20th century Dutch literature  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

As in the rest of Europe, the Netherlands of the nineteenth century effectively continued unchanged until World War I (1914–1918). Belgium was invaded by the German Empire and the Netherlands faced severe economic difficulties due to its policy of neutrality and consequent political isolation, wedged as it was between the two warring sides.

Both the Belgian and Dutch societies emerged from the war pillarised, meaning that each of the main religious and ideological movements (Protestant, Catholic, Socialist and Liberal) stood independent of the rest, each operating its own newspapers, magazines, schools, broadcasting organizations and so on in a form of self-imposed, non-racial segregation. This in turn affected literary movements, as writers gathered around the literary magazines of each of the four "pillars" (limited to three in Belgium, as Protestantism never took root there).

Modern Times (1945–present)

Vijftigers, Hans Lodeizen, Lucebert, Jules Deelder, J.Bernlef, Remco Campert, Hella S. Haasse, M. Vasalis, Leo Vroman, Harry Mulisch, Willem Frederik Hermans, Gerard Reve, Jan Wolkers, Rudy Kousbroek, Cees Nooteboom, Maarten 't Hart, A.F.Th. van der Heijden, Rutger Kopland, H.H. ter Balkt, Gerrit Krol, Gerrit Komrij, Connie Palmen, Geert Mak, J.J. Voskuil

See also

Dutch literature, Twentieth century Flemish literature

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