent befit.

2. Parathejis, or Expofition.

3. Erotefis , of Interrogation.

4. Ecphonejis , Exclamation or wonder.

5. Emphajts.

6. Irony.

7. Hyphen.

1 . Parent hefts ferves for the diftin&ion of fuch an additional part

of a fentence as is not neceffary to perfed the fenfe of it, and is ufu- ally expreffed in our Weftern Languages by the indofiog of fach words betwixt two curve lines ( ) .

2. Par at hefts , or Expofition, is tried for diftinaioo of fuch words as are added by way of explication of fotnethiog preceding, and is ufually exprefied by inclofing fuch words between two angular lines 5 at [ 3

3. Erotefis , or Interrogation, is a kind of Period for the (fidindibo of fuch fentences as are propofed by way of Queftion, and is ufually

thus marked ? #

4. Ecphonefis^ or Wonder and Exclamation, is a note of direction ' for railing the tone, upon occafion of Inch words as denote fbnie vehement paffion, and is noted thus 1

5. Emphajts is ufed for the diftinftion of fuch word or words, wherein the force of the fenfe doth more peculiarly confift, and is ufually expreffed by putting fuch words into another kind of Char a> <Ber, as fuppofe the Italic.

6. Irony isfor the diftin&ion of the meaning and intention of any words, when they are to be underftood by way of Sarcafin or feoff, or in a contrary fenfe to that which they naturally iignifie: And though there be not (for ou|ht I know) any note defigned for this in any of the Inffituted Languages, yet that is from their deficiency and imperfeftion : For if the chief force ofironies do confift in Pro- nunciation, it will plainly follow, that there ought to be feme mark for dire&ion, when things are to be lb pronounced.

7. Hyphen is a note that fignifies the uniting of two fyllables or words into one, and may. properly be ufed when two words are to be cdhpounded together: It is ufually expreffed by two little ftrokes, thus ( « )



Chap* X. Concerning Natural (jrammar* $57


Of Orthography. I. Concerning the do&rine of Letters : the

Authors who have treated of this SubjeSi. II. A brief Table of fuchfimpk founds as can be framed by men. III. A fur- ther explication of this T able^ as to the Organs of Speech , . and as to the letters framed by thefe Organs.

f' \Rtbography is that part of Grammar,which concerns the doftrineg I.

of Letters , which being the moft Ample Elements of speech , it ought therefore to be fo ftated, that there may be a fufficient number of them to express all Articulate (bunds, and (not more t hen are ne- cefiary to this end. Much confideration is reqpiftte to the right efta- I>li(hment of thefe 3 upon which a c c ount this febje& hath been largely debated , by feveral Authors great names and reputation for Learning : BeAdes thofe Famous Emperours, jC*/*/ Cajar 3 and 03 a- vius Augujtus, who both writ upon this fubjea / Varro likewife, and Appion , an & Quintilian, and Triftian, did beftow much pains upon the (ameenquiiy, concerning the juft number of Letters, And in later times, it hath been treated of with great variety of Opinions, by Erafmus , both the Scaligers^ Lifjins, Salmajius , Vcflius/facobus Mat- thias, Adolphus tietkfrehns, Bernardos JtiaHncbot, 8cc. Beftde feveral of our own Country-men , Sir Tbousas Smith, Bullokjir , Alexander GiU, and Do&or Wallis 3 the laft of whom, amongft all that I have feen publithed, feems to me, with greareft A c c u r a te n c fs an dfebtkty to have conAdered the Philofopby of Articulate (bunds. But beftdes fuch (whofe conAderations upon this fubjedt are made pubtick) I muft not forget to icknowledgethe fervour a nd g ood hap l have had, to perufe from their private papers, the diftinft Theories of feme other Learned and Ingenious perlbns, who have with great judgment Mr# applyed their thoughts to this enquiry 3 in each of whole Pa- pers, there are feveral (uggeftions that are new, oUt of the common rode, and very conftderable. • ,

Letters tmy be confidtA^* red accotdiog to theit \ Mcide „ t , J A p, itJ



Th tEjfeuce of Letters doth conAft in their Power or proper (bund, which may be naturally Axed and ftated, from the manner of forming them by the inftruments of fpeech 3 and either is, 01 fhould be the lame in all Languages.

What variety there is of thefe, may appear from the Diftribution of them into their feveral kinds, according to the following Table* wherein it is endeavoured and aimed at, to give a rational account of all the Ample (bunds that are. or can be framed by the mouths of men.


Concerning Natural grammar. Part 111*

Letters may be confidered according to

Chap. X. Concerning 3\(atural (grammar. • $55

For the better explication of this Table, there are thefe two <S HI. things to be conlidered : i. The Caufes of thefe Letters. 2. The ^ Letters themfelves.

1. In the Caufes of Letters there are obfervable The Organs by which they are formed, either more r Common 3 Lungs, Throat, Mouth, Nofe. •

\ Peculiar.


Palate 5 according to thef Inmoji or middle parts LVorempft

teeth 3 either the

1 4 r Root or inner gums *-

i I iT'P

] l r iLmtr lA&ive 3 whether the

’tongue 3 according to the . j Root or middle l top

I l Li P*

\_The Aftions of thefe Organs, whether by Appulfe 3 of the Lips 3 either i To one another CTo the tops of the teeth | ^tongue 3 in refpett of the ‘ (top of it 3 to the teeth Stops

  • - their (Roots or gums

, (Root or middle ofit, to the Palate trepidation , or vibration 3 either of the (Lips

l rm S “ » wh « her ut(or middle ofit i Percolation of the breath, between the $ Lips contracted l tongue 3 either the

'Top of it , applied to

> J tops 1 Roots

of the teeth

(Root or middle of it, applied to the iuvard palate .

Thefe I conceive to be all the kinds of Aftions’and Configurations which the organs are capable x>f, in order to Speech. ,

What kind of Letters are framed by thefe, will appear in the next Table.

• Concerning Natural (jramnur. Part III.

Allfitnple letters may be diftinguifhed into fuchas are} either 'Apert and free, according to degrees

r Greater * ftiled moft properly Vowels, which may be diftingu Hir- ed into

1 r Labial, being framed by ad emiflion of the breath through the Lips contra&ed,

\Lefs. (O)

\More, with the help of the Tongue put into a concave po- 1 fture long ways, the Whiftling or F rench (U)

" . \Lingual 3 the breath being emitted, when the Tongue is put intoapofture •

Cilfert rtffftwe, and removed at fomediftance from the pa- 1 late (<*)

jLefi concave or plain, and brought nearer the palate (a) ^Somewhat convex towards the palate (e) yLefar 3 being either

f Sonorous $ of which it may be laid, that they do fomewhat approach to the nature of Confonants, ana are nsedispo- tejtatiss becaufe when they are joyned with any Vowel to compofe that which we call a Dipthong, they put on the nature of Confonants 3 and when they are not fo joyned, but ufod fiogly, they retain the nature of Vowels, which is the reafon why it hath been fo much deputed amongft feme Learned Men, whether they are to be reckoned amongft - Vowels ox Confonants.

Thefe may be diftinguifhed into

Labial 3 by an emiflion of the breath through the Lips , more Contrasted (v)

Lingual 3 when the breath is emitted betwixt the middle 5 of the Tongue in a more Convex pofture, and the pa- late (»)

I Guttural^ by a free emiflion of the breath from the i t Throat (y)

[ Mute 3 When the breath is emitted through the Organs of fpeech, being in the (a me pofltion as before : but without . voice, to be diftinguifhed as their three preceding correfpon- dentSjinto

(Labial (by) or (vh)

\ Lingual (hi )

C Guttural, (b)

.Intercepted arfd fhut 3 according to degrees *

fLefier 3 which becaufe they have fomething Vowelifh in them, are therefore by (ome ftyled Semivowels , being fpiritous. and t breathed, whether

Labial J being pronounced through the f Mouth 3 by

r Appu1fe of either lip to the oppoflte teeth, framing SV. Sonorous / F. Mute

I Trepidation of the Lips, like that found which is ufed

I 11 in the driving of Cows, to which there is a correfpon-



Chap. X. Concerning Natural (grammar,

dent mute, fometimes ufed as an Interie&ion of di£ dain.

’[Percolation of the breath, betwixt both the Lips con* traded round-wife, which makes the vocal whittling loutyl, to which likewile there is a correfpondent mute whittling : But neither of thefe two laft pairs being of ufe in Language, they need not therefore have any Marks or Letters afligned to them.

NoJe$b appulfe* either of the Lips againtt one another : or againtt the top of they M. Sonorous. t

Teeth, framing! HM. Mute.

Lingual 3 either in refpeft of the [Top ofthe Tongue '■> being pronounced through the ~ Mouth 3 by

Appulfi, of the top of the Tongue, to the f Top of the ¥eeth$ the breath being emitted through the middle of the Mouth, fra-y Dh fonorous. miqglTh mute.

Formofi part of the Palate 3 the breath being emit- . through the

Corners of the mouth, (L (onorous.

framing cH 1 mute.

Trepidation or Vibration 5 againtt the inmott part of of the Palate,^ R. fonorous. framing^ HR. mute.

1- Percolation of the breath 3 between the top of the the Tongue, and the roots of the Teeth, whether more

Subtle) fra-^Z. fonorous. • ming^S. mute.

Denfe 3 fra- cZh. fonorous. mingl Sh. mute.

Nofe 3 by an appuhe ofthe top of the Tongue to the roots of the Teeth, tN. (onorous. framing! HN. mute.

Root or middle if the Tongue 3 being pronbunced through the

Mouth 3 by *

f Appulfe 5 to the inward Palate,y dh. (onorous.

framing* dh. mute.

Trepidation 3 which will frame a (bund lik.e the (barling of a dog, to which there is a correfpondent mute, like that motion which we make in haaking, not neceflary to be provided for by any Letter for Language.

[ Percolation ofthe breath between the root of the tongue and the inward palate'3 to # which there is a correfpon- dent mute, which makes a found like the hitting of a Goo(e, not neceflary to be provided for by any mark afligned to them for Letters.

{ No/e 3 by an appuhe ofthe root of the tongue to the inward

Aaa palate,



Concerning Natural grammar. Part III.



palate, fra-sNG fonorous. mingcNGH.mute.

[Greater } Vthichdomoft partake of the nature ofConfonants, and ■ may be ftiled non-fpiritous or breathlefc, to be diftioguifhed ac- cording to theadiveinftruments offpeech^nto \Labialj Intercepting of the breath by clofure of the Lips, fra- fonorous. m,n 8iP. mute.

[Lingual^ in refpeft ofthe

[Top , intercepting the breath,by an appulfe to the bottom of the k Teeth, fra-r D. fonorous. minglT. mute.

[Root ; intercepting the breath, by an appulfe to the intnoft pa- late 5 fra-rG. fonorous. mingiG. mute.

Thefe I concefve (fo far as I can judge at prefent) to be all the Am- ple founds that can be framed by the Organs of Speech.



Chap. XI. Concerning J^jttural (jrammnr. ■

CH AP. xr.

Of Vowels.

T Hofe Letters are called Vocales, Vowels, in pronouncing of which by the Inftruments of Speech, the breath is freely emitted 5 and they are therefore ftiled Apert or open Letters. Thefe may be dijlin- guijbed either, 1 .Formally, by their feveral A pert ions, and the man- ner of configuration in the inftruments of Speech required to the fra- 1 mingof them, which eonftitutes the diftinft fpecies of Vowels 5 or 3. Accidentally, by the quantity of time required to their prolation, by which the fame Vowel is made either long or Jhort. .

There are (I conceive^ eight fimple different fpecies of Vowels, eafily diftinguifhable, whofe powers are commonly ufed. I cannot deny, but that fome other intermediate founds might be found $ but they would, by reafon of their proximity to thole others, prove of fo difficult diftindion, as would rendef them ufelefs ", thefe eight feem- ing to be the principal and moft remarkable periods, amongff the de- grees of Apert founds.

As for the third of the Labials , the u Gallicnm , or whirling *, though it cannot be denied to be a diftinft fimple vowel jyet it is of fo laborious and difficult pronunciation to all thofe Nations amongff whom it is not ufed (as to the Englifh) efpecially in the diffinff ion of long and fhort, and framing of Dipthongs, that though lhave enumerated it with the reff, and (hall make provifion for the expreffion of it, yet (hall I make lefsufe ofit, than of the others 5 and for that reafon, not proceed to any further explication of it.

It will be difficult to exprefs the feveral powers ofthefe Vowels by writing 5 Pronuntiation being fuch a thing, qua necjcribrtur, nec pin- * re g, git nr, nec hanrjri earn fas eft , nip vivU voce. And therefore the beft Prommtiatimt way for the explaining of them, is by fuch known words as may be 1 " ut% caf '*' given for the inftance of each of them. * And as for the figure or wri- ting of thofe four, which are not commonly effeemed to be diftinft fpecies of Vowels, I (hall make choice to reprefent them by fach Cha- racters, as may feem leaff ffrange. What kind of power or found that is, which is peculiar to each of thefe (even Vowels, may be eafily understood by thefe following Inff ances :

r Short •













a f Short




Mat •










c r Short {Long






Red *







jr Short /Long rShort













ILong i Short





















Futt A a a a

Mutt-o» Pull




Concerning Natural ( grammar . Part 1IL

Amongft thefe, the Vowels not commonly owned by us in writing, are thefe four, a. i.s. y. But that they are diftinft fpeciesof Vowels, and have peculiar powers of their own, not expreffible by any other Letters,(fuppofing every Lctjer(asit ought) to be determined to one particular found) may fiifficiently appear from the above mentioned, and fevcral other Inftances. And that thole two which are common- ly ufed with us for diftinft Vowels 5 namely, the third and the fifth, j, and £ 7 ; as in the words Light, Lute , are not fimple Vowals, but Dip- thongs, I (ball (hew afterwards.

Though the Vowel (0) do not admit of any inftance in our Lan- guage, wherein it is ufed fieri, nor the Vowel (y) wherein it is ufed Long 5 yet there are naturally fuch differences oftdefe Vowels, as well as ofthe red. Suppofe a long Vowel to be divided into two parts ; as Bo-ote , pronounce it then with half the time, and it muff make the fhort Vowel Bott. And thus on the contrary, doubling the time of a (hort Vowel* as By-yt, will render it Long: which may ferve to ex- plain how thefe Vowels naturally are capable of being made bothloog and fhort ; Though by reafbn of general difufe amongft us, fuch diffe- rences would at firft feem fomewhat difficult, and not eafilydiftin- guifhable.

The Vowel (cc) is placed firft * partly partly in conformity with other Alphabets, and becaufe *tis the moft Apert amongft the Lingua- palatal Vowels. *Tis exprefled by this Charafter, becaufe being one of the Greeks Letters, 'tis more commonly known. ‘Tit framed by an emiffion of the Breath, betwixt the Tongue and the Palate^ the tongue being put into a more concave pofture, and removed further off from the palate.

The Vowel (4) is framed by an emiffion of the Breath, betwixt the tongue and the concave of the palate^ the upper fuperficies of the tongue being rendered left concave, and at a left diftance from the par late.

The Vowel C e ) * s framed by an emiffion of the Breath, betwixt the tongue and the concave of the palate, the upper fuperficies ofthe tongue being brought toJome fmall degree of convexity.

The Vowel (i) is exprefled by this Charafter., becaufe ’tis the moft fimple figure , and therefore doth beft fnit with the rnofc acute Letter $ as likewife, becaufe this Letter, amongft many other Nations is alrea- dy ufed and pronounced according to the found which- is here intend- ed. *Tis framed by an emiffion of the Breath betwixt the tongue and the concave of the palate, the upper fuperficies ofthe tongue being put into a more convex pofture, and thruft up near the palate.

The Vowel (p) is the firft, and moft apert ofthe Labials 5 being fra- med by an emiffion of the Breath, betwixt the Lips, a little drawn to- gether and contraded.

The V owel (*) is the fecond of th c Labials, requiring a greater con- traction of the Lips. ’Tis exprefled by this Charafter, which is ufed in Greek for »u Dipthong , becaufe commonly that Dipthong, asalfothe French on is pronounced in the found of this fimple Vowel.

The Vowel (y) is wholly Guttural , being anemifljpp of the breath from the throat, without any part