The Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations  

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“Thus from the first edition of this little book, I might offer (speaking not ironically but seriously) to dramatic authors and theatrical managers, 10,000 scenarios, totally different from those used repeatedly upon our stage in the last 50 years. The scenarios will be, needless to say, of a realistic and effective character. I will contract to deliver a thousand in eight days. For the production of a single gross, but 24 hours are required. Prices quoted on single dozens...

“But I hear myself accused, with much violence, of an intent to ‘kill imagination! Enemy of fancy! Destroyer of wonders! Assassin of prodigy!’ These and similar titles cause me not a blush.” — George Polti, 36 Dramatic Situations


"The German poet Friedrich Schiller and the Romantics were interested in the idea that there might be a manageably finite number of plots for fictions, and the nineteenth century French writer Georges Polti, inspired by a remark made by Goethe, listed plot types to describe “the Thirty-six Dramatic Situations.”" --Denis Dutton, The Art Instinct

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations is a descriptive list which was created by Georges Polti to categorize every dramatic situation that might occur in a story or performance. To do this Polti analyzed classical Greek texts, plus classical and contemporaneous French works. He also analyzed a handful of non-French authors. In his introduction, Polti claimed to be continuing the work of the Italian Carlo Gozzi, who also identified 36 situations, as well as the work of German Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

This list was published in a book of the same name, which contains extended explanations and examples. The original French-language text 36 situations dramatiques was published in the Mercure de France in 1894 and subsequently as a separate volume. An English translation was published in 1917 and continues to be reprinted to this day.

The list is popularized as an aid for writers, but it is also used by dramatists, storytellers and many others. Other similar lists have since been made, some more attuned to modern sensibilities, but Polti's guide remains one of the most popular and enduring.

Contents

The 36 Situations

  1. Supplication
    • a Persecutor; a Supplicant; a Power in authority, whose decision is doubtful.
  2. Deliverance
    • an Unfortunate; a Threatener; a Rescuer
  3. Crime pursued by vengeance
    • an Avenger; a Criminal
  4. Vengeance taken for kin upon kin
    • an Avenging Kinsman; Guilty Kinsman; remembrance of the Victim, a relative of both
  5. Pursuit
    • Punishment; a Fugitive
  6. Disaster
    • a Vanquished Power; a Victorious Enemy or a Messenger
  7. Falling prey to cruelty/misfortune
    • an Unfortunate; a Master or a Misfortune
  8. Revolt
    • a Tyrant; a Conspirator
  9. Daring enterprise
    • a Bold Leader; an Object; an Adversary
  10. Abduction
    • an Abductor; the Abducted; a Guardian
  11. The enigma
    • an Interrogator; a Seeker; a Problem
  12. Obtaining
    • (a Solicitor & an Adversary who is refusing) or (an Arbitrator & Opposing Parties)
  13. Enmity of kin
    • a Malevolent Kinsman; a Hatred or a reciprocally-hating Kinsman
  14. Rivalry of kin
    • the Preferred Kinsman; the Rejected Kinsman; the Object of Rivalry
  15. Murderous adultery
    • two Adulterers; a Betrayed Spouse
  16. Madness
    • a Madman; a Victim
  17. Fatal imprudence
    • the Imprudent; a Victim or an Object Lost
  18. Involuntary crimes of love
    • a Lover; a Beloved; a Revealer
  19. Slaying of kin unrecognized
    • the Slayer; an Unrecognized Victim
  20. Self-sacrifice for an ideal
    • a Hero; an Ideal; a Creditor or a Person/Thing sacrificed
  21. Self-sacrifice for kin
    • a Hero; a Kinsman; a Creditor or a Person/Thing sacrificed
  22. All sacrificed for passion
    • a Lover; an Object of fatal Passion; the Person/Thing sacrificed
  23. Necessity of sacrificing loved ones
    • a Hero; a Beloved Victim; the Necessity for the Sacrifice
  24. Rivalry of superior v. inferior
    • a Superior Rival; an Inferior Rival; the Object of Rivalry
  25. Adultery
    • two Adulterers; a Deceived Spouse
  26. Crimes of love
    • a Lover; the Beloved
  27. Discovery of the dishonour of a loved one
    • a Discoverer; the Guilty One
  28. Obstacles to love
    • two Lovers; an Obstacle
  29. An enemy loved
    • a Lover; the Beloved Enemy; the Hater
  30. Ambition
    • an Ambitious Person; a Thing Coveted; an Adversary
  31. Conflict with a god
    • a Mortal; an Immortal
  32. Mistaken jealousy
    • a Jealous One; an Object of whose Possession He is Jealous; a Supposed Accomplice; a Cause or an Author of the Mistake
  33. Erroneous judgement
    • a Mistaken One; a Victim of the Mistake; a Cause or Author of the Mistake; the Guilty One
  34. Remorse
    • a Culprit; a Victim or the Sin; an Interrogator
  35. Recovery of a lost one
    • a Seeker; the One Found
  36. Loss of loved ones
    • a Kinsman Slain; a Kinsman Spectator; an Executioner

See also

Full text

FOREWORD

The prefaces of many books are more enduring than the letter-press they introduce. It is as if an author's after-thoughts more nearly express his real thoughts than his well-considered, neatly planned succession of chapters. The reason for this, though a natural one, came to me only as I read and re-read the proofs of "The Thirty-six Dramatic Situations": as an author's work is unrolled before him in the type of the gtlUey-proofs, the first sight of the printed words induces a freshness -of mind that is near relative to the fine frenzy of first conception; added to this mental freshness there is a maturity — ^for are not months of thought behind the chapters of the work ? — ^that makes the au- thor's thoughts as grandparents with the enthusiasms of youth. In the prefaces, then, the authors find outlets to express their own reactions to their own thoughts.

I have been step-father to Miss Lucile Ray's translation of George Polti's book. My own vague notions of the text, gained by awkward concentration and persistent use of Spiers and Surenne, became clear ideas as I read page after page of Miss Ray's manuscript. As my understanding of Polti's analy- ses and classifications grew I thought I perceived the need for an introduction that might help to convince authors, and those other readers, not authors, who are likely to find Polti's work suggestive, of the practical value of the work, and the need to read it slowly, and contemplatively; if Situation is compared with Situation, as the reading progresses, I thought, the real value of the work will become evident. I had not finished the first reading of Miss Ray's translation, however, before I real- ized that Polti's book would need no recommendation. I must add, then, that I write this Foreword merely because these two pages, in the last section of the book to go to press, would look unseemly if not clothed in print!

Certain of my thoughts, as I read proof after proof of the book, may prove stimulating. Polti nowhere tells what he means by a Dramatic Situation. In the Conclusion of the book he makes it very clear, however, that he believes in the inven-


tion of plot, the building up of incident upon incident, to make a story, which, likely as not, serves only to enable the author to use his plot; Polti seems to scorn the artistic use of plot to interest readers in the expression of the author's outlook on or opinion of a certain aspect of a moral issue. I have tried to find words to express what I understand as a dramatic or story situation. Tentatively I offer it that a situation results, in the course of action of a story or a play, when the characters are brought together, as a logical outcome of preceding incidents of the story, so that their contrasting qualities are proved to readers, and the central character is faced with a decision to be made, or a change to be suffered, or an obstacle to be over- come, and an end that the reader or spectator desires, or antici- pates, or dreads, is made imminent.

It also came to me as I pondered some of Polti's sub-classi- fications, that often the business of the story maker, and some- times the* art of the story artist, consists in making the inex- plicable seem explicable! As a corollary I wondered if art in story writing and play writing does not consist in the arrange- ment of facts or incidents, which may or may not have any basis in actuality, in order to convey to readers a notion of the author's that either changes or emphasizes the moral atti- tude of the reader toward the universe.

I must offer a word of sympathy to the few readers who expect to find in this book a list of plots — such a list as would make needless the use of one's power of invention or one's im- agination. Polti's work is more than the list of plots you hoped to find: it is a thought engine, an engine that even Goethe and Crozzi would have used to burnish their conceptions of life, and the possible complexities of human existence. If you came to "The Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations" to find a story ready- made, I beg you stay to have your wits sharpened and your power of invention stimulated.

The work to which Polti refers in the Conclusion, "The Laws of Literary Invention," has not yet been published. I hope that when France has served civilization to the full, Polti may be living to finish this other book.

WILLIAM R. KANE. Ridgewood, New Jersey, December 1st, 1916.


INTRODUCTION


"Gozzi maintained that there can be but thirty- s i X tragic situations. Schiller took great pains to find more, but he was unable to find even so many as Gozzi."

Thirty-six situations only! There is, to me, some- thing tantalizing about the assertion, unaccompanied as it is t>y any explanation either from Gozzi, or from Goethe or Schiller, and presenting a problem which it does not solve. For I remembered that he who declared by this limited number so strongly synthetic a law, had himself the most fantastic of imaginations. He was the author, this Gozzi, of "Turandot," and of the "Roi Cerf," two works almost without analogue, the one upon the situation of the "Enigma," the other upon phases of metempsychosis; he was the creator of a dramatic system, and the Arabesque spirit, through him transfused, has given us the work of Hoffmann, Jean-Paul Richter and Poe.

The Venetian's exuberance would have made me doubtful of him, since, having once launched at us this number 36, he kept silence. But Schiller, rigid and ardent Kantian, prince of modern aestheticians, master of true historic drama, — had he not in turn, before ac-


10 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

cepting this rule, "taken g^^eat pains" to verify it (and the pains of a Schiller!) thereby giving it the addition- al authority of his powerful criticism and his rich memory? And Goethe, his opposite in all things save a strong taste for the abstract, — Goethe, who through- out his life seems to have considered the subject, adds his testimony years after the death of Schiller, years after their fruitful conversations, at the very time when he was completing "Faust," that supreme combi- nation of contrasting elements.

In France, Gérard de Nerval alone had grasped and presented briefly the ensemble of all dramatic 4)roduc- tion, in an article upon Soumet's "Jane Grey," in "L'Artiste," — ^written, unfortunately, with what dandy- ism of style ! Having early desired to know the exact number of actions possible to the theater, he found, he tells us, twenty-four. His basis, however, is far from satisfactory. Falling back upon the outworn classifi- cation of the seven capital sins, he finds himself obliged at the outset to eliminate two of them, gluttony and sloth, and very nearly a third, lust (this would be Don Juan, perhaps). It is not apparent what man- ner of tragic energy has ever been furnished by ava- rice, and the divergence between pride (presumably the spirit of tyranny) and anger, does not promise well for the contexture of drama, the manifestations of the latter being too easily confounded with those of envy. Furthermore, murder or homicide, which he indicates as a factor for obtaining several new situa- tions, by uniting it in turn with each of the others, cannot be accepted as such, since it is but an accident common to all of them, possible in all, and one most frequently produced by all. And finally, the sole title mentioned by Nerval, "Rivah-y of Queen and Subject," corresponds, it will be observed, only to a sub-class of one, not of his twenty-four, but of Gozzi's Thirty-six Situations.


INTRODUCTION 11

Since Nerval, no one has treated, in Gozzi's genuine- ly technical manner, of the secrets of invention, unless it be relevant to mention in this connection Sarcey's celebrated theory of the "scène-â-faire," a theory in general but ill comprehended by an age which dreads didacticism, — that is to say, dreads any serious reflec- tion upon art ; some intimate notes of Dumas fils which were published against his wishes, if my youthful memories are correct, in the "Temps" some years ago, and which set forth that double plot of Corneille and Racine, a heroine disputed by two heroes, and a hero disputed by two heroines ; and, lastly, some works here and there by Valin, upon composition. And that is all, absolutely all.

Finally, in brief, I rediscovered the thirty-six situa- tions, as Gozzi doubtless possessed them, and as the reader will find them in the following pages ; for there were indeed, as he had indicated, thirty-six categories which I had to formulate in order to distribute fitly among them the innumerable dramas awaiting classi- fication. There is, I hasten to say, nothing mystic or cabalistic about this particular number; it might per- haps be possible to choose one a trifle higher or lower, but this one I consider the most accurate.

Now, to this declared fact that there are no more than thirty-six dramatic* situations, is attached a singular corollary, the discovery that there are in life but thirty-six emotions. A maximun of thirty-six emo- tions, — and therein we have all the savor of existence ; there we have the unceasing ebb and flow which fills human history like tides of the sea; which is, indeed, the very substance of history, since it is the substance of humanity itself, in the shades of African forests as

  • I have replaced the word "tragic**, used in the quotation,

with "dramatic". Those familiar with Goethe know that for him — one of the "classic** Germans — the two terms were synony- mous in this passage.


12 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Unter den Linden- or beneath the electric lights of the Boulevards; as it was in the ages of man's hand-to- hand struggle with the wild beasts of wood and moun- tain, and as it will be, indubitably, in the most infinite- ly distant future, since it is with these thirty-six emo- tions — ^no more — that we color, nay, we comprehend, cosnaic mechanism, and since it is from them that our théogonies and our metaphysics are, and ever will be, constructed; all our dear and fanciful "beyonds;" — thirty-six situations, thirty-six emotions, and no more.

It is, then, comprehensible that in viewing upon the stage the ceaseless mingling of these thirty-six emo- tions, a race or nation arrives at the beginning of its definite self -consciousness ; the Greeks, indeed, began their towns by laying the foundations of a theater. It is equally natural that only the greatest and most com- plete civilizations should have evolved their own partic- ular conception of the drama, and that one of these new conceptions should be revealed by each new evolu- tion of society, whence arises the dim but faithful ex- pectation of our own age, waiting for the manifestation of its own dramatic ideals, before the cenotaphs of an art which has long been, apparently for commercial reasons, almost non-existent.

In fine, after having brought together all these dra- matic "points of view/' we shall see, as in a panorama, the great procession of our race, in characteristic motley costumes: — Hindu kings in their chariots, Chinese gallants playing their mandores, nude heroes of Hellas, legendary knights, adventurers of sword and cape, golden-tressed princesses, nymphs sparkling with gems, shy maids with drooping eyelashes, famed courtesans, chaste Athenian virgins, priestly confes- sors, chattering gossips, gurus expounding religious ideas, satyrs leaping upon goats' feet, ugly slaves, peris, horned devils in disguise, lisping Tartaglias, gar- rulous Graciosos, Shakespearian clowns, Hugoesque


INTRODUCTION là

buffoons, magistrates, immobile Buddhist, ascetics, white-robed sacrificers, martyrs with shining aureoles, too-crafty Ulysses, frightful Rakchasas, messengers dispersing calamitous tidings to the winds of heaven, pure-hearted youths, blood-stained madmen, — yes, here it assembles, our humanity, here it moves through its periods of greatest intensity — but presenting always one of the facets of the prism possessed by Gozzi.

These thirty-six facets, which I have undertaken to recover, should obviously be simple and clear, and of no far-fetched character ; of this we shall be convinced after seeing them repeated, with unfailing distinctness, in all epochs and in all genres. The reader will find, in my brief exposition, but twelve hundred examples cited, of which about a thousand are taken from the stage; but in this number I have included works the most dissimilar and the most celebrated, nearly all others being but mosaics of these. There will here be found the principal dramas of China, of India, of Judea, and, needless to say, of the Greek theater. However, in- stead of confining ourselves to the thirty-two classic tragedies we shall make use of those works of Hellen- ism which, unfortunately for the indolent public of today, still lie buried in Latin ; works from whose great lines might be reconstructed hundreds of masterpieces, and all offering us, from the shades to which we have relegated them, the freshness of unfamiliar beauty. Leaving aside, for the present, any detailed considera- tion of the Persian and mediaeval Mysteries, which depend almost without exception upon two or three situations, and which await a special study, we shall glance over, — after the Jeux and Miracles of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, — the Spanish authors, the French classics, the Italians, the Germans of the Romantic revival, and our modern dramatic literature. And it seems to me we shall have finally proved this theory of the Thirty-six Situations, when


l4 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

we shall thi^s have brought it into contact with the dramatic production of the last thirty years.

Two hundred of the examples cited have been taken from other literary genres akin to the dramatic: romance, epic, history, — and from reality. For this investigation can and should be pursued in human nature, by which I mean in politics, in courts of justice, in daily life. Amid these explorations tne present study will soon seem but an introduc- tion to a marvellous, an inexhaustible stream, — ^the Stream of Existence, where meet momen- tarily, in their primordial unity, history, mystic poetry, moralist (and amoralist) writings, humor, psychology, law, epic, romance, fable, myth, proverb and prophecy.

It may here be allowable to ask. with our theory in mind, a number of questions which to us are of primary importance.

Which are the dramatic situations neglected by our own epoch, so faithful in repeating the few most familiar? Which, on the other hand, are most in use today? Which are the most neglected, and which the most used, in each epoch, genre, school, author? What are the reasons for these preferences? The same questions may be asked before the classes and sub-classes of the situations.

Such an examination, which requires only patience, will show first the list of combinations (situations and their classes and sub-classes) at present ignored, and which remain to be exploited in contemporaneous art , second, how these may be adapted. On the way it may chance that we shall discern, hidden within this or that one of our thirty-six categories, a unique case, — one without analogue among the other thirty-five, with no immediate relationship to any other, the product of a vigorous inspiration. But, in carefully determining the exact position of this case among the gub-classes of the situation to which it belongs, we


INTRODUCTION 16

shall be able to form, in each of the thirty-five others, a sub-class corresponding to it; thus will be created thirty-five absolutely new plots. These will give, when developed according to the taste of this or that school or period, a series of thirty-five "original imitations," thirty-five new scenarios, of a more unforeseen char- acter, certainly, than the majority of our dramas, which, whether inspired by books or realities, when viewed in the clear light of the ancient writings re- vealed to us only their reflections, so long as we had not, for our guidance, the precious thread which van- ished with Gozzi. Since we now hold this thread, let us unwind it.


FIRST SITUATION

SUPPLICATION

(The dynamic elements technically necessary are : — a Persecutor, a Suppliant and a Power in authority, whose decision is doubtful).

Among the examples here offered will be found those of three slightly differing classes. In the first, the power whose decision is awaited is a distinct personage, who is deliberating; shall he yield, from motives of prudence or from apprehension for those he loves, to the menaces of the persecutor, or rather, from generosity, to the appeal of the persecuted? In the second, by means of a contraction analogous to that which abbreviates a syllogism* to an enthymeme,* this undecided power is but an attribute of the persecu- tor himself, — a weapon suspended in his hand; shall anger or pity determine his course? In the third group, on the contrary, the suppliant element is divided between two persons, the Persecuted and the Interces- sor, thus increasing the number of principal char- acters to four.

These three groups (A, B, C) may be subdivided as follows :

A (1) — Fugitives Imploring the Powerful for Help

♦Syllogism: A reckoning all together, a reasoning; to bring at once before the mind; to infer; conclude. As "Every virtue is laudable; kindness is a virtue; therefore kindness is laudable.*'

Enthymeme : An argument consisting of only two propositions ; an antecedent and its consequent; a syllogism with one premise omitted; as "We are dependent, therefore we should be humble,"


FIRST SITUATION 17

Against Their Enemies. — Complete examples: "The Suppliants" and "The Heraclidae" of Aeschylus ; "The Heraclidae" of Euripides; the "Minos" of Sophodes. Cases in which the fugitives are guilty: the "Oïcles" and "Chryses" of Sophocles; "The Eumenides" of Aeschylus. A partial example : Act II of Shakespeare's "King John." Familiar instances: scenes from colonial protectorates.

(2) — Assistance Implored for the Performance of a Pious Duty Which Has Been Forbidden. — Complete examples: 'The Eleusinians" of Aeschylus and "The Suppliants" of Euripides. A historical example: the burial of Molière. A familiar instance : a family divided in its religious belief, wherein a child, in order to worship according to his conscience, appeals to the parent who is his co-religionist.

(3) — Appeals for a Refuge in Which to Die. — Com- plete example: "Œdipus at Colonus." Partial ex- ample: the death of Zineb, in Hugo's "Mangeront-ils ?"

B (1) — Hospitality Besought by the Shipwrecked. — Complete example: "Nauéicaa" and "The Pheacians" of Sophocles. Partial example: Act I of Berlioz' "Trojans."

(2)— Charity Entreated by Those Cast off by Their Own People, Whom They Have Disgraced. — Examples : the "Danae" of Aeschylus and the "Danae" of Euripides ; the "Alope," "Auge" and "The Cretans" of Euripides. Familiar instancesK. a large part of the fifteen or twenty thousand adventures which, each year, come to an end in the Bureau des Enfants- Assistés. Special instance of a child received into a home : the beginning of "Le Rêvej" by Zola.

(3) — Expiation: The Seeking of Pardon, Healing or Deliyerance. — Examples : Sophocles' "Philoctetes ;" Aeschylus' "Mysians;" Euripides' "Telephus;" "Les Champairol" (Rraisse, 1884). Historical è^Cample : the


18 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

penitence of Barbarossa. Familiar instances : petitions for pardon, confession of Catholics, etc.

(4) — ^The Surrender of a Corpse, or of a Relic, So- licited: — "The Phrygians" of Aeschylus. Historical examples: the Crusaders' embassies to the Moslems. Familiar instances: the reclaiming of the remains of a great man buried in a foreign land; of the body of an executed person, or of a relative dead in a hospital. It should be noted that the "Phrygians," and the Twenty-fourth Book of the Iliad, which inspired the play, form a transition toward the Twelfth Situation (A Refusal Overcome).

C (1) — Supplication of the Powerful for Those Dear y/ to the Suppliant. — Complete example : Esther. Partial

example: Margaret in the denouement of "Faust." Historical example: Franklin at the court of Louis XVI. Example corresponding also to A (3) : the "Propompes" of Aeschylus.

(2) — Supplication To a Relative in Behalf of Another Relative. — Example: the "Eurysaces" of Sophocles.

(3) — Supplication to a Mother's Lover, in Her Be- half — Example: "L'Enfant de l'Amour," (Bataille, 1911).

It is apparent that, in the modem theater, very little use has been made of this First Situation. If we ex- cept subdivisions C (1), which is akin to the poetic cult of the Virgin and the Saints, and C (3), there is not a single pure example, doubtless for the reason that the antique models have disappeared or have become unfamiliar, and more particularly because, Shake- speare, Lope and Corneille not having transformed this theme or elaborated it with those external complexi- ties demanded by our modem taste, their successors have found the First Situation too bare and simple a subject for this epoch. As if one idea were necessarily more simple than another ! — as if all those which have since launched upon our stage their countless ramifica-


FIRST SITUATION 19

tions had not in the beginning shown the same vigor- ous simplicity !

It is, however, our modem predilection for the com- plex which, to my mind, explains the favor now accorded to group C alone, wherein by easy means a fourth figure (in essence, unfortunately, a somewhat parasitic and monotonous one), the Intercessor, is added to the trinity of Persecutor, Suppliant and Power.

Of what variety, nevertheless, is this trinity capable ! The Persecutor, — one or many, voluntary or unconsci- ous, greedy or revengeful, spreading the subtle net- work of diplomacy, or revealing himself beneath the formidable pomp of the greatest contemporary powers ; the Suppliant, artless or eloquent, virtuous or guilty, humble or great; and the Power, neutral or partial to one side or the otner, perhaps inferior in strength to the Persecutor and surrounded by his own kindred who fear danger, perhaps deceived by a semblance of right and justice, perhaps obliged to sacrifice a high ideal; sometimes severely logical, sometimes emotionally susceptible, or even overcome by a conversion a la Dostoievsky, and, as a final thunderbolt, abandoning the errors which he believed to be truth, if not indeed the truth which he believed to be error!

Nowhere, certainly, can the vicissitudes of power, be it arbitral, tyrannical, or overthrown, — the supersti- tions which may accompany doubt and indecision,— in the one side the sudden turns of popular opinion, on the other the anxiety with which they are awaited, — despairs and their resulting blasphemies, — hope sur- viving to the last breath, — ^the blind brutality of f ate,— nowhere can they become so condensed and burst forth with such power as in this First Situation, in our day ignored.

France's enthusiastic sympathy for Poland, re- vived during the last half -century ; the same sympathy


20 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

which on so many historic occasions she has mani- fested for Scotland and for Ireland, might here find tragic expression; that cry of humanity with which a single priest, at the massacre of Fourmies, rallied to the Ghurch sl fraction of revolutionary France ; the worship of the dead, that first, last, most primitive and most indestructible form of religious sentiment ; the agony which awaits us all, agony dragging itself toward the darkness like a spent beast ; the profoundly humble longing of one whom a murder has deprived of all that was dearest to him, that pitiable entreaty, on bended knees, which melted into tears the savage rancor of Achilles and caused him to forget his vow; — all are here in this First Situation, all these strong «notions, and yet others ; nowhere else, indeed, can they be found in such completeness, — and our modern world of art has forgotten this situation!

SECOND SITUATION

DELIVERANCE (Elements: an Unfortunate, a Threatener, a Rescuer)

This is, in a way, the converse of the First Situation, in which the unfortunate appeals to an undecided power, whereas here an unexpected protector, of his own accord, comes suddenly to the rescue of the dis- tressed and despairing.

A— Appearance of a Rescuer to the Condemned:-^ The "Andromedas" of Sophocles, of Euripides and of Corneille; "Le Jeu de Saint Nicolas" (Jean Bodel). Partial examples: the first act of "Lohengrin;" the third act of Voltaire's "Tancred ;" the role of the generous patron in "Boislaurier" (Richard, 1884). The last example and the following show particularly the honor of the unfortunate at stake : Daniel and Susanna, and various exploits of chivalry. A parody: "Don Quixote." A familiar instance: judicial assistance. The denouement of "Bluebeard" (here the element of kinship enters, in the defense by brothers of their sister, and increases the pathos by the most simple of means, forgotten, however, by our playwrights).

B (1) — A Parent Replaced Upon a Throne by his Children: — "Aegeus" and "Peleus," by Sophocles; Euripides' "Antiope." Cases in which the children have previously been abandoned are "Athamas I" and also the "Tyro" of Sophocles. (The taste of the future author of "Œdipus at Colonus" for stories in which

21


22 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

the Child plays the role of deliverer and dispenser of justice, forms a bitter enough contrast to the fate which awaited the poet himself in his old age.)

(2) — Rescue by Friends» or by Strangers Grateful for Benefits or Hospitality: — Sophocles' "Œneus," "lolas" and "Phineus." A partial example: the second part of Euripides' "Alceste." Example in comedy: Musset's "Fantasio." Example in which protection is accorded by the host who has granted asylum: Euripides' "Dictys."

We see, by a glance over these subdivisions, what our writers might have drawn from the second of the Situ- ations. For us, indeed, it should possess some Uttle attraction, if only for the reason that two thousand years ago humanity once more listened to this story of the Deliverer, and since then has so suffered, loved and weî>t for the sake of it. This situation is also the basis of Chivalry, that original and individual heroism of the Middle Ages; and, in a national sense, of the French Revolution. Despite all this, in art, — ^if we except the burlesque of Cervantes, and the transplend- ent light flashing from the silver armor of Lohengrin, — ^in art, as yet, it is hardly dreamed of.


THIRD SITUATION

CRIME PURSUED BY VENGEANCE (Elements: an Avenger and a Criminal)

Vengeance is a joy divine, says the Arab; and such indeed it seems to have frequently been, to the God of Israel. The two Homeric poems both end with an intoxicating vengeance, as does the characteristic Oriental legend of the Pandavas ; while to the Latin and Spanish races the most satisfying of spectacles is still that of an individual capable of executing a legitimate, although illegal, justice. So much goes to prove that even twenty centuries of Christianity, following five centuries of Socratic philosophy, have not sufficed to re- move Vengeance from its pedestal of honor, and to sub- stitute thereon Pardon. And Pardon itself, even though sincere, — ^what is it but the subtile quintessence of vengeance upon earth, and at the same time the claiming of a sort of wergild from Heaven?

A (1) — ^The Avenging of a Slain Parent or Ances- tor: — "The Singer," an anonsrmous Chinese drama; "The Tunic Confronted" (of the courtesan Tchang- koue-pin) ; 'The Argives" and "The Epigones" of Aeschylus; Sophocles' "Aletes and Erigone;" "The Two Foscari," by Byron ; Werner's "Attila ;" "Le Crime de Maison-Alfort" (Coedes, 1881) ; "Le Maquignon" (Josz and Dumur, 1903). In the last three cases, as well as in the following one, the vengeance is accom- plished not by a son, but by a daughter. Example

23


24 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

from fiction: Mérimée's "Colomba." Familiar in- stances: the majority of vendettas. "Le Prêtre" (Buet, 1881) presents especially the psychologic struggle be- tween pardon and vengeance. Example of the aveng- ing of a father driven to suicide: "L'Or" (Peter and Danceny, 1908).

(2) — ^The Avenging of a Slain Child or Descendant:

— Sophocles' "Nauplius;" a part of "Sainte-Helene" (Mme. Séverine, 1902) ; the end of Euripides' "Hecuba." Epic example: Neptune's pursuit of Ulysses because of the blinding of Polyphemus.

(3) — Vengeance for a Child Dishonored: — "El Mejor Alcalde el Rey," by Lope de Vega; "The Alcalde of Zalamea," by Calderon. Historic example: the death of Lucrèce.

(4) — ^The Avenging of a Slain Wife or Husband: —

Carneille's "Pompée;" "L'Idiot" (de Lorde, 1903). Contemporary instance: the trials of Mme. Veuve Barrême.

(5) — Vengeance for the Dishonor, or Attempted Dishonoring, of a Wife: — ^The "Ixions" of Aeschylus, of Sophocles and of Euripides; "The Perrhoebides" of Aeschylus; "Les Révoltés" (Cain and Adenis, 1908). Historic example: the priest of Ephraim. Similar cases, in which the wife has only been insulted: "Venisamhâra," by Bhatta Narayana; "The Sons of Pajndou," by Rajasekhara. Familiar instances: a large number of duels.

(6> — Vengeance for a Mistress Slain: — "Love after Death," by Caleron; "Amhra" (Grangeneuve, 1882); "Simon the Foundling" (Jonathan, 1882.

(7) — Vengeance for a Slain or Injured Friend: —

"The Nereids" of Aeschylus. A contemporary instance : Ravachol. Case in which the vengeance is perpetrated upon the mistress of the avenger: "La Casserole" (Méténier,1889).


THIRD SITUATION 25

(8) — Vengeance for a Sister Seduced: — Goethe's "Clavijo;" "Les Bouchers" (Teres, 1888); "La Casquette au Père Bugeaud" (Marot, 1886). Examples from fiction: "La KerTYi Q5=;sft Ron^ e/' in Eekhoud's col- lection, and the end of Bourget's "Disciple."

B (1) — Vengeance for Intentional Injury or Spolia- tion: — Shakespeare's "Tempest." Contemporary in- stance : Bismarck in his retirement at Varzin.

(2) — Vengeance for Having Been Despoiled During Absence: — "Les Joueurs d'Osselets" and "Penelope," by Aeschylus; "The Feast of the Achaeans," by Sophocles.

(3) — Revenge for an Attempted Slaying: — "The Anger of Te-oun-go," by Kouan-han-king. A similar case involving at the same time the saving of a loved one by a judicial error: "La Cellule No. 7," (Zaccone, 1881).

(4) — Revenge for a False Accusation: — The "Phrixus" of Sophocles and of Euripides; Dumas' "Monte-Cristo;" "La Déclassée" (Delahaye, 1883); "Roger-la-Honte" (Mary, 1881).

(5) — Vengeance for Violation : — S o p h o c 1 e s' "Tereus;" "The Courtesan of Corinth" (Carré and Bilhaud, 1908) ; "The Cenci," by Shelley (parricide as the punishment of incest) .

(6) — Vengeance for Having Been Robbed of Ones Own: — "The Merchant of Venice," and partly "William Tell."

(7) — Revenge Upon a Whole Sex for a Deception by One: — "Jack the Ripper" (Bertrand and Clairian, 1889) ; the fatal heroines of the typical plays of the Second Empire, "L'Etrangère," etc. A case appertain- ing also to class A : the motive (an improbable one) of the corruptress in "Possédé," by Lemonnier.

We here encounter for the first time that grimacing personage who forms the keystone of all drama dark and mysterious, — the "villain." About the beginning-


26 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

of our Third Situation we might evoke him at every step, this villain and his profound schemes which not infrequently make us smile. Don Salluste in "Ruy- Blas," lago in "Othello," Guanhumara in "Burgraves," Homodei in "Angelo," Mahomet in the tragedy of that name, Leontine in "Heraclius," Maxime in "La Tragédie de Valentinien," Emire in "Siroès," Ulysses in "Palamedes."

C — ^Professional Pursuit of Criminals (the coun- terpart of which will be found in the Fifth Situation, n/ Class A) :— "Sherlock... iiolmes (Conan Doyle); "Vidocq" (Bergerat, 1910) ; "Nick Carter" (Busson and Livet, 1910).

Frequently used though this situation has been in our day, many an ancient case awaits its rejuvenes- cence, many a gap is yet to be filled. Indeed, among the bonds which may unite avenger and victim, more than one degree of relationship has been omitted, as well as the majority of social and business ties. The list of wrongs which might provoke reprisal is far from being exhausted, as we may assure ourselves by enum- erating the kinds of offenses possible against persons or property, the varying shades of opinion* of opposing parties, the different ways in which an insult may take effect, and how many and what sort of relationships may exist between Avenger and Criminal. And these questions concern merely the premises of the action.

To this we may add all the turns and bearings, slow or instantaneous, direct or tortuous, frantic or sure, which punishment can take, the thousand resources which it offers, the points at which it may aim in its deadly course, the obstacles which chance or the defendant may present. Next introduce various secondary figures, each pursuing his own aims, as in life, intercrossing each other and crossing the drama — and I have sufficient esteem for the reader's capabili- ties to develop the subject no further.


FOURTH SITUATION

VENGEANCE TAKEN FOR KINDRED UPON

KINDRED

(Elements: Avenging Kinsman; Guilty Kinsman; Remembrance of the Victim, a Relative of Both.)

Augmenting the horror of .Situation XXVII ("Dis- covery of the Dishonor of Ones Kindred") by the rough vigor of Situation III, we create the present action, which confines itself to family life, making of it a worse hell than the dungeon of Poe's "Pit and the Pendulum." The horror of it is such that the terrified spectators dare not intervene ; they seem to be witness- ing at a distance some demoniac scene silhouetted in a flaming house.

Neither, it seems, do our dramatists dare intervene to modify the Greek tragedy, — such as it is after thirty appalling centuries.

For us it is easy to compute, from the height of our "platform" — to use Gozzi's word — the infinite varia- tions possible to this theme, by multiplying the com- binations which we have just found in the Third Situa- tion, by those which the Twenty-seventh will give us.

Other germs of fertility will be found in turn in the circumstances which have deternuned the avenger's action. These may be a spontaneous desire on his own part (the simplest motive) ; the wish of the dying victim, or of the spirit of the dead mysteriously appear-

27


28 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

ing to the living ; an imprudent promise ; a profession- al duty (as when the avenger is a magistrate, etc.) ; the necessity of saving other relatives or a beloved one (thus did Talien avenge the Dantonists) or even fellow- citizens ; ignorance of the kinship which exists between Avenger and Criminal. There yet remains that case in which the Avenger strikes without having recog- nized the Criminal (in a dark room, I suppose) ; the case in which the act of intended vengeance is but the result of an error, the supposedly guilty kinsman being found innocent, and his pseudo-executioner discovering that he has but made of himself a detestable criminal.

A (1) — A Father's Death Avenged Upon a Mother: — "The Choephores" of Aeschylus; the "Electras" of Sophocles, Euripides, Attilius, Q. Cicero, Pradon, Longe- pierre, Crébillon, Rochefort, Chénier, and of Guillard's opera ; the "Orestes" of Voltaire and of Alfieri ; Sophocles' "Epigones;" the "Eriphyles" of Sophocles and of Voltaire ; and lastly "Hamlet," in which we recog- nize so clearly the method by which the poet rejuven- ates his subjects, — by an almost antithetic change of characters and of milieu.

(2) — A Mother Avenged Upon a Father: — "Zoe Chien-Chien" (Matthey, 1881) in which the parricide is counter-balanced by an incestuous passion, and is committed by the daughter, not by the son.

B — A Brother^s Death Avenged Upon a Son (but without premeditation, this accordingly falling almost mto the situation "Imprudence") : — Aeschylus' "Ata- lanta" and Sophocles' "Meleager."

C — A Father's Death Avenged Upon a Husband: — "Rosmunde" (Rucellai) .

D — A Husband's Death Avenged Upon a Father: — "Orbecche" by Giraldi.

Thus, of twenty-two works, eighteen are in the same class, seventeen in the same sub-class, thirteen upon the same subject; — four classes and one sub-class


FOURTH SITUATION 20

altogether. Let us, for the moment, amuse ourselves by counting some of those which have been forgotten.

A father's death avenged upon the brother of the avenger. Upon his sister. Upon his mistress (or, in the case of a feminine avenger, upon her lover, for each of the cases enumerated has its double;, according to the sex of the avenger) . Upon his wife. Upon his son. Upon his daughter. Upon his paternal uncle. Upon his maternal uncle. Upon his paternal or mater- nal grandfather; his paternal or maternal grand- mother. Upon half-brother or half-sister. Upon a person allied by marriage (brother-in-law, sister-in- law, etc.) or a cousin. These numerous variations may of course be successively repeated for each case : — the avenging of a brother, a sister, a husband, a son, a grandfather, and so on.

By way of variety, the vengeance may be carried out, not upon the person of the criminal himself, but upon some one dear to him (thus Medea and Atreus struck Jason, and Thyestes through their children) , and even inanimate objects may take the place of victims.


?.*


FIFTH SITUATION

PURSUIT

(Elements: Punishment and Fugitive)

As the Second Situation was the converse of the First, so this situation of Pursuit represents a transi- tion into the passive of the Third aiid Fourth, and, in fact, of all those in which danger pursues a character. There remains, however, a distinction; in Pursuit the avenging element holds second place, or perhaps not even that; it may be, indeed, quite invisible and abstract. Our interest is held by the fugitive alone; sometimes innocent, always excusable, for the fault — if there was one — appears to have been inevitable, ordained ; we do not inquire into it or blame it, which would be idle, but ssrmpathetically suffer the conse- quences with our hero, who, whatever he may once have been, is now but a fellow-man in danger. We recall that truth which Goethe once flung in the face of hypocrisy ; that, each one of us having within him the potentiality for all the crimes, there is not one which it is impossible to imagine ourselves committng, under certain circumstances. In this Situation we feel our- selves, so to speak, accomplices in even the worst of slayings. Which may be explained by the reflection that along our various lines of heredity many such crimes might be found, and our present virtuousness may mean simply an immunity from criminal tend- encies which we have gained by the experience of our

80


FIFTH SITUATION 31

ancestors. If this be the case, heredity and environ- ment, far from being oppressive fatalities, become the germs of wisdom, which, satiety being reached, will triumph. This is why genius (not that of neurosis, but of the more uncommon mastery of neurosis) ap- pears especially in families which have transmitted to it a wide experience of folly.

Through drama, then, we are enabled to gain our experience of error and catastrophe in a less costly way; by means of it we evoke vividly the innumer- able memories which are sleeping in our blood, that we may purify ourselves of them by force of repetition, and accustom our dark souls to their own reflections. Like music, it will in the end "refine our manners" and dower us with the power of self-control, basis of all virtue. Nothing is more moral in effect than im- morality in literature.

The sense of isolation which characterizes Situation V gives a singular unity to the action, and a clear field for psychologic observation, which need not be lessened by diversity of scenes and events.

A — Fugitives From Justice Pursued For Brigandage, Political Offenses, Etc.: — "Louis Perez of Galicia" and "Devotion to the Cross," both by Calderon ; the begin- ning of the mediaeval Miracle "Robert-le-Diable" ; "The Brigands" by Schiller; "Raffles" (Homung, 1907). Historical examples: the proscription of the Conventionnels; the Duchesse de Berry. Examples from fiction: "Rocambole" by Gaboriau; "Arsène Lupin" (Leblanc). Familiar instances: police news. Ex- ample in comedy : "Compère le Renard" (Polti, 1905) .

B — Pursued For a Fault of Love: — unjustly, "Indigne!" (Barbier, 1884); more justly, Molière's "Don Juan" and Corneille's "Festin de Pierre," (not to speak of various works of Tirso de Molina, Tellez, Villiers, Sadwell, Zamora, Goldoni, Grabbe, Zorilla, Dumas père) ; very justly, "Ajax of Locris," by


â2 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Sophocles. Familiar instances run all the way from the forced marriage of seducers to arrests for side- walk flirtations.

C — A Hero Struggling Against a Power: — Aeschy- lus' "Prometheus Bound"; Sophocles' Laocoon"; the role of Porus in Racine's and also in Metastasio's "Alexandre" ; Corneille's "Nicomede" ; Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen" and a part of "Egmont" ; Metastasio's "Cato" ; Manzoni's "Adelghis" and a part of his "Count of Carmagnola" ; the death of Hector in Shakespeare's "Troilus and Cressida" ;"Nana-Sahib" (Richepin, 1883) ; "Edith" (Bois, 1885); the tetralogy of the "Nibe- lungen' ; "An Enemy of the People" (Ibsen) ; "Le Roi sans Couronne" (de Bouhélier, 1909).

D — A Pseudo-Madman Struggling Against an lago- Like Alienist: — "La Vicomtesse Alice" (Second, 1882).


Sixth situation

DISASTER

(Elements : a Vanquished Power ; a Victorious Enemy

or a Messenger)

Fear, catastrophe, the unforeseen ; a great reversal of roles; the powerful are overthrown, the weak exalted. Here is the oft-recurring refrain of the Biblical books, here the immortal echoes of the fall of Troy, at which we still pale as though with a presentiment.

A (1)— Defeat SuflFered :— "The Myrmidons" and "The Persians" of Aeschylus; "The Shepherds" of Sophocles. Example from fiction; "La Debacle," by Zola. History is made up of repetitions of this story.

(2) — A Fatherland Destroyed: — "The Xoanephores" of Sophocles; Byron's "Sardanapalus" (this corresponds also to Class B, and toward the dénouement, recalls the Fifth Situation). Examples from history: I^oland; the great Invasions. From romance : "The War of the Worlds" (Wells).

(3)— The Fall of Humanity :— the Mystery of "Adam" (twelfth century).

(4) — A Natural Catastrope: — "Terre d'Epouvante" (de Lorde and Morel, 1907).

B — A Monarch Overthrown (the converse of the Eighth) :— Shakespeare's "Henry VI" and "Richard II." Historic instances: Charles I, Louis XVI, Napo- leon, etc.; and, substituting other authorities than kings, Colomb, de Lesseps, and all disgraced ministers. Examples from fiction: the end of "Tartarin," "L'Argent," "Cesar Birotteau." 8 88


34 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

C (1) — Ingratitude Suffered (of all the blows of misfortune, this is perhaps the most poignant) : — Euripides' "Archelaus" (excepting the dénouement, in which the action is reversed) ; Shakespeare's "Timon of Athens" and "King Lear," and the beginning of his "Coriolanus" ; Byron's "Marino Faliero"; a part of "The Count of Carmagnola," by Manzoni. Bismarck's dismissal by the young Emperor William. The martyrs, the many instances of devotion and sacrifice unappreciated by those who have benefited by it, the most glorious of deaths shine against this dark back- ground ; Socrates and the Passion are but the most celebrated examples. "Le Reformateur" (Rod, 1906).

(2) — ^The Suffering of Unjust Punishment or Enmity (this corresponds in some degree to the "Judicial Errors") : — Sophocles' "Teucer" ; Aeschylus' "Salaminiae."

(3)— An Outrage Suffered:— the first act of "The Cid"; the first act of "Lucrèce Borgia." The "point of honor" offers better material than these simple episodes. We may imagine some more sensitive Voltaire, reduced by his persecutions to helplessness and to the point of dying in despair.

D (1) — Abandonment by a Lover or a Husband: — "Faust"; Corneille's "Ariane"; the beginning of the "Medeas"; "Maternité" (Brieux, 1903). .

(2)— Children Lost by Their Parents:— "Le Petit Poucet."

If classes B, C and D, which are concerned with the fate of individuals, have been so much less developed than they might easily have been, what shall be said of the case of social disasters, such as Class A? Shakespeare did not tread far enough upon that majestic way. Only among the Greeks has a work of this kind presented at one stroke that conception of human events, sublime, fatalistic and poetic, of which Herodotus was one day to create history.


,v


SEVENTH SITUATION

FALLING PREY TO CRUELTY OR MISFORTUNE

(Elements: an Unfortunate; a Master or a Misfortune)

To infinite sorrow there is no limit. Beneath that which seems the final depth of misfortune, there may open another yet more frightful. A ferocious and deliberate dissection of the heart it seems, this Seventh Situation, — ^that of pessimism par excellence.

A — ^The Innocent Made the Victim of Ambitious Intrigue: — "The Princess Maleine" (Maeterlinck) ; "The Natural Daughter," by Goethe; "Les Deux Jumeaux," by Hugo.

B — ^The Innocent Despoiled by Those Who Should Protect: — "The Guests" and the beginning of the "Joueurs d'Osselets," by Aeschylus (at the first vibra- tion of the great bow in the hands of the unknown Beggar, what a breath of hope we draw!) ; "Les Corbeaux" by Becque; "Le Roî de Rome" (Pouvillon) ; "L'Aiglon" (Rostand) ; "La Croisade des Enfantelets Francs" (Ernault).

C (1) — The Powerful Dispossessed and Wretched: — ^The beginning of Sophocles' and of Euripides' "Peleus" ; of "Prometheus Bound" ; of "Job." Laertes in his garden. Example from comedy : "Le Jeu de la Feuillée" (Adam de la Halle).

(2) — A Favorite or an Intimate Finds Himself Forgotten:— "En Détresse" (Fevre, 1890).


D— The Unfortunate Robbed of Their Only Hope:

'The Blind" by Maeterlinck; "Beethoven" (Fauchois, 1909) ; "Rembrandt" (Dumur and Josz).

And how many cases yet remain! The Jews in captivity, slavery in America, the horrors of the Hundred Years' War, invaded ghettos, scenes such as draw the crowd to any reproduction of prison life or of Inquisition, the attraction of Dante's Inferno, of Pel- lico's "Prisons," the transporting bitterness of Gau- tama, of Ecclesiastes, of Schopenhauer!


EIGHTH SITUATION

REVOLT (Elements: Tyrant and Conspirator)

As already observed, this situation is, in a measure, the converse of Class B of Situation VI.

Intrigue, so dear to the public of the past three cen- turies, is obviously supplied by the very nature of the subject we are now to consider. But, by some strange chance, it has, on the contrary, always been treated with the most open candor and simplicity. One or two vicissitudes, a few surprises all too easily foreseen and extending uniformly to all the personages of the play, and there we have the conditions which have almost invariably been attached to this action, so propitious, nevertheless, to doubts, to equivocation, to a twilight whose vague incertitude prepares the dawn of revolt and of liberty.

A (1) — A Conspiracy Chiefly of One Individual: — "The Conspiracy of Fiesco," by Schiller; Corneille's "Cinna"; to some extent the "Catilina" of Voltaire (this tragedy belongs rather to the Thirtieth Situa- tion, "Ambition"); "Thermidor"; 'The Conspiracy of General Malet" (Auge de Lassus, 1889) ; "Le (îrand Soir" (Kampf ) ; "Le Roi sans Royaume" (Decourcelle, 1909) : "Lorenzaccio" (Musset) .

(2) — A Conspiracy of Several: — "The Conspiracy of the Pazzi" by Alfieri ; "Le Roman d'une Conspiration" (by Foumier and Carré, after the story of Ranc) ;

37


38 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

"Madame Margot" (Moreau and Clairville, 1909) ; and, in comedy, "Chantecler" (Rostand, 1910) with its parody "Rosse, tant et plus*' (Mustière, 1910).

B (1)— Revolt of One Individual, Who Influences and Involves Others: — Goethe's "Egmont"; "Jacques Bonhomme" (Maujan, 1886) ; "La Mission de Jeanne d'Arc" (Dallierè, 1888). Example from fiction: "Sal- ammbô." From history: Solon feigning madness.

(2) — A Revolt of Many: — "Fontovejune," by Lope de Vega; Schiller's "WilUam Tell"; Zola's "Germinal"; "The Weavers of Silesia," by Hauptmann (forbidden in 1893 with the approval of a Parliament soon afterward dissolved) ; "L'Automne," by Paul Adam and Gabriel Mourey (forbidden in 1893 with the approval of another Parliament shortly before its dissolution) ; "L'Armée dans la Ville" (Jules Romain, 1911) : "The Fourteenth of July" (Roland, 1902). From fiction: a part of the "Fortunes des Rougon" by Zola. From history; the taking of the Bastile, and numerous disturbances of the same period.

This species of action, particularly in modern scenes, has given fine virile dramas to England, Spain, Italy and Germany; of a forceful and authoritative char- acter in the two first countries, of a youthful enthusi- astic type in the two last. France, most certainly, would seem of all countries the most Ukely to under- stand and express such emotions.

But. . . "Thermidor" was prohibited "for fear" it might offend the friends (centenarians apparently) of Maximilian ; "Le Pater" "for fear" it might be dis- pleasing to Communists; Zola's "Germinal" and "L'Automne" by Adam and Mourey (two works oainted in widely different colors, as the titles sufficient- ly indicate) were stopped "for fear" of the objections of a few conservatives; "Other People's Money" by Hennique, "for fear" of shocking certain financiers who have since been put behind bars ; "Lohengrin" (al-


EIGHTH SITUATION 39

thougn the subject is Celtic) was long forbidden "for fear" of irritating a half-dozen illiterate French chauvinists; an infinite number of other plays "for fear" ol annoying Germany (or our parlor diplomats who talk of it) . . . . Yet others "for fear" of vexing the Grand Turk !

Is it possible, notwithstanding all this, to find a single instance in which a dramatic production has brought about a national calamity such as our censors fear? The pretext is no more sincere than are those urged for excluding from the theater any frank and truthful representations of love. A rule against admitting children should be sufficient to satisfy modesty on this point ; even that is little needed, since children unaccompanied by their elders rarely apply for admission.

Our sentimental bourgeoisie apparently holds to the eighteenth-century opinion that it is more dangerous to listen to these things in public than to read of them in private. For our dramatic art — which, be it noted, has remained, despite its decline, the one great un- rivalled means of propagating French thought throughout Europe — has been forbidden, little by little, to touch directly upon theology, politics, sociology, upon criminals or crimes, excepting (and pray why this exception?) adultery, upon which subject our theater, to its great misfortune, now lives, at least two days out of three.

The ancients had a saying that a man enslaved loses half his soul. A dramatist is a man.


NINTH SITUATION

DARING ENTERPRISE (A Bold Leader; an Object; an Adversary)

The Conflict, which forms the framework of all dramatic situations, is, in the Ninth, clearly drawn, undis^ised. A clever plan, a bold attempt, sang- froid, — and victory!

A— Preparations For War: — (In this class, as anciently treated, the action stops before the dénoue- ment, which it leaves to be imagined, in the perspective of enthusiastic prediction). Examples: — Aeschylus' "Nemea" ; "The Council of the Argives" by Sophocles. Historic examples : the call to the Crusades ; the Volunteers of '92.

B (1)— War:— Shakespeare's "Henry V."

(2) — A Combat: — "Glaucus Pontius," Memnon," "Phineus" and "The Phorcides" of Aeschylus.

C (1) — Carrying OflF a Desired Person or Object: — ^the "Prometheus" of Aeschylus; the "Laconian Women," by Sophocles. From fiction: the taking of the Zaimph in "Salammbô." Epic example : the second Homeric hymn (to Hermes).

(2) — ^Recapture of a Desired Object: — "The Victory of Arjuna," by Cantchana Atcharya; Wagner's "Parsi- fal" ; the re-taking of the Zaimph.

D ( 1 ) — Adventurous Expeditions : — Lope's "Dis- covery of the New World"; Aeschylus' "Prometheus Unbound" ; Euripides' "Theseus" ; Sophocles' "Sinon" ;

40


NINTH SITUATION 41

the "Rhesus" attributed to Euripides. Examples from romance : the usual exploits of the heroes of fairy tales ; the Labors of Hercules; the majority of Jules Verne's stories.

(2) — Adventure Undertaken for the Purpose of Obtaining a Beloved Woman: — Sophocles' and Euri- pides' "Œnomaiis." From fiction : "Toilers of the Sea." For the purpose of saving the honor of a lover: "La Petite Caporale" (Darlay and de Gorsse, 1909).

The Ninth Situation thus summarizes the poetry of war, of robbery, of surprise, of desperate chance, — the poetry of the clear-eyed adventurer, of man beyond the restraints of artificial civilizations, of Man in the original acceptation of the term. We find, neverthe- less, hardly a single French work in this class !

Lest the reader be wearieci, I refrain from enumerat- ing, under these classes so lightly touched upon, many of the plots and complications which might be evolved from them. Methods of tracking the human game — bandit or hero, — ^the forces conspiring for his disaster, the conditions which make him the victim of his masters, the ways in which revolt may arise, the al- ternatives of the struggle in a "daring enterprise," certainly would appear to be more complex today than in earlier ages ; moreover, upon these themes parts borrowed from other situations may be engrafted with remarkable ease. Even if we desire to preserve to the said themes their archaic severity, how much may yet be drawn from them ! In how many ways, to cite but one example, might an Adventurous Expedition be changed by varying the motives or the object of the enterprise, the nature of the obstacles, the qualities of the hero, and the previous bearings of the three indispensable elements of the drama ! "Adventurous Travels" have hardly been touched upon. And how many other classes are there which have not been !


TENTH SITUATION

ABDUCTION (The Abductor ; the Abducted ; the Guardian)

Or, the Great Bourgeois Romance ! Was it not thus that Molière used to put an end to his comedies, when he judged that the moment had arrived for sending his audience home satisfied? Sometimes he substi- tuted a treasure-box for a girl, as in "Tartuffe," or arranged an exchange of the one for the other, as in "L'Avare."

We find in ABDUCTION one of the situations bear- ing upon Rivalry, and in which Jealousy appears, although not painted with so superb a coloring as in the Twenty-fourth.

In two of the following classes (B and C) we may remark the intrusion of the situations "Adultery" and '^Recovery of a Lost Loved One." The same usage is quite possible in almost all the other situations. I would point out to those who may be interested in a more detailed analysis, that love is not necessarily the motive of Abduction (in Class D will be found friend- ship, faith, etc.) nor the reason of the obstacles raised by the guardian.

A — Abduction of an Unwilling Woman : — Aeschylus' and Sophocles' "Orithyies"; Aeschylus' "Europa" and "the Carians." "With Fire and Sword" (after Sien- kiewicz, 1904). Comedy: "Le Jeu de Robin et de Marion" (Adam de la Halle) . Historic and legendary :

42


TENTH SITUATION 43

the Sabine women; Cassandra. There appears to me to be tragic material in cases of extreme eroticism, of premeditated violation preceded by a mania of passion and its resulting state of overexcitation, and followed by the murder of the outraged victim, by regret» before the beautiful corpse, by the repugnant work of dismemberment or concealment of the body; then by a disgust for life and by successive blunders which lead to the discovery of the criminal.

B — Abduction of a Consenting Womaa: — "The Abduction of Helen" by Sophocles, and the comedy of the same name but not upon the same subject, by Lope. Numberless other comedies and romances.

C (1) — Recapture of the Woman Without the Slaying of the Abductor: — Euripides' "Helen"; "Malati and Madhava," by Bhavabhuti (the poet "of voice divine"). Rescue of a sister: "Iphigenia in Tauris."

(2)— The Same Case, With the Slaying of the Ravisher: — "Mahaviracharita," by Bhavabhuti; "Han- ouman" (a collaborative work) ; "Anarghara-ghava" (anonymous) ; "The Message of Angada," by Soubhata; " Abhirama Mani," by Soundara Misra ; "Hermione" by Sophocles.

D (1) — ^Rescue of a Captive Friend: — "Richard Coeur-de-Lion," by Sedaine and Gretry. A great number of escapes, historic and fictitious.

(2)_0t a Child:— "L'Homme de Proie" (Lefevre and Laporte, 1908).

(3) — Of a Soul in Captivity to Error: — "Barlaam and Josaphat," a fourteenth-century Miracle. The deeds of the Apostles, of missionaries, etc.


ELEVENTH SITUATION

THE ENIGMA (Interrogator, Seeker and Problem)

This situation possesses theatrical interest par excellence, since the spectator, his curiosity aroused by the problem, easily becomes so absorbed as to fancy it is himself who is actually solving it. A combat of the intelligence with opposing wills, the Eleventh Situa- tion may be fitly symbolized by an interrogation point.

A— -Search for a Person Who Must be Found on Pain of Death : — Sophocles' and Euripides' "Polyidus.** Case without this danger, in which an object, not a person, is sought: Poe's "Purloined Letter."

B (1)— A Riddle to be Solved on Pain of Death:— "The Sphinx" of Aeschylus. Example from fiction (without the danger) : "The Gold Bug" by Poe.

(2)— The Same Case, in Which the Riddle is Pro- posed by the Coveted Woman: — Partial example: the beginning of Shakespeare's "Pericles." Example from fiction : "The Travelling Companion," by Andersen. Epic example (but without the danger) : the Queen of Sheba and Solomon. Partial example: Portia's coffers, in "The Merchant of Venice."

The sort of contest, preliminary to the possession of a desired one, which is vaguely sketched in this episode, is singularly alluring in its suggestive analogues. But how many fibres, ready to thrill, will the perplexities of the love contest find in us, when they are raised to

44


ELEVENTH SITÙATiÔN 46

their third power by the introduction of the terrible, as in the one complete and pure example which we have, — the "Turandot" of the incomparable Gozzi; a work passionately admired, translated, produced and rendered famous in Germany by Schiller ; a work which has for a century been regarded as a classic by all the world, although it remains little known in France.

The effect of B (2) is strengthened and augmented in cases in which the hero is subjected to the following:

C (1)— Temptations OflFered With the Object of Discoyering His Name.

(2)— Temptations OflFered With the Object of Ascer- taining the Sex: — "The Scyrian Women" of Sophocles and of Euripides.

(3) — ^Tests For the Purpose of Ascertaining the Mental Çonditi(m: — "Ulysses Furens" of Sophocles; "The Palamedes" of Aeschylus and of Euripides (ac- cording to the themes attributed to these lost works) . Examinations of criminals by alienists.


TWELFTH SITUATION

OBTAINING

(A Solicitor and an Adversary Who Is Refusing, or an Arbitrator and Opposing Parties.)

Diplomacy and eloquence here come into play. An end is to be attained, an object to be gained. What interests may not be put at stake, what weighty arguments or influences removed, what intermediaries or disguises may be used to transform anger into benevolence, rancor into renouncement; to put the Despoiler in the place of the Despoiled ? What mines may be sprung, what counter-mines discovered ! — what unexpected revolts of submissive instruments! This dialectic contest which arises between reason and passion, sometimes subtile and persuasive, sometimes forceful and violent, provides a fine situation, as natural as it is original.

A — Efforts to Obtain an Object by Ruse or Force : — the "Philoctetes" of Aeschylus, of Sophocles and of Euripides ; the reclamation of the Thebans in "Œdipus at Colonus"; "The Minister's Ring," by Vishakadatta.

B — Endeavor by Means of Persuasive Eloquence Alone : — "The Desert Isle," by Metastasio ; the father's attitude in "Le Fils Naturel" (Dumas), to which Ruse is soon afterward added; Scene 2 of Act V of Shake- speare's "Coriolanus."

C — Eloquence With an Arbitrator: — "The Judgment of Arms," by Aeschylus; "Helen Reclaimed," by Sophocles.

46


TWELFTH SITUATION 47

One of the cases unused in the theater, notwith- standing its frequency, is Temptation, already intro- duced as a part of the preceding situation. The irritated adversary is here the Defiant; the solicitor, now the Tempter, has undertaken an unusual negotia- tion, one for the obtaining of an object which nothing can persuade the owner to part with ; consequently the aim must be, gently, little by little, to bewilder, charm or stupefy him. Eternal role of woman toward man ! — and of how many things toward the project of being a man! Does it not call to mind the hieratic attitude of the Christian toward Satan, as Flaubert has illuminated it, with a thousand sparkling lights, in

his "Temptation of Saint Anthony?"

/


THIRTEENTH SITUATION

ENMITY OF KINSMEN

(Elements: a Malevolent Kinsman; a Hated or Reciprocally Hating Kinsman)

Antithesis,* which constituted for Hugo the gener- ative principle of art, — dramatic art in particular, — and which naturally results from the idea of Conflict which is the basis of drama, offers one of the most symmetrical of schemes in these contrasting emotions . "Hatred of one who should be loved," of which the worthy pendant is the Twenty-Ninth, "Love of one who should be hated." Such confluents necessarily give rise to stormy action.

It is easy to foresee the following laws :

First : The more closely are drawn the bonds which unite kinsmen at enmity, the more savage and danger- ous their outbursts of hate are rendered.

Second: When the hatred is mutual, it will better characterize our Situation than when it exists upon one side only, in which case one of the relatives be- comes Tyrant and the other Victim, the ensemble resultmg in Situations V, VH, VHI, XXX, etc.

Third: The great difficulty will be to find and to

♦Antithesis: An opposition or contrast of words or ideas especially one emphasized by the positions of contrasting words, as when placed at the beginning or end of a single sentence or clause, or, in corresponding positions in two or more sentences or clauses. (Measures, not men. The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs himself.) Here the reference, of course, is to ideas.

4S


THIRTEENTH SITUATION 49

represent convincingly an element of discord powerful enough to cause the breaking of the strongest human ties.

A — Hatred of Brothers: (1) — One Brother Hated by Several (the hatred not malignant) : "The Heliades" of Aeschylus (motive, envy) ; *The Labors of Jacob," by Lope de Vega (motive, filial jealousy). Hated by a single brother: The "Phoenissae'* of Euripides and of Seneca ; "Polynices" by Alfieri (motive, tyrannical ava- rice) ; Byron's "Cain" (motive, religious jealousy) ; "Une Famille au Temps de Luther" by Delavigne (motive, religious dissent) ; "Le Duel" (Lavedan, 1905).

(2) — ^Reciprocal Hatred: — ^The "Seven Against Thebes," by Aeschylus, and "Les Frères Ennemis" by Racine (motive, greed for power) ; an admirable supplementary character is added in this Theban legend, the Mother, torn between the sons; "Thyestes II" of Sophocles ; "Thyestes" of Seneca ; the "Pelopides" by Voltaire; "Atreus and Thyestes" by Crébillon (motive, greed for power, the important role b2ing that of the perfidious instigator) .

(3)— -Hatred Between Relatives for Reasons of Self-interest:— "La Maison d'Argile" (Fabre, 1907). Example from fiction: "Mon Frère" (Mercereau).

B — Hatred of Father and Son:— (1)— Of the Son for the Father: — "Three Punishments in One," by Calderon. Historic example: Louis XI and Charles VII. A part of "La Terre" by Zola and of "Le Maitre" by Jean Jullien.

(2;— Mutual Hatred :— "Life is a Dream," by Calderon. Historic instance: Jerome and Victor Bonaparte (a reduction of hatred to simple disagree- ment). This nuance appears to me to be one of the finest, although one of the least regarded by our writers.

(3)— Hatred of Daughter for Father:— "The Cenci,"

4


HaïRTY^SlX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

by Shelley, (parricide as a means of escape from incest) .

C— Hatred of Grandfather for Grandsoil l«-*

Métastasions "Cyrus"; the story of Amulius iii the beginning of Titus Livius (motive, tyrannical avarice). Hatred of uncle for nephew : "The Death of Cansa," by Crichna Cavi. One of the facets of "Hamlet."

I> — Hatred of Father-in-law for Son in-law:— Alfiferi's "Agis and Saul" (motive, tyrannical avarice). Historical example: Caesar and Pompey. Hatred of two brothers-in-law, ex-rivals: "La Mer" (Jean JuUien, 1891) — the only modern drama, I may note in passing, in which one finds emotion increasing after the death of the principal character. In this respect it conforms to reality, in which we may experience shock or alarm, or cry out in dread, but in which we do not weep, nor feel sorrow to the full, until after- ward, all hope being forever ended.

E — Hatred of Mother in-law for Daughter-in-law : — Corneille* s "Rodogune" (motive, tyrannical avarice).

F— Infanticide:— "Conte de Noël" (Linant, 1899). A part of the "Powers of Darkness."

I will not repeat the list of degrees of relationship into which this situation might be successively trans- ferred. The case of hatred between sisters, one frequent enough, will offer, — even after "Le Carnaval des Enfants" (de Bouhélier) — ^an excellent opportunity for a study of feminine enmities, so lasting and so cruel; hatred of mother and daughter, of brother and sister, will be not less interesting; the same may be said for the converse of each class which has furnished our examples. May there not be an especially fine dramatic study in the deep subject, — heretofore so vulgar because treated by vulgar hands, — the antip- athy of the mother and the husband of a young woman? Does it not represent the natural conflict between the ideal, childhood, purity, on the one hand.


THIRTEENTH SITUATION 51

and on the other, Life, vigorous and fertile, deceptive but irresistibly alluring ?

Next the motive of hatred, changing a little, ma 5 vary from the everlasting "love of power" alleged in nearly all extant examples, and, what is worse, invari- ably painted in the strained attitudes of noe-classicism.*

The character of the common parent, torn by affection for both adversaries in these struggles, has been little modified since the day when Aeschylus led forth, from the tomb to which tradition had con- signed her, his majestic Jocaste. The roles of two parents at enmity could well be revived also. And I find no one but Beaumont and Fletcher who has drawn vijgorously the instigators of such impious struggle?-; characters whose infamy is sufficient to be well worthy of attention, nevertheless.

With the enmities of kinsmen are naturally connected the enmities which spring up between friends. This nuance will be found in the following situation

  • Neo-Classicism : Belonging to or designating the revival of

classical taste and style in art.


FOURTEENTH SITUATION

RIVALRY OF KINSMEN

(The Preferred Kinsman; the Rejected Kinsman; the

Object)

This situation seems, at first glance, to present ten times the attraction of the preceding. Does not Love, as well as Jealousy, augment its effect? Here the charms of the Beloved shine amid the blood of battles fought for her sake. What startled hesitancies, what perplexities are hers ; what fears of avowing a prefer- ence, lest pitiless rage be unchained!

Yes, the Beloved one, the "Object" — to use the philo- sophic name applied to her in the seventeenth century — will here be added to our list of characters. But . . . the Comiïion Parent, even if he does not dis- appear, must lose the greater part of his importance; the Instigators will pale and vanish in the central radiance of the fair Object. Doubtless the "love scenes" will please, by their contrast to the violence of the play ; but the dramatic purist may raise his brows, and find — perhaps — these turtle-dove interludes a trifle colorless when set in the crimson frame-work of fratricide.

Furthermore, there persists in the psychologist's mind the idea that Rivalry, in such a struggle, is no more than a pretext, the mask of a darker, more ancient hatred, a physiological antipathy, one might say, derived from the parents. Two brothers, two near relatives, do not proceed, on account of a woman,

52


FOURTEENTH SttUATION 53

to kill each other, unless predisposed. Now, if we thus reduce the motive to a mere pretext, the Object at once pales and diminishes in importance, and we find ourselves returning to the Thirteenth Situation.

Is the Fourteenth, then, limited to but one class, a mere derivative of the preceding? No; it possesses, fortunately, some germs of savagery which permit of its development in several directions. Through them it may trend upon "Murderous Adultery," "Adultery Threatened," and especially upon "Crimes of Love" (incests, etc). Its true form and value may be ascer- tained by throwing these new tendencies into relief.

A (1) — Malicious Rivalry of a Brother: — "Britan- nicus"; "Les Maucroix" by Delpit (the Common Parent here gives place to a pair of ex-rivals, who be- come almost the Instigators) ; "Boislaurier" (Richard, 1884). From fiction: "Pierre et Jean," by de Maupassant. Case in which the rivalry is without hatred: "1812" (Nigond, 1910).

(2) — Malicious Rivalry of Two Brothers: —

"Agathocle," "Don Pèdre," Adélaïde du Guesclin" and "Amélie," all by Voltaire, who dreamed of carving a kingdom all his own, from this sub-class of a single situation.

(3) — Rivalry of Two Brothers, With Adultery on the Part of One: — "Pélléas et Mélisande" by Maeterlinck.

(4) — Rivalry of Sisters: — "La Souris" (Pailleron, 1887) ; "L'Enchantement" (Bataille, 1900) ; "Le Demon du Foyer" (G. Sand). Of aunt and niece: "Le Risque" (Coolus, 1909).

B (1) — Rivalry of Father and Son, for an Unmar- ried Woman: — Métastasions "Antigone"; "Les Fos- siles" (F. de Curel) ; "La Massière" (Lemaitre, 1905) ; "La Dette" (Trarieux, 1909; "Papa" (de Fiers and de Caillavet, 1911) ; Racine's "Mithridate," in which the rivalry is triple, between the father and each of the


54 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

sons, and between the two sons. Partial example : the beginning of Dumas' "Père Prodigue."

(2) — Rivalry of Father and Son, for a Married Woman:— "Le Vieil Homme" (Porto-Riche, 1911).

(3) — Case Similar to the Two Foregoing, But in Which the Object is Already the Wife of the Father, (This goes beyond adultery, and tends to result in incest, but the purity of the passion preserves, for dramatic effect, a fine distinction between this sub- class and Situation XXVI) : — Euripides' "Phénix" ; (a concubine is here the object of rivalry) ; Schiller's "Don Carlos" ; Alfieri's "Philip II."

(4) — Rivalry of Mother and Daughter: — "L'Autre Danger" (Donnay, 1902).

C — Rivalry of Cousins: (which in reality falls into the following class) : — "The Two Noble Kinsmen," by Beaumont and Fletcher.

D^ — ^Rivalry of Friends: — Shakespeare's "Two Gen- tlemen of Verona" ; "Aimer sans Savoir Qui" by Lope de Vega; Lessing's "Damon"; "Le Coeur a ses Raisons (de Fiers and de Caillavet, 1902) ; "Une Femme Passa (Coolus, 1910)




n*


FIFTEENTH SITUATION

MURDEROUS ADULTERY

(Elements: Two Adulterers; a Betrayed Husband or

Wife)

This, to my mind, is the only strongly appealing form in which adultery can be presented ; otherwise is it not a mere species of house-breaking, the less heroic in that the Object of theft is an accomplice, and that the household door, already thrown open by treach- ery, requires not even a push of the shoulder? Whereas this treachery becomes at least logical and endurable in so far as it is a genuinely sincere folly, impassioned enough to prefer assassination to dissimulation and a base sharing of love.

A (1) — ^The Slaying of a Husband by, or for, a Paramour: — ^the "Agamemnons" of Aeschylus, of Seneca and of Alfieri ; Webster's "Vittoria Corombona" ; "Pierje Pascal"; Les Emigrants (Hirsch, 1909); "L'Impasse" (Fread Amy, 1909) ; "Partage de Midi'^ (Paul Claudel) ; "Amour" (Leon Hennique, 1890) ; the beginning of the "Powers of Darkness." Historic example, with pride and shame as motives for the crime: the legend of Gyges and Candaules. From fiction : the first part of "Thérèse Raquin."

(2) — ^The Slaying of a Trusting Lover: — "Samson et Dalila" (opera by Saint-Saëns, 1890.)

B — Slaying of a Wife for a Paramour, and in Self- interest: — Seneca's "Octavia" and also Alfieri's; "La Lutte pour la Vie" by Daudet (in which cupidity

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66 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

dominates adultery) ; "The Schism of England " by Calderon ; "Zobeide " by Gozzi. Narrative example : Bluebeard. Historic: the murder of Galeswinthe.

Hints for varying and modifying this situation: —

The betrayed husband or wife may be either more or less powerful, more or less sympathetic in character, than the slayer. The blindness of the intended victim may be more or less complete at various moments of the action ; if it be dispelled, partly or fully, it may be by chance, by some imprudent act of the guilty ones, by a warning, etc.

Between the victim and the intruder, ties of affec- tion, of duty, of gratitude, may 1 ave previously ex- isted; ties very real to one or the other of the two. They may be relatives ; they may find themselves united by some work or responsibility in common. The Victim, whether he be pursued openly or secretly, will be, doubtless, the object of an old rancor, either on the part of the consort or of the intruder ; the origin of this rancor may be in any one of the imaginable offenses by which a human being is wounded in his family affec- tions, his loves, his ideals, etc., or in his pride of birth, of name, of achievement; in his interests, (money, property, power, freedom) ; in any one of the external radiations of life.

Of the two adulterers, one may be but an instrument — ^impassioned or resigned, unconscious or involuntary — of the other, and may later be rejected, the end being attained; the blow may be struck by one of the two traitors alone, or it may be that neither of them has stained his own hands with the crime, which has been committed by a new character, perhaps unintentionally, or perhaps from love of one of the two Adulterers, who has utilized and directed this passion, or has let it move of its own accord toward the desired and criminal end.

A multitude of other characters will be, in varying degrees, the means employed, the obstacles, secondary


FIFTEENTH SITUATION 57

victims, and accomplices in the sinister deed ; the deed itself may be brought about according to the author's choice among the numberless circumstances which the Law has foreseen, with divers details such as court trials suggest.

If a more complicated action is desired, interweave (as Hennique has done) a rivalry of Kinsmen, an un- natural love (see Euripides' Chrysippe), an ambitious purpose and a conspiracy.


SIXTEENTH SITUATION

MADNESS (Elements: Madman and Victim)

The origin of certain human actions lies hidden in fearful mystery ; a mystery wherein the ancients believed they discerned the cruel smile of a god, and wherein our scientists, like the Chinese philosophers, believe they recognize the desires, prolonged and hereditary, of an ancestor. A startling awakening it is for Reason, when she finds on all sides her destiny strewn with corpses or with dishonors, which the Other, the unknown, has scattered at his pleasure. At this calamity, greater than death, how our kindred must weep and tremble ; what terror and suspense must arise in their minds ! And the victims, whose cries are lost in the mute heavens ; the beloved ones pursued in unreasoning rage which they cannot comprehend! What variations of the inconscient are here : folly, pos- session, divine blindness, hypnosis, intoxication, for- getf ulness !

A (1) — Kinsmen Slain in Madness: — "Athamas" and the Weavers of Nets" by Aeschylus; "Hercules Furens" by Euripides and by Seneca; "Ion" by Euripides.

(2)— A Lover Slain in Madness:— "La Fille Eliza, by Edmond de Concourt; "La Tentation de Vivre (Louis Ernault). A lover on the point of slaying his mistress in madness: Example from fiction: "La Bête

58


99 99


SIXTEENTH SITUATION 59

Humaine." Familiar instances: Jack the Ripper; the Spaniard of Montmartre, etc.

(3) — Slaying or Injuring of a Person not Hated: — "Monsieur Bute" (BioUay, 1890). Destruction of a work : "Hedda Gabier."

B — Disgrace Brought Upon Oneself Through Mad- ness: — Aeschylus' "Thracians"; Sophocles' "Ajax";to some extent "Saul" (Gide).

C — Loss of Loved Ones Brought About by Madness: — "Sakuntala" by Kalidasa, (form, amnesia). The philtre of Hagen, in Wagner.

D — ^Madness Brought on by Fear of Hereditary Insanity:— "L'Etau" (André Sardou, 1909).

The case of A (3), transferred to the past and treated according to a quid-pro-quo process, is that of one of the merriest comedies of the nineteenth century, "L'Affaire de la rue de Lourcine" by Labiche.

Numberless examples of this Sixteenth Situation have filled the disquieting pages of alienists' journals. Mental diseases, manias of various types, offer power- ful dramatic effects which have not yet been exploited. These furnish, doubtless, but points of departure coward the Situation whose real investiture takes place at the moment of the hero's restoration to reason, — which i3 to say, to suffering. But if it ever happens that these three phases — the etiology of delirium, its access, and the return to a normal condition — are treated with equal strength and vigor, what an admir- able work will result !

The first of the three stages, which bears upon the explanations of insanity, has been variously held to be divine (by the Greeks), demoniac (by the Church), and, in our own times, hereditary and pathological. Hypnotism has recently created another nuance; the hypnotist here forms a substitute, — a. sorry one, it is true, — ^for divinity or demon. Drunkenness furnishes us a nuance equally unfamiliar to Greece; what is to-


60 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

day more commonplace, and at the same time more ter- rible, than the disclosure of an important secret or the committing of a criminal act, while under the in- fluence of drink ?

Is it necessary to say that all ties, all interests, all human desires, may be represented crossed and illumin- ated by the light of dementia ?

For the rest, this situation of Madness is far from having been neglected in our theater. Shakespeare, in his most personal dramas, has made use of insanity in the leading roles. Lady Macbeth is a somnambu- list and dies in hysteria, her husband is a victim of hallucinations ; the same may be said of Hamlet, who is a lypemaniac besides; of Timon also; Othello is an epileptic and King Lear completely deranged. It is on this account that the great William is so dangerous a model (Goethe would not read him more than once a year). He has played, to some extent, the same role as Michael- Angelo, — he has exaggerated the springs of action to the farthest limits of reality, beyond which his disciples fall immediately into mere ridiculous affectation.

On the other hand, if we except the pretext of study- ing insanity in itself, which "Ajax" has furnished from Astydamus to Ennius, and from Ennius to Emperor Augustus, I find nothing "Shakespearian" in the drama of antiquity except "Orestes." All other characters are in the enjoyment of their senses, and do not thereby become any less pathetic. "Œdipus" alone shows, in default of abnormality in the hero's psychologic constitution, external events of an extra- ordinary character (a resource since so largely used by the Romanticists of 1830 and later) . But the rest of the antique dramatic types are evolved in accordance with normal passions, and under objective conditions relatively common.


SEVENTEENTH SITUATION

FATAL IMPRUDENCE (The Imprudent; the Victim or the Object Lost)

To which are sometimes added "The Counsellor," a person of wisdom, who opposes the imprudence, "The Instigator," wicked, selfish or thoughtless, and the usual string of Witnesses, secondary Victims, Instru- ments, etc.

A (1) — Imprudence the Cause of Ones Own Mis- fortune: — Sophocles' "Eumele"; Euripides' "Phaeton" (here the Counsellor is blended with the Instrumental character, in which, bound by a too-hasty oath, he finds himself in Situation XXIII, A (2), — obliged to sacrifice a kinsman to keep a vow) ; "The Master Builder," by Ibsen. From comedy: "L'Indiscret" (See, 1903).

(2) — ^Imprudence the Cause of Ones Own Dishonor: — "La Banque de l'Univers" (Grenet-Dancôurt, 1886). From fiction : "L'Argent" by Zola. Historic : Ferdinand de Lesseps.

B (1) — Curiosity the Cause of Ones Own Misfor- tune : — ^Aeschylus' "Semele." Historic examples (which rise to the Twentieth Situation, "Sacrifices to the Ideal")*: the deaths of many scholars and scientists.

(2) — Loss of the Possession of a Loved One, Through «Curiosity: — " Psyche" (borrowed from the account which La Fontaine drew from Apuleius, himself the •debtor of Lucius of Patras, and dramatized by Cor- neille, Molière and Quinault) ; "Esclarmonde" (Mas- senet, 1889). Legendary example: Orpheus bringing

61


v^


62 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

back Eurydice. This nuance tends toward Situations XXXII and XXXIII, "Mistaken Jealousy" and "Judi- cial Error."

C (1) — Curiosity the Cause of Death or Misfortune' to Others: — Goethe's "Pandora" and also Voltaire's; "The Wild Duck" by Ibsen. Legendary example: Eve.

(2) — Imprudence the Cause of a Relative's Death: — "La Mère Meurtrière de son Enfant" (a fourteenth- century Miracle of Notre-Dame) ; "On ne Badine pas avec l'Amour" (de Musset) ; "Renée Mauperin," by the Goncourts. Familiar instances : blunders in the care of sick persons. "Louise Leclerq," by Verlaine. The cause of another's misfortune: "Damaged Goods" (Brieux, 1905).

(3) — Imprudence the Cause of a Lover's Death: — "^iami^ojti" by Voltaire; "La Belle aux Cheveux d'Or" (Arnould, 1882).

(4) — Credulity the Cause of Kinsmen's Deaths:— "l^elias" by Sophocles and "The Peliades" by Euripides. From fiction (credulity the cause of misfortune to fellow-citizens) : "Port-Tarascon."

Establish in each of the preceding sub-classes equiva- lents to those cases which are presented in single instances in one class only, and we have the following subjects: — By Imprudence (meaning imprudence pure and simple, unconnected with curiosity or credulity) to cause irisf ortune to others ; to Jose possession of a lovea one (lover, wife or husband, friend, benefactor, protege, etc.) ; to cause the death of a relative (any degree of kinship may be chosen) ; to cause the death of a loved one,. By Curiosity (unmixed with imprudence or crejdujity) lo cause the dishonor of a relative (the vari- ous kinds of dishonor are numerous enough, tpuchiiig as they do upon probity, upon courage, upon modesty, upon loyalty) ; to cause the dishonor of a loved one ; to cause ones own dishonor. To cause these dishonors by pure Credulity (unmixed with imprudence or curios-


ÈÈVÈNTEÉNta StTXJATÎON 83

ity). An examination of the Twelfth Situation will give us a primary idea of the way in which Ruse may be used to gain this credulity. By Credulity also to cause ones own misfortune, or lose possession of a loved one, or cause misfortune to others, or cause the death of a loved one.

Let us npw pass to the causes which may çrêdpîtate — as readily as curiosity, credulity, or pure imprud- ence — an overhanging catastrophe. These caused are : — the infraction of a prohibition or law previously made by a divinity ; the deadly effect of the act upon him who commits it (an effect due to causes perhaps mechanical, perhaps biological, perhaps judicial, perhaps martial etc.) ; the deadly consequences of the act for the kindred or the beloved of him who commits it; a sin previously committed, consciously or unconsciously and which is about to be revealed and punished.

Besides curiosity and credulity, other motives may determine the imprudence; in "The Trachiniae," for instance, it is jealousy. The same role might be given to any one of the passions, the emotions, the desires, the needs, the tastes, the human weaknesses; — sleep, hunger, muscular activity, gluttony, lust, coquetry, childish simplicity. As to the final disaster, it may assume many aspects, since it may fall in turn upon physical, moral or social well-being, whether by the destruction of happiness or honor, of property or po\yer.

In the present situation, the Instigator, — who never- theless is not essential, — ^may become worthy of figur- ing even as the protagonist ; such is the case of Medea in "Pelias." This is perhaps the most favorable aspect in which the "villain" can be presented; imagine, for instance, an lago becoming the principal character of a play (as Satan is of the world) ! The difficulty will be to find a sufficient motive for him ; ambition, (partly the case in Richard III) is not always a convincing one,


64 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

because of its "a priori" way of proceeding; jealousy and vengeance seem a trifle sentimental for this dem- oniac figure ; misanthropy is too philosophic and honor- able; self-interest (the case of Pelias) is more appropri- ate. But envy, — envy, which in the presence of friend- ly solicitude feels but the more keenly the smart of its wounds, — envy studied in its dark and base endeavors, in the shame of defeat, in its cowardice, and ending finally in crime, — ^here, it seems to me, is the ideal motive.


EIGHTEENTH SITUATION

INVOLUNTARY CRIMES OF LOVE (The Lover ; the Beloved ; the Revealer)

This and the following situation stand out as the most fantastic and improbable of all the silhouettes upon our dramatic horizon. Nevertheless they are, in themselves, quite admissible, and at least not rarer today than they were in heroic times, through adultery and prostitution, which never flourished more general- ly than at present. It is merely the disclosure which is less frequent. Yet many of us have seen certain marriages, apparently suitable, planned and arranged, as it were, by relatives or friends of the families, yet obstinately opposed, avoided and broken off by the parents, seemingly unreasonable, but in reality only too certain of the consanguinity of the lovers. Such revel- ations, then, still take place, although without their antique and startling éclat, thanks to modern custom and our prudent prudery.

Its reputation for fabulous monstrosity was in reality attached to our Eighteenth Situation by the unequalled celebrity of the theme of "Œdipus," which Sophocles treated in a style almost romantic, and which his imitators have ever since overloaded with fanciful arabesques, more and more chimerical and extra- ordinary.

This situation and the following — as indeed to some extent all thirty-six — ^may be represented, as the author chooses, in 'one of two lights. In the first, the

5 65


66 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

fatal error is revealed, simultaneously to the spectator and to the character, only after it is irreparable, as in Class A ; and here the state of mind strongly recalls the Sixteenth. In the second, the spectator, informed of the truth, sees the character walk unconsciously to- ward the crime, as though in a sinister sort of blind- man's-buff, as in Classes B, C and D.

A (1) — ^Discovery That One Has Married Ones Mother: — the "Œdipus" of Aeschylus, of Sophocles, of Seneca, of Anguillara, of Corneille, of Voltaire; not to speak of those of Achaeus, Philocles, Melitus, Xenocles, Nicomachus, Carcinus, Diogenes, Theodecte, Julius Caesar ; nor of those of Jean Prévost, Nicolas de Sainte-Marthe, Lamothe, Ducis, J. Chenier, etc. The greatest praise of Sophocles consists in the astonish- ment we feel that neither the many imitations, nor the too well-known legend of the abandonment on Cithaeron, nor the old familiar myth of the Sphinx, nor the difference in the ages of the wedded pair, — that none of these things has made his work appear un- natural or unconvincing.

(2) — Discovery That One Has Had a Sister as Mis- tress: — ^Tasso's "Torrismond" ; "The Bride of Messina" by Schiller. This case, obviously a more frequent one, becomes unconvincing in the latter drama, when com- bined v/ith the Nineteenth Situation. Example from fiction : "L'Enfant Naturel," by Sue.

B (1) — Discovery That One Has Married Ones Sister: — "Le Manage d' André" (Lemaire and de Rouvre, 1882). This being a comedy, the error is dis- covered in time to oe remedied, and the play "ends happily." "Abufar" by Ducis, which also falls under a preceding classification.

(2) — ^The Same Case, in Which the Crime Has Been Villainously Planned by a Third Person: — "Heraclius" (this gives, despite its genius, rather the feeling of a nightmare than of a terrible rçality ) ,


EIGHTEENTH SITUATION 67

(3) — Being Upon the Point of Taking a Sister, Un- knowingly, as Mistress: — Ibsen's "Ghosts." The mother, a knowing witness, hesitates to reveal the danger, for fear of subjecting the son to a fatal shock.

C — Being Upon the Point of Violating, Unknowingly, a Daughter: — Partial example: "La Dame aux Domino Rose" (Bouvier, 1882).

D (1)— Being Upon the Point of Committing an Adultery Unknowingly (the only cases I have found in all drama) : — "Le Roi Cerf" and "L'Amour des Trois Oranges," both by Gozzi.

(2) — Adultery Committed Unknowingly: — ^probably the "Alcmene" of Aeschylus; "Le Bon Roi Dagobert" (Rivoire, 1908) . From fiction : the end of "The Titan, by Jean-Paul Richtér.

The various modifications of incest and other for- bidden loves, which will be found in Situation XXVI, may be adapted in the same manner as those here classified.

We have seen above instances of adultery committed through a mistake on the part of the wife ; it might also be through a mistake by the husband. This error is especially likely to be made by that one of the two adulterers who is unmarried; what is more common, for example, in the life of "pleasure," than to discover — a little tardily — ^that ones mistress is a married woman ?

Ignorance of the sex of the beloved is the point upon which "Mademoiselle de Maupin" turns ; there is in the first place a mistake (comedy), upon which are built the obsidional struggles of a soul (tragi-comedy), from which there finally results, when the truth is disclosed a brief tragic dénouement.


NINETEENTH SITUATION

SLAYING OF A KINSMAN UNRECOGNISED

t

(The Slayer ; the Unrecognized Victim) •

Whereas the Eighteenth Situation attains its highest degree of emotion after the accomplishment of: the act, (doubtless because all the persons conceme(| in it survive, and the horror of it lies chiefly in the conse- quences), the Nineteenth, on the contrary, in which a victim is to perish and in which the interest increases by reason of the blind premeditation, becomes more pathetic in the preparations for the crime than in the results. This permits a happy ending, without the necessity of recourse, as in the Eighteenth, to a comedy- process of error. A simple recognition of one char- acter by another will suffice, — of which our Situation XIX is, in effect, but a development.

A (1) — Being Upon the Point of Slaying a Daughter Unknowingly, by Command of a Divinity or an Oracle: — Metastasio's "Demophon." The ignorance of the kinship springs from a substitution of infants ; the interpretation of the oracle's words is erroneous; the "jeune première," at one point in the action, be lieves herself the sister of her fiancé. This linking of three or four mistakes (unknown kinship, in the special light of the situation we are now studying, a supposed danger of incest, as in B 2 of the preceding, and finally a misleading ambiguity of words, as in the majority of comedies) suffices to constitute what is called '^stirring" action, characteristic of the intrigues

68


NIJJETEENTH SITUATION 69

brought back into vogue by the Second Empire, and over whose intricate entanglements our chroniclers waxed so naively enthusiastic.

(2) — ^Through Political Necessity: — "Les Guèbres and"Les Lois de Minos" by Voltaire.

(3) —Through a Rivalry in Love: — 'fLa Petite Mionne" (Richebourg, 1890).

(4) —Through Hatred of the Lover of the Un. recognized Daughter: — '*Le Roi s'amuse" (in which the discovery takes place after the slaying) .

B (1)— Being Upon the Point of Killing a Son Un- knowingly: — ^The "Telephus" of Aeschylus and of Sophocles (with incest as the alternative of this crime) ; Euripides' "Cresphontes" ; the "Meropes" of Maff ei, of Voltaire and of Alfieri ; Sophocles' "Creusa" ; Euripides' "Ion." In Metastasio's "Olympiad" this subject IS complicated by a "Rivalry of Friends". A Son Slain Without Being Recognized: — Partial ex- ample: the third act of "Lucrèce Borgia"; 'The 24th of February," by Werner.

(2)— The Same Case as B (1), Strengthened by Machiavellian Instigations: — Sophocles' "Euryale" ; Euripides' "^geus."

(3)— The Same Case as B (2), Intermixed With Hatred of Kinsmen (that of grandfather for grand- son) :— Metastasio's "Cyrus."

C — Being Upon the Point of Slaying a Brother Un- knowingly: (1) — Brothers Slaying in Anger: — The "Alexanders" of Sophocles and of Euripides. (2) — A Sister Slaying Through Professional Duty: — "The Priestesses" of Aeschylus; "Iphigenia in Tauris," by Euripides and by Goethe, and that projected by Racine.

D — Slaying of a Mother Unrecognized: — Voltaire's "Semiramis"; a partial example: the dénouement of "Lucrèce Borgia."

Father Slain Unknowingly, Through Machin-


70 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

vcUian Advice: (see XVII): — Sophocles' "Pelias" and Euripides' "Peliades" ; Voltaire's "Mahomet" (in which the hero is also upon the point of marrying his sister unknowingly). The Simple Slaying of a Father Un- recognized: — Legendary example: Laius. From ro- mance: "The Legend of Saint Julian the Hospitaller." The Same Case Reduced From Murder to Simple Insult : — "Le Pain d' Autrui" (after Turgenieff, by Ephraim and Schutz, 1890). Being Upon the Point of Slaying a Father Unknowingly: — "Israel" (Bernstein, 1908).

F (1) — A Grandfather Slain Unknowingly, in Vengeance .and Through Instigation: — "Les Bur- graves" (Hugo).

(2) — Slain Involuntarily: — Aeschylus' "Polydectes."

(3) — A Father-In-Law liilled Involuntarily: — Sophocles' "Amphitryon."

G (1) — Involuntary Killing of a Loved Woman: — Sophocles' "Procris." Epic example: Tancred and Clorinda, in "Jerusalem Delivered." Legendary ex- ample (with change of the sex of the person loved) : Hyacinthus.

(2) — Being Upon the Point of Killing a Lover Un- recognized: — *The Blue Monster" by Gozzi.

(3) — Failure to Rescue an Unrecognized Son: — "Saint Alexis" (a XIV Century Miracle of Notre- Dame) ; "La Voix du Sang" (Rachilde).

Remarkable is the liking of Hugo (and consequently of his imitators) for. this somewhat rare situation. Each of the ten dramas of the old Romanticist contains it ; in two of them, "Hernani" and "Torquemada," it is, in a manner accessory to the Seventeenth (Imprud- ence), fatal to the hero also; in four ("Marion Del- orme," "Angelo," "La Esmeralda," "Ruy Bias") this case of involuntary injury to a loved one suppUes all the action and furnishes the best episodes; in four others ("Le Roi s'amuse," "Marie Tudor," "Lucrèce Borgia "Les Burgraves") it serves furthermore as dénoue-


NINETEENTH SITUATION 71

ment. It would seem, indeed, that drama, for Hugo, consists in this: the causing, directly or indirectly, of the death of a loved one ; and, in the work wherein he has accumulated the greatest number of theatrical effects — in "Lucrèce Borgia" — we see the same situa- tion returning no less than five times. Near the first part of Act I, Gennaro permits his unrecognized motiier to be insulted ; in the second part, he himself in- sults her, i\ot knowing her for his mother ; in Act II she demands, and is granted, the death of her unrecognized son, then finds she has no recourse but to kill him her- self, then is again insulted by him; finally, in Act III, she poisons him, and, still unknown, is insulted, threatened and slain by him.

Be it noted that Shakespeare has not in a single in- stance employed this Nineteenth Situation, an alto- gether accidental one, having no bearing upon his powerful studies of the will.


TWENTIETH SITUATION

SELF-SACRIFICE FOR AN IDEAL

(The Hero ; the Ideal ; the "Creditor" or the Person or

Thing Sacrificed)

The four themes of Immolation, of which this is the first, bring before us three corteges: — Gods (XX and XXIII), Kindred (XXI and XXIII), and Desires (XXII). The field of conflict is no longer the visible world, but the Soul.

Of these four subjects, none is nobler than this of our Twentieth Situation, — all for an ideal! What the ideal may be, whether political or religious, whether it be called Honor or Piety, is of little importance. It exacts the sacrifice of all ties, of interest, passion, life itself, — far better, however, under one of the three following forms, if it be tarnished with the slightest, even although the most sublime, egoism.

A (1) — Sacrifice of Life for the Sake of Ones Word: — The "Regulus^* of Pradon and also of Metas- tasio; the end of "Hernani" (Carthage and Don Ruy Gomez are the "Creditors"). Is it not surprising that a greater number of examples do not at once present themselves to us? This fatality, the work of the victim himself, and in which the victory is won over Self, — ^is it not worthy to illuminate the stage with its sacrificial flames ? There is, nevertheless, no necessity for choosing a hero of an almost too-perfect type, such as Regulus.

(2) — Life Sacrificed for the Success of Ones People:

72


TWENTIETH SITUATION 73

— *The Waiting-Women" by Aeschylus; "Protesilas" by Euripides; "Themistocles" by Metastasis Partial examples: "Iphigenia in Aulis," by Euripides and by Racine. Historic examples: Codrus; Curtius; Latour d'Auvergne. For the Happiness of Ones People: — The "Suffering Christ" of St. Gregory Nazianzen.

(3)— Life Sacrificed in Filial Piety:— "The Phoenic- ian Women" by Aeschylus; the "Antigones" of Sophocles and Euripides; of Alamanni and Alfieri.

(4) — Life Sacrificed for the Sake of Ones Faith: — "The Miracle of St. Ignace of Antioch" (XIV Century) ; "Vive le Roi" (Han Rymer, 1911) ; *'Cesar Birotteau" (Fabre, after Balzac, 1911) ; "The Constant Prince" by Cîalderon; "Luther" by Werner. Familiar instances: all martyrs, whether to religion or science. In fiction: "L'Œuvre" by Zola. For the Sake of Ones King:— "L'Enfant dû Temple" (de Pohles) .

B (1) — Both Love and Life Sacrificed for Ones Faith: — "Polyeucte." In fiction "L'Evangeliste" (sacrifice of family and future for ones faith).

(2) — ^Both Love and Life Sacrificed to a Cause: — "Les Fils de Jahel" (Mme. Armand, 1886) .

(3) — Love Sacrificed to Interests of State: — This is the favorite motif of Corneille, as in "Othon," "Ser- torius," "Sophonisbe," "Pulcherie," "Tite et Bérénice.^' Add to these the "Bérénice" of Racine and the "Sophon- isbe" of Trissino, that of Alfieri and that of Mairet; Metastasio's "Achilles in Scyro" and his "Dido;" Ber- lioz' "Troyons" (the best tragedy of his century) ; "L'Impératrice" (Mendes). The "Creditor" in this sub-class, remaining abstract, is easily confounded with the Ideal and the Hero ; the "Persons Sacrificed," on the contrary, become visible; these are Plautine, Viriate, Syphax and Massinisse, Bérénice, Déidamie. In comedy: "S. A. R." (Chancel, 1908).

C — Sacrifice of Weil-Being -"o Duty: "Resurrection" by Tolstoi; "L'Apprentie" (Geffroy, 1908).


74 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

D— The Ideal of "Honor" Sacrificed to the Ideal of "Faith"; — Two powerful examples, which for secon- dary reasons did not attain success (because the public ear was incapable of perceiving a harmony pitched so high in the scale of sentiment) : ^Theodore" by Cor- neille and "The Virgin Martyr" by Massinger. Partial example : the good hermit Abraham in Hroswitha.


TWENTY-FIRST SITUATION

SELF-SACRIFICE FOR KINDRED

(The Hero; the Kinsman; the "Creditor" or the Person or Thing Sacrificed)

A (1) — Life Sacrificed for that of a Relative or a Loved One: — The "Alcestes" of Sophocles, of Euri- pides, of Buchanan, of Hardy, of Racine (projected), of Quinault, of Lagrange-€hancel, of Boissy, of Coypel, of Saint-Foix, of Dorat, of Gluck, of H. Lucas, of Vauzelles, etc.

(2) — Life Sacrificed for the Happiness of a Relative or a Loved One: — "L'Ancien" by Richepin. Two sym- metrical works are **Smilis" (Aicard, 1884), in which the husband sacrifices himself, and "Le Divorce de Sarah Moore" (Rozier, Paton and Dumas fils), in which the wife sacrifices herself. Examples from fiction and analogous to these two dramas are **Great Expecta- tions" by Dickens and "La Joie de Vivre" by Zola. Com- mon examples : workmen in dangerous occupations.

B ( 1 ) -^Ambition Sacrificed for the Happiness of a Parent: — "Les Frères Zemganno" by Edmond de Gon- courty. This ends with a dénounement the opposite of tliat of "L'Œuvre."

(2) — Ambition Sacrificed for the Life of a Parent: — "Madame de Maintenon" (Coppée, 1881).

C (1) — Love Sacrificed for the Sake of a Parent's Life: — "Diane" by Augier; "Martyre" (Dennery, 1886).

(2)— For the Happiness of Ones Child:— "Le Re-

75


76 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

veil" (Hervieu, 1905); "La Fugitive" (Picard, 1911). For the Happiness of a Loved One : — "Cyrano de Ber- gerac" by Rostand ; "Le Droit au Bonheur" (C. Lemon- nier, 1907).

(3) — The Same Sacrifice as 2, But Caused by Unjust Laws: — "La Loi de THomme" by Hervieu.

D (1) — Life and Honor Sacrificed for the Life of a Parent or Loved One : — "Le Petit Jacques." Case in which the loved one is guilty : "La Charbonnière" (Cre- mieux, 1884) ; "Le Frère d'Armes" (Garaud, 1887) ; "Le Chien de Garde" (Richepin, 1889). The Same Sacrifice Made for the Honor of a Loved One: — "Pierre Vaux" (Jonathan, 1882). A similar sacrifice, but of repu- tation only : "La Cornette" (Mlle, and M. Ferrier, 1909).

(2) — Modesty Sacrificed for the Life of a Relative or a Loved One: — Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure;" Euripides' "Andromache" and also Racine's; "Per- tharite" by Corneille; "La Tosca" (Sardou, 1889). In fiction : "Le Huron" by Voltaire.


TWENTY-SECOND SITUATION

ALL SACRIFICED FOR A PASSION

(The Lover; the Object of the Fatal Passion; the Person or Thing Sacrificed)

A (1) — Religious Vows of Chastity Broken for a Passion: — "Joceljoi" by Godard. From fiction: "La Faute de TAbbe Mouret." In comedy: "Dhourtta Narttaka."

(2)— A Vow of Purity Broken .-—"Tannhauser." Re- spect for a Priest Destroyed :^-one aspect of "La Con- quête de Plassans.'*

(3) — A Future Ruined by a Passion: — "Manon" by Massenet ; "Sapho" by Daudet ; "La Griffe" (Bernstein, 1906) ; the works of Louys in general.

• (4) — Power Ruined by Passion : — Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra ;" "Cléopâtre" by Sardou.

(5)_Ruiii of Mind, Health and Life:— "La Glu" (Richepin, 1883) ; "L'Arlesienne" (Daudet and Bizet) ; "La Furie" (Bois, 1909). From fiction (see C) : "Le Possédé" by Lemonnier. Passion Gratified at the Price of Life: — "Une Nuit de Cléopâtre" (Gautier and Masse) .

(5) — Ruin of Fortunes, Lives and Honors: — "Nana" ; in part "La Route d'Emeraude" (Richepin, after De- molder, 1909).

B — Temptations (see XII) Destroying the Sense of Duty, of Pity, etc :— "Salome" (Oscar Wilde). From fiction: "Herodias," and the attempts (repulsed) in "The Temptation of Saint Anthony."

77




^8 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS'^-^

C (1) — Destruction of Honor » Fortune and Life, by Erotic Vice: — "Germinie Lacerteux" by de Gon- court; "Rolande" (Gramont, 1888) ; '*Maman Colibri (Bataille, 1904). From fiction: "La Cousine Bette "Le Capitaine Burle/

(2)— The Same Effect Produced by Any Other Vice: — "Trente Ans ou la Vie d'un Joueur" ; "L'Assommoir." From fiction "L'Opium" by Bonnetain; "Lelie" by Willy. In real life: our race-courses, our wine-shops, our cafes, our clubs, etc. In comedy : "Un Ange" (Capus, 1909)

Few situations, obviously, have received better and more constant treatment during our own century — to whose vices the Twenty-Second offers, in truth, a most appropriate mirror, in its amalgam of gloom and erotic- ism, at the same time presenting the most interesting studies ot nervous pathology.


TWENTY-THIRD SITUATION

NECESSITY OF SACRIFICING LOVED ONES

(The Hero ; the Beloved Victim ; the Necessity for

the Sacrifice)

Although similar to the three situations we have just considered, the Twenty-Third recalls, in one of its aspects, that destruction of natural affection which marked the Thirteenth, "Hatred of Kinsmen." The feel- ings which we here encounter in the protagonist are, it is true, of a nature altogether different. But through the intrusion of the element of Necessity, the end toward which he must proceed is precisely the same.

A (1) — Necessity for Sacrificing a Daughter in the Public Interest: — "The Iphigenias" of Aeschylus and of Sophocles; "Iphigenia in Aulis," by Euripides and by Racine; "Erechtheus" by Euripides.

(2) — Duty of Sacrificing Her in Fulfillment of a Vow to God: — The "Idoménées" of Crébillon, Lemierre, and Cienf uegos ; the "Jephthes" of Buchanan and of Boyer. This nuance tends at first toward Situation XVII, "Im- prudence," but the psychologic struggles soon give it a very different turn.

(3) — Duty of Sacrificing Benefactors or Loved Ones to Ones Faith: "Torquemada :" "Ninety-Three:" "Les Mouettes" (Paul Adam, 1906) ; "La Fille à Guil- lotin" (Fleischmann, 1910). Historic instances; Philip II ; Abraham and Isaac.

B (1) — Duty of Sacrificing Ones Child, Unknown

79


80 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

to Others, Under the Pressure of Necessity: — ^Euripi- des' "Melanippe"; Lucrèce Borgia, (II, 5).

(2) — ^Duty of Sacrificing, Under the Same Circum- stances, Ones Father: — ^The "Hypsipyles" of Aeschy- lus, and of Metastasio ; "The Lemnian Women" by Sophocles.

(3) — Duty of Sacrificing, Under the Same Circum- stances, Ones Husband: — The "Danaïdes" of Phryn- ichus,, of Aeschylus, of Gombaud, of Salieri, of Spontini ; the "Lynceus" of Theodectes and of Abeille ; the **Hy- permnestres" of Metastasio, Riupeiroux, Lemierre, etc.

(4) — Duty of Sacrificing a Son-In-Law for the PubKc Good:— "Un Patriote" (Dartois, 1881). For the Sake of Reputation: — "Guibor" (a XIV Century Miracle of Notre-Dame) .

(5) — ^Duty of Contending with a Brother-In-Law for the Public Good: — Corneille's "Horace," and that of Arétin. The loyalty and affection subsisting between the adversaries remove all resemblance to the Thir- tieth.

(6) — Duty of Contending With a Friend: — "Jarnac" (Hennique and Gravier, 1909).

Nuance B, (B 1 for example), lends itself to a fine in- terlacing of motifs. Melanippe finds herself (1st) forced to slay her son, an order which she would have resisted at the risk of her own life, but she is at the same time (2nd) obliged to conceal her interest in the child, for fear of revealing his identity and thereby causing his certain death. Similar dilemmas may be evolved with equal success in all cases in which a char- acter receives an injunction which he is unwilling to obey ; it will suffice to let him fall, by his refusal, into a second situation leading to a result equally repugnant or, better yet, identical. This dilemma of action is again found in what is called blackmail ; we have also seen its cruel alternatives outlined in Class D of Situa- tion XX ("Theodore," "The Virgin Martyr," etc.), and


TWENTY-THIRD SITUATION 81

clearly manifested in Class D (especially D 2) of Sit- uation XXII ("Measure for Measure," "Le Huron," etc.) but it is therj presented most crudely, by a single character or event, of a nature tyrannical and odious. Whereas in Melanippe" it results so logically and piti- lessly from the action that it does not occur to us to rebel against it ; we accept it without question, so nat- ural does it appear, so overwhelming.

Before leaving these four sjFmmetrical situations, I would suggest a way of disposing their elements with a view to seeking states of mind and soul less familiar. We have just seen these forces marshalled: — Passion (vice, etc.) ; pure affection (for parents, friends, bene- factors, and particularly devotion to their honor, their happiness, their interests) ; reasons of state (the suc- cess of a compatriot, of a cause, of a work) ; egoism (will to live, cupidity, ambition, avarice, vanity) ; honor (truthfulness, feminine chastity, promises to God, filial piety). Oppose these to each other, two By two, and study and the ensuing conflicts.

The first cases produced will be those already cited. Here follow other and newer ones: — a passion or vice destroying interests of state (for in "Antony and Cleopatra" it is only the royal pomp of the two lovers which is impressive; one does not reflect upon the peril of their peoples) ; egoism (in the form of ambi- tion, for example) struggling with faith in the soul of man, a frequent case in religious wars ; egoism in this ambitious guise overcoming natural affection (the plotter denying or sacrificing his father, mother or friend offers a fine study) ; a conflict between personal honor and reasons of state (Judith in the arms of Holo- femss; Bismarck falsifying the despatch of his mas- ter). Then oppose the various nuances to each other (the hero torn between his faith and the honor of his 6


82 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

people, and so on). Subjects will spring up in myriads. (Special notice— the neo-classic tragedy having proved itselt dead, — to psychological fiction, its legatee).


TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION

RIVALRY OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR (The Superior Rival; the Inferior Rival; the Object)

I would have preferred to make of this and tHê following (Adultery) a single situation. The differ- ence lies in a contract or a ceremony, of variable im- portance according to the milieu, and which in any case does not materially change the dramatic emotions springing from the love contest; even this difference becomes quite imperceptible in polygamous societies (Hindu drama) . Thus I would rather have created but one independent situation, of which the other should be a nuance.. But I fear I should be accused of purpose- ly compressing modem works into the smallest pos- sible number of categories, for the two which we are now to analyze contain the major part of them.

We have already remarked that between "Hatred of Kinsmen" and "Rivalry of Kinsmen" the sole difference lies in the fact that in the latter there is embodied in human form the Object of dispute, the "casus belli." For the same reason we may bring together the sit- uations "Rivalry of Superior and Inferior," "Adultery," and even "Murderous Adultery," and distinguish them from all the situations which portray struggle pure and-simple, (V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XXX, XXXI). However, the beloved Object will more naturally appear in the present cases of sentimental rivalry than she could in the "Rivalry of Kinsmen," and nowhere does a more favorable opportunity present itself to the dramatic poet for portraying his ideals of love.

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M THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

These cases are divided first according to sexes, then according to the degrees of difference in the rank of the rivals.

A — Masculine Rivalries, (1) — Of a Mortal and an Im* mortal: — "Mrigancalckha" by Viswanatha; "Heaven and Earth" by Byron; "Polyphème" (Samain). Of Two Divinities of Unequal Power : — "Pandore" by Vol- taire.

(2) — Of a Magician and an Ordinary Man: — ^"Tanis et Zelide," by Voltaire.

(3) — Of Conqueror and Conquered: — "Malati and Madhava" by Bhavabuti ; "Le Tribut de Zamora'* (Gounod, 1881) ; "Le Sais" (Mme. Ollognier, 1881). Of Victor and Vanquished: — ^Voltaire's "Alzire." Of a Master and a Banished Man: — "Appius and Virginia" by Webster; "Hernani" and "Mangeront-Ils ?" by Hugo; "Dante" (Godard, 1890). Of Usurper and Sub- ject: — "Le Triumvirat" by Voltaire.

(4) — Of Suzerain King and Vassal Kings: — Cor- neille's "Attila."

(5)_0f a King and a Noble:— "The Earthen Toy- Cart" by Sudraka ; "The Mill" and "Nina de Plata" by Lope; "Agésilas and Suréna" by Corneille; "Demet- rius" by Metastasio; "Le Fils de Porthos" (Blavet 1886) .

(6) — Of a Powerful Person and an Upstart: — "Don Sanche" by Corneille; "La Marjolaine" (Richepin fils, 1907).

(7)_0f Rich and Poor:— "La Question d'Argent" by Dumas; "La Nuit de Saint-Jean" (Erckmann- Chatrian and Lacome) ; "En Grève" (Hirsch, 1885) ; "Surcouf" (Planquette, 1887) ; 'L'Attentat" (Capus and Descaves, 1906) "La Barricade" (Bourget, 1910) ; "La Petite Milliardaire" (Dumay and Forest, 1905). In fiction: part of "Toilers of the Sea." Relative in-


TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION 86

equality: "Mon Ami Teddy" (Rivoire and Besnard, 1910).

(8) — Of an Honored Man and a Suspected One: — "L'Obstacle" (Daudet, 1890) ; "Le Drapeau" (Moreau, 1879) ; "Devant l'Ennemi" (Charton, 1890) ; "Jack Tempête" (Elzear, 1882) ; "La Bûcheronne" (C. Ed- mond, 1889) . In comedy : "Le Mariage de Mlle. Boule* mans" (Fonson and Wicheler, 1911).

(9) — Rivalry of Two Who Are Almost Equal: — "Dhourtta Samagana," the rivals here being master and disciple, as is also the case in "Maîtres Chanteurs," but not in "Glatigny" (Mendes, 1906) , nor in "Bohé- mos" (Zamacois, 1907).

(10) — Rivalry of Equals, One of Whom Has in the Past Been Guilty of Adultery: — "Chevalerie Rustique" (Verga, 1888).

(11)— Of a Man Who is Loved and One Who Has Not the Right to Love: — "La Esmeralda."

(12) — Of the Two Successive Husbands of a Divorcée— "Le Dédale" (Hervieu, 1903). By multiply- ing the number of husbands good comic effects might be secured.

B-^Feminine Rivalries, (1) — Of a Sorceress and an Ordinary Woman: — "La Conquête de la Toison d'Or" by Corneille: "La Sorcière" (Sardou, 1903).

(2)— Of Victor and Prisoner :— "Le Comte d'Essex" by Thomas Corneille; the "Marie Stuart" of Schiller and also of Samson.

(3)— Of Queen and Sub ject :— "Marie Tudor" and "Amy Robsart" by Hugo; "Le Cor Fleuri" (Mikhael and Herold) ; "Varennes" (Lenotre and Lavedan, 1904) . The title of this sub-class is, it v/ill be remem- bered, the only one cited of the so-called "Twenty- Four Situations" of Gérard de Nerval ; we might indeed include under this denomination the examples of B 1, 2 and 4. But at most it can constitute only a half of one of the four classes of "Rivalry of SNx^OT^^st '«xsà.


86 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Inferior," which itself has but the importance of one situation in a series of thirty-six.

(4) — Of a Queen and a Slave: — "Bajazet" by Racine; "ZuUme;" part of "Une Nuit de Cléopâtre" (from Gautier, by V. Masse, 1885).

(5)_0f Lady and Servant :— "The Gardener's Dog" by Lope de Vega (wherein may be found what is per- haps the most successful of the many attempted portraits of an amorous "grande dame").

(6) — Of a Lady and a Woman of Humbler Position: — "Francois-les-bas-bleus" (Messager, 1883) ; "Le Fri- quet" (Willy and Gyp, 1904) ; "Petite Hollande" (S Guitry, 1908) ; '*L'Ane de Buridan" (de Fleurs and de Caillavet, 1909) ; "Trains de Luxe" (Hermant, 1909). Of a Lady and Two Women of Humbler Class: — "Les Passagères" (Coolus, 1906).

(7) — Rivalry of Two Who Are Almost Equals, Com- plicated by the Abandonment of One (this tends toward A (1) of Situation XXV) :— Corneille's "Ari- ane;" "Benvenuto" (Diaz, 1890). In fiction: "La Joie de Vivre."

(8) — Rivalry Between a Memory or an Ideal (That of a Superior Woman) and a Vassal of Her Own: — "Semiramide Riconosciuta" by Metastasio; "'Madame la Mort" by Rachilde (in which the field of struggle is subjective); "La Morte" by Barlatier; "L'Image" by Beaubourg. Symmetrical case in the masculine: "The Lady from the Sea," by Ibsen.

(9) — ^Rivalry of Mortal and Immortal: — "La Dame àlaFaulx" (Saint-Pol Roux).

C; — Double Rivalry (A loves B, who loves C, who loves D) : — ^Metastasio's "Adrien;" Lessing's "Emilia Galotti ;" "La Fermière" (d'Artois, 1889) ; "Ascanio'* (Saint-Saëns, 1890) ; "Les Deux Hommes" (Capus, 1908) ; "Le Circuit" (Feydeau and de Croisset, 1909) ; "L'Article 301" (Duval, 1909). It is permissible to extend the rivalry to three, four, etc., which will make


TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION 87

it less commonplace, but will not greatly vary the effects, although sometimes the chain will end in a complete circle (that is to say, D will love A), or a partial one (D returning the love of C).

D — Oriental Rivalries: — ^We are beginning to take account of the fact that the divorce law was obtained chiefly through the efforts of our dramatic writers, less because they were convinced of its righteousness than because they felt the need of a renewal and in- crease of their limited combinations. They might, in- deed, have breathed a fresher and purer air by turn- ing toward Hindu polygamy! Goethe, Théophile Gautier (who foresaw the decadence of woman through the extension and increase of vice), Maurice Barrés ("L'Ennemi des Lois") seem to have felt something of the sort. We could wish that the mis- understandings of the modern home, in which archaic fidelity and genuine monogamy have almost ceased to exist, on one side especially, might be settled with a modicum of this spirit of tolerance.

(1) — Rivalry of Two Immortals: — "The Loves of Krishna" by Roupa.

(2) — Of Two Mortals: — "Agnimitra and Malavika," by Kalidasa.

(3)— Of Two Lawful Wives:— "The Necklace," by Sri Harshadeva ; 'The Statue" by Rajasekhara.

To the relative rank of the two rivals there is added, as a means of varying the theme, the position, with respect to them, of the beloved Object. The aspects of the struggle will depend, in fact, upon how near the prize may be to one of the adversaries, or how distant ; upon whether the Object be of a rank inferior to both rivals, or midway between the two, or even superior to both.


TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION

ADULTERY (A Deceived Husband or Wife ; Two Adulterers)

Without deserving to constitute a situation of itself alone, Adultery yet presents an interesting aspect of Theft (action from without) combined with Treason (action within). Schiller, following the example of Lope, was pleased to idealize brigandage ; Hugo and the elder Dumas undertook for adultery a similar paradox ; and, developing the process of antithesis by which were created "Triboulet" and "Lucrèce Borgia," they suc- ceeded, once for all — and quite legitimately. The folly lies in the belief of the unthinking crowd in the ex- cellence of the subject thus presented; in the public's admiration for the "Antonys" — but the public has ended by preferring the moving pictures to them.

First Case : — ^The author portrays the Adulterer, the stranger in the house, as much more agreeable, hand- somer, more loving, bolder or stronger than the de- ceived husband . . . Whatever arabesques may cover the simple and fundamental fact of Larceny, whatever complaisance may be shown by a tired public, there remains nevertheless, beneath it all, a basis of granite — the old-fashioned conscience; to it, the thing which is here vaunted is simply the breach of the Word of ÇEonor of a contract — that word, that promise which was obeyed by the Homeric gods and by the knights of Chivalry no less than by ourselves; that base of every social agglomeration; that which savages and

88


TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION 89

which convicts respect between themselves; that pri- mary source of order in the world of action and of thought. The spectators' attention may of course be momentarily turned from a point of view so strict, and quite naturally; through the heresies of the im- agination almost anything may evoke a laugh. Do we not laugh heartily at the sight of a fat man tumbling ridiculously down a flight of steps, at the bottom of which he may break his neck? Anything, likewise, may evoke our pity; we have pity for the perjuries of the gambler and the drunkard, but it is mingled with contempt. Now, is it this sort of sad contempt which our dramatists wish to claim for their attractive young adulterers, as the reward of so much care and effort? If not, the effort has been a mistaken one.

Second Case: — The Adulterer is represented as less attractive and sympathetic than the unappreciated husband. This forms the sort of play known as "wholesome," which as a matter of fact is merely tire- some. A man whose pocket-book has been stolen does not on that account grow greater in our eyes, and when the information which he is in a position to furnish us is once obtained, our attention is turned from him and directed toward the thief. But if the latter, already far from heroic in his exploit, is in turn portrayed as still less interesting than his dupe, he merely disgusts us — ^and the adulterous wife appears but a fool to have preferred him. Then (with that childishness which most of us retain beneath our sophistication) , scenting a foregone conclusion in the lesson which the author intends for us, and suspecting falsehood at the bottom of it, we grimace with irritation, disappointed to per- ceive, behind the story presented for our entertain- ment, the vinegarish smile of the school-teacher.

Third Case: — The deceived Husband or Wife is Avenged. Here, at last, something happens ! But this


90 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

vengeance, unfortunately, is merely one of the cases of the Third Situation. )'\

Thus we shall not succeed with our TWenty-fifth Situation except by treating it in a broadly human spirit, without dolefulness and without austerity. It will not be necessary to defend the thief nor the traitor, nor to take the part of their dupe. To com- prehend them all, to have compassion upon all, to ex- plain them all — which is to say to comprehend one- self, to have pity upon oneself, and to explain oneself — this is the real work to be accomplished.

A — A Mistress Betrayed; (1) — For a Yomig Worn- an : — Sophocles' "Women of Colchis" ; the "Medeas" of Seneca and of Corneille ; "Miss Sara Sampson" by Les- sing; "Lucienne" (Gramont, 1890). These examples are, because of the final vengeance, symmetrical to the masculine of Class B.

(2) — For a Young Wife (the marriage preceding the opening of the play) : — "Un Voyage de Noces" (Tier- celin, 1881).

(3)_For a Girl:— "La Veine" (Capus, 1901).

(B)— A Wife Betrayed: (1)— For a Slave, Who Does Not Love in Return: — "Maidens of Trachis" by Sophocles; "Hercules on CEta" by Seneca (the first part; as to the rest, see "Imprudence") ; the "Andro- mache" of Euripides and that of Racine (in which this is one side of the drama ; for the other, see "Sacrifices for Kinsmen").

( 2 ) — For Debauchery : — "Numa Roumestan" by Daudet; "Francillon" by Dumas; "Serge Panine" by Ohnet ; the opening part of "Mères Ennemies," which afterward turns to "Hatred of Kinsmen."

(3) — For a Married Woman (a double adultery) : — "La Princesse Georges" and "L'Etrangère" by Dumas ; "Monsieur de Morat" (Tarbe, 1887) ; "Les Ménages de


TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION 91

Paris" (Raymond, 1886); "Le Depute Leveau" (Le- maïtre) .

(4)— With the Intention of Bigamy:— The "Al- mseons of Sophocles and of Euripides.

(5) — For a Young Girl, Who Does Not Love in Re- tuni : — Shakespeare's "Henry VIII," and that of Saint- Saëns; Alfieri's "Rosamonde" (a combination of the present and the preceding situations, for it is also a simple Rivalry of King and Subject).

(6) — ^A Wife Envied by a Young Girl Who is in Love With Her Husband :— "Stella" by Goethe; "Dernier Amour" (Ohnet, 1890)..

(7) — ^By a Courtesan: — "Miss Fanfare" (Ganderax, 1881, see B 2) ; "Proserpine" (Vacquerie and Saint- Saëns, 1887) ; "La Comtesse Fredegonde" (Amigues, 1887); "Myrane" (Bergeat, 1890).

(8) — Rivalry Between a Lawful Wife Who is Anti- pathetic and a Mistress Who is Congenial: — "C'est la Loi" (Cliquet, 1882) ; "Les Affranchis" (Madame Len- éru, 1911).

(9) — Between a Generous Wife and an Impassioned Girl:-^"La Vierge Folle" (Bataille, 1910) ; "La Femme de Demain" (Arthur Lef ebvre, 1909) .

C (1) — An Antagonistic Husband Sacrificed for a Congenial Lover: — "Angelo;" "Le Nouveau Monde" by Villiers de I'Isle Adam; "Un Drôle" (Yves Guyot, 1889) ; "Le Mari" (Nus and Arnould, 1889) ; "Les Ten-- ailles" (Hervieu) ; "Le Torrent" (Donnay) ; "Decad- ence" (Guinon, 1901) ; "Page Blanche" (Dévore, 1909).

(2) — A Husband, Believed to be Lost, Forgotten for a Rival: — "Rhadamiste et Zénobie" by Crébillon; "Jacques Damour" by Zola. The "Zénobie" of Metastasio, by the faithful love retained for her husband, forms a case unique ( !) among the innumer- able dramas upon adulterous passions. Compare "Le Dédale" (see XXIV, A 12).

(3) — ^A Commonplace Husband Sacrificed for a


J9


92 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Sympathetic Lover: — "Diane de Lys" by Dumas; "Tristan and Isolde" by Wagner (with the addition of "Madness," produced by a love-potion) ; "Françoise de Rimini" (A. Thomas, 1882) ; "La Sérénade" (Jean Jul- lien, 1887) ; "L'Age Critique" (Byl, 1890) ; "Antoinette Sabrier" (Cîoolus, 1903) ; "La Montansier" (Jeofrin, de Fiers and de Caillavet, 1904) ; "Connais-toi" (Hervieu, 1909). The same case without adultery: "Sigurd" (Reyer, 1885) ; "La Comtesse Sarah" (1886).

(4) — A Good Husband Betrayed for an Inferior Rival:— "L'Aveu" (Sarah Bemhard, 1888) ; "Révoltée^ (Lemaîtrè, 1889) ; "La Maison des Deux Barbeaux' (Theuriet, 1885) ; "André del Sarte" (Alfred de Mus- set) ; "La Petite Paroisse" (Daudet, 1911) ; "Le Man- nequin d'Osier" (France, 1904) ; "La Rencontre" (Berton, 1909). Cases of preference without adultery: "Smilis" by Aicard; "Les Jacobines" by Hermant (1907).

(5)_For a Grotesque Rival:— "The Fatal Dowry" by Massinger.

(6)— For an Odious Rival :— "Gerfaut" (from G. de Bernard, by Moreau, 1886) ; "Cœur à Cœur" (Coolus, 1907).

(7) — For a Commonplace Rival, By a Perverse Wife: — "La Femme de Claude" by Dumas; "Pot- Bouille" by Zola; "Rivoli" (Fauchois. 1911): "Les Malefilâtre'* (Porto-Riche, 1904) ; "Soeurette" (Borteau-Loti). In fiction: "Madame Bovary."

(8) — For a Rival Less Handsome, but Useful (with comic false suspicions; that is, suspicions afterward thought to have been false) : — "L'Echéance" ' (Jean JuUien, 1889) .

D (1) — Vengeance of a Deceived Husband (dramas built upon a crescendo of suspicion) : — "The Physician of His Own Honor'* and "Secret Vengeance for Secret Outrage" by Calderon; "L'Affaire Clemenceau" by Dumas ; "The Kreutzer Sonata" (after Tolstoi, 1910) ; '*La Légende du Cœur" (Aicard, 1903) ; "Paraître" (Donnay, 1906;; "Les Miroirs" (Roinarrd) ; "The Enigma" by Hervieu (which borrows something from Situation XI of this name. A vengeance purely moral : "Après Moi" (Bernstein, 1911) ; financial: "Samson," by the same author, (1907).

(2) — Jealousy Sacrificed for the Sake of a Cause: (tending toward "Sacrifices for an Ideal") : — "Les Jacobites" (Coppée, 1885) ; "Patrie" (Paladilhe, 1886). Sacrificed out of Pity: — "La Famille d'Armelles (Marras, 1883).

E — A Husband Persecuted by a Rejected Rival:— "Raoul de Crequi" (Delayrac, 1889). This case is symmetrical to B 7, and both proceed in the direction of "Murderous Adultery."


TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION

CRIMES OF LOVE (The Lover; the Beloved)

This is the only tragic situation of all those built upon Love, that subject being one essentially belonging to comedy (see XXVIII and XXIX).

Eight species of erotic crimes may be pointed out : —

First: Onanism, that "solitary vice" which does not lead to action, can furnish only melancholy silhouettes such as the legend of Narcissus and "Chariot s'amuse," or certain grotesqueries of Aristophanes," unless it be made the basis for a study of the weakening and col- lapse of the Will, in which case it might be grouped with drunkenness, gambling, etc., in Situation XXII.

Second: Violation, like murder, is but an act, generally a brief one and not a situation; at most it approaches "Abduction." Even the consequences to the perpetrator, like those of the

Thii d : Prostitution and its succeedant gallantry and Juanism (repetition of acts), do not become dramatic unless pursued by punishment, in which case they belong to the Fifth Situation. Nevertheless, if impun- ity be secured, the taste for violation and for prostitu- tion tends toward the Twenty-Second.

Fourth: Adultery, whose character of theft has given rise to special situations already studied.

Fifth: Incest is divided in two principal directions. It may be committed in an ascendant-descendant line, in which case it implies either filial impiety or an abuse of authority analogous to that which we shall find in

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TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION 95

the Eighth variety of criminal love. It may also occur- upon what may be called a horizontal line; that is, between consanguines or persons related by marriage.

A (1)— A Mother in Loive With Her Son:— "Semi- ramis" by Manfredi, and by Crébillon; to explain and extenuate this case, the latter author has first used the Eighteenth (Involuntary Crimes of Love) ; "Les Cuirs de Boeuf" (Polti, 1898). Inverse case: "Le Petit Ami" by Leautaud.

(2)— A Daughter in Love With Her Father:— Alfieri's "Myrrha," whose psychology is drawn from that of "Phèdre."

(3) —Violation of a Daughter by a Father:— "The Cenci" by Shelley ; the story of the Peau d'âne (inten- tion only) .

B (l)-rA Woman Enamored of Her Stepson: — "lobates" and "Phaedra" by Sophocles; the Hippoly- tus" of Euripides and of Seneca; "Phèdre" by Racine. In comedy: "Madame TAmirale" (Mars and Lyon, 1911). In almost none of the foregoing cases, it will be observed, is there a reciprocity of desire, whereas the passion, heretofore solitary, is shared, and the crime, unconscious at least on one side in "Myrrha," is boldly committed in

(2) — A Woman and Her Stepson Enamored of Each Other: — Zola's "Reneè" (drawn from his story "Curée,") and similar to the quasi-incestuous passion of "Dr. Pascal." The love is platonic in Alfieri's "Philip II," and Schiller's "Don Carlos."

(3) — A Woman Being the Mistress, at the Same Time, of a Father and Son, Both of Whom Accept the Situation:— "L'Ecole des Veufs" (Ancey, 1889).

C (1) — A Man Becomes the Lover of His Sister-in- Law:— "La Sang-Brulé" (Bouvier, 1885) ; "Le Con- science de l'Enfant" (Dévore, 1889). The Man Alone


96 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Enamored: — "Le Sculpteur de Masques" (Cromelynck. 1911).

(2)— A Brother and Sister in Love With Each Other: — Euripides "iEoliis"; "Canace" by Speroni; "'Tis Pity She's a Whore," Ford's masterpiece; "La Città Morta" by d'Aimunzio.

Even after these works, there remains much more than a gleaning; an ample harvest is still before us. We may extend Class A to include the complicity of both parties (Nero and Agrippina furnish an example, according to Suetonius) ; a similar example, although fragmentary, exists for A 2, in the beginning of Shake- speare's "Pericles." B 1 may be reversed, the step- son's passion being unrequited by his father's wife, a case which is certainly not uncommon. We may also suppress the complicity in B 3, in C I, and in C 2, allow- ing the infatuation to subsist upon one side only. Without going so far as the criminal act, a study of mere temptations or desires, well or ill controlled, has furnished subtile chapters in the psychologies of Seventeenth Century grandes dames, such as Victor Cousin took delight in.

Finally, we may interlace the threads of each of these species of incest with one of the seven other classes of Crimes of Love ; under the form of ignorance, the fifth and sixth classes are mingled in one of the episodes of "Daphnis and Chloe." Add the usual in- cidental rivalries, adulteries, murders, etc.

Sixth : Homosexuality in its two senses, the branches of pederasty and tribadism:

D (1) — A Man Enamored of Another Man, Who Yields: — Example from fiction: "Vautrin." Dramatic examples : the "Laius" of Aeschylus ; the "Chrysippus" of Euripides. The latter tragedy appears to have been one of the finest, and perhaps the most moving, of all antiquity. Three situations were there superposed with rare success. Laius having conceived a passion.


TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION 97

unnatural and furthermore adulterous, for the young Chrysippus, an epithalamium as terrible as that of Ford must have resulted, for here appeared and spoke the first man who had ever experienced such desires and dared to express and gratify th^em, and in his words lay the explanation of the wavering and fall of Chrysippus. Then followed the most indignant and pitiless jealousy on the part of Jocaste, wife of Laius. Against Chrysippus she roused the old envy of the young man's two brothers, an envy of the same type as that which armed the sons of Jacob against Joseph, but an envy which shows itself strangely menacing at the mere announcement of the names of these two brotners, — ^Atreus and Thyestes ! The fratricide is ac- complished, to the fierce joy of the queen; Laius learns the details from the lips of the dying Chrysippus him- self. And, in some prediction — doubtless that of Tiresias, young at the time and not yet deprived of sight — there dawns the destiny of the two great families of tragedy par excellence, the Labdacides and the Atrides, beginning in these crimes and running through all Greek legend.

The tribadic or sapphic branch has not been used upon the stage ; Mourey alone has attempted it, but in vain in his "Lawn Tennis." The objection which might be urged against it (and which probably explains why the drama, in the ages of its liberty, has made no use of it) is that this vice has not the horrible grandeur of its congener. Weak and colorless, the last evil habit of worn-out or unattractive women, it does not offer to the tragic poet that madness, brutal and preposterous, but springing from wild youth and strength, which we find in the criminal passion of the heroic ages.

Seventh: Bestiality, or passion for a creature out- side the human species. Classed in general as a vice, it is of no use theatrically. Nevertheless, in

E— A Woman Enamored of a Bull; — "The Cretans"


98 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Df Euripides seems to have revealed the emotions, after all conceivable, of this "Ultima Thule" of sexual per- version. Better than anywhere else, evidently, the illogical and mysterious character of the life of the senses, the perversion of a normal instinct, and the feeling of fatalism which its victims communicate, could here be presented in sad and awful nudity.

Eighth : The Abuse of Minor Children borrows some- thing from each of the seven preceding varieties. That such a subject — so modern, so English — ^may in skilful hands become most pathetic, is readily apparent to those of us who read, a few years ago, the "Pall Mall Gazette."


-"'--


TWENTY-SEVENTH SITUATION

DISCOVERY OF THE DISHONOR OF A LOVED ONE (The Discoverer ; the Guilty One)

From this Situation there results, almost immediate- ly, a psychologic struggle similar to that of the Twenty-Third, "Sacrifice of Loved Ones," but with- out the attraction of a high Ideal ; this is replaced, in the present action, by the lash of shame.

A (1) — ^Discovery of a Mother's Shame:— "Madame Caverlet" by Augier; "Odette" and "Georgette" by Sardou ; "Madame X" (Bisson, 1908) ; "Mrs. Warren's Profession" (Bernard Shaw) ; "Lea Quarts d'Heure" (second part; Guiches and Lavedan, 1888). This sad destruction of a child's deepest re- spect and reverence is colored, in these works, by the terrors of the mother, by her blushes, by her remorse before the consequences of the past ; through this last point the action ends in the Thirty-Fourth (Remorse), It remains unconnected in the second part of the "Marquis de Priola" (Lavedan, 1901).

(2) — Discovery of a Father's Shame: — "Vieille His- toire" (Jean Jullien, 1891) ; the dénouement of "Pierre et Thérèse" (Prévost, 1909) .

(3) — ^Discovery of a Daughter's Dishonor: — ^Part of "La Fille du Depute" (Morel, 1881) ; of "Les Affaires sont les Affaires" (Mirbeau, 1902) ; "L'Oreille Fendue (Nepoty, 1908).

B (1) — ^Discovery of a Dishonor in the Family of Ones Fiancée:— "L'Absente" (Villemer, 1889). Re- finements of romance, whose mild tragedy consists in

99


lOÔ THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITtJATiÔlîâ

retarding the signature of a contract, and which cor- responds also to the pseudo-Situation XXX (Forbid- den Loves). Something of their dullness has already emanated from A 1 and A 2.

(2.) — Discovery that Ones Wife Has Been Violated Before Marriage: — *^Le Secret de Gilbertè" (Massiacv ^ 1890). Since the Marriage: — "Flore de Frileuse" by Bergerat, with coinic denouement thanks to a "quid- pro-quo."

(3) — ^That She Has Previously Committed a Fault:. —"Le Prince Zilah" (Claretie, 1885) ; part of Dumas' "Denise." Common instances: Marriages through agencies. ^ . ,

(4) — Discovery that Ones Wife Has Formerly Qeen a Prostitute : — "Lena" (Berton and Mme. van Velde, 1886) i That ones mistress has been a prostitute: — "Marion Delorme." The same situation, from the point of view of "Remorse" (XXXIV), is encountered in Zola's "Madeleine." ...

(5)— Discovery of Dishonor on the Part of a Lovei (this also borders upon XXXIV:— "Chamillac" (Feuil- let, 1886) ; "Le Crocodile" (Sardou, 1886) .

(6) — Discovery that Ones Mistress, f ormerly , a Prostitute/ Has Returned to Her Old Life (with extenu- ating circumstances) : — "La Dame aux Caniellias Dumas) ; "La Courtisane" (Amyvelde, 1905) ; part of- "Maiion Lescaut." But for feminine cunning ; would not this be the normal course of all "bonnes fortunes ?"

(7) — Discovery that Ones Lover is a Scoundrel, or that Ones Mistress is a Woman of Bad Character: — "Monsieur Alphonse" by Dumas ; "Mensonges" by Emile Michelet. Since (as Palice remarks) liaisons lATould last forever if they were never broken off, and since the two lovers, who certainly know eaph other well, always give as the reason of their rupture the , title of the present sub-class, the conclusion is as easy to draw as it is unflattering to the human species. The


ÏWÊNTY-SEVENTH SITUATION lOl

Same Discovery Concerning a So-Called King: — "Sire" (Lavedan, 1909), (8) — ^The Same Discovery Concerning Ones Wife: —

"Le Manage d'Olympe." by Augier» C — Discovery that Ones Son is an Assassin:—^

"Werner" by Byron; "La PoHcière" (Montepin, 1889). The surprise is intensified in cases of parricide. Nuance C is capable of infinite development.

D- — Might constitute a distinct situation; there is not only the discovery, but the duty of imposing pun- ishment as well. This situation might serve as an in- termediary between the Twenty-Third, "Duty of Sac- rificing Kinsmen," and the Twenty-Seventh, which we are now studying, and which would thus end with Class C.

(1) — ^Duty of Punishing a Son Who is a Traitor to Country: — ^The "Brutus" of Voltaire, and of Alfieri. A Brother Who is a Traitor to His Party: — "Etudiants Russes" by Gilkin.

(2) — ^Duty of Punishing a Son Condemned Under a Law Which the Father has Made :— "L'Inflexible" (Parodi, 1884) ; "Le Tribun" (Bourget, 1910) ; "UApo- tre" (Loyson, 1911).

(3) — ^Duty of Punishing a Son Believed to be Guilty: —"Le Régiment" (Mary, 1890); "L'As de Trèfle" (Decourcelle, 1883). This approaches XXXIII (Judicial Error) .

(4)_Duty of Sacrificing, to Fulfill a Vow of Tyran- nicide, a Father Until then Unknown. This impru- dent vow carries us back, at one point, to the Seven- teenth (Imprudence) , and at another point the striking of an unknown parent recalls also the Nineteenth. — "Severo Torelli (Coppée, 1883).

(5) — ^Duty of Punishing a Brother Who is an Assassin : — "Casse-Museau" (Marot, 1881 ) . From


102 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

this situation the kinsman- judge escapes for a mo- ment, only to fall into D 3, from which he returns with resignation to D 5.

(6) — Duty of Punishing Ones Mother to Avenge Ones Father: — (Situation IV arrested prematurely) : — "Le Cœur de Se-hor (Michaud d'Humiac). The Fourth is less in evidence in "Simone" (Brieux, 1908).


TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION

OBSTACLES TO LOVE (Two Lovers; an Obstacle)

A (1) — Marriage Prevented by Inequality of

Rank:— "Nitétis" and "The Chinese Hero" by Metas- tasio ; "Le Prince Soleil" (Vasseur, 1889) ; second act of "La Vie Publique (Fabre, 1901); "Ramuntcho" (Pierre Loti, 1908) ; "L'Emigré" (Bourget, 1908). This is the sentimental-philosophical Situation of a great number of eighteenth century works ("Nanine," etc.)» in which a lord mvariably falls in love with a peasant girl. In George Sand, on the contrary, it is always a lady who is in love with a man of inferior rank ; a sort of literature which at least has inspired many gallant adventures of our own time. The addition of one more little obstacle — the marriage bond — ^furnishes the pre- text for the real intrigue of "Ruy Bias."

(2) — Inequality of Fortune an Impediment to Mar- riage : — "Myrtille" and in part "Friend Fritz" by Erck- mann-Chatrian ; "L'Abbe Constantin" by Halevy; "La Petite Amie" (Brieux, 1902) ; "La Plus Faible" (Pré- vost, 1904) ; "La Veuve Joyeuse" (Meilhac, Léon and Stein, 1909) ; "Le Danseur Inconnu" (Bernard, 1909) "La Petite Chocolatière" (Gavault, 1909) ; "Primerose" "Le Rêve" (from Zola's story by Bruneau) ; in fiction "Le Bonheur des Dames" — to mention only the more estimable works, leaving aside the endless number of trivial plays imitative of Scribe, and the Romances of Poor Young Men, Dames Blanches, etc., which make

103


104 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

our ears ring witn confusing additions and subtrac- tions, until the unexpected final multiplication — "deus ex machina" — which suddenly equalizes the two terms of the problem, the two fortunes of the lovers, with the most admirably sjonmetrical ahgnment of parallel zeros — preceded, oh joy! oh bliss! on one side as on the other, by two identical figures !

It must of course be recognized that these social and conventional inequalities are mere puerile details, and that the lovers, if they have but a little coui*age and sincerity, will overcome them without difficulty; they can do so. by simply leaving behind them titles and money, and in a new country, under other names, bravely beginning life again together. If, instead of such bagatelles, we might only be sometimes shown the more serious obstacles of inequality of ages, of characters, of tastes — which are at the same time so much more common i

They are, indeed, so frequent that a general theory might be established with regard to thein. The first love (twenty years) seeks in its object equality of rank and superiority of age (this is a fact well known to those who have studied the cases of girl-mothers) ; the second love, and in general the second period of emotional life (thirty years) , addresses itself, audacity having been acquired» to superiors in rank but equals in age ; finally, the third love, or in a more general way the third epoch of sentimental life, inclines by prefer- ence to those who are younger anl socially inferior. Naturally, subdivision is here possible.

B — ^Marriage Prevented by Enemies and Contingent Obstacles:— "Sieba" (Manzotti, 1883); "Et Ma- Soeur?" (Rabier, 19X1) ; "Le Péché de Marthe" (Roch- ard, 1910) ; ail fairy-plays, since the "Zéim" of Gozzi. In fine, a sort of steeple-chase process adapts itself to this situation, but the chase is not one in which several rival steeds and riders engage; throughout it3 CQur3ç


TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION 105

but a single couple enters upon it, to end at the shin- ing goal with the usual somersault.

C (1) — Marriage Forbidden on Account of the Young Woman's Previous Betrothal to Another: — "11 Re Pastore" by Metastasio ; and other pieces without number. The lovers will die if separated, so they assure us. We see them make no preparations to do so, but the spectator is good enough to take their word for it ; the ardors, the "braises"-^tp use the exact language of the **grand siècle" — and other nervous phenomena in hypochondriacs of this sort cannot but offer some interest — not, however, for long.

(2) — ^The Same Case, Complicated by an Imaginary Marriage of the Beloved Object: — "Les Bleus de l'Amour" (Coolus, 1911).

D (1) — A Free Union Impeded by the Opposition of Relatives:— "Le Divorce" (Bourget, 1908) ; "Les Lys" (Wolf and Leroux, 1908).

(2) — Family Affection Disturbed by the Parents-in- Law:— "Le Roman d'EUse" (Richard, 1885) ; "Le Pous- sin" (Guiraud, 1908). -

E — By the Incompatibility of Temper of the Lovers* — "Montmartre" (Frondaie, 1911). "Les Angles du Divorce" (BioUay) belongs both to E and to D 2.

F — Love — ^but enough of this ! What are we doing, co- spectators in this hall, before this pretended situation ? Upon the stage are our two young people, locked in close embraces or conventionally attitudinizing in pure-» ly theatrical poses. What is there in all this worth remaining for? Let us leave it . . , What, Madame, you straighten yourself in your chair and crane your neck in excitement over the gesticulationa of the "jeune premier?" But his sweetheart there be-* side him — have you forgotten that it is she whom he desires, or are the two of them playing so badly, is their dialogue so little natural that you forget the §tory enacteçl and fondly imagine yourself lii^tening tQ


106 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

a monologue, a declaration addressed to you alone ? And Monsieur there, with mouth open, eyes starting from his head, following with avidity every movement of the actress's lithe figure ! Quick, my good man, another will be before you! Be consistent, at least! Spring upon the stage, break the insipid dandy's bones, and take his place !

Sorry return to promiscuity, in our overheated halls like lupanars, which the clergy is not altogether un- reasonable in condemning! Do people gather here simply to study amatory manifestations ? In that case, why not freely open training schools for courtesans ? Is it for the benefit of the sidewalk traffic, later in the evening, that the public is here being prepared ?

fresh and stormy winds of Dionysian drama! Aeschylus, where art thou who wouldst have blushed to represent aught of amorous passion but its crimes and infamies? Do we not, even yet, perceive the heights to which rise those chaste pinnacles of modem art, "Macbeth" and "Athalie?"

But why disturb ourselves ? Turning our eyes from these summits to the scene before us, we do not feel depression ; indeed, we indulge in a hearty laugh. These characters here before us ? Why, they are but puppets of comedy, nothing more. And the effort of their mis- guided authors to make them serious and tragic de- spite their nature has resulted in mere caricature. In more intelligent hands, have not the best of our dramas wherein love is important (but not of the first importance, as in this XXVIII) returned logically and naturally to an indulgence of smiles ? "Le Cid," which is the classic type of this sort, is a tragi-comedy, and all the characters surrounding Romeo and Juliet are frankly comic.

Nevertheless, our blind dramaturgy, with continued obstinacy, still breathes forth its solemnities in this


TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION 107

equivocal rhythm. Whether the piece treats of sociol- ogy, of politics, of religion, of questions of art, of the title to a succession, of the exploitation of mines, of the invention of a gun, of the discovery of a chemical product, of it matters not what — s, love story it must have; there is no escape. Savants, revolutionists, poets, priests or generals present themselves to us only to fall immediately to love-making or match-making. It becomes a mania. And we are asked to take these tiresome repetitions seriously!

This, then, is the actual stage of today. In my opin- ion, de Chirac alone has shown himself its courageously logical son — although a rejected one, — society, like an aged coquette, reserving always some secret sins, and fearing nothing so much as nudity, which would destroy the legend of her imaginary wicked charms» veiled, she willingly lets it be supposed, under her hypocrisy.

How grotesque an aspect will our ithyphallic obses- sion present, once it is crystallized in history, when we shall finally have returned to antique common sense !


\j


TWENTy-ninth situation

AN ENEMY LOVED (The Beloved Enemy ; the Lover ; the Hater)

- ♦ *

A— ^Thè Loved One Hated by Kinsmen of the Lover.

The preceding Situation might very well be absorbed into this» ^

(1) — ^The* Lover Pursued by the Brothers of His Be- loved :— "The Duchess of Malfi" by Webster ; "The Broken Heart" by Ford.

(2)— The Lover Hated by the Family of his Be- loved: — "The Story of Yayati" by Roudradeva (with the characteristic color of these Hindu rivalries, wherein jealousy is hardly perceptible) ; "The Victory of Pradyoumna" by Samara Dikchita; Metastasio's "Cato"; "La Grande Marnière" (Ohnet, 1888).

(3) — ^The Lover is the Son of a Man Rated by the Kinsmen of His Beloved: — "La Taverne des Trabans" and "Les Rantzau" by Erckmann-Chatrian. In comic vein : "Dieu ou pas Dieu," a romance by Beaubourg.

(4) — The Beloved is an Enemy of the Party of the Woman Who Loves Him: — "Madhouranirouddha" by Vira, the contemporary of Corneille ; "Les Scythes" by Voltaire ; "Almanzor" by Heine ; ; "Lakmé" by Delibes ; "Les Carbonari" (No, 1882) ; "Madame Thérèse" by Erckmann-Chatrian; "Lydie" (Mirai, 1882) ; "Les Ama- zones" (Mazel); "Les Oberle" (Bazin, 1905); Les Noces Corinthiennes" (France) ; "l'Exode" (Fauchois, 1904).

B (1)— The Lover îs the Slayer of the Father of His Beloved: — "Le Cid" (and the opera drawn from it) ; "Olympie" by Voltaire.

308


Twenty-ninth situation 109

(2)— The Beloved is the Slayer of the Father of her Lover: — "Mademoiselle de Bressier" (Delpit, 1887).

(3)_The Beloved is the Slayer of the Brother of Her Lover: — "La Reine Fiammette" (Mendès, 1889).

(4)-r-The Beloved is the Slayer of the Husband of the Woman Who Loves Him, But Who Has Previously Sworn to Avenge that Husband: — "Irène" by Voltaire.

(5) — The Same Case, Except that a Lover, Instead of a Husband, Has Been Slain: — "Fedora" (Sardou, 1882).

(6) — The Beloved is the Slayer of a Kinsman of the Woman Who Loves Him: — "Romeo and Juliet," this situation being modified by that of "Abduction" (elopement) , then, with triple effect by XXXYI, "Loss of Loved Ones ;" the first time mistakenly, the second time simply and actually, the third time doubly and simultaneously to both the families of the principal characters ; "l'Ancêtre" (Saint-Saëns and Lassus) : "Fortune and Misfortune of a Name" and "His Own Gaoler" by Calderon.

(7) — ^The Beloved is the Daughter of the Slayer of Her Lover's Father: — "Le Crime de Jean Morel" (Samson, 1890) ; "La Marchande de Sourires" (Judith Gautier, 1888).

The chief emotional element thus remains the same as in the Fifth (Pursuit), and Love here serves espec- ially to present the pursued man under various fav- orable lights which have a certain unity. She whom he loves here plays, to some small extent, the rôle of the Greek chorus. Suppress the love interest, replace it with any other tie, however weak, or even leave nothing in its place, and a play of the type of Situation V, with all its terrors, will still remain. Attempt, on the contrary, to curtail the other interest, the enmity — to soften the vengeance — and to substitute any other


ilO THÎRTY-Six DRAMATIC SÎTUATÏQNë

element of difference or leave their place unfilled,^ and what will remain of tragic emotion ? Nothing.

We have, then, reason to conclude that love — ^an ex- cellent motif for comedy, better still for farce — sweet or poignant as it may be in stories read in solitude, of which we can fancy ourselves hero or heroine, love is not, in reality, tragic, despite the virtuosity which has sometimes succeeded in making it appear so, and despite the prevalent opinion of this age of erotomania, which is now approaching its end.

THIRTIETH SITUATION

AMBITION

(An Ambitious Person ; a Thing Coveted ; an

Adversary)

A highly intellectual type of action is here presented, for which there is no antique model, and from which mediocrity usually keeps a respectful distance.

A — Ambition Watched and Guarded Against by a Kinsman or a Patriot Friend: (1) — By a Brother: — "Timoleon" by Alfieri. Historic instance (comic, that is to say, feigned) , Lucien and Napoleon Bonaparte.

(2) — By a Relative or a Person Under Obligation: — "Julius Caesar" by Shakespeare, "La Mort de Caesar" by Voltaire ; "Brutus 11" by Alfieri. In "La Mort de Caesar" there is a reappearance of the Nineteenth (Slaying of a Kinsman Unrecognized), so strong was the desire to recall the works of antiquity !

( 3 ) _By Partisans :— " Wallenstein" by Schiller ; "Cromwell" by Hugo; "Marius Vaincu" (Mortier, 1911).

(B) — ^Rebellious Ambition (akin to VIII, A 1): — "Sir Thomas Wyat" by Webster; "Perkin Warbeck" by Ford ; "Catilina" by Voltaire ; Cade's insurrection in the second part of Shakespeare's "Henry IV."

C (1) — Ambition and Covetousness Heaping Crime Upon Crime:— "Macbeth" and "Richard III"; "Ezzel- ino" (A. Mussato) ; part of the "Cinq Doigts de Birouk" (Decourcelle, 1883) ; "La-Bête Féroce" (Jules Mary and Emile Rochard, 1908) ; "La Vie Publique" (Fabre, 1901). In comedy: "Ubu-roi" (Jarry). In fiction: "La Fortune des Rougon" (with criminality attenuated to

111


112 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

simple want of dignity) ; "Son Excellence Eugene" (sacrifice of morality) ; the story of Lucien de Rubem- pré ; a case of greed : "La Terre."

(2)— Parricidal Ambition :—"Tullia" by Martelli..

Ambition, one of the most powerful of passions, if it be not indeed the passion par excellence will always affect the spectator strongly, for he feels and knows ^^hat, once awakened in a man, it will cease only with his death. And how many are the objects of its desire! Tyrannical power, high rank, honors, fortune (by inheritance, marriage, robbery, etc.), the conserva- tion of riches (avarice), glory (political, scientific, lit- erary, inventive, artistic), celebrity, distinction.

We have seen in Class A the ties which may unite •the ambitious one and his adversary and the Situations which may result from them (XIX, XXIII, XXIV).

Here is one way among many to intensify the fury of C: mingle with it the sincerity of a f^ith, of a convic- tion; such a combination is found in the case of the Spaniards in Peru and in Flanders, and in the case of our own "gentle and intellectual" rs^ce under the League and under the Terror; in the case of Calvin, and of the Inquisition.


THIRTY-FIRST SITUATION

CONFLICT WITH A GOD (A Mortal; an Immortal)

Most anciently treated of all Situations is this strug- gle. Into its Babel of dramatic construction all or nearly all of the others may easily enter. For this is the strife supreme; it is also the supreme folly and the supreme imprudence. It offers the most unprecedented aims of ambitions, audacious enter- prises, titanesque conspiracies, Ixionian abductions; the most fascinating of enigmas; the Ideal here undergoes a rare assault of passions; prodigious rivalries develop. As for the surrounding witnesses, does not their sympathy often go to him whom they should hate? — learning of his crime, is it not sometimes their duty to punish him them- selves, to sacrifice him to their faith, or to sacri- fice themselves for him? Between the dearest of kindred, hatreds will break forth. Then comes the storm of disaster, the vanquished one bound to mis- fortune, crushed before those whom he loves, unless, — ^acme of horror — ^he has, in a transport Of blind de- lirium, dishonored or massacred them unknowingly. Suppliants, seeking the lost loved one, advance sad theories and ^deavor to disarm rancor,— but the divine vengeance has been unchained !

This remarkable grouping has been in our day almost entirely ignored. Byronists as we still are, "bon gré mal gré," we might yet dream of this superb onslaught on the heavens. But no ! — we treat even the evangel- ical subject of the Passion, while we pass by, like owls in broad daylight, this genuinely dramatic situation,

118 8


114 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

and content ourselves with sanctimoniously intoning the idyllo-di^ffcctic phrases which preceded the sacred tragedy, — -itsetf^IeK uiîséen.

A (1) — Struggle Against a Deity: — "The -^don- ians" and "The Bassarides," "Pentheus" and "The Wool-Carders" .by Aeschylus; "The Bacchantes" of Euripides; the Clirist Suffering" of Saint Gregory Nazianzen. ^ Epic : ^ the sixth Honfieric hymn (to lîîonysos) ; tlië dream of Jacob.

(2)— Stiife with the JfcKev^rç in a God:— ^The

^îçodus ofcthe Hebrews" by, Ezekiel; "L'Empereur Julien" i(MHTf^le of Npt^^Danie, XIV Century) ; "Athalie." ...îftstçf te instances: vwious persecutions I^ic: "lies Martyrs."

B (l)i^ConteoTerajr With^Dcitî^:— "THeBu^ Job." I cannot give^ it is ttUe, the date nor the place of the '^emîér" trf "Job." But the tàtt of àcftuâl reprtoentalîon by Messieurs A, B and C aiid Misses X, Y and Z is no nîoî:e an indispeilsable condition to the esistëncê of true drama than it is ah all-suflteient oiie. We may hold that the "prehiier" was given in that great Theatre of which Bràhmànic legend tells ; a Thea- tre inaugurated long before that of man, 'arid thank's to i^ich the godfe may occupy th« leisures of their eterîiity.

(2^^WWshMfèîft frfr COÎitêlhtf éf a Gôfl :— TéSîfea

Y^djgtta" fciy Vecfyânathà Viitëh^aii; "lié Fèstîn aè fietre" (ftïéjàning thè i^Ml àé^idto, ^Mch ftoitt thfe Wè- gîAhiria: leads tcfWàrd thé dénôtim'èîit) .

(3)— Punishmeift M "Pmë lÈémà î ^WStïi^


éàbhylus' "A^^jî tbéi-fâh" '{kèfedfffing ta tjtiè îi^bth- iis); Sophocles' "fh^frâs"; Euri^ïdêfe' 'T^ifei^- li^u^h A Ç^ïrîstito ex'amiâé : Simott Ihè Mkgicfeh;

. ,^i^fé^féî>ÎÛ(itiâ RîvàEy, ^iik à Ùo^d:— '^Kë

Nutàeé" bjr Aeschylus : '^liibW' t)y SbpJ^octeS; 'ta


ésis) oiJKbn


THIRTY-FIRST SITUATION 115

(5) — ^Imprudent Rivalry With a Deity: — Sophocles' "Eumele" ; in part "Phaeton" by Euripides.

May it not be possible that we shall one day see treated from the point of view of this Situation, the pathetie death oi Guyot-Dessalgiie, «Mimsitai; of Justice 7


TfflRTY-SECOND SITUATION

MISTAKEN JEALOUSY

(The Jealous One; The Object of Whose Possession He

Is Jealous; the Supposed Accomplice; the Cause

or the Author of the Mistake)

The last element is either not personified (A), or per- sonified in a traitor (B), who is sometimes the true rival of the Jealous One (C).

A (1) — The Mistake Originates in the Suspicious Mind of the Jealous One: — "The Worst is not Always Certain" by Calaeron; Shakespeare's "Comedy of Errors"; "The Bondman" by Massinger; the "Mari- anne" of Dolse and of Tristan I'Hermite; "Tancrède" and "Marianne" by Voltaire ; "la Princesse de Bagdad" by Dumas ; "Un Divorce" (Moreau, 1884) ; "Monna Vanna" (Maeterlinck, 1902). How is it that Molière has not written a comedy of jealousy, upon this Situa- tion symmetrical to that of "L'Avare" ?

(2) — Mistaken Jealousy Aroused by a Fatal Chance: — ^Voltaire's "Zaire" and the opera of that name by de la Nux; part of "Lucrèce Borgia." In comedy: "La Divorcée" (Fall and Léon, 1911).

(3) — Mistaken Jealousy of a Love Which is Purely Platonic: — "Love's Sacrifice" by Ford (in which the wife is unjustly suspected) "L'Esclave due Sevoin" (Valnay, 1881, in which it is more particularly the re- spectful admirer who is wrongly suspected). Of a Flirt:— "Suzette" (Brieux, 1908) ; "Four Times Seven are Twenty-Eight" (Coolus, 1909).

116


THIRTY-SECOND SITUATION 117

(4) — Baseless Jeasousy Aroused by Malicious Rumors: — "Le Père Prodigue" by Dumas; "le Maître de Forges" (Ohnet, 1883).

B (1) — Jealousy Suggested by a Traitor Who is Moved by Hatred: — Shakespeare's "Othello" and "Much Ado about Nothing"; "Semiramide Riconosci- uta" by Metastasio presents the fully developed dénouement of it.

(2)— The Same Case, in Which the Traitor is Moved by Self -Interest : — Shakespeare's "Cymbeline" ; "La Fille du Roi d'Espagne" (Miracle of Notre-Dame, XIV Century) .

(3)_The Same Case, in Which the Traitor is Moved by Jealousy and Self -Interest : — "Love and Intrigue" by Schiller.

C (1) — Reciprocal Jealousy Suggested to Husband and Wife by a Rival: — "The Portrait" by Massinger.

(2) — Jealousy Suggested to the Husband by a Dis- missed Suitor: — Voltaire's "Artemire"; "Le Chevalier Jean" (Joncières, 1885).

(3) — Jealousy Suggested to the Husband by a Wom- an Who is in Love With Him: — "Malheur aux Pauvres" (Bouvier, 1881).

(4) — Jealously Suggested to the Wife by a Scorned Rival:— "The Phtiotides" of Sophocles.

(5) — Jealousy Suggested to a Happy Lover by the Deceived Husband: — "Jalousie" (Vacquerie, 1888).

The number of dramatic elements brought into play already enables us to foresee many combinations for this Situation, whose improbabilities the public is always disposed to accept, however great they may be. Without abusing this indulgence, we may remark^ even at first glance, that almost all the dramas above cited treat of jealousy on the part of a man, whereas experience teaches us that woman is quite as ready as man to let herself be misled by the envious, by a rival, or by a suitor bent upon securing for himself, through


118 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC -SITIJ^TIONS

tjie.ai^er aroused, a pleasure otherwiay Qiït <>f hia rea«jï. .Transfeç^nce to the feminine of the cases al- ready considered mil thus furnish a series of new sit- u^tJiSDS. Efçi^fles Gl^dej self-interest, love, spite and tiyalry,maj?jt.otheï motives present themselves for the ^trftïtw or traitress; the motives mentioned may also be pï^iïlted in colwa yst unused. The dénoufiment (usual- ly a murder, in some cases a suicide, in others a diyuro^) :iaajr be vw»ed,'^^Hl?ed or a^Wfithewd by .^ôn^aiy «id.ii^sïrwnefltal ohsracters. The a^ia^ ni^y flp^said £m- tlje vafioHs kifwitg of theiaiaFigue, for ^feose false proofs, those diabolic suggestions from.\rbich t^e , jefltenay aw^ipgs.

Ujvlffl* the form of "jealous spite" this situation h^s been used by Mohère and other writers of cQp>^dy. fpr the purpose of filling in — through the agit^iiions it causes the principal lovers — the vacancies Q£:tbe pic- ture with minor, characters.


TH5HTYJF.HHtD SITUATION

«mtii'MEAtt^n '0iic; IKe VitstiiH of ^e Mistake; \iié Cause or Author of the Itistàfce ; thfe Guilty Person.)

. (Any^.sort of mîâ^k«i jud|:ment may iierebè un* derstood, eyeii^ thçu'g^ cf>niinitt«d 0TÙy_ in the thous:ht ■ of one person to tee detriment of another.)

A (1)— False Sospicion Where Faith is NeCes^fâ^J'î

—"The Sei^ent Woman" by Gozzi; "h'EtaSint Pativre" (Milloeéker, 1889). One of the faceti of "Heïity V" is connected sotnewhat remotely with Ihîi sitaatiori, the incortipfehenslon of the young prirfc^'d real character by the witnesses of his disorders. DiiinitS père has represented Henri de Navarre as misundft"- étood in the same way by his entourage,

<2) — Falsfe Stisikirion (in which the jealousy is Sttt vrithout reason) of a Mistress: — Part of "Diane" By Aajfier; "Marie Stnart" by Alfieri,

(3)L_T'alâe Siisplcioiis Aroused by a Misdnder^im^ Atiittide 0Ï a Loved One :— "The Raven" by Gij^; "Hypsipile" by Metastasio; "Theodora" (Sai*dion. 1884) ; part of "La Reine Fiamraetta" ; "Le VoldSr" (Bernstein, 1906) ; "Les Grands" (Weber and BaSSèt;;' 1909); "Coeur Maternel" (Franck, 1911).

(4)— By Indifference:— "Crainquebilfë" '(K-âfttiè,

m-, "à ykrt^" (Vafetfe).

Sa^ à' î^nd:^*^AÎfteT SaSs éaVofr Qui" V W^; "Mme. Ambres" (Widor, 1885)-.

Bfl^âl^sio; '^'l?ïterdê-îg^'^SfE<fli^ei>, 1^; "Gè


120 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Fiacre No. 13 and "Gavroche" (Domay, 1887 and 1888); "L'Affaire des Poisons "(Sardou, 1907); "Las Pierrots" (Grillet, 1908) . Upon the Innocent Husband of the Guilty One:— "La Criminelle" (Delacour, 1882).

(3)— The Same Case as 2, But in Which the Inno- cent had a Guilty Intention: — "Jean Cévenol" (Fraisse* 1883). In Which the Innocent Believes Himself Guilty:— "Le Roi de l'Argent" (MilUet, 1885); "Pou- pées Electriques" (Marinetti) .

(4) — ^A Witness to the Crime, in the Interest of a Loved One, Lets Accusation Fall Upon the Innocent : — "Le Secret de la Terreuse" (Busnach, 1889) .

C (1) — ^The Accusation is Allowed to Fall Upon an Enemy:— "La Pieuvre" (Morel, 1885).

(2)— The Error is Wovoked by an Enemy:— "The Palamedes" of Sophocles and of Euripides ; "LeVentre de Paris" (Zola, 1887; "Le Roi Soleil" (Beméde, 1911) ; "L'Homme a Deux Têtes" (Forest, 1910). This nuance alone, it will be observed, attracted the Greek tragedians, who were, so to speak, tormented by a vague conception of the lago of a later âge and who tried, in a succession of distorted types, to produce it; we seem, in these works, to be assisting at the birth of the future Devil; of the evangelic Judas— and at that of the type of Jesus in Prometheus and Dionysos. This nuance C 2 seems to me a singularly fine one ; it is, for instance, that of the "anonymous letter," and it will be admitted that a more admirably repugnant gargoyle cannot be imagined than the creature who crouches with pen in claw and malignant smile, to begin such a piece of work !

(3) — ^The Mistake is Directed Against the Victim by Her Brother: (here is included also the Twelfth, "Hatred of Kinsmen") :— "The Brigands" by Schiller; "Don Garzia" by Alfieri.

D (1) — False Suspicion Thrown by the Real Cul- prit Upon One of His Enemies: — Comeille's "Clitan-


THIRTY-THIRD SITUATION

dre/' and "Sapho" (Gounod, 1884) ; "Catharine la Bâtarde" (Bell, 1881).

(2) — ^Thrown by the Real Culprit Upon the Second Victim Against Whom He Has Plotted from the Begin- ning:— "Le Crime d'un Autre" (^nold and Renauld, 1908). This is pure Machiavellianism, obtaining the death of the second victim through an unjust punish- ment for the murder of the first. Add to this the closest relationship between the two victims and the deceived judge, and we have all these emotions assem- bled: discovery of the death of a relative; supposed discovery of an impious hatred between two relatives ; belief even in a second case of crime, aggravated this time by a scheme of revolt; finally the duty of con- demning a loved one believed to be guilty. This plot then, is a masterly one, since it groups, under the im- pulsion of an ambition or a vengeance, four other Situations. As for the "Machiavellianism" which has set it all in motion, it consists, for him who employs it, precisely in the method which is habitual to writers, a method here transferred to a single character; he ab- stracts himself, so to speak, from the drama, and, like the author, inspires in other characters the necessary feelings, unrolls before their steps the indispensable circumstances, in order that they may mechanically move toward the dénouement he desires. Thus is de- veloped the "Artaxerce" of Metastasio.

Suppress the part of the villain, and suppose for a moment that the author has planned the denouement desired by this traitor ; the bringing about of the most cruel results from a suppo^'^^d fratricide" and the "duty of condemning a son.*' The author cannot otherwise combine his means to produce it. The type of the Villain (who has successively appeared in many guises) is nothing else than the author himself, masked in black, and knotting together two or three dramatic


m THIRftlsi* DÉÀM^-C sWùiÊf ions

èfcuîtëJfts; ^lïe he\6iigé, tHfii ti^; to tKé fâmily t)f ftlfe poetic Prologue, of the "Deus ex machitti'* (although facxre àdmisstbte) of tfa6 Oiiator ùf the pârâl)ases, of the Mi&èresque Vâlét/ânâ of thè Theorist (the goèd ^tdtixxt, tlesrgyidan^ iàutnBiist, 'family frigid"). He ifi fin jlbOirt the old Narrator of the moliôdràina& Nbfihing coçld be itiore naif ^ consequently, than this orëaturè^ whose ùncoiMiicing artificiality has spoiled many a scene. . (3) — -^Fftlse Suspicion Thrown Upon a Rival: — rDiaça" (Patedilhe, 1885) ; "L'Ogre" (Marthold, 1890) ; "ImBoscptte" (Mme. Maldagne, 1908).

i^)-^Throwpi Upcm One Innocent, Because He Has Refused to^be. an Acco^pUce : — " Valentinian" by Beau- mont ani^ Fletcher ; "Aetius" by Metastasio.

(5)-— TfaûTPwn, by a Desierted Mistress Upon a Lover W^0 Left Her JSécausç He Would Not Deceive Her Hupbimd:— "ROger-la-Honte" (Mary, 1888).

.Ô&)r^truggle to Rehabilitate Oneself and to Avenge a Judicial Error Purposely Caused: — "La Dégringo- lade" (Desnard, 1881) ; the end of "Fiacre No. 13."


THHÎTY-FOURTH SITUATION

BEMOftSE (The Culprit; the Victim or the Sm ; tte IntèWgtktur)

A (1)— Remorse for an Unlpiowii Grimeft—

"Manfred" and other creations of Byron^; the^ liftt^ <)f the srreat English dramatists, he was likewise the last adversary of Cant, which, having kiHed art iii StMi^n utider the name of the Inquisition, in Englaivi tl^e ^fe^t time under the name of Puritanism and iii ^ettnttjpy under the name of Pietism, today presents îtséî^ în France, in the guise of . . . Monsieur Bfeir- enger.

(2)— Remorse for a Parricide :—*The B\wnei4aés" of Aeschylus; the "Orfestes" of Euripides, of Vbftaire and of Alfieri ; "Le Cloitre" ( Ver^aJBïôn) .

(3) — ^Remorse for an Assassiinaiiott : — "Crime and Punishment" (Dostoievsky, 188^) ; ^'Le Coetir feêvéja- teur" (after Poe, by Aumann, 1889) . tist a J'nttt^ Murder:— "L'Eclaboussure" (G^raldy, 1910).

(4) — ^Remorse for tbe Murdlpr of Hu$)^d or WIft: — "Thérèse Raquin" by Zola ; 'Pierrot, Assasdn de ?a Femme" (Paul Margueritte, 1888) .

B ( 1 ) — Remorse for a Fau^ of Love : — ^'Madeleîjaè'* (Zola, 1889).

(2)— Remorse for an Adultery :— "Count Witold" (Rzewuski, 1889) ; "Le Scandale" (Bataille, 1909).

With B (1) there are connected, in one respect, the plays classed in A (1) of Situation XX VIL

Need I call attention to the small number, but the terrible beauty, of the above works? Is it necessary to indicate the infinite varieties of Remorse, according

123


124 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

to: 1st, the fault committed (for this, enumerate all crimes and misdemeanors included in the legal code, plus those which do not fall under any law ; the fault, moreover, may at the writer's pleasure be real or imaginary, committed without intention, or intended but not committed — which permits a "happy ending*' —or both intended and committed; premeditated or not, with or without complicity, outside influences, sub- lety, or what not) ; 2nd, the nature, more or less im- pressionable and nervous, of the culprit; 3rd, the sur- roundings, the circumstances, the morals which pre- pare the way for the appearance of Remorse — ^that fig- ure plastic, firm and religious among the Greeks, the beneficially enervating phantasmagoria of our Middle Ages ; the pious dread of a future life in recent cen- turies ; the disturbance of the equilibrium of the social instincts and consequently of the mind according to the inferences of Zola, etc.

With Remorse is connected the Fixed Idea ; through its perpetual action it recalls Madness or Criminal Passion. Often it is but "remorse for a desire," re- morse the more keen in that the incessantly reviving desire nourishes it, mingles with it, and, growing like a sort of moral cancer, saps the soul's vitality to the point of suicide, which is itself but the most desperate of duels. "René," "Werther," the maniac of the "Coeur Révélateur" and of Bérénice" (I refer to that ot Edgar Poe) and especially Ibsen's "Rosmersholm," ofi:er significant portraits of it.


^-jk


THIRTY-FIFTH SITUATION

RECOVERY OF A LOST ONE (The Seeker ; the One Found)

This is the Situation of "The Hero and the Nymph" by Kalidasa; the second part of his "Sakuntala/' and the "Later Life of Rama" by Bhavabuti; the second part also of "A Winter's Tale" and 'Tericles" by Shakespeare; likewise of "Berthequine" and of "Bertha au Grand Pied" (Miracles of Notre-Dame, XIV Century) ; of almost all of "La Reine Aux Trois Fils," another Miracle; it is the Situation of "Thyestes in Sicyon" by Sophocles and of "Alcmeon in Corinth" by Suripides. It is the dénouement of "Père Chasselas" (Athis, 1886) ; "Foulards Rouges" (Domay, 1882) ; "La Gardienne" (Henri de Régnier) ; it is the old familiar plot of the "stolen child" and of stories of found- lings ; of arbitrary imprisonments, from the Man in the Iron Mask (upon whom Hugo began a drama) and "Richard Coeur-de-Lion" down to recent tales of sane persons confined as lunatics. It is the point from which bursts forth so frequently that double explosion of the principal scene: "My daughter! — ^My mother!"

Classes A and C of Situation XI move toward the same end.

In other cases it is the part of the child to discover his father, his kinsman, and to make himself known; thus it is in the "Enfances Roland;" in "Les Enfants du capitaine Grant" by Jules Verne and "les Aventures de Gavroche" (Darlay and Marot, 1909) .

To the invariably happy and epithalamic ending to our plays built upon this Situation, and to the f ortuit-

125


126 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

ous coincidences with which it has been too generous- ly interlarded, I attribute the public's final weariness of it. For does not this Situation retain more natural- ness than the Nineteenth, and how fecund has been that Nineteenth, whose charm and tempting variety is all possessed by our Thirty-Fff4Si !


THIRTY-^ÎXTH SII^UATION fcoéis ôî^ LQVÉb' dî^Éfe

( I^àÂidh iSfefit; à î^iisMii Sï^^fctatôi-; an

Executioner)

âei'e ail is mqurmng. In long f uinefal processions we see ^Kem pass, the heroes oif this Situation; they move from the otark ^ome to the âàrk church, and from there to the cemetery, returning only to weep by the hearth until they leave it on the departure of another from among them.

A (1) — ^Witnessing the Slaying of Kinsmen, While Powerless to Prevent it:— The "Niobe" and "Troilus" of ^schylus ; "Polyxena" and "The Captives" of Soph- ocles ; a part of his "Laocoon ;" "The Troades" of Euri- pides and of Seneca.

(2) — Helping to Bring Misfortune Upon Ones People Through Professional Secrecy : — "Les Bâillonnés" (Mme. Terni, 1909) .

B — ^Divining the Death of a Loved One: — "The In- truder" and "The Seven Princesses" by MaeterUnck, the one modem master of the Thirty-Sixth, and how powerful a one!

C — Learning of the Death of a Kinsman or Ally: — Part of the "Rhesus" attributed to Euripides ; "Pen- thesilea," "Psychostase" and "The Death of Achilles" by -ffischylus; "The Ethiopians" of Sophocles. Here is added the difficult role of the messenger of misfor- tune — he who bends beneath the imprecations of Cleopatra, in Shakespeare. From comedy: — "Cent Lignes Emues" by Torquet.

127


THIRTY-SIXTH SITUATION

D — Relapse into Primitive Baseness, through Des- pair on Learning of the Death ot a Loved One: — La Fille Sauvage" (Curel, 1902) .

But embody, ii^ a human figure, the wrong, the mur- der, which is abstract, in most of these examples. Still bound by his helplessness, how the unfortunate who is made a spectator of thç agony will struggle, appeal, and vainly implore the heavens — the Victim, meantime, humbly beseeching him who thus looks on in despair, as though he had power to save. The haughty sar- donic silhouette of the Executioner dominates the scene, intensifying the keenness olÇ the grief by his cynical pleasure in it . . . Dante has conceived of no sharper sorrow in the circles of his Inferno.


CONCLUSION


To obtain the nuances of the Thirty-Six Situations, I have had recourse ahnost constantly to the same method of procedure; for example, I would enumerate the ties of friendship or kinship possible between the characters; I would determine also their degree of con^ sciousness, of free-will and knowledge of the real end toward which they were moving. And we have seen that when it is desired to alter the normal degree of discernment in one of the two adversaries, the intro- duction of a second character is necessary, the first becoming the blind instrument of the second, who is at the same time invested with a Machiavellian subtlety, to such an extent does his part iii the action become purely intellectual. Thus, clear perception being in the one case excessively diminished, it is, in the other, proportionately increased. Another element for modi- fying all the situations is the energy of the acts which must result from them. Murder, for instance, may bé reduced to a wound, a blow, an attempt, an outrage, an intimidation, a threat, a too-hasty word, an intention not carried out, a temptation, a thought, a wish, an in- justice, a destruction of a cherished object, a refusal a want of pity, an abandonment, a falsehood. If the author so desires, this blow (murder or its diminu- tives) may be aimed, not at the object of hatred in per- son, but at one dear to him. Finally, the murder may be multiple and aggravated by circumstances which the law has foreseen. A third method of varying the situations : for this or that one of the two adversaries whose struggle constitutes our drama, there may be

9 129


130 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

substituted a group of characters animated by a single desire, each member of the group reflecting that de- sire under a different light. There is, moreover (as 1 have already shown), no Situation which may not be ' combined with any one of its neighbors, nay, with two, three, four, five, six of them and more! Now, these combinations may be of many sorts ; in the first case, the situations develop successively and logically one from another; in the second case they dispose them- selves in a dilemma, in the midst of which hesitates the distracted hero ; in the third case, each one of them will appertain to a particular group or a particular role ; in the fourth, fifth, sixth cases, etc., they are repre- sented according to two, or according to all three of the cases already brought together in one situation, and together they escape from it, but the majority of them fall therefrom into a position not less critical, which may even offer but a choice between two courses equally painful; after finding a way between this Scylla and Charybdis, the very leap by which they es- cape precipitates them into a final Situation resulting from the preceding ones, and which sweeps them all away together. . . . This, be it understood, is but one combination among a thousand, for I cannot here elaborate the system by which this study of the Thirty-Six Situations may be continued, and by means of which they may be endlessly multiplied; that 'is a subject for a separate work upon the "Laws of Liter- ary Invention."

The composition or arrangement of the chosen Sit- uations — ^and at the same time of the episodes and characters introduced — may be deduced in a manner somewhat novel and interesting, from the same theory of the "Thirty-Six." Considering, in effect, that I "every dramatic situation springs from a conflict I between two principal directions of effort" (whence at ' the same time comes our dre^d of the victor and our


CONCLUSION 131

pity for the vanquished), we shall have to choose, at the rising of the curtain, between two beginnings ; we must decide which of the two adversaries pre-exists. This leads us infallibly to make of the second the cause (innocent or responsible) of the drama, since it is his appearance which will be the signal for the struggle. The first, who especially enlists our attention, is the Protagonist, already present in the earliest Thespian tragedy, altogether lyric, descriptive and analytic ; the second — the obstacle arising or supervening— is the Antagonist, that principle of the action which we owe to the objective and Homeric genius of -ffischylus. One of two strongly opposing colors will thus dominate the entire work, according as we shall choose, near the be- ginning, which of the two parties shall possess the greater power, the greater chance of victory.

Aristotle has taught us to distinguish between "irimple" tragedy (in which the superiority remains upon the same side until the end, and in which, conse- quently, there is no sudden change of fortune, no sur- prise) and "complex" tragedy (the tragedy of surprise, of vicissitude) , wherein this superiority passes from one camp to the other. Our dramatists have since re- fined upon the latter ; in those of their pieces which are least complicated, they double the change of fortune, thus leading ingeniously to the return of the opposed powers, at the moment of the spectator's departure, to the exact positions which they occupied when he en- tered the hall ; in their plays of complicated plot, they triple, quadruple, quintuple the surprise, so long as their imaginations and the patience of the public will permit. We thus see, in these vicissitudes of struggle, the first means of varying a subject. It will not go very far, however, since we cannot, however great our simplicity, receive from the drama, or from life, more than one thousand three hundred and thirty-two sur- prises. — One thousand three hundred and thirty-two?


i32 THIRTY-SIX DRAMÀTÎG SITUATIONS

— Obviously; what is any keen surprise if not the passing from a state of cahn into a Dramatic Situation, or from one Situation into another, or again into a state of cahn ? Perform the multipUcation ; result, one thousand, three hundred and thirty-two.

Shall we now inquire whence arise these vicissitudes, these unexpected displacements of equilibrium? Clear- ly in some influence, proceeding from a material object, a circumstance, or a third personage. Upon this Third Actor — ^whose introduction into the drama was the tri- umph of Sophocles — ^must rest what is called the Plot. He is the unforeseen element, the ideal striven for by the two parties and the surrounding characters ; he is fantastically divided and multiplied, by two, by three, by ten, by even more, to the point of encumbering the scene; but he is always himself, always easily recogniz- able. Some of his fragments become "Instruments," some, "Disputed Objects," some, "Impelling Forces;" they range themselves sometimes beside the Protagon- ist, sometimes near the Antagonist, or, moving here and there, they provoke that downfall the incessant avoidance of which is called— for events as for man- kind — ^Progress. In this way they clearly show their origin — that "Role-Lien" (Jocaste in "Seven Against Thebes," Sabine in "Horace") under which the Third Actor was germinating in ^schylean tragedy, without yet taking a positive part in the action.

It will be seen that the appearance of these figures of the second plan, these Choruses, Confidants, Crowds, Clowns, even Figurants re-enforced by those of the original groundwork, precursors whose importance ranges from Tiresias to the Messenger of "Oedipus the King," from prophet to porter, modifies most power- fully the effect of the ensemble, especially if we reflect that each one of these, considered separately, has his own especial motives for action, motives soon appar- ent in regard to the characters who surround him> in


CÔi^CLUSION i33

some dramatic situation subordinate to the dominant one, but none the less real; the turns and changes of the general action will affect him in some particular way, and the consequences, to him, of each vicissitude, of each effort, of each act and dénouement, contribute to the spectator's final impression. If the Third Actor, for instance, be a Disputed Object, it becomes neces- sary to take into account his first and his last posses- sor, the diverse relations which he has successively had with them, and his own preferences. If he appear as Inspirer or Instigator, we must consider (aside from his degree of consciousness or unconsciousness, ot frankness or dissimulation, and of Will proper) the perseverance which he brings to his undertaking ; if he be unconscious, the discovery which he may make of his own unconsciousness; if he be a deceiver, the discoveries which others may make of his dis- simulation ("others" here meaning perhaps a single character, perhaps the spectator). These re- marks also apply to the "Instrumental" role; and not alone these remarks, but those also which concern the "Object," are applicable to the Eole-Lien.

I have already observed that this last role, and the triple hypostasis of the Third Actor, may be repro- duced in numerous exemplars within one play. On the other hand, two, three, or all four of them may be fused in a single figure, (Lien-Instrumental, Object- Instigator, Instrument-Lien-Object, etc), combinations which present themselves, like the combinations of the Situations, already considered, in varied array. Some- times the hero who unites in himself these divers roles plays them simultaneously — perhaps all of them toward an individual or group, perhaps one or several of them toward an individual or group, and another role wherein these roles mingle, toward some other individual or group; sometimes these var- ious roles will be successively played toward the


134 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

same individual or group, or toward several ; some- times, finally, the hero plays these roles now simul- taneously, and again successively.

But it is not possible to detail in these pages, even if I so desired, the second part of the Art of Combina- tion; that which we in France call by the somewhat feeble term (as Goethe remarked) "composition." All that I have here undertaken to show is, first, that a single study must create, at the same time^ the epi- sodes or actions of the characters, and the characters themselves; for uppon the stoge, what the latter are may be known only by what they do; next, how in- vention and composition, those two modes of the Art of Combination (not Imagination, empty word!) will, in our works to come, spring easily and naturally from the theory of the Thirty-Six Situations.

Thus, from the first edition of this little book, I might offer (speaking not ironically but seriously) to dramatic authors and theatrical managers, ten thou- sand scenarios, totally different from those used re- peatedly upon our stage in the last fifty years * * *

  • * * "The scenarios will be, needless to say, of a

realistic and effective character. I will contract to de- liver a thousand in eight days. For the production of a single gross, but twenty-four hours are required. Prices quoted on single dozens. Write or call. No. 19, Passage de I'Elysee des Beaux-Arts. The Situations will be detailed* act by act, and, if desired, scene by scene" * * *

But I hear myself accused, with much violence, of an intent to "kill imagination." "Enemy of fancy!" "De- stroyer of wonders !" "Assassin of prodigy t" * * * These and similar titles cause me not a blush.

A singular history, in truth, is that of the "Imagin- ation." Certainly no one in classic times thought of priding himself upon it. Far from it! Every novelty, on its first appearance, hastened to support itself by


CONCLUSION 135

appeal to some antique atithority. From 1830 dates the accession to the literary throne of this charlatan- esque "faculty," analysis of which is, it would seem, eternally interdicted. The results of this new régime were not slow in appearing, and they may be seen, in their final decay, among the last successors of ultra- romantic Romanticism. Mysterious crime, judicial error, followed by the inevitable love affair between the children of slayer and victim ; a pure and delicate work- ing-girl in her tiny room, a handsome young engineer who passes by; a kind-hearted criminal, two police spies, the episode of the stolen child; and in conclu- sion, for the satisfaction of sentimental souls, a double love-match at the very least, and a suicide imposed upon the villain — this, one year with another, is the product of the Imagination. For the rest, in the whole field of dramatic romanticism (which corresponds so well to the Carrache school of painting) Hugo alone has created, thanks to what? — to a technical process patiently applied to the smallest details, — the antithesis of Being and of Seeming.

Ore vigorous blow was, for the moment, given to this legend of the Imagination by Positivism, which asserted^ that this so-called creative faculty was merely the kaleidoscope of our memories, stirred by chance. But it did not sufficiently insist upon the ih- ôViLably banal and monotonous results of these chance stirrings, some of our memories — ^precisely those least interesting and least personal — ^repeating themselves a thousand times in our minds, returning mercilessly in all manner of methodless combinations. These souvenirs of innumerable readings of the products of imitation in our neo-classic and Romantic past, envel- ope and overwhelm us unless we turn to that observa- tion of nature which was pointed out by the Naturalists' initiative as an element of renovation. Even the Naturalists themselves have too often viewed


136 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

reality athwart their bookish recollections; they have estimated too highly the power of the artistic temper- ament, however vigorous it may be, in assuming that it could interpose itself, alone and '^stripped of all con- vention, by a simple effort of will, between Nature and the Uterary product to be engendered. Thus "La Bête Humaine" has repeated the "judicial error*' in that special form which is as common in books as it is rare in life ; thus the starting-point of '*LŒuvre" is merely the converse of the "thesis" of the Goncourts and Daudet; thus reminiscences of "Madame Bovary" ap- pear in many a study of similar cases, which should» nevertheless, remain quite distinct; — ^and thus has appeared, in the second generation of "naturalists," a new school of imitators and traditionalists.

And all the old marionettes have reappeared, inflated with philosophic and poetic amplifications, but too often empty of symbolism, as of naturalism and humanism.

As to the methods of the Art of Combining, the truth may be grasped by one bold look, one triumphant glance at all these phantoms of trite thought, as they stand in their respective places in the foregoing cate- gories. Any writer may have here a starting-point for observation and creation, outside the world of paper and print, a starting-point personal to himself, original in short, — ^which does not in the least mean improb- able or unconvincing, since many situations which have today an appearance of improbablitiy have merely been disfigured by persons who, not knowing how to create new ones, have complicated the old, entangling themselves in their own threads.

Especially will the invention of an unusual story, the discovery of a "virgin field," (to use the naturalists' term) be made so easy as to be almost valueless. We are not unaware of the importance, in the perfecting of Greek art, of the fact that it was circumscribed and


CONCLUSION 137

restricted to a small number of legends (ŒdipuSj Agamenmon^ Phaedra, etc.,), which each poet had in his turn to treat, thus being unable to escape compari- son,_step by step, with each of his predecessors, so that even the least critical of spectators could see what part his personality and taste had in the n:ew work. The worst which may be said of this tradition is that it rendered originality more difficult. By a study of the Thirty-Six Situations and their results, the same advantage may be obtained without its accompanying inconvenience. Thenceforth Proportion alone will assume significance. *

By proportion I mean, not a collection of measured formulae which evoke familiar memories, — but the bringing into battle, under command of the writer, of the infinite army of possible combinations, ranged ac- cording to their probabilities. Thus, to make mani- fest the truth or the impression which, until now, has been perceptible to him alone, the author will have to overlook in a rapid review the field before him, and to choose such of the situations and such of the details as are most appropriate to his purpose. This method — or, if you will, this freedom and this power — ^he will use, not only in the choice, the limitation and fertiliza- tion of his subject, but in his observation and médita- tion. And he will no more run the risk of falsifying, through pre-conceived ideas, the vision of reality than does the painter, for example, in his application of laws equally general, and likewise controlled by constant experimentation, — the divine laws of perspective !

Proportion, finally realizable in the calm bestowed by complete possession of the art of combining, and re- covering the supreme power long ago usurped by "good taste" and by "imagination," will bring about the recognition of that quality more or less forgotten in modem art, — "beauty." By this I mean, not the skil- ful selection of material from nature, but the skilful


138 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

and exact representation — with no groping, no un- certainty, no retention of superfluities — of the partic- ular bit of nature under observation

But it is more than this, for these two definitions, the eclectic and the naturalist, concern but a limited number of the arts, and but one side of them; that small number to which imitation is open (painting, literature of character, and, in a limited way, sculp- ture) , and tnat side of them which is purely imitative. What significance have these two definitions (both of which rest upon the reproduction of reality, the one exalting and the» other belittling it) if they be con- fronted with Music, with the didactic poetry of a Hesiod, with the Vedic incantations, with true statu- ary, simplified and significant, from the mighty chisel- strokes of Phidias or of the XIII Century, with purely ornamental or decorative art, — the "beauty" of a demonstration in geometry, — or finally with Architec- ture, now reviving in silence and obscurity, that art which comes periodically to reunite and, like an ark, to rescue the others, that art which shall once more return to lead us away from the prematurely senile follies of our delettanti and sectarians.

Upon a like height stands a principle greater than Naturalism with its experimental method, or Ideal- ism which gives battle to it, — Logic.

It is by methods of logic that VioUet-le-Duc has en- abled us to estimate truly the marvels of our "grand siècle," the XIII Century, substituting (to cite only this) for the simple admiration of 1830 before each stone saint so "picturesquely" perched upon the point of an ogive, the builders' explanation: that a stone of the exact weight and dimensions of the saint was there absolutely necessary, to prevent the breaking of the ogive under a double lateral pressure, — whence the in- stinctive satisfaction it gives our eyes. It is a great misfortune that the understanding of that magnificent


CONCLUSION 189

age in which a Saint Louis presided over the multiple communal life, an age whose only equal in the world's history is that in which Pericles directed, from the Athenian metropolis, an identical movement, — ^that this understanding, which would be so useful to us, should have been horribly compromised in the Ro- mantic carnival. Hugo's "Notre-Dame de Paris," wherein the public believed it beheld a portrait of our "moyen-âge" (a most absurd appellation, by the way) , represents it, by a singular choice, as already long dead, — after the Hundred Years' War which bled us to the point where we fell, passive and defenseless, under the domination of the Florentine national art called "renaissant," and then of vaiîous other influences, an- cient and foreign, during four centuries. And, down to the very moment at which I write, the literary pro- ductions upon the subject of this most incomparable period of our past have been but pitiable affairs. But yesterday, a Renan was writing of ogival art as an effort which had been impotent ("Souvenirs d'Enfance et de Jeunesse") or which at most had fathered works of no enduring character ("Prière sur I'Acropie") ; the very Catholic Huysmans, in his "En Route," was maldng the most astounding salad of Roman vaulting. Primitive painting, Gregorian plain-chant, — sl salad whose recipe is "the Faith" and which is called, natur- ally, the "Moyen-âge," — that age which embraces ten centuries of humanity, plus one-third of humanity's authentic history, three epochs strongly antagonistic to each other, peoples widely diverse and opposed; a something equivalent to a marriage between Alcibiades and Saint Genevieve.

The "Moyen-âge," or, to speak more accurately, the XII, XIII, and XIV Centuries, were not in the least fantastic and freakish ; this is the character merely of an occasional generation, such as that of Louis- Philippe. Neither were they mystic, in the present


140 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

sense of that word. The architecture of those cen- turies grew, stone by stone, plan by plan, out of the most practical of reasons. In their sculpture there was nothing "naïve" — ^the naivete is ours, when we so estimate that sculpture, which is far more realistic than our own; and if, persisting in the contrary opinion, we cling to the weird forms of the gargoyles, it may be said that^ born of a symbolism akin to those of Egypt and Greece, they represent analogies equally ingenious and profound. In this period arose Thom- ism, lately called back into a position of honor to combat Positivism, and which realized so happy a harmony between Aristotelianism and Christian faith, between science and theology. In this period, toO; were bom the natural sciences, and, in the minds of its poets, evolved the laws by which our poetry lives today, those rhythms which through Ronsard we still hear, that Rhyme which we gave to all Europe, — ^and, at the same time, thy groined vaultings, little town of 3aint-Denis, suzerain oriflamme, pilot-barque of France ! All these were bom, and grew, beneath the grave gaze of the same wisdom which, on the Ionian shores, was called Athene.

Toward a new aspect of the same logic our own age already turns, since, having drunk of that antiquity by whose forces we ruled Europe a second time in the XVII Century; having drunk of the latest of great foreign influences, the Germanic, we are returning to reality and to the future. Thus, when each Greek city had absorbed the neighboring local cults (its foreign influences") and the Oriental cults (the antiquity" of that day), the most beautiful of mythologies were formed. It is, at least, toward an art purely logical, purely technical, and of infinitely varied creations, that all our literary tendencies seem to me to be converging. In that direction proceed Flaubert and Zola, those rugged pioneers, Ibsen,


it


côNcLtJsiôN m

Strindberg, and ail writers deliberately unmindful of their libraries, as the Hellenes were of barbarian litera- ture; there moves Maeterlinck, having reduced action to the development of a single idea; Verlaine, deliver- ing from conventional rules true rhythm, which makes for itself its own rules; Mallarmé, prince of ellipse, clarifying syntax and expelling clouds of our little parasite words and tattered formulae ; in that direction Moréas calls us, but without freeing himself, unfortun- ately, from the Italianism of our so-called Renaissance ; all these, and others not less glorious, a whole new generation springing up, futurists, "loups," cubists, seem to me to be seeking the same goal, the final abolition of all absolute authority, even that of Nature and of our sciences her interpreters; and the erection upon its débris of simple logic, of an art solely technical, and thus capable of revealing an unknown system of harmony ; in brief, an artists' art.

In literature, in dramatic literature which is the special subject of our consideration, the investigation of Proportion of which I have above spoken will show us the various "general jnethods" of presenting any situation whatever. Each one of these "general methods, containing a sort of canon applicable to all situations, will constitute for us an "order" analogous to the orders of architecture, and which, like them, will take its place with other orders, in a dramatic ••system." But the systems, in their turn, will come together under certain rubrics yet more general, com- parisons of which will furnish us many a subject for reflection. In that which we might call Enchantment, there meet, oddly enough, systems as far apart in origin as Indian drama; certain comedies of Shakespeare ("A Midsummer Night's Dream"; "The Tempest"), the "fiabesque" genre of Gozzi, and "Faust ;" the Mystery brings together the works of Persia, Thespis and the pre-Aeschyleans,


U2 THIRTY-SIX DKAMATÎC SlTtJATlONS

"Prometheus," the book of "Job," the stage of the tragic Ezekiel, of Saint Gregory Nazianzen, of Hroswitha, the Jeux and Miracles of our XIII Century, the Autos ; here, Greek tragedy and the psychologists' imitations of it; there, English, German and French drama of 1830; still nearer, the type of piece which from the background of China, through Lope and Calderon, Diderot and Goethe, has come to cover oui stage toaay ....

It will be remembered that, when we were catalogu- ing dramatic production in its thirty-six classes, an assiduous effort to establish, for every exceptional case found in one of them, symmetrical cases in the other thirty-five caused unforseen subjects to spring up un- der our very feet. Likewise, when we shall have analyz- ed these orders, systems and groups of systems, when we shall have measured with precision their resem- blances and their differences, and classified them, or, one by one, according to the questions considered, shall have brought them together or separated them, — we shall necessarily remark that numerous combinations have been forgotten. Among these the New Art will choose.

Would that I might be able to place the first, the obscurest foundation-stone of its gigantic citadel! There, drawing- about her the souls of the poets, the Muse shall rise before this audience re-assembled from ancient temples, before these peoples who gathered of yore around Herodotus and Pindar; she will speak the new language — the Dramatic — a language too lofty for the comprehension of the single soul, however great it be, — a language not of words but of thrills, such as that spoken to armies, — a language in truth addressed to thee, Bacchus, dispenser of glory, soul of crowds, delirium of racés, abstract, but One and Eternal ! Not in one of our parlor-like pasteboard reductions of the Roman demi-circus will this come to pass, but upon a


CONCLUSION 143

sort of mountain, flooded with light and air, — ^raised, thanks to our conquest of iron added to the construc- tive experience of the Middle Ages; offered to the na- tion by those who have still held to the vanity of riches, — a greater thing than the theater of Dionysos where gathered thirty thousand people, greater than that of Ephesus wherein sat, joyous, a hundred and fifty thousand spectators, an immense orifice-like crater in which the earth seems to encompass the verv heavens ;


ALPHABETICAL INDEX

Of the Plays, Novels, Etc., Classified in the Situations

of this Work


Abbé Constantin (The), by L. Halevy XXVIII A 2

Abduction of Helen (The), by Lope de VegaX B

Abduction of Helen (The) by Sophocles X B

Abhirama mani, by Soundara Misra X C 2

Abraham, by the Abbess Hroswitha XX D

Absente (L'), by Villemer XXVII » B 1

Abuf ar, by Ducis XVIII B 1

Achilles in Scjnros, by Metastasio XX B 8

Adelaide Duguesclin, by Voltaire XIV A 2

Adelghis. by Manzoni V C

Adrien, by Metastasio XXIV C

Aedonians (The) by Aeschylus XXXI A 1

Ae^eus. by Euripides XIX • B 2

Aetius. by Metastasio- XXXIII D 4

Affaire Clemenceau (L'), by Dumas fils XXV D 1

Affaire de la rue de Lourcine (L') by LabicheXVI A 3

Affaire des Poissons (L'), by Sardou XXXIII B 2

Affaires sont le- Affaires (Les), by MirbeauxXVII A 3

Agamemnon, by Aeschylus XV A 1

Agathocle, by Voltaire XIV A 2

Agave, by Stace XXXI A 1

Age Critique (L'), by Byl XXV C 3

Agésilas, by Corneille XXIV A 5

Agis, by Alfieri XIII D

Agnimitra and Malavika, by Kalidasa XXIV D 2

Aiglon (L'), by Rostand, VII B

Aimer sans savoir qui, by Lope de Vega XIV D

andXXXIII B 1

Ajax, by Sophocles XVI B

145 10


146


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


<<


M


« 


« 


« 


« 


M


« 


M


M


« 


« 


M


Ajax Locrian, by Aeschylus

Ajax Locrian, by Sophocles

Alcalde of Zalamea (The), by Calderon

Alceste, by Sophocles

by Euripides

by Buchanan

by Hardy

by Quinault by Racine (projected)

by Lagrange-Chancel

by Boissy

by Sainte-Foix

by Coypel

by Dorat

by Gluck

by H. Lucas

by de Vauzelles Alcmene, by Aeschylus Alcmeon, by Sophocles Alcmeon, by Euripides Aletes and Erigone, by Sophocles Alexander, by Sophocles Alexander, by Euripides Alexander, by Metastasio Alexander, by Racine Almanzor, by Heine Alope, by Euripides Alzire, by Voltaire Amazones (Les), by Mazel Amélie, by Voltaire Amhra, by Grangeneuve Ami Fritz (L') by Erckmann-Chatrian Amour, by Hennique Amphitryon, by Sophocles Anarghara-ghava (Hindu, anonymous) Ancêtre (L'), by Saint-Saens André del Sarte, by Musset Ancien (L') by Richepin Andromache, by Euripides Andromaque, by Racine Andromeda, by Euripides Andromeda, by Sophocles Andromède, by P. Corneille Ane de Buridan (L'), by de Fiers and de Caillavet


-XXXI


B


3


s


^


B



i


•ilî


A


2



xxr


A


1



•XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXT


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI •


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XXI


A


1



XVIU


D


2



XXV


B


4



XXV


B


4



m


A


1



XIX


C


1



XIX



1



V


C




V


C




XXTX


A


4



I


B


2



yjxw


A


3



Ht


A


6



XXIX


A


4



XIV


A


2



TTI


A


6


»


XXATIII


A


2



XV .


A


1



XTX


F


3



X


C


2



XXIX


B


6



XXV


C


4



XXI


A


2



XXI


D


2



XXV


B


1



TI


A




11


A




II


A




XXIV


B 6


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


147


« 




« 


Angelo, by Hugo

Angles du Divorce (Les), by Biollay

Antigone, by Metastasio

by Sophocles

byEuripidefi

by Alamanni

by Alfieri Antiope, by Eiàripides A^'toinette Sabrier, by Coolus Antony and Cleopatra, by Shakespeare Aphrodite, by Louys Apôtre (L'), by Loyson Appius and Virginia, by Webster Apprentie (L') by Geffroy Après moi, by Bernstein Archelaus, by Euripides Argent (L'), by Zola Argives (The), by Aeschylus Ariane, by T. Corneille Arlésienne (V), by Daudet and Bizet Armée dans la Ville (L')» by Jules Romains VIII Arsène Lupin, by Leblanc Artaxerxes, by Metastasio Artemire, by Voltaire Article 301, by Duval Ascanio, by Saint-Saens Aa de trèfle (L'), by Decourcelle Assommoir (L'), by Zola Atalanta, by Aeschylus Athalie, by Racine Athamas, by Aeschylus Atrée et Thyeste, by Crébillon Attentat (V), by Capus and Descaves Attila, by P. Corneille Attila, by Werner Augeus by Euripides Automne (L')» by Adam and Mourey Autre Danger (L'), by Donnay Aventures de Gavroche (Les), by Darlay

and Mârot Aveu (L')» by Sarah Bernhardt

B


XXV


c


1


XXVIII


E



XIV


B


1


XX


A


3


XX


A


3


XX


A


3


XX


A


3


IT


B


1


XXV


c


3


XXII


A


4


XXII


A


3


XXVTT


D


2


XXIV


A


3


XX


c



XXV


D


1


VI


C


1


VI


B



m


A


1


VI


D


1


XXII


A


5


iVIII


B


2


V


A



XXXTII


D


2


XXXII


, C


2


XXTV


C



XXIV


c



XXVII


D


3


XXII


c


2


ÎV


B



XXXI


A


2


XVI


A


1


XIII


A


2


XXIV


A


7


XXIV


A


4


III


A


1


I


B


2


vin


B


2


XIV


B


4


XXXV




XXV


C


4


Bacchantes (The), by Euripides


XXXI


A 1


148


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Bâillonnés (Les), by Mme. Terni XXXVI

Bajazety by Racine XXiV

Banque de l'Univers (La), by Grenet-

Dancourt XVÏI

Barlaam et Josaphat, Miracle of Notre-DameX Barricade (La), by Bourget X^I V

Bassarides (The), by Aeschylus "XXXI

Beethoven, by Fauchois VII

Belle aux cheveux d'or (La), by Amould XVII Bellerophon, by Euripides XXXI

Benvenuto, by Diaz XXIV

Bercail (Le), by Bernstein XXV

Bérénice, by Racine ' ^£X

Berenice, by Poe XXXIV

Berthe au grand pied, Miracle of Notre- Dame XXXV Berthequine, Jliracle of Notre-Dame XXXV Bête féroce (La), by Jules Mary and RochardxXX


Bête humaine (La), by Zola Bleus de l'amour (Les), by Coolus Blind (The), by Maeterlinck Bluebeard, by Perrault Blue Bird (The), by Maeterlinck Blue Monster (The), by Gozzi Bohémos, by Zamacois Boislaurier, by Richard

Bondman (The), by Massinger

Bon roi Dagobert (Le), by Rivoire

Boscotte (La), by Mme. Maldagne

Bouchers (Les), by Icres

Bride of Messina (The), by Schiller

Brigands (The), by Schiller

Britannicus, by Racine

Broken Heart (The), by Ford

Brutus, by Voltaire

Brutus II, by Alfieri

Bûcheronne (La), by C. Edmond

Burgraves (Les), by Hugo

By Fire and Sword, by Sienkiewicz


^VI

XXVIll

VII

II

IX XIX XXXIV XIV andll XXXII XVIII XXXIII •III

XVIII

XXXIII

XIV

XXIX

XXVII

XXX

XXfV

XIX

XXVI


A 2

B 4

A 2

D 3


A A D C B B C B B


C A C D A D G A A A A D D A A C A A D A A F C


7 1

3 3

7 4 3


1 2 2


3 2 9 1

1 2

8 2 3 1 1 1 2

8 1 2


Cain, by Byron Cahace, by Speroni


XIII XXVI


A 1 C 2


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


149


Capitaine Burle (Le), by Zola XXII

Captives (The), by Sophocles XXXVI

Carbonari (Les)> by N6 XXIX

Carians (The), by Aeschylus X-

Casquette au père Bugeaud (La), by Marotlll

Casse-museau, by Marot XXVII

Casserole (La), by Méténier III

Catherine la Bâtarde, by Bell XXXIII

Catilina, by Voltaire VIH \

and XXX

Cato, by Metastasio V

Cellule No. 7 (La), by Zaccone III

Cenci (The), by Shelley III

XIII B 3 andXXVI


1 1 4


Cent lignes émues, by Torquet Cesar Birotteau, by Balzac

C'est la loi, by Cliquet Chamillac, by Feuillet Champairol (Les), by Fraisse Chantecler, by Rostand Charbonnière (La), by Crémieux Chevalerie Rustique, by Verga Chevalier Jean (Le), by de Jondères Chien de garde (Le), by Richepin Chinese Hero (The), by Metastasio Choephores (The), by Aeschylus


XXXVI XX and VI XXV XXVI I

VIII XXI XXIV XXXII XXI XXVIII IV


Christ Suffering, by St. Gregory Nazianzen XX

Chryses, by Sophocles I

Chrysippus, by Euripides XXVI

Cid (Le), by P. Corneille XXIX

Cinna, by P. Corneille Vtll Cinq doigts de Birouk (Les), by

De Courcelle XXX

Circuit (Le), by Feydeau and de Croisset XXIV

Citta morta (La), by d'Annunzio XXVI

Clavijo, by Goethe ill

Cléopâtre, by Sardou XXII

Clitandre, by P. Corneille XXXIII

Cloître (Le), by Verhaeren XXXIV

Coeur a coeur, by Coolus XXV Coeur a ses raisons (Le), by de Fiers

and de Caillavet XIV

Coeur de Se-hor, by . Michaud d'Humiac XXVII


C

A

A

A

A

D

A

D

A

B

C

B

B

A

C

A 4

B

B 8

B 5

B

A

D


8 5 I

1 1


3 5 3


o

2 1


A 10 C 2


D A A A A D B A

C

C C A A D A C


1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1


2 8 4 1 2 6


D D 6


150 , THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Coeur material, by Franck XXXIII A 3 Coeur révélateur (Le), by Laumann, after

Poe JCXXIV A3 Colomba, by Mérimée III- A 1 Comedy of Errors, by Shakespeare XXXII A 1 Compagnon de voyage (Le), by Anderson XI B 2 Compère le Renard, by Polti v A Comte d'Essex, by T. Corneille TXIV B 2 Comtesse Sarah, by Ohnet XXV C 3 Connais-toi, by Hervieu XXII A 2 Conquête de la Toison d'or (La), by P. Cor- neille XXIV B 1 Conquête de Plassans (La), by Zola XXII A 2 Conspiration du général Malet (La), by de

Lassus VIII A 1

Constant Prince (The), by Calderon XX A4

Conte de Noël, by Linant Xiil F

Corbeau (Le), by Gozad XXXIII A 3

Corbeaux (Les), by Becque VII B

Cor fleuri (Le), by Mikhael and Herold XXIV B 3

Coriolanus, by Shakespeare VI Cl

Cornette (La), by M. and Mlle. Ferrier XXI D 1

Count of Carmag' ola (The), by Manzoni v C

and VI CI

Count Witold, by Rzewuski XXXIV B 2

Countess Fredegonde (The), by Amigueg XXV B 7

Course du flambeau (La), by Hervieu ' 5CXI Ê

Courtisane (La), by Amyvelde XXVII B 6 Courtisane de Corinth (La), by Carré and

Bilhaud -III C

Cousine Bette (La), by Balzac "KKU C 1

Crainquebille, by France XXXIII A 3

Cresphontes, by Euripides XIX- B 1

Cretans (The), by Euripides XXVI E

Creusa, by Sophocles XIX B 1

Crime de Jean Morel (Le), by Samson XXIX B 7

Crime de Maisons- Alfort (Le), by Coedés 111 A 1 Crime d'un autre (Le), by Arnold and Ren-

auld XXXIII D 2

Crime and Punishment, by Dostoievsky XXXIV A 3

Criminelle (La), by Delacour XXXIII B 2:

Crocodile (Le), by Sardou XXVII B 6 Croisade des Enfantelets francs (La)', by

Emault ¥if B

Cromwell, by Hugo XXX A 8


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


151


.Cuirs de Boeuf (Les), by Polti Cymbeline, by Shakespeare Cyrano de Bergerac, by Rostand Cyrus, by Metastasio


D


XXVI. XXXII XXI XIII andXIX


« 


« 


« 


« 


tt


« 


« 


« 


Damaged Goods, by Brieux

Dame a la faulx (La), by Saint-Pol Roux

Dame aux Camélias (La), by Dumas fils

Dame au domino rose (La), by Bouvier

Damon, by Lessing

Danae, by Euripides

Danae, by Aeschylus

Danaides (The), by Aeschylus

by Gombaud

by Phrynichus

by Salieri

by Spontini Danseur inconnu (Le), by Bernard Dante, by Godard

Death of Achilles (The), by Aeschylus Death of Cansa (The), by Crichna Cavi Débâcle (La), by Zola Décadence, by Guinon Déclassée (La), by Delahaye Dédale (Le), by Hervieu Deformed Transformed (The), by Byron Dégringolade (La), by Desnard Demetrius, by Metastasio Demon du foyer (Le), by Gîeorge Sand bemophon, by Metastasio Denise, by Dumas fils Député Leveau (Le), by Lemaitre Dernier Amour, by Ohnet Desert Isle (The), by Metastasio ^

Dette (La), by Trarieux Deux Jumeaux (Les), by Hugo Devant l'ennemi, by Charton Devotion to the Cross, by Calderon Dhourtta narttaka Dhourtta samagama Diana, by Paladilhe Diane, by Augier


xvir

XXIV

XXVII

XVIII

XIV

I

-f

XXHÎ

XXlif

XXÎH

XXIII

XXIII

XXVIII

XXIV

XXXVI

xiir

VI

xxv' III

xxiv ix

XXXIII

XXIV

XIV

XIX

XXVII

XXV

XXV

XH

XIV

VII

XXIV

V

xxu

XXIV

XXXIII

XXI


A

B

c c

B


B B JB B A A

c c

A C


D D A A A B B B B B A A A A A


1 2 2


2 9 6


C B B C D

B 2 B B 3,


a

3 3 3 2 3


1 1


B 4 A 1


3"

6

5

4

1

3

3

6


8

1 9


D 3 C 1


152


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Diane de Lys» by Dumas fils

Dictys, by Euripides

Dido, by Metastasio

Dieu ou pas Dieu, by Beaubourg

Disciple (Le), by Bourget

Discovery of the New World, by Lope de

Vega Divorce (Le), by Bourget Divorce de Sarah Moore (Le), by Rozier

and Paton Divorcée (La), by Fall and Leon Docteur Pascal, by Zola Don Carlos, by Schiller Don Garzia, by Alfieri Don Juan, by Dumas père

" " by Goldoni

" " by Grabbe

" " by Molière

" " by Sadwell

" " by Tellez

" " by Tirso de Molina

" " by Zamora

" " by Zorilla Don Pèdre, by Voltaire Don Quixote, by Cervantes Don Sanche, by Corneille Drapeau (Le), by Moreau Droit au bonheur (Le), by Lemonnier Duchess of Malfi (The), by Webster Duel (Le), by Lavedan

E

Earthen Toy-cart (The), by Sudraka Echéance (L'), by JuUien Eclaboussure (L'), by Geraldy Ecole des veufs (L'), by Ancey Edith, by Bois Egmont, by Groethe 1812, by Nigond Electra, by Sophocles

by Euripides

by Attilius

by Q. Cicero

by Pradon


« 


it


it


u


xxv


C


3


dl:


B


2


XX-


B


3


XXIX


A


3


ra


A



IX


D


1


xxvm


D


1


XXi


A


2


XXXII


A


2


XXVI


B


2


XXVI


B


2


-XXXIII


C


3


V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



V


B



XIV


A


2


11


A



XXIV


A


6


XXIV


A


8


XXI


C


2


XXIX


A


1


xm


A


1


XXIV


A


5


XXV


C


8


XXXIV


A


3


XXVI


B


3


V


C



V


C



XIV


A



IV


A



IV


A



IV


A



IV


A



IV


A



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


153


« 


u


tt


u


Electra, by Longepierre

by Crébillon

by Rochef ort

by Chénier

by Guillard Eleusinians, by Aeschylus Emigrants (Les), by Hirsch Emigré (L*), by Bourget Emilia Galotti,by by Lessing Empereur Julien (L*) Miracle of Notre- Dame Enchantement (L'), by Bataille En détresse, by Fèvre Enemy of the People (An), by Ibsen Enigma (The), by Hervieu Enfant du Temple (L*), by de Polhes Enfants du Capitaine Grant (Les), by VemeXXXV Enfa^ts naturels (Les), by Sue En grève, by Hirsch Eole, by Euripides Epigones (The), by Aeschylus Epigones (The), by Sophocles Erechtheu^, by Euripides Eriphyle, by Sophocles Eriphyle, by Voltaire Esclarmonde, by Massenet Esclave du devoir (L'), by Valnay Esmeralda (La), by Hugo Esther, by Racine Etau (L*), by A. Sardou Ethiopians (The)^ by Sophocles Et ma soeur ? by Rabier Etrangère (L'), by Dumas fils Etudiant pauvre (L*), by Milloecker Etudiants russes, by Gilkin Eumele, by Sophocles

Eumenides (The), by Aeschylus

Europa, by Aeschylus Euryale, by Sophocles Eurysaces, by Sophocles Evangéliste fL'), by Daudet Exode (L'), by Fauchoi»


iV


A


1


4V


A


1


IV


A


1


IV^


A


1


IV


A


1


IV


A


2


XV


A


1


XXVIII


A


1


XXIV


C



XXXI


A


2


XIV


A


4


VII


C


2


V


C



XXV


D


1


XX


A


4


ime AAA V XVIII


A


2


XXIV


A


7


XXVI


C


2


ill


A


1


IV .


A


1


XXIII


A


1


IV


A


1


IV


A


1


XVII


B


2


XXXII


A


3


XXIV


A


11


I


C


1


XVI


D



XXXVI


C



XXVIIL


B



III


B


7


XXXIII


A


1


XXVII


D


1


XVII


A


1


andXXXI


B


5


XXXIV


A


2


andl


A


1


X


A



XIX


B


2


I


C


2


XX


B


1


XXIX


A


4


154


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Exodus of the Hebrews (The), by Ezekiel Ezzelino, by A. Mussato


Famille d'Armelles (La), by Marras

Faust, by Groethe

Fantasio, by Musset

Fatal Dowry (The), by Massinger

Faute de Tabbe Mouret (La), by Zola

Feast of the Achaians, by Sophocles

Fedora, by Sardou

Femme de Claude (La), by Dumas fils

Femme de demain (La), by Lefebvre

Femme X (La), by Bisson

Fermière (La), by d'Artois

Festin de Pierre (Le), by T. Corneille

Fiacre No. 13, by Domay

Fille a Guillotin (La), by Fleischmann

Fille du député (La), by Morel

Fille du roi d'Espan^ne (La), Miracle of

Notre-Dame Fille Elisa (La), by E. de Groncourt Fille sauvage (La), by de Curel Fils de Jahel (Les), by Mme. Armand Fils de Porthos (Le)» by Blavet Fils naturel (Le), by Dumas fils Flore de Frileuse, by Bergerat Fontovéjune, by Lope de Vega Fortune des Rougon (La), by Zola Fortune and Misfortune of a Name, by

Calderon Fossiles (Les), by de Curel Foulards rouges (Les), by Domay Francillon, by Dumas fils François les bas bleus, by Messager Françoise de Rimini, by A. Thomas Frère d'armes (Le), by Graraud Frères ennomis (Les), by Racine Frères Zemganno (Les), by E. de GoncourtXXI Friquet (Le), by Willy and Gyp Fugitive (La), by Picard Furie (La), by Bois


XXXI


A


2


XXX


c


1


XXV


D


2


VI


D


1


11


B


2


XXV


c


5


XXII


A


1


m*


B


2


XXIX


B


6


XXV


c


7


XXV


B


9


XXV 11


A


1


XXIV


c



XXXI


B


2


xxxni


D


6


xxm


A


3


XXVII


A


3


XXXll


B


2


XVI


A


2


XXXVI


D



XX


B


2


XXIV


A


6


XII


B



XXVII >


B


2


VIII


B


2


XXX


c


1


XXIX


B


6


XIV


B


1


XXXV




XXV


B


2


XXIV -


B


6


XXV


c


3


KXl


D


1


«III


A


2


XXI


B


1


XXIV


B


6


XXI


c


2


XXII -


A


6


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


155


Gardener's Dog (The), by Lope de Vega

Gardienne (La), by de Hegnier

Gavroche, by Domay

Georgette, by Sardou

Gerfaut, by C. de Bernard

Germlmd, by Zola

Germinie Lacerteux, by the Goncourts

Ghosts, by Ibsen

Glatigny, by Mendes

Glaucus Pontius, by Aeschylus

Glu (La), by Richepin

Gold Bug (The), by Poe

Goetz de Berlichingen, by Goethe

Grande Iza (La), by Bouvier

Grande Mamière (La), by Ohnet

Grand soir (Le), b'*' Kampf

Grands (Les), by Veber and Basset

Great Expectations, by Dickens

Griffe (La), by Bernstein

Guèbres (Les), by Voltaire

Guests (The), by Aeschylus

Giubor, Miracle of Notre-Dame


XXIV

XXXV

XXXIII

XXVII

XXV

VIII

XXII

XVÎII

XXIV

IX

XXII

•XI

"V

XXXIII

XXiX

VIIÎ

XXXIII

«XI

XXII

XIX

VII -

XXIII


B 5


B A C B C B A B A B C B A A A A


2 1 6 2 1 3 9 2 5 1

2 2 1 8 2


A 2 B B 4


Hamlet, by Shakespeare

Hanouman, Hindu drama Heaven and Earth, by Byron Hecuba, by Euripides Hedda Gabier, by Ibsen Helen, by Euripides Helen Reclaimed, by Sophocles Heliades (The), by Aschylus Henry IV, by Shakespeare Henry V, by Shakespeare

Henry VI, by Shakespeare Henry VIII, by Shakespeare Henri VIII, by Saint-Saens Heraclides (The), by Aeschylus

by Euripides Heraclius, by Corneille


iV and XIII X , XXIV-

III

XVI X

XII XIII -XXX IX and -XXXIII VI

XXV XXV I f

xvm


A

c

c

A A A C C A B B A B B B A A B


2

1 2 3 1


1 1

5 5

1

1 o


156


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Heracles Mainomenos, by Euripides Hercules Furens, by Seneca Hercules on (Eta, by Seneca Hermione, by Sophocles Hemani, by Hugo

XIX and Herodias, by Flaubert Hero and the Nymph (The), by Kalidasa Hippolyte, by Euripides

," by Seneca

His Own Gaoler, by Calderon Homme â deux têtes (L'), by Forest Homme de proie (L'), by Lefèvre and

Laporte Horace, by I'Aretin " by Corneille Huron (Le), by Voltaire Hypermnestre, by Metastasio

by Riupeiroux by Lemierre, etc. Hypsipyle, by Aeschylus by Euripides by Metastasio


ft


ft


tt


it


u


u


Idiot (L'), by de Lorde Idoménée, by Crébillon

by Lemiere

by Cienfuegos Illusions perdues (Les), by Balzac Image (L'), by Beauborg Impasse (L'), by Fread Amy Indigne, by Barbier Indiscret (L'), by See Inflexible (L'), by P^rodi Ino, by Euripides Insociale (L'), by Mme Aurel Intruder (The), by Maeterlinck lobates, by Sophocles lolas, by Sophocles Ion, by Euripides Iphigenia, by Aeschylus " by Sophocles

Iphigenia in Aulis, by Euripides


XVI


A


1


XVI


A


1


XXV


B


1


X


C


2


XXIV


A


3


XX


A


1


XXll


B



XXXV




XXVI


B


1


XXVI


B


1


XXIX


B


6


xxxiir


C


2


X


D


2


XXIII


B


5


XXIII


B


5


XXI


D


2


XXIII


B


3


XXIII


B


3


XXIII


B


3


XXIIF


B


2


XXIII


B


2


XXIIÏ


B


2


III


A


4


xxm


A


2


xxm


A


2


XXIII


A


2


XXX


C


1


XXIV


B


8


XV


A


1


V


B



XVII


A


1


XXVII


D


2


XVI


A


1


XXXVI


B



XXXVl


B



XXVI


B


1


il


B


2


XIX


B


1


XXIII


A


1


XXIII


A


1


xxm


A


1


INDEX PF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 157

Iphigénie à Aulis, by Racine XXIII A 1

Iphigenia in Tauris, by Euripides XIX C 2

" by Goethe XIX C 2

Iphigénie en Tauride, projected by Racine XIX C 2

Irène, by Voltaire XXIX B 4

Israel, by Bernstein XIX E

Ixion, by Aeschylus III A 5

" by Sophocles III A 5

" by Euripides ' III A 5

Jack the Ripper, by Bertran and Clairian ill B 7

Jack Tempête, by Elzéar XXIV A 8

Jacobines (Les), by Hermant XXV C 4

Jacobites (Les), by Coppee XXV D 2

Jacques Bonhomme, by Maujan VIII B 1

Jacques Damour, by Zola XXV C 2

Jalousie, by Vacquerie XXXII C 5

Jamac, by Hennique and Gravier XXIII B 6

Jean Céveno\ by Fraisse XXXIII B 3

Jephthe, by Buchanan XXIII A 2

by Boyer XXIII A 2

Jerusalem Delivered, by Tasso XIX G 1

Jeu de la Feuillee (Le), by Adam de la Halle VII C 1 Jeu de Robin et de Marion (Le), by Adam

de la Halle X A

Jeu de Saint-Nicholas (Le), by Jean Bodel-II A

Job,byMoses(?) -XXXI B J

Jocelyn, by Lamartine XXII A 1

by Godard XXII A 1

Joie de vivre (La), by Zola XXIV B 7

and- XXI A 2

Joueurs d'osselets (Les), by Aeschylus HI B 2

and VII B

Judgment of Arms (The), by Aeschylus XII C

Julius Caesar, by Shakespeare XXX A 2

Jumeaux (Les), by Hugo XXXV

K

Kermesse rouge, by Eekhoud III A 8

King John, by Shakespeare I A 1

and VI CI

Kreutzer Sonata (The), by Tolstoi XXV D 1


158


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Labors of Jacob, by Lope de Vega Laconian Women (The, by Sophocles Lady from the Sea (The), by Ibsen Lakmé, by Delibes Laocoon, by Sophocles


and


Later life of Rama (The), by Bhavabuti

Lawn-tennis, by Mourey

Légende du Coeur (La), by Aicard

Lélie, by Willy

Lemnian Women (The), by Sophocles

Lena, by Berton and Mme. van Velde

Life is a Dream, by Calderon

Lohengrin, by Wagner

Loi de l'homme (La), by Hervieu

Lois de Minos, by Voltaire

Lorenzaccio, by Musset

Louis Pérez of Galicia, by Calderon

Louis Leclercq, by Verlaine

Love and Intrigue, by Schiller

Love's Sacrifice, by Ford

Loves of Krishna (The), by Roupa

Loves of the Three Oranges (The), by Grozzi

Lucienne, by Gramont

Lucrèce Borgia, by Hugo

XXIII B 1, XXXII A 2, XIX B 1 and Luther, by Werner Lutte pour la vie (La), by Daudet Lydie, by Mirai Lyncée, by Theodecte

by Abeille Lys (Les), by Wolf and Leroux


Macbeth,

Madame

Madame

Madame

Madame

Madame

Madame

Madame


M


by Shakespeare Bovary, by Flaubert Caverlet, by Augier de Maintenon, by Copi>ée I'Amirale, by Mars and Lyon la Mort, by Mme. Rachilde Margot, by Moreau and ClairvilleVIII Thérèse, by Erckmann-Chatrian XXIX


XIII


A


1


4X


c


1


XXIV


B


8


XXIX


A


4


V


C



XXXVI


A


1


XXXV




XXVI


D


2


XXV


D


1


XXII


c


2


XXIII


B


2


XXVII


B


4


XIII


B


2


II


A



XXI


C


3


XIX


A


2


VIII


A


1


V


A



XVII


C


2


XXXII


B


3


XXXII


A


3


XXIV


D


1


XVIII


D


1


XXV


A


1


VI


C


3


XIX


D



XX


A


4


XV


B



XXIX


A


4


XXIII


B


3


XXIII


B


3


XXVIII


D


1


XXX


C


1


XXV


C


7


XXVII


A


1


XXI


B


2


XXVI


B


1


XXIV


B


8


VIII


A


2


A 4


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


159


Madeleine, by Zola

Mile, de Bressier, by Delpit

Mile de Maupin, by Gautier

Madhouranirouddha, by Vira

Mahaviracharita, by Bhavabuti

Mahomet, by Voltaire

Maidens of Trachis, by Sophocles

Maison d'argile (La), by Fabre

Maison des deux Barbeaux (La), by

Theuriet Maître (Le), by J. Jullien Maître Ambros, by Widor Malatia and Madhava, by Bhavabuti

Malefilâtre (Les), by Porto-Riche Malheur aux pauvres, by A. Bouvier Maman Colibri, by Bataille Manfred, by Byron Mangeront-ils by Hugo


and


and


Mannequin d'osier (Le), by France Manon Lescaut, by Prévost Maquignon (Le), by Josz and Dumur Marchande de sourires (La), by Judith

Gautier Mari (Le), by Nus and Amould Mariage d'André (Le), by Lemaire and de

Rouvre Mariage de Mlle Beulemans (Le), l

Fonson and Wicheler Mariage d'Olympe (Le), by Augier Marianne, by Dolce, Marianne, by Tristan l'Hcrmite Marianne, by Voltaire Marie Stuart, by Alfieri Marie Stuart, by Schiller Marie Stuart, by Samson Marie Tudor, by Hugo


Marino Faliero, by Byron Marion Delorme, by Hugo

Marius vaincu, by Mortier Marjolaine (La), by Richepîn fils


and


and


XXXIV


B


1


XXIX


B


2


XVIII




XXIX


A


4


X


c


2


XIX


E



XXV


B


1


XII


A


3


XXV


c


4


XIII


B


1


XXXIII


B


1


X


C


1


XXIV


A


3


XXV


C


7


XXXII


C


3


XXTI


C


1


XXXIV


A


1


XXIV


A


3


i


A


3


XXV


C


4


XXVH


B


vi


-Hi


A


1


XXIX


B


7


^xv


C


1


XVIII

IT


B


1


XXIV


A


3


XXVII


B


8


XXXII


A


1


XXXÎI


A


1


XXXII


A


1


XXXIII


A


2


XXIV


B


2


XXIV


B


2


XXIV


B


3


XIX




VI


C


1


XXVH


B


4


XIX




XXX


A


3


XXIV


A


6


"N


160 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Marquis de Priola (Le), by Lavedan KXVII

Martyre» by Dennery XXI

Martyrs (Les), by Chateaubriand XXXI *

Massière (La), by Lemaître jLW

Master Builder (The), by Ibsen XVir

Matemité, by Brieux VI

Maucroix (Les), by Delpit Xiy

Measure for Measure, by Shakespeare XX't

Medea, by Euripides XXV

" by Cor^eille XXV

  • ' by Seneca X^V

Mejor Alcalde el Key (El), by Lope de Vegaill

Meistersinger (Die), by Wagner XXIV-

Melanippe, by Euripides JCXIH

Meleager, by Sophocles I'C

Memnon, by Aeschylus -IX f

Ménages de Paris (Les), by Raymond XXV

Mensonges, by Bourget XXVII

Mer (La), by J. Jullien -XlII Merchant of Venice (The), by Shakespearelll • Mère du Pape (La), Miracle of Notre-Dame XXXI Mère meurtrier de son enfant (La), Miracle

of Notre-Dame XVH

Mères ennemies (Les), by Mendes XXV

Mérope, by Maffei XÏX

" by Voltaire XIX

" byAlfieri XIX

Message of Angada*(The), by Soubatha X

Mill (The), by Lope de Vega XXIV

Minister's Ring (The), by Vishakadatta XII

Minos, by Sophocles I

Miroirs (Les), by Roinard ' XXV

Miss Fanfare, by Grjiderax XXV

Miss Sara Sampson, by Lessing XXV Mission de Jeanne d'Arc (La), by Dallière VIII

Mithridate, by Racine XIX

Mon ami Teddy, by Rivoire and Bernard XXIV

Mon frère, by Mercereau XIII

Monna Vanna, by Maeterlinck XXXII

Monsieur Alphonse, by Dumas fils XXVII

Monsieur Bute, by Biollay ^XVI

Monsieur de Morat, by Tarbe XXV Montansier (La), by Jeoffrin, de Fiers and

de Caillavet XXV

Monte Cristo, by Dumas père III


A


1


C


1


A


2


B


1


A


1


D


1


A


1


D


2


A


1


A


1


A


1


A


3


A


9


B


1


B



B


2


B


3


B


7


D



B


6


B


4


C


2


B


2


B


1


B


1


B


1


C


2


A


5


A



A


1


D


1


B


7


A


1


B


1


B


1


A


7


A


2


A


1


B


7


A


3


B


3


C


3


B


4


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


161


Montmartre, by Frondaie

Morte de Cesar (La), by Voltaire

Morte (La), by Barlatier

Mouettes (Les), by P. Adam

Mrigancalckha, by Viswanatha

Mrs. Warren's Profession, by Shaw

Much Ado About Nothing, by Shakespeare

Myrane, by Bergerat

Myrmidons (The), by Aeschylus

Myrrha, by Alfieri

Myrtille, by Erckmann-Ghatrian

Mysians (The), by Aeschylus

Mystery of Adam (The), XII Century

N

Nana, by Zola

Nana-Sahib, by Richepin

Nanine, by Voltaire

Natural Daughter (The), by Goethe

Nauplius, by Sophocles

Nausicaa, by Sophocles

Necklace (The), by Sri Harshadeva

Nemea, by Aeschylus

Nereides (The), by Aeschylus

Nick Carter, by Livet and Bisson

Nicomède, by Corneille

Niebelung (The), by Wagner

Nina de Plata (La), by Lope de Vega

Ninety-Three, by Hugo

Niobe, by Aeschylus

Niobe, by Sophocles

Nitetis, by Metastasio

Noces Corinthiennes (Les), by France

Nurses (The), by Aeschylus

Nouveau Monde (Le), by Villiers de Tlsle

Adam Nuit de Saint- Jean (La), by Erckmann-

Chatrian Numa Roumestan, by Daudet




Obstacle (L'), by Daudet Octavia, by Seneca Odette, by Sardou

11


XXVIII


E



XXX


A


2


XXIV


B


8


XXIII


A


3


XXIV


A



XXVII


A



XXXII


B



XXV


B



VI


A



XXVI


A


2


XXVIII


A


2


I


B


3


VI


A


3


XXII


A


6


V


C



XXVIII


A


1


VII


A



III


A


2


I


B


1


XXIV


D


3


IX


A



III


A


7


HI


C



V


C



V


C



XXIV


A


5


-XXIIl


A


3


XXVI


A


1


XXXI


B


4


XXVIII


A


1


XXIX


• A


4


XXXI


B


4


XXV


C


1


XXIV


A


7


XXV


B


2


XXIV


A


8


XV


B



XXVII


A


I


162


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Œdipus, by Aeschylus

" . by Sophocles

" by Corneille

" by Seneca

    • by Voltaire, etc.

Œdipus at Colonus, by Sophocles


Œnee, by Sophocles Œnomaus, by Sophocles " by Euripides Œuvre (L'), by Zlola Ogre (L'), by Marthold Oïclesy. by Sophoéles Olympiade, by Metastasio Olympic, by Voltaire On ne badine pas avec l'amour, by Opium, by Bohnetain Or (L*), by Peter and Danceiiy Orbecchç, by Giraldi Oreille fendue (L*), by Nepoty Orestes, by Euripides Oreste, by Alfieri

" by Voltaire Orithyie, by Aeschylus

" by Sophocles - Othello, by Shakespeare Othon, by Corneille —


JLVIII


A 1


XVIII


A 1


XVIII


A 1


XVIII


A 1


XVIII


A 1


I


A 3


and Xli


A


' 11


B 2


'IX


D 2


IX


D 2


nXX


A 4


xxxm


D 3


I


A 1


XIX


B 1


•XXIX


B 1


ilussetXVII


C 2


XXIf


C 2


III


A 1


IV


D


XXVII-


A 3


XXXIV


A 2


XXXIV


V A 2


XXXIV


A 2


X


A


X


A


XTÔCII


B 1


XX-


B 1


Page blanche, by Dévore

Pain d'autrui (Le), by Ephraim and

Schutz, after Turgeniev Palamede, by Aechylus Palamede, by Euripides

Palamede, by Sophocles Pandore, by Voltaire

Pandore, by Goethe

Papa, by de Fiers and de Caillavet

Paraître, by Donnay

Parsifal, by Wagner

Partage de midi, by Claudel

Passagères (Les), by Coolus


XXV


C 1


and


and


XIX


£



XI


c


3


XI


c


3


XXXIII


c


2


XXXIII »


c


2


XXIV


A



XVII


c



XVII


c



XIV


B



XXV


D



IX


c


2


XV


A


1


XXIV


B


6


INDEX OP PLAYS, NOVELS. ETC.


lôâ


k^atrie, by Paladilhe and Sardou Peau d'âne, by Perrault Péché de Marthe (Le), by Rochard Peleus, by Sophocles


and


Peleus, by Euripides

Pèlerin d'amoiir (Le), by Emile-^Michelet

Peliades (The), by Euripides

Pelias, by Sophocles

and Pelléas and Melisande, by Maeterlinck Pelopides (The), by Voltaire Penelope, by Aeschylus Pentheus, by Aeschylus Penthesilea, by Aeschylus Père Chasselas (Le), by Athis Père prodigue (Le), by Dumas fils Pericles, by Shakespeare

and Perkin Warbeck, by Ford Perrhoebides (The), by Aeschylus Persians (The), by Aeschylus Pertharite, by Corneille Petit ami (Le), by Leautaud Petite amie (La), by Brieux Petite Caporale (La), by Darlay and

Grorsse Petite chocolatière (La), by Gavault Petite Hollande, by Guitry Petite milliardaire (La), by Dumay and

Forest Petite Mionne (La), by Richebourg Petite paroisse (La), by Daudet Petit Jacques (Le), by Dennery Petit Poucet (Le), by Perrault Phaedra, by Sophocles Phaeton, by Euripides


1


and


Pheacians (The), by Sophocles Phèdre, by Racine Philippe II, by Alfieri


and


Philoctetes, by Aeschylus by Sophocles by Euripides


u


it


XXV


D


2


XXVI


A


3


XîÇVIII


B



u


B


1


VII


c


1


VH


c


1


XXV^I


B


7


XDt


E


-


XVH


c


4


XIX


E



XIV


A


3


XIII '


A


2


III


B


2


XXXI


A


1


XXXVI


C



XXXV




XIV


B


1


XI*


B


2


XXXV




XXX


B



III


A


5


VI


A


1


XXI


D


2


XXVI


A


1


XXVIII


A


2


IX \


D


2


XXVIII


A


2


XXIV


- B


6


xxrv


A


7


XTX


A


3


XXV ^


C



XXÏ


D



VI


D



XXVI '


B



XVII


A



XXXI


B



I


B



XXVÏ


B



XIV


B


3


XXVI


B


2


XII


A



XII


A



XII


A



164


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


« 


it


It


u


Philoctetes in Troy, by Sophocles

Phineus, by Aeschylus

Phineus, by Sophocles

Phoenissae (The), by Aeschylus

by Euripides by Seneca

Phoenix, by Euripides

Phorcides (The), by Aeschylus

Phrixus, by Sophocles

Phrixus, by Euripides

Phrygians (The), by Aeschylus

Phtiotides (The), by Sophocles


I

IX

II

XX

Xill

XIII

XIV

IX

III [II I

XXXII


B 2


Physician of his Honor (The), by Calderon XXV

Pierre et Jean, by Maupassant XIV

Pierre et Thérèse, by Prévost XXVII

Pierre Pascal, by Mme. de Chabrihan XV

Pierre Vaux, by Jonathan * XXI

Pierrot assassin de sa femme, by

Margueritte XXXIV

Pierrots (Les), by Grillet XXXIII

Pieuvre (La), by Morel XXXIII

Plus faible (La), by Prévost XXVIII

Policière (La), by Montepin XXVII

Polydectes, by Aeschylus XIX

Polyeucte, by Corneille XX

Polyidus, by Sophocles XI

" by Euripides XI

Polynice, by Alfieri XITI

Polyhème, by Samain XXIV

Polyxena, by Sophocles XXXVI

Pompée, by Corneille 111

Port-Tarascon, by Daudet XVII

Portrait (The), by Massinger XXXII

Possédé (Le), by Lemonnier XXII

Pot-Bouille, by Zola XXV

Poupées électriques, by Marinetti XXXIII

Poussin (Le), by Guiraud XXVIII Powers of Darkness (The), by Tolstoi

XIII E andXV

Prêtre (Le), by Buet III

Priestesses (The), by Aeschylus XIX

Princesse de Bagdad (La), by Dumas fils XXXII

Princesse Georges (La), by Dumas fils XXV

Princess Maleine (The), by Maeterlinck VII


B A A A B B B B B C D A A A D

A B C A C F B A A A A A A C C A C B D

A A C A


2 3 1 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 1 1

4 2 ] 2

2 1


1 1 1 4 4 1 5 7 3 2

1 1 2 1


B 3 A


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


165


l>rince Zilah (The), by Claretie Procris, by Sophocles Prometheus, by Aeschylus Prometheus Bound, by Aeschylus


and


Prometheus Unbound, by Aeschplus Propompes (The), by Aeschylus Proserpine,' by Vacquer e and Saint-Saens Protesilas, by Euripides Psyche, by Corneille Psychostase, by Aeschylus Pulchérie, by Corneille Purloined Letter (The), by poe

Q

Quarts d'heure (Les), by. Guiches and Lavedan

and 14 juillet (Le), by Rolland 4x7 equals 28, by Coolus Question d'argent (La), by Dumas fils

R

Raffles, by Homung Rama, by Bhavabuti Ramuntcho, by Loti Rantzau (Les), by Erckman-Chatrian Raoul de Crequi, by Dalayrac Reformateur (Le), by Rod Regiment (Le), by J. Mary Regulus, by Pradon Regulus, by Metastasio Reine aux trois fils (La), Miracle of Notre- Dame Reine Fiammette (La), by Mendes


XXVII


B


3


XIX


G


1


IX


c


1


VII


c


1


V


c



IX


D


1


I


C


1


XXV


B


7


XX


A


2


XVII


B


2


XXXVI


C



XX


B


3


XI


A



and


Rembrandt, by Dumur and Josz Rencontre (La), by Berton René, by Chateaubriand Renée, by Zola

Renée Mauperin, by the Goncourts Resentment of Te-oun-go (The), by Kouan-han-king


XXVII


A


1


XXV


c


4


VIII


B


2


XXXII


A


3


XXIV


A


7


V


A



X


c


2


XXVIII


A



XXIX


A


«5


XXV


E



VI


C



XXVII


D


3


XX


A



XX


A



XXXV




XXXIII


A


3


XXIX


B


3


VII


D



XXV


C


4


XXXIV


B



XXVI


B


2


XVII


C


2


III


B 3


166


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Résurrection, by Tolstoi

Rêve (Le), by Zola ^

Réveil (Le), by Hervieu

Révoltée, by Lemaître

Révoltés (Les), by Cain and Adenis

Rhadamiste et Zénobie, by Crébillon

Rhesus, by Euripides

Richard Coeur-de-lion, by Sedaine


and and


Richard II, by Shakespeare

Richard III, by Shakespeare

Risque (Le), by Coolus

Rivoli, by Fauchois

Robert-le-Diable, Miracle of Notre-Dame

Rodogune, by Corneille

Roger-la-honte, by J. Mary

and Roi Cerf (Le), by Gozzi Roi de l'argent (Le), by Milliet Roi de Rome (Le), by Pouvillon Roi s'amuse (Le), by Hugo Roi sans couronne (Le), by St. Georges

de Bouhélier Roi sans royaume (Le), by Decourcelle Roi Soleil (Le), by Bemède Rolande, by de Gramont Roman d'Elise (Le), by Richard Roman d'une Conspiration (Le), by

Founder and Carré Romeo and Juliet, by Shakespeare Rosemonde, by Rucellaï Rosse, tant at plus, by Mustière Route d'Emeraude (La), by Demolder and

Richepin XXII

Ruy-Blas, by Hugo XIX


XX


c



I


B


2


XXT


c


2


XXV


c


4


III


A


5


XXV


c


2


IX


D


1


XXXVI


c



X


D


1


XXXV




VI


B



XXX


c


1


XIV


A


4


XXV


C


7


V


A



XIII


E



XXXÎII


D


5


III


B


4


XVIII


D


1


XXXIII


B


3


VII


B



XIX


A


4


VIII


A


1


VIII


A


1


XXXIII


C


2


XXII


C


1


XXVIII


D


2


VIII


A


2


XXIX


B


6


CÏV


C



VIII


A


2


A 6


Saint-Alexis, Miracle of Notre-Dame XIX

Sainte-Hélène, by Mme. Séverine III

Saint-Ignace d'Antioch, Miracle of Notre- Dame XX Saint Julien l'hospitalier, by Flaubert XIX Saïs (Le), by Mme OUognier XXIV


G A

A E A


3 2


8


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


36?


Sakuntala, by Kalidasa


and


Salammbô, by Flaubert

Salaminians (The), by Aeschylus

Salome, by Oscar Wilde

Samson, by Voltaire

Samson, by Bernstein

Samson et Dalila, by Saint-Saens

Sang-brûlé (La), by Bouvier

Sapho, by (^unod

Sapho, by Daudet

S. A. R., by Chancel

SardanapaluB, by Byron

Saul, by Alfieri

Saul, by Gide

Scandale (Le), by Bataille

Schism of England (The), by Calderon

Sculpteur de Masques (Le), by Cromelynck

Scythes (Les), by Voltaire

Second Faust (The), by Goethe

Secret de Gilberte (Le), by Massiac

Secret de la Terreuse (Le), by Busnach

Secret Vengeance for Secret Outrage, by

Calderon Semele, by Aeschylus Semiramis, by Manfredi Semiramis, by Crebillon Semiramis, by Voltaire Semiramide riconosciuta, by Metastasio

and Sérénade (La), by J. Jullien Serge Panine, by Ohnet Serpent Woman (The), by Grozzi Sertorius, by Corneille Seven Against Thebes, by Aeschylus Seven Princesses (The), by Maeterlinck Severo Torelli, by Coppée Shepherd King (Tho), by MeUstasio Sherlock Holmes, by Conan Doyle Shepherds (The), by Sophocles Sieba, by Manzotti Sigurd, by Reyer Simone, by Brieux Simon, I'caifant trouve, by Jonathan Singer (The), anonymous Chinese drama


XVI


c



XXXV




vm


B


1


VI


c


2


XXII


B



XVII


c


3


XXV


D


1


XV


A


2


XXVI


c


1


XXXIII


D


1


XXII


A


3


XX


B


3


VI


A


2


Xlll


D



XVI


B



XXXIV


B


2


XV


B



XXVI


C


1


XXIX


A


4


IX


D


3


XXVII


B


2


XXXIII


B


4


XXV


D


1


XIII


B


1


XXVI


A


1


XXVI


A


1


XIX


D



XXIV


B


8


XXXII


B


1


XXV


C


3


XXV


B


2


XXXIlI


A


1


XX


B


3


XIII


A


2


XXXVI


B



XXVII


D


4


XXVIII


C


1


IK


C



VI


A


1


XXVIII


B



XXV


C


3


XXVII


D


6


III


A


6


III


A


1


168


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Sinon, by Sophocles

Sire, by Lavedan

Siroès, by Metastasio

Sir Thomas Wyat, by Webster

Smilis, by Aicard


and


« 


« 


Soeurette, by Borteau-Loti

Son Excellence Eugène, by Zola

Sons of Pandou (The), by Radjasekhara

Sophonisbe, by Trissino

by Mairet

by Alfieri Sorcière (La), by Sardou Souris (La), by Pailleron Sphinx (The), by Aeschylus Statue (The), by Radjasekhara Stella, by Goethe

Story of Yayati (The), by Roudradeva Suppliants (The), by Aeschylus Suppliants (The), by Euripides Suzette, by Brieux Surcouf , by Planquette Suréna, by Corneille


Tancrède, by Voltaire


and


Tanis et Zélide, by Voltaire

Tannhaeuser, by Wagner

Tartarin, by Daudet

Taverne des Trabans (La), by Erckmann-

Chatrian Tchitra Yadjgna, by Vedanyatha

Vatchespati Telephus, by Euripides Telephus, by Aeschylus Telephus, by Sophocles Tempest (The), by Shakespeare Tenailles (Les), by Hervieu Temptation of Saint Anthony (The), by

Flaubert Tereus, by Sophocles Terre (La), by Zolj^

W<1


IX


D


1


XXVII


B


7


XXXIII


B


2


XXX


B



XXI


A


2


XXV


c


4


XXV


c


7


XXX


c


1


III


A


5


XX


B


3


XX


B


3


XX


B


3


XXIV


B


1


XIV


A


4


XI


B


1


XXIV


T)


3


XXV


B


6


XXIX


A


2


I


A


1


I


A


2


XXIV


A


'7


XXIV


A


5


XXXII


A


3


XXXII


A


1


11


A



XXIV


A


2


XXII


A


2


VI


B



XXIX


A


.3


XXXI


B


1


I


B


3


XIX


B


1


XIX


B


1


III


B


1


XXV


C


1


XXII


B



III


B


5


XXX


C


1


XIII


8


I


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


169


Terre d'épouvante, by Morel and de Lorde

Teucer, by Sophocles

Thamiras, by Sophocles

Themistocles, by Metastasio

Theodora, by Sardou

Théodore, by Corneille

Thérèse Raquin, by Zola

and Thermidor, by Sardou Theseus, by Euripides Thr acians (The), by Aeschylus Three Punishments in One, by Calderon Thyestes, by Seneca Thvestes in Sicyon, by Sophocles Thyestes II, by Sophocles Timoleon, by Alfieri Timon of Athens, by Shakespeare 'Tis Pity She's a Whore, by Ford Titan, by Jean-Paul Richer Tite et Bérénice, by Corneille Toilers of the Sea, by Hugo


and and


Torquemada, by Hugo

Torrent (Le), by Donnay

Torrismond, by Tasso

Tosca (La), by Sardou

Trains de luxe (Les), by Hermant

Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur, by

Ducange Tribun (Le), by Bourget Tribut de Zamora (Le), by Gounod Trisan and Isolde, by Wagner Triumvirat (Le), by Voltaire Troilus, by Aeschylus Troilus and Cressida, by Shakespeare Troades (The), by Euripides

" " by Seneca

Troyens (Les), by Berlioz

and Tullia, by Martelli Tunic Confronted (The), by Tchang-koue-

pin Turandot, by Gozzi


VI


A


4


VI


c


2


XXXI


B


3


XX


A


2


XXXIII


A


3


XX


D



XXXIV


A


4


XV


A


1


VIII


A


1


IX


D


1


XVI


B



XIII


B


1


XIII


A


2


XXXV




XIII


A


2


XXX


A


1


m


C


1


XXVI


c


2


XVIII


D


2


XX


B


3


XXIV


A


7


'IX


D


2


XXIII


A


3


XIX




XXV


C


1


XVIII


A


2


XXI


D


2


XXIV


B


6


XXII


C


2


XXVII


D


2


XXIV


A


3


XXV


C


3


XXTV


A


3


XXXVI


A


1


V


C



XXXVI


A


1


XXXVI


A


I


I


B


1


XX


B


3


XXX


C


2


III


A


1


XI


C X


170 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS

Twenty-fourth of February KThe), by

Werner XIX B 1

Two foscari (The), by Byron ^ III ^ A 1

Two Gentlemen of Verona, by ShakespeV® XIV D Two Noble Kinsmen The), by Beaumont

and Fletcher XIV ' , C

U

Ubu-Roi, by Jarry

Ulysses Furens, by Sophocles

Un ange, by Capus

Un divorce, by Moreau

Un drôle, by Yves Guyot

Une famille au temps de Luther, by

Delavigne Une femme passa, by Coo^us Une nuit de Cléopâtre, by Gautier and V.

Masse

an< Un patriote, by Dartois Un voyage de noces, by Tiercelin


Valentinian, by Beaumont and Fletcher

Varennes, by Lenotre and Lavedan

Vautrin, by Balzac

Veine (La), by Capus

Venisamhara, by Bhatta Narayana

Ventre de Paris (Le), by Zola

Veuve joyeuse (La), by Meilhac, Leon and

Stein Vicomtesse Alice (La), by Se ond Vidocq, by Bergerat Victory of Arjuna (The), by Cantchana

Atcharya Victory of Pradyoumna (The), by Samara

Dikchita Vieil homme (Le), by Porto-Riche Vielle histoire, by J. Jullien Vie publique (La), by Fabre Vierge (La), by Vallette Vierge folle (La), by Bataille Virgin Martyr (The), by Massinger Vittoria Corombona, by Webster


XXX


C



XI


c


3


XXII


c


2


XXXII


A


1


XXV


c


1


XIII


A


1


XTV

r


D



XXII


A


5


XXIV


B


4


XXIII


B


4


XXV


A


2


XXXIII


D


4


XXIV


B^


3


XXVÎ


D


1


XXV


A


3


III


A


5


XXXIII


C


2


XXVIII


A


2


V


D



III


C



IX


C


2


XXIX


A


2


XIV


B


2


XXVII


A


2


XXX


C


1


XXXII


A


4


XXV


B


9


XX


D



XV


A


1


INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC.


171


Vive le roi! by Ryner

Voix de sang (La), by Mme Rachilde

Voleur (Le), by Bernstein

W

« 

Waiting- Women (The), by Aeschylus

Wallenstein, by Schiller

War of the Worlds (The), by Wells

Weavers of Nets (The), by Aeschylus

Weavers of Silesia (The), by Hauptmann

Werner, by Byron

Werther, by Goethe

Wild Duck (The), by Ibsen

William Tell, by Schiller

and Winter's Tale (A), by Shakespeare Women of Colchis, by Sophocles Women of Scyros, by Sophocles Wool-Carders (The), by Aeschylus Worst is not Always Certain (The), by Calderon


XX ^


A


4


XIX


G


3


XXXIH


A


3


XX


A


2


XXX


A


3


VI


A


2


XVI


A


1


VIII


B


2


XXVII


C



XXXIV


B



XVII


C


1


VIII


B


2


III


B


6


XXV




XXV


A


1


XI


C


2


XXXT


A


1


XXXII


A t


Xoanephores (The), by Sophocles

Z


VJ


A 2


Zaïre, by Voltaire


XXXII


A


2


Zéim, by Gozzi


XXVIII


B



Zenobia, by Metastasio


XXV


C


2


Zoe Chien-chien, by Mathey


IV


A


2


Zulime, by Voltaire


XXIV.


B


4


ALPHABETICAL ÏNDEX OF AtJTHOËâ




A






Abeille:


Lyncée




XXIII


B


3


Achaeus


Œdîpus




XVIII


A


1


Adam (Paul): L'Automne




VIII


B


'/


« 


Les Mouettes




XXIII


A


3


Adam de la Halle: Le Jeu de la Feuillée


VII


c


1



" . Le Jeu de


Robin


et de




Marion




X


A



Adenis:


Les Révoltés




III


A


5


Aeschylus: The Suppliants




I


A


1



The Heraclidae




I


A


1



The Eumenides




I


A


1



The Eleusinians




I


A


2



Danae




I


B


2



The Mysians




I


B


3



The Phryfi^ians




I


B


4



The Propompes




I


C


1



The Epigones




III


A


1



The Arrives




III


A


1



The Perrhoebides




III


A


5



Ixion




III


A


5



The Nereids




III


A


7



Penelope




III


B


2



Les Joueurs d'osselets



III


B


2





and


VII


B




The Choephoree




IV


A


1



Atalanta




IV


B




Prometheus Bound




V


C






and


VII


C


1



The Persians




VI


A


1



The Myrmidons




VI


A


1



The Salaminians




VI


C


2



The Guests




VII


B




Nemea




IX


K



v\%


i74


tmRTY-SlX DÊAMATÎC SÎTtîATlôNS


Aeschyli


ils: The Phorcides


IX


B


2



Phineus


IX


B


2



Memnon


IX


B


2



Glaucus Pontius


IX


B


2



Prometheus


IX


C


1



Prometheus Unbound


IX


D


1



Orithyie


X


A




Europa


X


A




The Carians


X


A




The Sphinx


XI


B


1



Palamede


XI


C


3



Philoctetes


XII


A




The Judgment of Arms


XTT


C




The Heliades


XIII


A


1



Seven Against Thebes


XIII


A


2



Agamemnon


XV


A


1



The Weavers of Nets


XVI


A


1



Athamas


XVI


A


1



The Thracians


XVI


B




Semele


XVII


B


1



Œdipus


XVIII


A


1



Alcmenc


XVIII


D


2



Telephus


XIX


B


1



The Priestesses


XIX


C


2



Polydectes


XIX


F


2



The Waiting- Women


XX


A


2



The Phoenissae


XX


A


3



Iphigenia


XXIII


A


1



Hypsipyle


XXIII


B


2



The Danaides


XXIII


B


3



Laius


XXVI


D


1



The Aedonians


XXXI


A


1



Pentheus


XXXI


A


1



The Bassarides


XXXI


A


1



The Wool-Carders


XXXI


A


1



Ajax Locrian


XXXI


B


3



The Nurses


XXXI


B


4



The Eumenides


XXXIV


A


2



Niobe


XXXVI


A


1



Troilus


XXXVI


A


1



Penthesilea


XXXVl


C




The Death of Achilles


XXXVl


C




Psychostase


XXXVI


C



Alcard:


Smilis


XXI


A


2




and XXV


C


4


INDEX OF AUTHORS


176


Aicard: La Légende du Cœur

Alamanni: Antijrone

Alfieri: The Conspiracy of the Pazzi

Polynice

Saul

Agis

Philippe II


it


« 


« 


« 


and


« 


« 


•<


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


Octavia

Merope

Antigone

Sophonisbe

Rosemonde

Myrrha

Timoleon

Brutus II

Marie Stuart

Don Garzia

Orostes

Amigues: La Comtesse Frédégonde Ancey: L'Ecole des veufs Andersen: Le Compagnon de voyage Anguillara: Œdipus Annunzio (d'): La Citta morta Arétin (1*): Horace Armand (Mme): Les Fils de Jahel Arnold: Le rime d'un autre Amould: Le Mari

" La Belle aux cheveux d'or Amyvelde: La Courtisane Artois (d') : La Fermière Athis: Le père Chasselas Attilius: Electra

Auge de Lassus: La Conspiration de gén- éral Malet Augier: Diane

and

Madame Caverlet Le Mariage d'Olympe Aurel: Llnsociale


« 


« 


B


Balzac: Cesar Birotteau " La cousine Bette

  • ' Vautrin


XXV


D


1


XX


A


3


VIII


A


2


XIII


A


1


XTII


D



XIII


D



XIV


B


3


XXVI


B


2


XV


B



XIX


B


1


XX


A


3


XX


B


3


XXV


B


5


XXVI


A


2


XXX


A


1


XXX


A


2


XXXIII


A


2


XXXIII


C


3


XXXIV


A


2


XXV


B


7


XXVI


B


3


XI


B


2


XVIII


A


1


XXVI


C


2


XXIII


B


5


XX


B


2


XXXIII


D


2


XXV


C


1


XVII


C


3


xxvn


B


6


XXIV


C



XXXV




IV


A


1


VIII


A


1


XXI


C


1


XXXIII


A


2


XXVII


A


1


XXVII


B


8


XXXVI


B



VI


B



XXII


C


1


XXVI


D


t


176


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


« 


tt


« 


Balsac: Les Illusions perdues Barbier: Indigne Barlatier; La Morte Basset: Les Grands Bataille: L'Enchantement Maman Colibri La Vierge folle Le Scandale Beaubourg: Ulmage

" Dieu ou pas Dieu

Beaumont: The Two Noble Kinsmen

" Valentinian

Becque: Les Corbeaux Bell : Catharine la Bâtarde Bergerat: Vidocq Myrane

Flore de Frileuse Berlioz: Les Troyens


tt


ft


and


tt


tt


tt


tt


Bernard: Mon ami Teaay

Bernard (Tristan): Le Danseur inconnu

Bernard (C. de): Gerfaut

Bemede: Le Roi Soleil

Pernharat (Sarah): L'Aveu

Bernstein: Israel

La Griffe

Le Bercail

Après moi

Le Voleur

Berton: La Rencontre

" Lena Bertrand: Jack the Ripper Bhatta Narayana: Venisamhara Bhavabuti: Malati and Madhava

and M ahavir achari ta Later Life of Rama Bilhaud: La Courtisane de Corinth Biollay: M. Bute

" Les Angles du divorce Bisson: Nick Carter " La Femme X Bizet: L'Arlésienne Blavet: Les Fils de Porthos Bodel (Jean): Le Jeu de Saint-Nicholas


((


tt


XXX


c


1


V


B



XXIV


B


8


XXXIII


A


3


XIV


A


4


XXII


c


1


XXV


B


9


XXXIV


B


2


XXIV


B


8


XXlX


A


3


XIV


c



XXXIII


D


4


VII


B



XXXIII


D


1


III


c



XXV


B


7


XXVII


B


2


I


B


1


XX


B


3


XXIV


.A


7


XXVIII


A


.2


XXV-


C


6


XXXIII


C


2


XXV


C


4


XIX


E



XXII


A


3


XXV


C


4


XXV


D


1


XXXIII


A


3


XXV


C


4


XXVII


B


4


III


B


7


III


A


5


X


C


1


XXIV


A


3


X


C


2


XXXV




III


B


5


XVI


A


3


XXVIII


E



III


C



XXVII


A


1


XXII


A


5


XXIV


A


5


II


A



INDEX OF AUTHORS


Bois (G.): Edith


V


Boia (J.): La Furie


xxn


Boissy Alceste


XXI


Bannetain: L'Opium


XXII


Borteau-Lotti Soeurette


XXV


Bovirfret: Le Disciple


III


La Barricade


XXIV


MensongeB


xxvn


Le Tribun


XXVII


" L'Emigré


XXVIII


" Le Divorce


XXVIII


Bouvier: La Dame au DoraiBo rose


XVIII


" La Sang-brulé


XXVI


Malheur aux pauvrca


XXXII


" La grande Iza


xxxra


Boyer: Jephtha


xxni


Brieux: Maternité


VI


" Les Avariée


XVIl


Simone


XXVII


I* Petite Amie


XXVIII


Suzette


XXXII


Buchanan: Alceste


XXI


Jephtha


XXIII


Buet: Le Prêtre


III


Busnach: Le Secret de la Terreuse


XXXIII


Byl: L'Age Critique


XXV


Byron: The Two Foscari


III


" Sardanapalus


VI


'■' Marino Faliero


VI


The Deformed Transformed


IX


" Cain


xin


" Heaven and Earth


XXIV


WMTier


XXVII


" Manfred

C Caillavet (de): Papa


XXXIV


XIV


" Le Coeur a sea raisons


xrv


" L'Ane de Buridan


xxrv



xxv


Cain: Les Mvoltés


III


Calderon: The Alcaide of Zalamea


UI


Love After Death


III


" Devotion to the Cross


V


" Louis Perez of Galicia


V


178


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


\


« 


« 


u


it


tt


it


tt


tt


tt


tt


Calderon: Three Punishments in One The Schism of England The Constant Prince Secret Vengeance for Secret

Outrage The Physician of His Honor His Own Gaoler Fortune and Misfortune of a

Name The Worst is Not Always Cer- tain Life is a Dream Cantchana Atcharya: The Victory of Ar-

juna Capus: Un Ange L'Attentat La Veine Carcinus: Œdipus Carre: La Courtisane de Corinth

" La Roman d'une Conspiration Cervantes: Don Quixote Caesar: Œdipus

Chabrihan (Comtesse de): Pierre Pascal Chancel: S. A. R. Charton: Devant l'ennemi Chatrian: La Nuit de Saint- Jean Myrtille L'Ami Fritz Les Rantzau La Taverne des Trabans Madame Thérèse Chateaubriand: Les Martyrs

René Chenier (M. J.): Electre " Œdipus

Cicero (Q.)- Electra Cienfuegos: Idomenee Clairian: Jack the Ripper Clairville: Madame Margot Claretie: Le Prince Zilah Claudel: Partage de midi Cliquet: C'est la loi Coedès: Le Crime de Maisons- Alfort Coolus: Le Risque

Une femme passa


« 


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


XIII


B


1


XV


B



XX


A


4


XXV


D


1


XXV


D


1


XXIX


B


6


XXIX


B


6


XXXII


A


1


XIII


B


2


IX


c


2


XXII


c


2


XXIV


A


7


XXV


A


3


XVIII


A


1


III


B


5


VIII


A


2


II


A



XVIII


A


1


XV


A


1


XX


B


3


XXIV


A


8


XXIV


A


7


XXVIII


A


2


XXVIII


A


2


XXIX


A


3


XXIX


A


3


XXIX


A


4


XXXI


A


2


XXXIV


B



IV


A


1


XVIII


A


1


IV


A


1


XXIII


A


2


III


B


7


VIII


A


2


XXVII


B


3


XV


A


1


XXV


B


8


III


A


1


XIV


A


4


XIV


D



INDEX OF AUTHORS


Coolus: Lee Passagères


XXIV


Antoinette Sabrier


XXIV


CoGur a Coeur


XXV


Les Bleus de l'amour


XXVIII


" 4 X 7 — 28


XXXIl


Coppée: Madame de Maintenon


XXI


" Les Jacobites


XXV


Severo Torelli


XXVII


Corneille (P.): Andromède


II


Pompée


III


Nicomède


V


" Cinna


VIll


" Rodogune


XIII


Psyché


XVII


Œdipe


XVIII


HéracliuB


XVIII


Polyeucte


XX


Othon


XX


Pulchérie


XX


Tite et Bérénice


XX


Sertoriua


XX


Théodore


XX


Pertharite


XXI


" Horace


XXIII


Attila


XXIV


Agésilae


xxrv- .


" Suréna


XXIV


Don Sanche


XXIV


La Conquête de la Toison



d'or


XXIV


Médée


XXV


Le Cid


XXIX


Corneille: Clitandre


XXXIII


Corneille <T.): Ariane


VI


and


XXIV


Le Comte d'Essex


XXIV


Le Festin de Pierre


XXXI


Coypel: Alceete


XXI


Crébillon; Electre


IV


" Atrée et Thyeste


XIII


Idoménée


XXIII


Ehadamiste et Zénobie


XXV


" Semiramis


XXVI


Crémieux: La Charbonnière


XXI


Crichna Cavi: The Death of i^ansa


XIII


180


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Croisset: Le Circuit

Cromelynck: Le Sculpteur de Masques

Curel (de): Les Fossiles

" La Fille sauvage

D

Dalayrac: Raoul de Créqui Dallière: La Mission de Jeanne d'Arc Danceny: L'Or Darlay: La Petite Caporale

    • Les Aventures de Gavroche

Dartois: Un Patriote Daudet: Tartarin

" La Lutte pour la vie

" Port-Tarascon

" L'Evangeliste

" Sapho

" L'Arlésienne

" L'Obstacle

    • Numa Roumestan

" La Petite Paroisse Decourcelle: Le Roy sans royaume L'As de trèfle Les cinq doigts de Birouk Delahaye: La Déclassée Delacour: La Criminelle Delavigne: Une farille au temps de Luther Delibes: Lakmé Delpit: Les Maucroix

" Mlle, de Bressier Demolder: La Route d'emeraude Dennery: Martyre

" Le petit Jacques

Descaves: L'Attentat Desnard: La Dégringolade Dévore: Page blanche

" La Sonscience de l'enfant Diaz: Benvenuto Dickens: Great Expectations Diogenes: Œdipus Dolce: Marianne Donnay: L'Autre Danger Le Torrent Paraître Dorât: Alceste -.


it


a


il


u


XXIV


c



XXVI


c


1


XIV XXXVl


B D


1


XXV


E



VIII


B


1


III


A


1


IX


D


z


XXXV




XXIII


B


4


VI


B



XV


B



XVII


c


4


XX


B


1


XXII


A


3


XXII


A


5


XXIV


A


8


XXV


B


2


XXV


c


4


Vill


A


1


XXVII


D


3


XXX


C


1


III


B


4


XXXIII


B


2


XIII


A


1


XXIX


A


4


XIV


A


1


XXIX


B


2


XXII


A


6


XXI


C


1


XXI


D


1


XXIV


A


7


XXXIII


D


6


XXV


C


1


XXVI


C


1


XXIV


B


7


XXI


A


2


XVIII



A


1


XXXII


A


1


XIV


B


4


XXV


C


1


XXV


D


1


XXI


A


1


INDEX OP AUTHORS


181


« 


tt


Domay: Gavroche

Fiacre No. 13.

Les Foulards-rouges Dostoievsky: Crime and Punishment Doyle: Sherlock Holmes Ducange: Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur Ducis: Œdipe " Abufar Dttmas père: Monte-Cristo

    • Don Juan

Dumas fils: L'Etrangère


and


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


Le Fils naturel

Le Père prodig^ue

Le Divorce de Sarah Moore

La Question d'argent

Francillon

La Princesse Georges

Diane de Lys

La Femme de Claude

L'Affaire Clemenceau

Denise

La Dame aux camélias

M. Alphonse

La Princesse de Bagdad Dumay: La petite Milliardaire Dumur: Le Maquignon

" Rembrandt Duval: L'Article 801

E

Edmond (C): La Bûcheronne Eekhoud: Kermesse rouge Elzéar: Jack Tempête Emile-Michelet: Le Pèlerin d'amour Erckmann: La Nuit de Saint- Jean

L'Ami Fritz

Myrtille

Les Rantzau

La Taverne des Trabans

Madame Thérèse Emault: La Croisade des enfantelets

francs " La tentation de vivre E^ripides: The Heraclid»


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


XXXIII


B


2


XXXIII


B


2


XXXV




XXXIV


A


8


III


C



XXII


C


2


XVIII


A


1


XVIII


B


1


III


B


4


V


B



III


B


7


XXV


B


8


XII


B



XIV


B


1


XXI


A


2


XXIV


A


7


XXV


B


2


XXV


B


8


XXV


C


8


XXV


C


7


XXV


D


1


XXVII


B


8


XXVII


B


6


XXVII


B


7


XXXII


A


1


XXIV


A


7


III


A


1


VII


D



XXTV


C



XXIV


A


8


III


A


8


XXIV


A


8


XXVII


B


7


XXIV


A


7


XXVIII


A


2


XXVIII


A


2


XXIX


A


3


XXIX


A


3


XXIX


A


4


VII


B



XVI


A


2


I


A


1


182


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Euripides


The Suppliants


I


A


2


u


Danae


I


B


2


« 


The Cretans


I


B


2


(t


Augei|f


I


B


2


u


Alope


I


B


2


u


Telephus


I


B


3


ii


Andromeda


II


A



« 


Antiope


II


B


1


u


Dictys


II


B


2


u


Hecuba


III


A


2


it


Ixion


III


A


5


tt


Phrixus


III


B


4


(t


Electra


IV


A


1


tl


Archelaus


VI


C


1


u


Peleus


VII


C


1


ti


Theseus


IX


D


1


tt


Œnomaus


IX


D


2


tt


Rhesus


IX and XXXVI


D C


1


tt


Helen


X


C


1


tt


Polyidus


XI


A



tt


Women of Scyros


XI


C


2


tt


Palamede


XI


C


3




and XXXIII


C


2


tt


Philoctetes


XII


A



tt


The Phœniss»


XIII


A


1


tt


Phœnix


XIV


B


3


tt


Heracles Mainomenos


XVI


A


1


tt


Ino


XVI


A


1


tt


Phaeton


XVII


A


1


tt


The Peliades


XVII and XIX


C

E


4


tt


Ion


XIX


B


1


tt


Cresphontes


XIX


B


1


tt


Aegeus


XIX


B


2


tt


Alexander


XIX


C


1


tt


Iphigenia in Tauris


XIX


C


2


tt


Protesilas


XX


A


2


tt


Antigone


XX


A


3


tt


Alceste


XXI


A


1


tt


Andromache


XXI


D


1


tt


Iphigenia in Aulis


XXIII


A


1


tt


Erechtheus


XXIII


A


i


tt


Melanippe


XXIII


B


1


tt


Hypsipyle


XXIII


B


2


INDEX OF AUTHORS


183


Euripedes: Medea


XXV


A


1


" Andromache


XXV


B


1


" Alcmeon


XXV


B


4


Hippolyte


XXVI


B


2


" Eole


XXVI


C


1


" Chrysippus


XXVI


D


1


" The Cretans


XXVI


E



" The Bacchantes


XXXI


A


1


" Bellerophon


XXXI


B


3


" Phaeton


XXXI


B


5


" Orestes


XXXIV


A


2


" Troades (The)


XXXVI


A


1


Ezekiel: The Exodus of the Hebrews


XXXI


A


2


F Fabre: La Maison d'argile


xni


A


3


" César Birotteau


XX


A


4


" La Vie publiqiie


XXVIII


A


1


and XXX


C


1


Fall: La Divorcée


XXXII


A


2


Fauchois: Beethoven


VB


D



Rivoli


XXV


c


7


L'Exode


XXIX


A


4


Ferrier: La Cornette


XXI


D


1


Feuillet: Chamillac


XXVII


B


5


Fèvre: En Détresse


VII


c


2


Feydeau: Le Circuit


XXIV


C



Flaubert: Salammbô


vni


B


1


" Saint Julien l'hospitallier


XIX


E



Hérodias


XXII


B



" The Temptation of St. Anthony


XXII


B



" Madame Bovary


XXV


C


7


Fleischmann: La Fille a Guillotin


XXIII


A


3


Fiers (de): Papa


XIV


B


1


" La Cœur a ses raisons


XIV


D



L'Ane de Buridan


XXIV


B


6


" La Montansier


XXV


C


3


Fletcher: The Two Noble Kinsmen


XIV


C



" Valentinian


XXXIII


D


4


Fonson: Le Mariage de Mlle. Beulemans


XXIV


A


8


Ford: 'Tis Pity She's a Whore


XXVI


C


2


" The Broken Heart


XXIX


A


1


" Perkin Warbeck


XXX


B



" Love's Sacrifice


XXXII


A


3


Forest: La petite milliardaire


XXXIV


A


7


184


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


(t


« 


Forest: L'Homme a deux têtes Foumier: Le Roman d'une conspiration Fraisse: Les Champairol

" Jean Cévenol France: Le Mannequin d'osier

Les Noces corinthiennes

Crainquebille Franck: Cœur maternel- Fread Amy: L'Impasse Frondaie: Montmartre

G Ganderax: Miss Fanfare Garaud: Le Frère d'armes Gautier: Mademoiselle de Maupin " Une nuit de Cléopâtre

and Gautier (Judith): La Marchande re sou- rires Gavault: La petite Chocolatière Geffroy: L'Apprentie Géraldy: L'£clabQ^ssure Gide: Saul

Gilkin: Etudiants russes Giraldi: Orbecche Gluck: Alceste Godard: Jocelyn

Dante Goethe: Faust

and

Clavijo

Goetz de Berlichingen

Egmont

and

The Natural Daughter

The Second Faust

Pandora

Iphigenia in Tauris

Stella

Werther Goldoni: Don Juan Gombaud: Les Danaides Concourt (E. and J. de): Renée Mauperin " " Germinie Lacer-

teux Concourt (E. de) : Les Frères Zemganno


tt


ti


« 


u


it


tt


tt


t(


tt


XXXIII



2


VIII


A


2


I


B


8


XXXIII


B


3


XXV


c


4


XXIX


A


4


xxxin


A


3


XXXIII


A


3


XV


A


1


XXVTTI


£



XXV


B


7


XXI


D


1


XVIII




xxn


A


5


XXIV


B


4


XXIX


B


7


XXVIII


A


2


XX


C



XXXIV


A


3


XVI


B



XXVII


D


1


IV


D



XXI


A


1


XXII


A


1


XXIV


A


3


I


C


1


VI


D


1


III


A


8


V


C



V


C



vm


B


1


VII


A



IX


D


3


XVII


C


1


XIX


C


2


XXV


B


6


XXXIV


B



V


B



XXIII


B


3


XVII


C


2


XXII


C


1


XXI


B


l


INDEX OF AUTHORS


185


Concourt (E. de): La Fille Elisa Gorsee (de) : La Petite Caporale Gounod: Le Tribut de Zamora

" Sapho Gozzi: Turandot

" Zobeide

" Loves of the Three Oranges

^' The Blue Monster

"** Zeim

" The Serpent Woman

" Le Corbeau

" Le Roi Cerf Grabbe: Don Juan Gramont (de): Rolande

" Lucienne

Grangeneuve: Amhra Gravier: Jamac

Gregory Nazianzen (Saint): Christ Suf- fering and Grenet-Dancourt: La Banque de l'Univers Grétry: Richard Cœur-de-Lion

and Grillet: Les Pierrots Guiches: Les Quarts d'heure


and


Guillard: Electra Guinon: Decadence Guiraud: Le Poussin Guitry (S.): Petite Hollande Guyot (Yves): Un drôle Gyp: Le Friquet


H


Halévy: L'Abbe Constantin

tiarshadeva (Sri): The Necklace

Hardy: Alceste

Hauptmann: The Weavers of Silesia

Heine: Almanzor

Hennique: Amour

" Jarnac

Hermant: Trains de luxe

" Les Jacobines

Hérold: Le Cor fleuri Hervieu: Le Réveil

    • La Loi de Thonime


XVI


A


2


IX


D


2


XXIV


A


3


XXXÎII


D


1


XI


c


1


XV


B



XVIII


D


1


XIX


G


2


X5:vin


B



XXXIII


A


1


XXXIII


A


3


XVIII


D


1


V


B



XXII


C


1


XXV


A


1


ITT


A


6


XXIII


B


6


XX


A


2


XXXT


A


1


XVII


A


2


X


D


1


XXXV




XXXIII


B


2


XXV


C


4


XXVII


A


1


IV


A


1


XXV


C


1


XXVIII


D


2


XXIV


B


6


XXV


C


1


XXIV


B


6


XXVIII


A


2


XXIV


D


3


XXI


A


1


VIII


B


2


XXIX


A


4


XV


A


1


XXIII


B


6


XXIV


B


6


XXV


C


4


XXIV


B


8


XXI


C


2


XXI


C


3


186


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Hervi<


5u: Le Course du flambeau XXI


E



« 


Le Dédale


XXIV


A


12




and XXV


C


2


« 


Les Tenailles


XXV


C


1


<i


Connais-toi


XXV


C


3


((


L'Enigme


XXV


D


1


Hirsch: En grève


XXIV


A


7


Homung: Raffles


V


A



UrosYi


dtha: Abraham


XX


D



Hugo:


Mangeront-ils?


I


A


3




and XXIV


A


3


« 


Lucrèce Borgia


VI


C


3



XIX B 1, XIX D,


XXIII B 1 and XXXII


A


2


u


Les lïûmeaùx


VII and XXXV


A



it


Toilers of the Sea


IX


D


2


(t


Ruy-Blas


XXIV


A


1


a


Hernani


XIX






XX A 1 and XXIV -


A


3


it


Torquemada


XIXi and XXIII XIX '






A


3


« 


La Esmeralda






and XXIV


A


11


« 


Marie Tudor


XIX






and XXIV


B


3


<i


Marion Delorme


XIX






and XXVII


B


4


« 


Le Roi s'amuse


XIX


A


4


« 


Les Burgraves


XIX


F


1


« 


Ninety-Three


XXIII


A


3


i<


Angelo


XXV


C


1


« 


Cromwell


XXX


A


3


Ibsen:


An Enemy of the People


V


C




Hedda Gabier


-XVI


A


3



The Master Builder


XVII


A


1



The Wild Duck


XVII


C


1



Ghosts


XVIII


B


3



Rosmersholm


XXXIV


B




The Lady From the Sea


XXIV


B


8


lores:


Les Bouchers


III


A


8


INDEX OF AUTHORS


187


Jarry: Ubu-roi Jeoffrin: La Montansier Jonathan: Simon l'enfant trouve

" Pierre Vaux

Joncières (de) : Le Chevalier Jean Josz: Le Maquignon

" Rembrandt Jullien: Le Maitre

La Mer

La Sérénade

L'Echéance

Vielle histoire


((


(t


« 


((


K


Kalidasa: Sakuntala


n


tt


Agnimitra and Malavika The Hero and the Nymph

Kampf : Le Grand Soir

Kouan-han-king: The Resentment of Te- oun-go

L

Labiche: L'Affaire de la rue de Lourcine Lagrange-Chancel : Alceste Lamothe: Œdipus Laporte: L'Homme de proie Laumann: Le Cœur révélateur Lavedan: Le Duel

Varennes

Les Quarts d'heure


« 


(t


and


tt


tt


Le Marquis de Priola Sire

Léautaud: Le Petit Ami Leblanc: Arsène Lupin Lefebvre: La Femme de demain Lefèvre: L'Homme de proie Lemaire: Le Mariage d'André Lemaitre: La Massière

Le Depute Leveau Révoltée Lemierre: Idoméncée

Hypermnestre


« 


tt


tt


XXX


c



XXV


c


3


III


A


6


XXI


D


1


XXXÎI


c


2


III


A


1


VII


D



XIII


B


1


XIII .


D



XXV


c


3


XXV


c


8


XXVII


A


2


XVI


c



XXXV




XXIV


D


2


XXXV




VIII


A


1


III


B


3


XVI


A


3


XXI


A


1


XVIII


A


1


X


D


2


XXXIV


A


3


XIII


A


1


XXIV


B


3


XXV


c


4


XXVII


A


1


XXVII


A


1


XXVII


B


7


XXVI


A


1


V


A



XXV


B


9


X


D


2


XVIII


B


1


XIV


B


1


XXV


B


3


XXV ^


C


4


XXIII


A


2


XXIII


B


3


188


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


« 


« 


Lemonnier: Le Droit au bonheur

Le Possédé Lenéru (Mme.): Les Affranchis Léon: La Veuve joyeuse

" La Divorcée Lenôtre: Varennes Leroux: Les Lys Lessing: Damon

Emilia Galotti Miss Sara Sampson Linant: Conte de Noël Livet: Nick Carter Longepierre: Electre Lope de Vega: The Labors of Jacob

El mejor alcalde el Rey

Fontovejune

Discovery of the New

World The Abduction of Helen Aimer sans savoir qui

and Nina de Plata The Mill

The Gardener's Dog Lorde (de): L'Idiot

" Terre d'épouvante

Loti: Ramuntcho Louys: Aphrodite Loyson: L'Apôtre Lucas: Alceste Lyon: Madame l'Amirale

M


u


« 


« 


« 


l<


<l


« 


« 


Maeterlinck: The Princess Maleine The Blind The Blue Bird Pelleas and Melisande Monna Vanna The Seven Princesses The Intruder

Mafféi: Merope

Mairet: Sophonisbe

Maldagne (Mme.) : La Boscotte

Manfredi: Semiramis

Manzoni: Adelghis


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


« 


XXI


c


2


XXII


A


5


XXV


B


8


XXVIII


A


2


XXXII


A


2


XXIV


B


3


XXVIII


D


1


XIV


D



XXIV


C



XXV


B


7


XIII


F



III


C



IV


A


1


XIII


A


1


III


A


3


VIII


B


2


JX


D


1


X


B



XIX


D



XXXIII


B


1


XXIV


A


5


XXIV


A


5


o:iv


B


5


III


A


4


VI


A


4


XXVIII


A


1


XXII


A


3


XXVII


D


2


XXI


A


1


XXVI


B


1


VII


A



VII


D



IX


D


3


XIV


A


3


XXXII


A


1


XXXVI


B



XXXVI


B



XIX


B


1


XX


B


3


XXXIII


D


3


XXVI


A


1


V


C



INDEX OF AUTHORS


189


Manzoni: The Count of Carmagnola

and Manzotti: Sieba

Marg^ueritte: Pierrot assassin de sa femme Marinetti: Poupées électriques Marot: La Casquette au père Bugeaud

Casse-museau

Les Aventures de Gavroche Marras: La Famille d'Armelles Mars: Mme. TAmirale Marthold: L'Ogre Martelli: Tullia Mary (J.): Roger-la-honte


tt


« 


and


« 


« 


Le Regiment La Bête féroce Masse: Une nuit de Cléopâtre


and


« 


« 


« 


Massenet: Esclarmonde

Manon

Massiac: Le secret de Gilberte Massinger: The Virgin Martyr The Fatal Dowry . The Bondman The Portrait Mathey: Zoe Chien-Chien Maujan: Jacques Bonhomme Maupassant: Pierre et Jean Mazel: Les Amazones Meilhac: La Veuve joyeuse Melitus: Œdipus Mendès: Glatigny

Les Mères ennemies La Reine Fiammette


« 


((


and


Mercereau: Mon frère Mérimée: Colomba Messager: Francois les bas-bleus Metastasio: Cato


and


M


« 


M


Alexander The Desert Isle Cyrus

Antigone


and


V


c



VI


c


3


XXVIII


B



XXXIV


A


4


xxxin


B


H


III


A


8


XXVII


D


5


XXXV




XXV


D


2


XXVI


B


1


XXXIII


D


3


XXX


c


2


III


B


4


XXXJII


D


5


XXVII


D


3


XXX


C


1


XXII


A


5


XXTV


B


4


XVII


B


2


XXII


A


3


XXVII


B


2


XX


D



XXV


C


5


XXXII


A


1


XXXII


C


1


IV


A


2


VIII


B


1


XIV


A


1


XXTX


A


4


XXVIII


A


2


XVIII


A


1


XXIV


A


9


XXV


B


2


XXIX


B


3


XXXIII


A


3


XIII


A


2


III


A


1


XXIV


B


6


V


C



XXIX


A


2


V


C



XTI


B



XIII


C



XIX


B


3


XIV


B


1


190


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Metastasio: Demophon


XIX


A


1


" Olympiade


XIX


B


1


Regulus


XX


A


1


" Themistocles


XX


A


2


Dido


XX


B


3


" Achilles in Scyros


XX


B


3


" Hypsipyle


XXIII


B


2


" Hylermnestre


XXIII


B


3


" Demetrius


XXIV


A


5


" Semiramide riconosciuta


XXIV


B


8


and


XXXII


B


1


" Adrien


XXIV


c



Zenobia


XXV


c


2


Nitetis


XXVIII


A


1


" The Chinese Hero


XXVIII


A


1


The Shepherd King


XXVIII


C


1


" Siroes


XXXIII


B


2


" Artaxerxes


XXXIII


D


2


^tius


XXXIII


D


4


Méténier: lia Casserole


III


A


7


Michaud d'Humiac: Le Cœur de Se-hor


XXVII


D


6


Mikhael: Le Cor fleuri


XXIV


B


3


Milliet: Le Roi de l'argent


XXXIII


B


3


Milloecker: L'Etudiant pauvre


XXXIII


A


1


Mirai: Lydie


XXIX


A


4


Mirbeau: Les Affaires sont les affaires


XXVII


A


3


Moses (?) : Job


XXX


B


1


Molière: Don Juan


V


B



Montépin: La Policière


XXVII


C



Moreau: Madame Margot


VIII


A


2


" Le Drapeau


XXIV


A


8


Gerfaut


XXV


C


6


" Un divorce


XXXII


A


1


Morel: Terre d'épouvante


VI


A


4


" La Fille du député


XXVII


A


3


" La Pieuvre


XXXIII


C


1


Mortier: Marins vaincu


XXX


A


3


Mourey: L'Automne


VIII


B


2


" Lawn-tennis


XXVI


D


2


Mussato: Ezzelino


XXX


C


1


Musset: Fantasio


II


B


2


" Lorenzaccio


VIII


A


1


" On ne badine pas avec l'amour


XVII


C


2


" André del Sarte


XXV


C


4


Mustière: Rosse, tant et plus


vni


A


2


INDEX OF AUTHORS


191


N


Népoty: L'Oreille fendue Nicomaque: Œdipus Nigond: 1812 Nô: Les Carbonari Nus: Le Mari




tt


u


u


tt


tt


Ohnet: Serge Panine Dernier amour La Comtesse Sarah La Grande Marnière

Ollognier (Mme.): Le Saïs


Pailleron: La Souris Paladilhe: Patrie Diana Parodi: L'Inflexible Paton: Le Divorce de Sarah Moore Perrault: Bluebeard

Le Petit Poucet Peau d'âne Peter: L'Or

Phrynichus: The Danaides Picard: La Fugitive Planquette: Surcouf Poe: The Purloined Letter The Gold Bug Berenice

Pohles (de): L'Enfant du Temple Polti: Compère le Renard " Les Cuirs de bœuf Porto-Riche: Le Vieil Homme

" Les Malefilâtre

Pouvillon: Le Roi de Rome Pradon: Electre " Regulus Prévost: Manon Lescaut Prévost (Jean): Œdipus Prévost (M.): Pierre et Thérèse

La plus faible


((


tt


tt


Q


XXVII


A


3


XVIII


A


1


XIV


A


1


XXIX


A


4


XXV


c


1


XXV


B


>


XXV


B


6


XXV


c


3


XXIX


A^


2


XXIV


A


3


XIV


A


4


XXV


D


2


XXXIII


D


3


XXVII


D


2


XXI


A


2


II


A



VI


D


2


XXVI


A


3


III


A


1


XXTII


B


3


XXI


C


2


XXIV


A


7


XI


A



XI


B


1


XXXIV


B



XX


A


4


V


A



XXVI


A


1


XIV


B


2


XXV


C


7


VII


B



IV


A


1


XX


A


1


XXVII


B


6


XVIII


A


1


XXVII


A


2


XXVIII


A


2


Quinault: Alceste


XXI


A 1


192


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


R

Rabier: £t ma sœur? Racine: Esther

Alexandre

Les Frères ennemis

Britannicus

Mithridate

Iphigénie en Tauride (projected)

Bérénice

Alceste (projected)

Andromaque

and

Iphigénie a Aulis

Bajazet

Phèdre

Athalie Rachilde: La Voix du sang " Madame la Mort Rajasekhara: The Sons of Pandou

The Statue Raymond: Le<s Ménages de Paris Régnier (de): La Gardienne Renauld: Le Crime d'un autre Reyer: Sig^urd Richard: Boislaurier


tt


<(


it


tt


(t


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


and


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


Le Roman d'Elîse Richebourg: La petite Mionne Richepin: Nana-Sahib

L'Ancien

Le Chien de garde

La Glu

La Route d'émeraude Richepin fils: La Marjolaine Richter (J. P.): Titan Riupeiroux: Hypermnestre Rivoire: Le bon roi Dagobert

" Mon ami Teddy Rochard: Le péché de Marthe

" La Bête féroce Rochefort: Electre Rod: Le Réformateur Roînard: Les Miroirs Rolland: Le 14 juillet


XXVIII


B



I



1


V


C



XIII


A


2


XIV


A


1


XIV


B


1


XIX


c


2


XX


B


3


XXI •


A


1


XXI


D


2


XXV


B


1


xiciii


A


1


XXIV


B


4


XXVI


B


1


XXXI


A


2


XIX


6


8


XXIV


B


8


III


A


6


XXIV


D


3


XXV


B


3


XXXV




XXXIII


D


2


XXV


C


3


II


A



XIV


A


1


XXVIII


D-


2


XIX


A


3


V


C



XXI


A


2


XXI


D


1


XXII


A


5


XXII


A


6


XXIV


A


6


XVIII


D


2


XXIII


B


3


XVIII


D


2


XXIV


A


7


XXVIII


B



XXX


C


1


IV


A


1


VI


C


1


XXV


D


1


vin


B


2


INDEX OF AUTHORS


193


« 


ft


Romains: L'Armée dans la Ville Rostand: L'Aiglon Chantecler Cyrano

Roudradeva: The Story of Yayati Roupa: The Loves of Krishna Rouvre (de): Le Mariage d'André Rozier: Le Divorce de Sarah Moore Rucellaï: Rosemonde Ryner: Vive le roi! Rzewuski: Count Witold


Sadwell: Don Juan

Sainte-Foix: Alceste

Sainte-Marthe: Œdipus

Saint-Georges de Bouhélier: Le Roi sans

couronne Saint-Pol Roux: La Dame ?. la faulx Saint-Saens: Samson et Dalila

Ascanio Henri VIII Proserpine L'Ancêtre Salieri: The Danaides Samain: Polypheme Samara Dikchita: The Victory of Prad-

youmna Samson: Marie Stuart

" Le Crime de Jean Moret

Sand: Le Démon du foyer Sardou: Thermidor La Tosca Cleopatra La Sorcière Odette Georgette Le Crocodile Fedora Theodora

L'Affaire des Poisons Sardou (André): L'Etau Schiller: William Tell

and


« 


« 


« 


« 


tt


« 


(t


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


tt


VIII


B


2


VII


B



VIII


A


2


XXI


C


2


XXIX


A


2


XXIV


D


1


XVIII


B


1


XXI


A


2


IV


c



XX


A


4


KXXIV


B


2


V


B



XXI


A


1


XVIII


A


1


V


C



XXIV


B


9


XV


A


2


XXIV


C



XXV


B


5


XXV


B


7


XXIX


B


6


xxni


B


3


XXIV


A


1


XXIX


A


2


XXIV


B


2


XXIX


B


7


XXIV


A


4


VIII


A


1


XXI


D


2


XXII


A


4


XXIV


B


1


XXVII


A


1


XXVIII


A


1


XXVII


B


5


XXJX


B


5


XXXIM


A


2


XXXIIl


B


2


XVI


D



III


B


6


VIII


B


2


194


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Schiller:


The Brigands


V


A





and XXXIII


C


3


« 


Fiesco


VIII


A


1


« 


Don Carlos


XIV


B


3




and XXVI


B


2


t*


The Bride of Messina


XVIII


A


2


« 


Marie Stuart


XXIV


6


2


« 


Wallenstein


XXX


A


3


« 


Love and Intrigue


XXXII


B


3


Second:


La Vicomtesse Alice


V


D



Sedaiae;


Richard Cœur-de-Lion


X and XXXV


D


1


See: Llndiscret


XVII


A


1


Seneca:


The Phœniss»


XIII


A


1


u


Thy estes ^ ,


XIII


A


2


« 


Octavia


XV


B



« 


Hercules Furens ,


XVI


A


1


it


Œdipus


XVIII


A


1


u


Medea


XXV


A


1


« 


Hercules on (Eta


XXV


B


1


u


Hippolyte


XXVI


B


1


« 


The Trojan Women


XXXVI


A


1


Séverine: Sainte-Hélène


III


A


2


Shakespeare: King John


I


A


1


« 


The Tempest


HI


B


1


« 


The Merchant of Venice


5 III


B


6




and XI


6


2


M


Hamlet


IV and XIII


A C


1


M


Troilus and Cressida


V


C



«<


Richard II


VI


B



« 


Timon of Athens


VI


C


1


tt


Coriolanus


VI

and XII


C B


1


U


King Lear


VI


C


1


« 


Henry VI


VI


B



M


Henry V


IX


B


1




and XXXIII


A


1


« 


Pericles


XXXV






and XI


B


2


« 


Two Gentlemen of Verona XIV


D



« 


Measure for Measure


XXI


D


2


« 


Antony and Cleopatra


XXII


A


4


« 


Henry VIII


XXV


B


5


«<


Romeo and Juliet


XXIX


B


6


INDEX OF AUTHORS 195


Shakespeare: Julius Cœsar XXX

" Henry IV XXX

" Macbeth XXX

Richard III XXX

" Comedy of Errors XXXII

Much Ado About Nothing XXXII

" Othello XXXII

Cymbeline XXXII

A Winter's Tale XXXV

Shaw: Mrs. Warren's Profession XXVII

Shelley: The Cenci III

XIII B 3 and XXVI


Sienkiewicz: By Fire and Sword


X


Sophocles:


Chyses


I


M


Minos


I


« 


Oicles


I


« 


Œdipus at Colonus


I

and XII


« 


Nausicaa


I


« 


The Pheacians


T


« 


Acrisius


I


« 


Philoctetes at Troy


I


« 


Eurysaces


r


« 


Andromeda


II


« 


i^geus


II


tt


Peleus


II

and VII


« 


lolas


II


« 


Œnee


II


« 


Phineus


II


« 


Aletes and Erigone


III


M


Nauplius


III


U


Ixion


III


tt


The Feast of the Achaeans


III


tt


Phrixus


III


tt


Tereus


III


tt


The Epigones


IV


tt


Electra


IV


tt


Eriphyle


IV


tt


Meleager


IV


tt


Ajax Locrian


V


tt


Laocoon


V


tt


The Shepherds


VI


tt


The Xoanephores


VI


tt


Teucer


VI


A


2


B



C


J


C


3


A


1


B


1


B


1


B


?.


A


1


B


5


A


3


A



A


1


A


1


A


1


A


3


B


1


B


1


B


2


B


3


C


2


A



B


1


B


1


C


1


B


2


B


2


B


2


A


1


A


2


A


5


B


2


B


4


B


5


A


1


A


1


A


1


B



B



C



A


1


A


2


C


2


196


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Sophocles


The Councile of the Argives IX


A



it


Laconian Women


IX


c


1


it


binon


IX


D


1


u


vKnomaus


IX


D


2


n


Orithyie


X


A



u


Ihe Abduction of Helen


X


B



u


Hermione


X


c


2


«{


Polyidus .


XI


A



u


Women of Scyros


XI


C


2


i*


Ulysses


XI


c


3


tt


Philoctetes


XII


A



it


Helen Reclaimed


XII


c



{(


Thyestes II


îCIII


A


2


« 


Ajax


XVI


B



tt


Eumele '


XVII


A


1


• tt


Pelias


XVII and XIX


C E


4


tt


Œdipus the King


XVIII


A


1


it


Creusa


XIX


B


1


tt


Telephus


XIX


B


1


tt


Euryale


XIX


B


2


tt


Alexander


XIX


C


1


tt


Procris


XIX


G


1


tt


Amphitryon


XIX


F


8


tt


Alceste


XXI


A


1


tt


Iphigenia


XXIII


A


1


tt


lobate


XXVI


B


1


tt


Lemnian Women


XXIII


B


2


tt


Women of Colchis


XXV


A


1


tt


Antigone


XX


A


3


tt


The Maidens of Trachis


XXV


B


1


tt


Alcmeon


XXV


B


4


tt


Phaedra


XXVI


B


1


tt


Thamiras


XXXL


B


3


tt


Niobe


XXXI


B


4


tt


Eumele


XXXI


B


5


tt


The Phtiotides


XXXII


C


4


tt


Palamede


XXXIII


C


2


tt


Thyestes at Sicyon


XXXV




tt


The Captives


XXXVI


A


1


tt


Laocoon


XXXVI


A


1


tt


Polyxena


XXXVI


A


1


tt


The Ethiopians


XXXVI


C



Soubhata:


The Message of Angada


X


C


2


Soudraka:


The Earthen Toy-cart


XXIV


A


5


INDEX OF AUTHORS


197


Soundara Misra: Abhirama mani

Speroni: Canace

Spontini: The Uanaides

Stace: Agave

Stein: La Veuve joyeuse

Sue: Les Enfants naturels


Tarbé: Monsieur de Morat Tasso: Torrismond

" Jerusalem Delivered Tchang-Koue-pin: The Tunic Sonfronted Tellez: Don Juan Terni (Mme.): Les Bâillinnés Theodecte: Œdipus " Lyncee

Theuriet: La Maison des deux Barzeaux Thomas: Françoise de Rimini Tiercelin: Un voyage de noces Tirso de Molina: Don Juan Tolstoi: The Powers of Darkness


and


« 


« 


Resurrection

The Kreutzer Sonata Torquet: Cent lignes émues Trarieux: La Dette Trissino: Sophonisbe Tristan V Hermite: Marianne


Vacquerie: Proserpine

" Jalousie

Vallette: Le Vierge Valnay: L'Esclase du devoir Van Velde (Mme.): Lena Vauzelles (de): Alceste Veber: Les Grands

Vedanyatha Vatchespati: Tchitra Yadjgna Verga: Chevalerie rustique Verhaeren: Le Cloître Verlaine: Louise Leclercq Verne: Le Tour du monde en 80 jours '* Les Enfants du capitaine Grant Villemer: L'Absente Villiers: Don Juan


X


G


2


XXVI


G


2


XXIII


B


3


XXXI


A


1


^.XVIII


A


2


XVIII


A


2


XXV


B


3


XVIII


A


2


XIX


G


1


III


A


1


V


B



XXXVI


A


2


XVIII


A


1


XXIII


B


3


XXV


C


4


XXV


G


3


XXV


A


2


V


B



XIII


F



XV


A


1


XX


C



XXV


D


1


XXXVI


C



XIV


B


1


XX


B


3


XXXII


A


1


XXV


B


7


XXXII


C


5


XXXIII


B


3


XXXII


A


3


XXVII


B


4


XXI


A


1


XXXIII


A


3


XXXI


B


2


XXII


A 10


XXXIV


A


2


XVII


G


2


IX


D


1


XXXV




XXVII


B


1


V


B



198


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Villiers de lisle Adam: Le Nouveau-Monde Vira: Madhouranirouddha Vishakadatta: The Minister's Ring Viswanatha: Mrigancalckha Voltaire: Eriphyle


« 


Adélaïde Duguescli


u


Agathocle


«<


Amélie


« 


Don Pèdre


« 


Samson


« 


Pandore


(i


Les Pélopides


« 


Œdipe


« 


Les Guèbres


« 


Les Lois de Minos


« 


Mérope


« 


"ISemiramis


« 


Mahomet


« 


Le Huron


« 


Tanis et Zélide


« 


Alzire


« 


Le Triumvirat


M


Zulime


« 


Brutus


« 


Nanine


« 


Les Scythes


« 


Oljnnpie


« 


Irène


« 


Catilina


« 


La Mort de Cœsar


« 


Marianne


« 


Tancrède


« 


Zaïre


« 


Artémire


« 


Oreste


and


and


and


W Wagner: Lohengrin

The Ring of the Nibelungs Parsifal

    • Die Meistersinger

Tannhauser


« 


« 


« 


XXV


c


1


XIX


A


4


XII


A



XXIV


A


1


IV


A


1


XIV


A


2


XIV


A


2


XIV


A


2


XTV


A


2


XVII


c


3


XVII


c


1


XXIV


. A


1


XIII


A


2


XVIII


A


1


XIX


A


2


XIX


A


2


XIX


B


1


XIX


D



XIX


E



XXI


D


2


xxrv


A


2


XXIV


A


8


XXIV


A


3


XXIV


B


4


XXVII


D


1


XXVIII


A


1


XXIX


A


4


XXTX


B


1


XXIX


B


4


XXX


B



VIII


A


1


XXX


A


2


XXXII


A


1


KXXII


A


1


II


A



XXXII


A


2


XXXII


C


2


XXXIV


A


2


II


A



V


C



IX


C


2


XXIV


A


9


XXII


A


2


INDEX OF AUTHORS


199


« 


« 


Wagner: l'rîstan and Isolde

Webster: Vittoria Corombona Appius and Virginia The Duchess of Malfi •* Sir Thomas Wyat

Wells: The War of the Worlds

Werner: Attila

The Twenty-fourth of February Luther

Wicheler: Le Mariage de Mlle. Beulemans

Widor: Maître Ambros

Wilde: Salome

Willy: Le Friquet « Lélie

Wolf: Les Lys


« 


é*


XXV


c


3


XV


A


1


XXIV


A


3


XXIX


A


1


XXX


B



VI


A


2


III


A


1


XTX


B


1


XX


A


4


XXIV


A


S


XXXIII


B


1


XXII


B



XXIV


B


6


XXII


C


2


XXVIII


D


1


X


Xenocles: Œdipus


XVIII


A 1


Zaccone: La Cellule No. 7


III


B


3


Zamacois: Bohémos


XXIV


A


9


Zamora: Don Juan


V


B



Zola:


Le Rêve


I


B


2


« 


La Débâcle


VI


A


1


M


L'Argent


VI


B




' . > '■ • .


and XVII


A


2


« 


Germinal


VIII


B


2


« 


La Terre


XlII


B


I




and XXX


C


l


« 


Thérèse Raquin


XV


A


1




and XXXÎV


A


4


»<


La Bête humaine


XVI


A


2


M


L'Œuvre


XX


A


4


M


T#a Joie de vivre


XXI


A


2




and XXIV


B


7


« 


La Faute de l'abbe Mouret


XXII


A


1


H


La Conquête de Plassans


XXII


A


2


M


Nana


XXII


A


6


M


L'Assommoir


XXII


C


2


M


Le Capitaine Burle


XXII


C


1


M


Jacques Damour


XXV


C


2


« 


Pot-bouille


XXV


C


7


« 


Renée


XXVI


B


2


200


THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS


Zola: La Curée


XXVI


B


2


" Dr. Pascal


XXVI


B


2


" Son Excellence Eugene


XXX


C


1


" La Fortune des Rougon


XXX





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