The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art  

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The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art by Heinrich Ludwig Urlichs, translated by Katharine Jex-Blake.

Full text[1]

THE

ELDER PLINY^S CHAPTERS

ON THE

HISTORY OF ART


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COD. BAMB. M. V. lo. FOL. 59.


[Original size of page = 26 x 21'gcin.]


THE

ELDER PLINY'S CHAPTERS


ON THE


HISTORY OF ART


TRANSLATED BY


K. JEX-BLAKE

CLASSICAL LECTURER AT GIRTON COLLEHE, CAMBRIDGE


WITH COMMENTARY AND HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

BY

E. SELLERS

FORMER STUDENT OF GIRTON COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AND OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS

AND

ADDITIONAL NOTES CONTRIBUTED BY DR. HEINRICH LUDWIG URLICHS


HonOon MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 1896

\^All rights reserved'] S


^


PREFACE

The text printed in the following pages is based upon that of Detlefsen, but free use has been made of both earlier and later critical auxiliaries. We differ from Detlefsen mainly in adhering more closely to the Codex Bambergensis, whose superiority in respect of those parts of the Historia now reproduced must be regarded as incontestable. Our short critical apparatus is limited to notices of our devia- tions from Detlefsen, or of readings offering special interest or difficulty. For brevity's sake the name of Detlefsen stands in our apparatus not only for his own readings but also for those of the scholars whose views he adopts. In none but a few important cases do we print Detlefsen's sources. I have to thank Mr. Fischer of Bamberg for kindly verifying a number of readings in the Bambergensis, and Dr. Leitschuh, Chief Librarian at Bamberg, for permis- sion to reproduce in facsimile a page of the famous codex. The present text has been prepared under the guidance of Dr. Ludwig Traube, who, moreover, has generously placed at our disposal a number of his own readings or conjectures.

Out of the many problems which even this short selection from the Historia Naturalis offers, the Introduction pro- fesses to deal only with the question of Pliny's Greek sources for the history of art ; it touches upon his Roman authorities only in so far as these were the channel through which the Greek authors reached him. The question is


viii PREFACE

one which, so far from being, as was supposed, either exhausted or incapable of solution, is still in its infancy. Where an earlier school was content to trace back Pliny's debt to his Roman predecessors, a newer method of inquiry enables the student to work backwards not only from the Roman to the Greek authors, but from one Greek author to another. So it is that, returning to the Introduc- tion after an interval, it became clear to me (see footnotes on p. xliii f.) that in matters of anecdote and biography Antigonos of Karystos was seldom, if ever, to be regarded as an ultimate source, and was to a far greater extent than I had at first supposed the debtor of Duris. Nay, I be- lieve that we may in time recover (to some extent) the authorities which Duris himself had at his command. I am profoundly indebted to Dr. F. Munzer for reading and criticizing the proofs of the Introduction up to p. Ixxiii, and for allowing me to publish as footnotes and Addenda the suggestive remarks made to me in the course of a detailed correspondence.

I have endeavoured to make the notes printed below the text a real commentary to the author's meaning, not a bundle of bibliography. Modern commentators might still lay to heart the criticism passed by Scaliger on the Pliny of his friend Dalecampius : le bon homme est docte, mats il farcit trap ses annotations deje ne sais quelle fatraille d'autezirs . . . But wherever further revision showed that I had done but scant justice to important though dissentient views I have tried to remedy the omission in the Addenda. There too a few notes are printed the necessity for which occurred to me later, and reference given to quite recent literature.

One group of contributions has been made to this book calling for special notice. When my work was already ad- vancing towards completion, I learnt that Dr. H. L. Urlichs was himself engaged upon an edition of the same parts of


PREFACE ix

Pliny. With ready generosity, however, Dr. Urlichs offered me at once for my own book a number of his notes, which we agreed should be printed in square brackets and marked with his initials H. L. U. Subsequently, however, Dr. Urlichs informed me, to my regret and surprise, that the present edition would block the way for his own ; accordingly, since he had given us notes, whose value is undeniable, we acceded to his request that his name should be placed as a third on our title-page. In fairness to Dr. Urlichs, I should add that his contributions and his responsibility begin and end with the notes that bear his initials.

Besides those scholars who have given me constant and special help, I have to thank Mr. A. S. Murray, M. S. Reinack, and Professor Wilhelm Klein for many friendly hints, Mr. Bernhard Berenson for helping me to a better understanding of passages concerned with the technique of art, and Director G. von Lanbmann for the singular privi- leges accorded to me as a reader in the Royal Library at Munich. Above all am I beholden to my friend Miss K. Jex-Blake, not only for undertaking the translation, but for her liberality in allowing certain readings to be printed, of whose soundness she was not fully convinced. She has also found time, amid the arduous tasks imposed by College lecturing, to compile both Indices, and to assist in the revision of the book throughout.

EUGENIE SELLERS. ScHWABiNG, Munich. Jnly, 1896.


CONTENTS


PAGE


Facsimile of Cod. Bamb. M. V. lo. f. 59 . . • facing title

Preface vii

Introduction xiii

1. Xenokrates of Sikyon xvi

2. Antigonos of Karystos xxxvi

3. DurisofSamos xlvi

4. Literary epigrams Ixviii

5. Heliodoros of Athens baciv

6. Pasiteles of Naples Ixxvii

7. Varro, Cornelius Nepos, and Fabius Vestalis . . Ixxxii

8. Mucianus Ixxxv

9. Pliny's own Additions — Roman Museography —

Retrospect xci

Bibliography xcv

Manuscripts c

Silver-chasing 2

Bronze Statuary 6

Painting 84

Table, showing — A. The Thebano-Attic School 1

{ . . to face p. 118 B. The Sikyonian School . )


Table, showing — A. The Family of Polykles . B. The Family of Athanodoros


I . . to face p. 208


Modelling 174

Sculpture in Marble 184

Appendix 217

Addenda 229

Index I, of Names of Artists 243

Index II, Museographic 247


PLINY THE ELDER


and this too was why he rode in a litter in Rome. I can remember his blaming me for walking ; I need not, he said, have lost those hours, for he thought all time lost that was not given to study.


INTRODUCTION

The Historia Natiiralis of Pliny was intended not only to embrace the whole of the Natural Sciences, but to consider them in their application to the Arts and Crafts of Civilized Life. Hence it is that in a work, whose title would least suggest it, a short yet complete History of Art finds a logical place within the scheme. To Pliny the arts of chasing in silver and of casting in bronze are simply the indispensable complement of the chapters on metals, while, in the same way, the arts of sculpture, of painting, and of gem-engraving come under the head of kinds of earth and precious stones. Pliny's larger and compacted purpose might thus, on the face of it, seem to condemn this present detachment of the History of Art for separate treatment. But that general commentary on Pliny in the light of modern research, to which the texts of Sillig and L. von Jan were but to serve as preliminaries ^, seems likely, owing to the multifarious contents of the Historia, to remain in the region of unachieved possibilities, if not further away still — in Utopia : il faut plus d'un homtne pour ecrire sur le grand Fline '^. Meanwhile, from the nature of the subject, the Plinian account of Ancient Art and Artists forms an episode sufificiently complete in itself to be made, without further apology, the subject of a special inquiry.

In the Dedicatory Letter addressed with the Historia to the co-Emperor Titus, Pliny has himself announced that the ' twenty thousand matters worthy of attention ' contained in the thirty-six volumes of his work were 'gathered from some two thousand books ' ^ ; we must therefore regard his work as nothing more than a compilation from other records, in which personal obser- vation plays no part outside the range of contemporary events.

' The gigantic scheme had been Kunst, p. 264. conceived by Lorenz Okens (1779- ^ Scaligerana (ed. l657), p. 189.

1859) ; see Stark, Archdologie der ' Praef. § 17.


xiv INTRODUCTION

An irreparable accident, however — the total loss of the art- literature which preceded Phny — has given to the books with which we are here concerned an unique value. It so happens that from his pages only can we now obtain something hke a connected impression of the art-literature of the Greeks, as it lay open, if no longer actually to him, at any rate to some of his immediate predecessors. For although Pliny in his Preface makes a great show of acknowledgement to his authorities, and announces his intention, which he duly carried out, of compiling Indices of their names ', a very slight acquaintance with his work is sufficient to show that for no part of it did he ever read a Greek author systematically through ^ while for the history of the artists we are safe in asserting that not one of these authors was directly consulted. If the names of Apelles, of Melanthios, of the Sikyonian Xenokrates, of biographers such as Antigonos


' These lists are suffixed in the MSS. to the table of contents of each book, with which they together make up the first book of the Historia, and are also given singly before each book; they contain the names of 146 Roman and 327 foreign authors. For the con- venience of the reader I print here the Indices to Bks. xxxiv-xxxvi, italicizing the names of the writers upon art :

Libro xxxiv continentur (here fol- low the contents) . . . Ex atuto- ribus : L. Pisone, Antiate, Verrio, M. Varrone, Cornelio Nepote, Messala Rufo, Marso poeta, Boccho, lulio Easso qui de medicina Graece scripsit, Sextio Nigro qui item, Fabio Vestale. Extemis : Democrito, Metrodoro Scepsio, Menaechmo qui de toreutice scripsit, Xenocrate qui item, Antigono qui item, Duride qui item, Heliodoro qui de Atheniensium anathematis scripsit, Pasitth qui de mirabilibus operibus scripsit, Timaeo qui de me- dicina metallica scripsit, Nympho- doro, loUa, Apollodoro, Andrea, Heraclide, Diagora, Botrye, Arche- d&io, Dionysio, Aristogene, Democle, Mneside, Xenocrate Zenonis, Theo- mnesto.

Lib. XXXV continentur . . . Ex auc-


toribus: Messala oratore, Messala sene, Fenestella, Attico, M. Varrone, Verrio, Nepote Cornelio, Deculone, Muciano, Melisso, Vitruvio, Cassio Severe, Longulano, Fabio Vestale qui depictura scripsit. Extemis: Pasitele, Apelle, Melanthio, Asclepiodoro, Eu- phranore, Parrhasio, Heliodoro qui de anathematis Atheniensium scripsit, Metrodoro qui de architectonice scrip- sit, Democrito, Theophrasto, Apione grammatico, Timaeo qui de metallica medicina scripsit, Nymphodoro, loUa, Apollodoro, Andrea, Heraclide, Dia- gora, Botrye, Archedemo, Dionysio, Aristogene, Democle, Mneside, Xeno- crate Zenonis, Theomnesto.

Lib. xxxvi continentur . . . Ex auc- toribus: M. Varroru, C.Galba,Cincio, Muciano, Nepote Cornelio, L. Pisone, Q. Tuberone, Fabio Vestale, Annio Fetiale, Fabiano, Seneca, Catone censorio, Vitruvio. Extemis: Taea- phmsto, Pcuitele, lubarege, Nicandro, Sotaco, Sudine, Alexandre polyhis- tore, Apione Plistonico, Duride, Herodoto, Euhemero, Aristagora, Dionysio, Artemidoro, Butorida Antisthene, Demetrio, Demotele Lycea.

' See Teuffel, p. 761.


MODERN AUTHORITIES xv

of Karystos, or Duris of Samos, figure in the Indices, rousing the curiosity and ambition of the modern scholar, they are there simply because Pliny had found them quoted by the Roman authors from whom he habitually drew — in this case by Varro, who, in turn, had presumably taken his own information on the subject from a single writer in whose pages the others were already cited. /Thus, although the Plinian Indices might mislead us into believing that his work was a mosaic, a piecing together of the several statements of all the authors, Greek or Roman, whose names he quotes, we shall find, on the contrary, that it resembles a stratification of which the superimposed layers can still be distinguished at many points, even though at a number of others they have so run together as to baffle analysis.

The result of such an analysis, if complete, would be nothing less than to isolate and restore to each writer his own contri- bution; nothing proves so well the difficulty of the task as the great amount of labour already expended in this direction. And this brings me to record the debt which every student of the Plinian art-books owes to the scholars by whose undaunted industry Pliny and his authors have gradually been brought into right relation : to Otto Jahn, who by detecting the homogeneous character of a number of scattered art-criticisms, and pointing out their immediate Varronian authorship and ultimate Greek origin, laid a solid basis for all future research in this field ' ; to A. Brieger, who made the first attempt to determine the names of the Greek writers whose views Varro had latinized'; to Heinrich Brunn, who first tried to restore Pliny's system of quota- tion from his authors ' ; to the scholars — among them Theodor Schreiber'^, Adolf Furiwangkr" , Gustav Oehmichen^, Xarl Roberf ,


' O. Jahn: Ueber die Kunsturtheile Hist. Lib. relatis Specimen. Dissert.

des Plinius in Berichte der Sachs. Leipzig, 1872.

Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften, 1 850, ° A. Furtwangler : Plinius u. seine

pp. 105-142. Qttellen iiberdie Bildenden Kiinste in

^ A. Brieger: De Fontibus Libra- Supplebd.ix der Jalirbb.f. Klass. Phil.

rum, xxxiii-xxxvi, Nat. Hist. Plin. Leipzig, 1877.

quatenus ad artem plasticam pertinent. ' G. Oehmichen : Plinianische

Dissert. Greifswald, 1856. Studien zur geographischen und

^ H. Brimn : De Auctorum Indi- kunsthistorischen Literatur. Erlan-

cibus Plinianis. Disp. Inaug. Bonn, gen, 1880.

1856. ' C. Robert: Archdologische Mar-

  • Th. Schreiber: Quaestionum de chen aus alter u. neuer Zeit, Berlin,

Artificum Aetatibus in Plin. Nat. 1886 (ch. i-iv and vi-viii).


XVI INTRODUCTION

L. von Vrlichs^, and his son H. L. Urlichs"^, — who, following in the steps of these pioneers, developed or corrected their views ; and last, but not least, to F. Munzer, who only the other day ', when the question had begun to show signs of exhaustion, gave it a new stimulus through his vigorous attempt to ascertain the Greek element in Pliny by a minute comparison of those parts suspected to be Greek with the extant fragments of certain authors mentioned in the Indues. In what follows, I propose to bring together, in a survey of the gradual growth of the Plinian history of the artists, such results as have been attained, carrying forward by the way the task of identifying and disengaging the Greek writers upon art mentioned by Pliny.


§ I. Xenokrates of Sikyon [fl. about 280 B.C.).

In the criticisms or verdicts upon celebrated artists, now dis- jointedly scattered throughout the Plinian narrative, but recognized by Otto Jahn {op. cit.) as vitally interdependent, we touch at once upon the original groundwork. These criticisms have it in common that they all culminate in a broad statement of the special services rendered to art by the artist in question; they are presented for the most part as the effect produced by the artist's works upon the critic ; and they are all consistently free from anecdote or epigram, in contrast to the phraseological character of so much of the ancient art-criticism. Their principle is most readily grasped in the judgements passed upon the iive most famous statuaries — Pheidias, Myron, Polykleitos, Pythagoras, and Lysippos — in xxxiv, 54-65. It is inslructive minutely to analyze these criticisms when freed so far as may be from the additions made to them by later writers*. In the following scheme I have indicated, within square brackets, the nature of these additions.

1 L. Urlichs : Die Quellmregister Plinius in Artijicum Historia usus

2« Plinius ht%tcn Biichern. Progr. sit, Metz, 1885 ; and H. Voigt De

"Wurzburg, 1878. ^ Pontibus earum quae ad artes perti-

^ H. L. Urlichs : tjber Griechische nent partium Nat. Hist. Plin. quaes--

Kunstschriftsteller. Dissert. WUrz- Hones. Halle, 1887.

bnrg, 1887. = F. Miinzer: Zur Kunsigeschichte

Besides the works cited as of lead- des Plinius in Hermes, vol. xxx i8qs

ing importance, mention may also be ' In doing this I have been guided

made of the two following disserta- almost entirely by the analysis of

tions : J. Dalstein, Quihus Fontibus Miinzer, op. cit. p. 502 ff.


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON


I. Pheidias.

Phidias praeter lovem Olympium . . . fecit ex ebore . . . Minervam Athenis, quae est in Parthenone stans, exaere vexo (^follows allusion to 'Amazon' in % 53) . . . Minervam tam eximiae pulchritudinis ut formae cognomen acceperit. fecit et cliduclium \JoUows mention of an Athena in Rome, of two draped figures and a nude colossos, all frotn Rom. Museogr. p. xci] primusque artem toreuticen aperuisse atque demonstrasse merito iudicatur.

II. Polykleitos.

Polyclitns Sicyonius Hageladae discipulus diadnmenum fecit {follows epi- grammatic qualification, p. Ixviii, and price paid for the Diadumenos, p. Ixxxiv], idem et doryphorum \_follows epigrammatic qualification ; second mention under the name 'canon of the doryphoros, p. xli] fecit et destringentem se et nudum telo incessentem [follows mention of knucklebone players, at Rome, in Hall of Titus, p. xcii ; of a Hermes at Lysimacheia, on authority of Mucianus, p. xc ; of a Herakles at Rome] hagetera arma sumentem [follows from an anecdotic source, the mention of Artemon suma?ned ' periphoretos' — Add. p. 235] hie consummasse hanc scientiam iudicatur et toreuticen sic erudisse ut Phidias aperuisse. proprium eius est uno crure ut insisterent signa excogitasse, quadrata tamen esse ea ait Varro et paene ad exemplum.

III. Myron.

Myronem Eleutheris natum Hageladae et ipsum discipulum bucnla maxime nobilitavit [follows allusion to epigrams upon the heifer'], fecit et canem et discobolon et Perseum et pristas et Satyrum admirantem tibias et Minervam, Delphicos pentathlos, pancratiastas [follows mention (a) of a Herakles in Rome, (b) of the grave of a grasshopper and locust, see Comm. p. 46, 1. 4, (c) of an Apollo restored to Ephesos by Augustus, p. Ixxxix] . primushicmultipli- casse veritatem videtur, numerosior in arte quam Polyclitus et in symmetria diligentior, et ipse tamen corporum tenus curiosus animi sensus non expressisse, capillum quoque et pubem non emendatius fecisse quam rudis antiquitas instituisset.

IV. Pythagoras.

Vicit eum Pythagoras Reginus ex Italia pancratiaste Delphis posito ; eodem vicit et Leontiscum ; fecit et stadiodromon Astylon qui Olympiae ostenditur et Libyn puerum tenentem tabellam eodem loco et mala ferentem nudum [follows mention, from an epigram, of the Philokietes at Syracuse, p. Ixix] , item Apollinem serpentemque eius sagittis configi [follows mention, from an anecdotic source, of the ' Citharoedus' at Thebes, Miinzer »/. cit. p. 525], hie primus nervos et venas expressit capillumque diligentius. (irputTov SoKovfra UvOa- ydpav pvS/iov Kal avu/ieTpias iaroxoaBai — Diogenes Laertios, viii, 46. J

V. Lysippos.

[The account of Lysippos opens with an anecdote given on the authority of Duris, p. xlvi.] (Lysippus) fecit . . . destringentem se [follows its dedication at Rome;

b


xviii INTRODUCTION

anecdote of Tiberius' s fassion for the statue], nobilitatur Lysippus et temulenta tibicina et canibus ac venatione {mention, on authority ofMucianus (p. Ixxxvii;, of the chariot of the Sun at Rhodes'], fecit et Alexandrum Magnum maltis operibus a pueritia eius orsus {follows Nero's maltreatment of the statue], idem fecit Hephaestionem Alexandri Magni amicum \its ascription by other authori- ties to Polykleitos ; Pliny's own comment, p. xciii], item Alexandri venationem quae Delphis sacrata est, Athenis Satyrum, turmam Alexandri in qua amicorum eius imagines summa omnium similitudine expressit {mention of removal of the group to Home], fecit et quadrigas multorum generum. statuariae arti plurimum traditur contulisse capillum exprimendo, capita mi- nora faciendo quam antiqni, corpora graciliora siccioraque, per quae proceritas signorum maior videretur. non habet Lati- num nomen symmetria quam diligentissime custodit nova iu- tactaque ratione quadratas veterum staturas permutando [follows apothegm quoted from Duris, p. Ixiif]. propriae huius videntur esse argutiae operum custoditae in minimis quoque rebus.

To which may be added :

VI. Pupils of Lysippos, and Telephanes of Phokaia.

Filios et discipulos reliquit laudatos artifices Laippum, Boedan, sed ante omnes Euthrycraten, quamquam is constantiam potius imitatus patris quam elegantiam austero maluit genere quam iucundo placere. itaque optume ex- pressit Herculem Delpiiis et Alexandrum Thespis venatorem et Thespiadas, proelium equestre, simulacrum ipsum Trophonii ad oraculum, quadrigas com- plures, equum cum fuscinis, canes Tenantium. huius porro discipulus fuit Tisicrates et ipse Sicyonius, sed Lysippi sectae propior, ut vix discemantnr complura signa, ecu senex Thebanus et Demetrius rex, Peucestes Alexandri Magni servator, dignus tanta gloria, artifices qui compositis voluminibus condidere haec miris laudibus celebrant Telephanen Phocaeum ignotum alias, quoniam in Thessalia habitaverit, et ibi opera eius latuerint, alioqui suifragiis ipsonim aequatur Polyclito, Myroni, Pythagorae. laudant eius Larisam et Spintharum pentathlum et Apollinem {follows, from a different source, a variant explanation of the obscurity of Telephanes\

It is now a commonplace of archaeology that these closely connected criticisms were designed to establish a comparison of the five principal artists {insignes), based upon their gradual conquest of the problems of symmetry and proportion, and of certain minor technical details such as the rendering of the hair, of the sinews, or the veins : Pheidias discovers the possibilities of statuary; Polykleitos perfects it and makes his statues rest their weight on one leg, yet he fails because his figures are too square and monotonous ; Myron surpasses him by ^attaining not only to symmetry but to variety, yet he fails in the rendering of the hair ; Pythagoras is more successful with hair and

moreover learns how to express the sinews and the muscles • at

this point we are brought up short by finding that, in Pliny


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xix

nothing is said of the relation of Pythagoras to symmetry. This is however an omission for which the Roman author, Phny or Varro, is responsible ; for the record of that artist's contribution to symmetry is preserved in the passage quoted above from Diogenes Laertios' (cf. Comm. p. 48). There we learn that Pythagoras was considered the first artist to aim not only at symmetry but also at rhythm — in other words at the correct rendering of pro- portion, not only in figures at rest, but also in figures in motion. Lysippos, finally, achieves the perfect proportion, by modifying in a manner peculiar to himself the ancient canons, and solves by the way the minor technical difficulties in the rendering of the hair. The guiding thought is analogous to that which prompted Dionysios to classify the orators into inventors of their art —

evperai, and its perfectors — TeXeiaTcd ^.

The mention of Varro in § 56 certainly proves, as Jahn saw, that he was Pliny's immediate authority for the whole series of the criticisms j but it is equally certain that they did not originate with him. So rigid a scheme of artistic development would be a most unlikely product of the varied and miscellaneous literary activity of that compiler. It is moreover strongly coloured by the partisanship of a school and obviously devised to the honour of the Sikyonian Lysippos, the greatest artists falling into place as his precursors. Besides, the words non habet latinum nomen symmetria ... in § 65 show sufficiently that Varro had only been translating from the Greek. He appears here as the intermediary between Pliny and the Greeks precisely as, in the earlier books of the Historia, Trogus or Nigidius Figulus are named as authorities for facts or observations drawn by these writers from Aristotle '-

The Greek author whose views on the gradual development of art passed, through Varro, into the pages of Pliny was not only a warm admirer of the Sikyonians, but, to judge from the exclusive

^ Furtwangler, Plinius u. seine tuv A.ia)(iv7iv, teal 'tTrepeiSTjv ^/zcfs Kpi-

Qtielkn, p. 70. vojiiv.

2 Dionysios Halik. De JDinarcho ^ Nigidius is quoted for Aristotle

iud.: Uepl Aftvapxov tov frjTopos in ix, 185, Trogus in xi, 275, 276;

ovdlv ciprjKibs kv roh mpX twv apxcituv see F. Aly, Zur QuelUnkritik des

ypaipfiaiv, Sia to /«7t£ evpfT^v ISiov dlteren Plinius, p. 10 f.; Montigny,

•^^•^ovivaL xapaicT^pos tov avSpa, &airep Quaestiones in Plin, Nat. Hist de

Tdv Avcriav, Kal tov 'laoKpaTrjv, xal Animalibus Libros. Bonu,l844; Teuf-

Tbv^lffaiov HT]Te TWV evprjfievojv ^Tepois fel, p. 761. Te\(uaTriv, &air(p toi/ Arjiioaffivtjv, Kal

b a


XX INTRODUCTION

stress which he lays upon certain sides of technical progress, an artist judging from the standpoints which he had himself been trained to esteem most highly. We have not far to go to fix upon his name. He must be, as Robert first definitely pointed out ', that Xenokrates, himself a pupil of two distinguished Sikyonians, Teisikrates and Euthykrates, who is cited in the Index to Bk. xxxiv and in § 83 as having written on bronze statuary, and in xxxv, 68 upon painting'- In the latter passage he is named con- jointly with Antigonos, another art-writer, who, as we shall presently see, is in great measure responsible for the additions of epigrammatic or anecdotic character made to the earlier history by Xenokrates. ^ But the scheme of development propounded in the famous five criticisms involves a curious anachronism : Myron is made posterior to Polykleitos, Pythagoras posterior to both. That this anachronism cannot be due to mere negligence appears from the carefully thought-out nature of the context. I think it is clear from the remark preserved in Diogenes, concerning the rhythm contributed to statuary by Pythagoras, that, alongside considera- tions of symmetry and proportion, the idea of an evolution from figures at rest to figures in motion influenced the chronological order adopted by the author of the criticisms. After the stately seated or standing gods, goddesses, and temple-attendants of Pheidias come first the quiet athletes of Polykleitos, just shifting the weight of the body to one leg as in the act of walking, then

' Archdologische Marchen aus alter 135 a, b, are from Oropos, a region

und mtter Zeit, pp. 28 ff. A. Brieger, for which both Teisikrates, the master

De Fontibus, p. 46, had first pointed of Xenokrates, and Thoinias, son

cat that the verdicts on the bronze of Teisikrates, were at one time

statuaries could be traced beyond active (/. G. B. 120-122 a). But it

Varro back to Antigonos and Xeno- Is strange that an Athenian, who in

krates ; cf also Th. Schreiber, Quaes- inscribing his name was careful in

tionum de Ariif. Aetat., p. 27!!., and at least two cases (/. G. B. 135 a,

Furtwangler, 0/. «V. p. 68 ; but it was and the new inscription -also from

Robert who first disentangled the Oropos— '£07;^. apx- 1892, 51, cf.

special contribution of Xenokrates. Diels, Anzeiger, 1893, p. 138 f.) to

^ His identification with the Athe- record the country of his birth, should

nian Xenokrates, son of Ergophilos, have come so completely to identify

of the inscriptions from Oropos and himself with the Sikyonians as did

.Elateia (Loewy, Inschrifien der Crie- the Plinian writer, or have so often

chischen Bildhauer, 135 a, b, c) ap- entirely passed over, or dismissed

pears to me, on the other hand, with only a passing allusion, the

doubtful (see Coram.). The strongest famous artists of his own country, argument in its favour is that Loewy,


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxi

the works — athletes also for the greater part — of Myron and Pythagoras. Now, if we place the Myronian ' Diskobolos ' with its audacious movement next to the Polykleitan ' Diadumenos ' or ' Doryphoros,' and adopt the recent conjecture ', which attributes to Pythagoras the fine boxer in the Louvre, and the athlete in violent motion of the Boboli gardens ' — two statues which surpass even the Diskobolos in movement and animation — we shall at least understand how, at a time when art-criticism in our modern sense was scarcely existent, such statues would give rise to the perverse chronology of §§ 55-59.

The account of the pupils of Lysippos is obviously inseparable from the account of Lysippos himself. To Telephanes we shall return presently. Before we proceed to track out Xenokrates further, we should, however, note the significant fact that wherever, in the passages just discussed, the locality of a work of art is either given or can be recovered from other sources, it lies within a restricted geographical beat, comprised by Olympia (§§ 54, S9)> Delphoi (§§ 57, 59, 64, 66), Lebadeia, Thespiai, and Thebes (§§ 66, 67), and finally Athens (§§ 54, 64)*- From this we may gather that Xenokrates (who probably had little oppor- tunity for distant travel) confined himself to the mention of monuments of which he had personal knowledge.

A glance at the chronological tables of §§ 49-52 shows them to be by the author of the criticisms ; in the one as in the other Pheidias opens the series — Lysippos with the brilliant attendance of sons and pupils closes it. If the Xenokratic authorship of the chronology needed confirmation, we should find it in the fact that Polykleitos, Myron, Pythagoras, are placed in the same curious order as in the verdicts. The activity of Xenokrates cannot have extended much beyond 01. 121, the date he assigns to the pupils of Lysippos, and it is noteworthy that, although his treatise was extensively enlarged by later writers, yet the period with which it closed was adopted as representing the close of art in Greece. Cessavit deinde (after 01. 121) ars, writes Pliny, ac rursus Ofytnpiade CL VI revixit, the revixit not so much

^'Fmt«'a.-a^er,Masterpieces0f Greek * Cf. Miinzer, <?/. cit. p. 505. Of

Sculpture, p. 171 f; cf. E. Reisch, the works whose locality is not indi-

Weihgeschenke, p. 44. cated, the Athena tam eximiae pulchri-

' Phot. Girandon, 1207. iudinis of Pheidias (see Comm. to

' Phot. Amdt-Bruckmann {Einzel- xxxiv, 54, 1. 2), the cow of Myron, and

verkauf), 96. his Perseus were at Athens.


xxii INTRODUCTION

marking a real revival as affording a convenient formula to introduce the Greek artists who decorated at Rome the famous monuments erected by Q. Metellus Macedonicus '.

It is evident that the chronological and narrative parts of the Xenokratic treatise had originally formed one consistent whole, which some later writer afterwards subdivided into a chronology and alphabetical lists (cf. p. Ixxx). The five most famous artists, however, and the pupils of Lysippos were left, owing to their great reputation, in the original Greek order, though sundered from the chronology. Moreover, Telephanes of Phokaia (§ 68) and Praxiteles (§§ 69-71) were assigned places— in no sort of chronological order— between the pupils of Lysippos and the first alphabetical list. The reasons for the exception made in their favour are sufficiently instructive. The Xenokratic character of the account of Telephanes comes out in the com- parison instituted to Polykleitos, Myron, and Pythagoras, whose names are given in the same order as in the verdicts ; since, however, Xenokrates had not deemed Telephanes worthy of comparison with the two greatest names — with either Pheidias, the founder, or Lysippos the perfecter of the art — he had also not accredited him with any distinct contribution to the progress of statuary. Now the comparison of Telephanes to Polykleitos, Myron, and Pythagoras on the one hand, and the absence of any precise estimate of his merits on the other, were explained by some later Greek writer in a rationalizing anecdotic manner, alien to Xenokratic practice : Telephanes was excellent, the reasoning seems to be, or he could not be compared to great names, but he must have been obscure or we should hear more about him ; and as Xenokrates had given a list of works, some, or all, of which were in Thessaly ■', their remoteness was made the reason for the artist's want of fame : quoniam in Thessalia habitaverit et ibi opera eius latuerint. These additions are so nicely welded into the Xenokratic account that they must have been made at a quite early date, as we shall see by Antigonos (p. xxxvi). Puzzled by the mention of this excellent yet unknown artist, the Roman authors next introduced him under cover of their Greek authorities : artifices qui haec condidere (i.e. Xenokrates and Antigonos) miris laudibus celebrant

' • The cessavit and revixit first ex- " A region to which Xenokrates

plained by Brunn, K. G. i. p. 504 f. might easily have extended his re-

Cf H. L. Urlichs, Griechische Kunst- searches northwards from Phokis and

schriftsteller, p. 31 f. Boeotia.


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxiii

Telephanem Phocaeum, and placed him outside the insignes, but yet in a more distinguished place than the alphabetical lists. Practically the same happened in the case of Praxiteles (§§ 69-71). This artist appears to have been only summarily discussed by Xenokrates ^, who, like the rest of his school and Lysippos himself, was exclusively a worker in bronze, and therefore only wrote concerning works in bronze, entirely ignoring the marble sculpture wherein lay the chief strength of Praxiteles and the new Attic school. Yet Praxiteles was much too great a favourite of the Romans for a Roman writer to be content with assigning to him a place among the artists of the alphabetical lists, so he linked him on to Telephanes with a quoque, adducing as an apology for not placing Praxiteles among the insignes that he was marmore felicior ideo et darior. The argument practically comes to : Praxiteles also, like Telephanes, has an excuse for the place assigned to him — in his case not want of fame, but the fact that he is better known as a worker in marble than as a worker in bronze '\

An analysis of the first alphabetical list (§§ 74-83) will reveal further traces of Xenokrates. In the subjoined tables I have marked with an X those artists the account of whom seems Xenokratic, and placed within square brackets the names of artists or works manifestly introduced from other sources.

X. Alcamenes: encrinomenos^.

X. Arisiides : quadrigae higaeque.

\_Amphicrates : Leaena, periegetic, see Comm. and p. Ixxxvi.]

X. Biyaxis: Aesculapius, Seleucus.

X. Boedas: adorans.

[Baton: Apollo, luno, Roman museography, cf. p. xci f.]

\Cresilas : volneratus, Pericles, both from epigrams, see Comm. and p. Ixix.]

[Cephisodotus : ara, on authority of Heliodoros, p. Ixxv.]

X. Canachus : {Apollo, anecdotic, see Comm. and p. Ixxxviii] celeiizontes pueri.

X. Chaereas : Alexander, Philippus.

X. Ctesilaus: doryphorus, Amazon.

{Demetrius : Lysimache (inscrip., p. Ixxxvi), Minerva nius. (periegetic), Simon (literary source, p. Ixv, note l).]

' Miinzer, op. cit. p. 507, considers Oporan (where M. wrongly retains

the Xenokratic material to be some- canephoram).

what as follows: Praxiteles. ..fecit ^ I am indebted to Dr. H. L.

ex aere. . . . Proserpinae raptum Uriichs for giving me what I believe

item catagusam, et Liherum patremet to be the correct explanation of the Ebrietatem nobilemque una Satyrum,


qium Graeci periboeton cognominanl ' The list is based on that of Oeh-

item stephanusam, pseliumenen, michen, Plin. Studien, p. 163 f.


xxiv INTRODUCTION

X. Daedalus : desiringentes se. X. Dittomenes : Protesilaus, Pythodemus.

X. Euphranor: [Alexander Paris {ep\gT. TpA:id^), Minerva, La/ena (Roma.n museogr.)], quadrigae bigaeque, cliduchus. ^ Virtus et Graecia; mulier adm. et ador.; Alex, et Philippus.

[Eufychides : Eurotas (epigr. p. Ixix f.).] X. Hegias : Minerva, Pyrrhus, celetiaontes.

[ffagesias : Hercules in Pario colonia (Mucianus, p. xc).] X. Isidotus : buthytes.

[Zycius ; puer sufflans (epigr. p. Ixx)], Argonautae.

ILeochares: Ganymedes (epigr. p. Ixx), Autolycus (literary source, p. xlv, note i), Jupiter, Apollo (Rom. museogr.), Lyciscus (epigr. p. Ixxiii, note z).] X. Lycius : puer suffitor.

\Menaechmus : vitulus (epigr. p. Ixxiii, note 2).] X. Naucydes : Mercurtus, discobolus, immolans arietem. X. Naucerus : luctator anhelans.

{Niceralus : Aesculapius et Hygia (Roman museogr.).] X. Pyromachus : quadriga cum Alcibiade. X. Polycles : Hermaphroditus. X. Pyrrhus : Hygia et Minerva. X. Phanis : epithyusa.

[Styppax: splanchnoptes (periegetic and epigr. p. Ixx).]

[Silanion: Apollodorus, Achilles, epistates (epigr. p. Ixx).]

\Strongylion : Amazon (Roman anecdote, cf. p. xcii).]

[ Theodorus : se ipsefudit (anecdotic).]

\_Xetiocrates : copia signorum (Antigonos).]

Reference to the text of Pliny will show that the works of the nineteen artists marked X are enumerated with a simple direct- ness which contrasts as forcibly as possible with the literary allusions, anecdotic tags, and epigrammatic descriptions attaching to the notices of the names placed in brackets. This same directness characterized the lists of works of the insignes, and is a clear mark of Xenokratic authorship. Ten of these names, moreover, still retain their place in the Xenokratic chronology (Alcamenes, Aristides, Canachus, Daedalus, Dinomenes, Euphranor, Hegias, Naucydes, Pyromachus, Polycles).

An attentive study shows how a second, a third, and perhaps even a fourth hand worked over or added to the Xenokratic material, sometimes to its suppression. Cephisodotus, Eutychides, Leochares, all appear in the Xenokratic chronology, but, if any of thfir works were mentioned, these have been omitted to make way for others which brought the added interest of anecdote or epigram; in the case of Euphranor (§ 77) the mention of the ' Paris,' derived from an epigram, was prefixed to the arid Xeno-


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxv

kratic lists. This method of introducing new material from other sources has led to the double mention of Lycius (§ 79) and of Hegias (§ 78), the latter of whom appears the second time, under the alternative form of his name, Hagesias. As to the mention of Xenokrates himself (§ 83), it is probable that if it had come from him its wording would be at once more modest and less vague. I therefore adopt Miinzer's suggestion (pp. cit. p. 509) that it is due to the reverence ('Pietat') of the later writer, who worked the Xenokratic treatise into his own, namely Antigonos. A number of other additions, made from evident Roman sources, or concerning works to be seen at Rome, in Varro's or Pliny's day, need no comment here. In the same way certain additions came to be made also to the chronology. The most obvious is the notice of Seilanion (see p. xlix, note 2, and Add. to Comm. on xxxiv, 51), who is tacked on to the artists of 01. 113.

The Plinian account of the bronze-workers from § 49 to § 83 represents roughly, then, the original compass of that portion of the treatise of Xenokrates which treated of the period from the great revival after the Persian wars down to the sons and pupils of Lysippos, in Olympiads CXIII and CXXI. But it would be an error to suppose that this history of statuary took no notice of the earlier phases of the art. Through some accident which we are now no longer in a position to determine, the whole earlier part seems however to have been suppressed, with the exception of one unmistakable fragment, which oddly enough has found its way to the beginning of Pliny's account of the sculptors in marble (xxxvi, 9-10). The passage, as it now stands, is a little mosaic of most diverse materials, but the original Xenokratic conception is still evident from the stress laid upon the early fame of the Sikyonian workshops, from the fact that Dipoinos and Skyllis, the scene of whose labours lay chiefly in Sikyon and adjacent or dependent regions, are chosen among all archaic craftsmen to represent the beginnings of their art '. Their works had been of wood (note on xxxvi, 10) and could thus fall within the range of a writer upon bronze statuary, describing the gradual evolution from wood or wood gilt to metal. To the Xenokratic


1 The Xenokratic kernel of the ing the view that Xenokrates left the

passage has been rightly detected by whole of the archaic period unnoticed

Miinzer [op. cit. p. 523), whom it is {ib. p. 505). therefore surprising to find support-


xxvi INTRODUCTION

contention that the art of sculpture in bronze was elaborated by Daidalid artists on the mainland of Greece, a later writer — presumably Antigonos (p. xliii f)— adjusted the account of the rise of sculpture in marble in the islands of the Aegean, under the auspices of Chian sculptors. Thus it was that the Xenokratic account of Dipoinos and Skyllis came in time to be placed at the opening of a history of sculpture in marble, where it has long proved a crux to archaeologists '. We have learnt, then, that Xenokrates, in treating of the bronze-workers, began with the earliest beginnings. The current notion that he took no account of archaic bronze statuary is as false as it is arbitrary . It is not improbable that, if the Xenokratic account of the statuaries, as we have it in Pliny's thirty-fourth book, opens with Pheidias, this is somehow due to a very ancient misunderstanding of the statement that ' Pheidias first revealed the capabilities of sculpture and indicated its methods." We shall immediately see how a similar expression, in the case of the painter ApoUodoros, misled both ancient and modern critics into the erroneous sup- position that the Greek writers— Xenokrates in primis — had ignored the early painters.

The Xenokratic history of the painters, preserved in Pliny's thirty-fifth book, can be recovered far more completely than that of the bronze-workers. Since in xxxv the alphabetical principle does not make its appearance till § 138, where it is employed to group together artists of comparatively minor importance, the original scheme is, in parts at least, still suflSciently clear.

Xenokrates is quoted by name, along with Antigonos, as the authority for the verdict upon Parrhasios (§ 68). The judgement in its essence is so indubitably his, as a comparison with the judgement passed upon Lysippos and his son Euthykrates (xxxiv, 66) proves, that if the later writer's name appears it can only

■ Miinzer, loc. cit. known to him. I take it rather that

' Cf. among others Robert, Arch. Xenokrates, having but very few dates

Mdrchen, pp. 36, 41, where the at his command (see Comm. on xxxiv,

post-dating of Kritios and Nesiotes 49), grouped about Pheidias, as their

(§ 49) is explained by supposing that representative, a number of other

the fame of their 'Tyrant-Slayers' artists who had been engaged upon the

would attract the attention of the restoration of Athenian monuments

compiler of the chronology, who, after the Persian sack. The anachron-

since he ignored the archaic period, ism at any rate affords no proof

made them into contemporaries of that Xenokrates had neglected the

Pheidias, the earliest bronze-worker archaic period.


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxvii

be in his character of compiler, or ' editor,' of the Xenokratic history.

(Lysippus) statnariae arti plurimum Parrhasius Ephesi natus et ipse

traditur contulisse capillum expri- multa contulit. primus symmetrian

mendo, capita minora faciendo qnam picturae dedit, primus argutias voltus,

antiqui, corpora graciliora siccioraque, elegantiam capilli, venustatem oris,

per quae proceritas signorum maior coufessione artificum in lineis extremis

videretur. non habet Latinum nomen palmam adeptus. haec est picturae

symmetria quam diligentissime custo- summa suptilitas. corpora enim

dit nova intactaque ratione quadratas pingere et media rerum est quidem

veternm staturas permutando, vulgo- magni operis sed in quo multi gloriam

que dicebat ab illis factos quales essent tulerint, extrema corporum facere et

homines, a se quales viderentur esse. desinentis picturae modum includere

propriae huius videntur esse argutiae rarum in successu aitis invenitur.

opemm custoditae in minimis quoque ambire enim se ipsa debet extremitas

rebus, filios et discipulos reliquit et sic desinere ut promittat alias pone

laudatos artifices Laippum, Boedan, se ostendatque etiam quae occultat.

sed ante omnes Euthrycraten, quam- banc ei gloriam concessere Antigonus

quam is constantiam potius imitatus et Xenocrates qui de pictura scripsere,

patris quam elegantiam austero maluit praedicantes quoque, non solum con-

genere quam iucnndo placere. fitentes'.

But the criticism of Parrhasios is closely linked with a row of similar criticisms, not only interconnected, but dictated by the same spirit as the judgements passed upon the statuaries ^ Robert has pointed out that identical standards were set up in each case, while the final appreciations were similarly formulated ; as Pheidias (xxxiv, 54) discloses the possibilities of statuary, so ApoUodoros (xxxv, 60) discloses those of painting. The initiative of either master was carried further in the one art by Polykleitos (xxxiv, 56), by Zeuxis (xxxv, 64) in the other. Both these artists, however, fail in the rendering of proportion, a point in which Myron (xxxiv, 57) and Parrhasios (xxxv, 68) surpass them. The former is symmetria diligentior than Polykleitos ; of the other it is said that primus symmetrian picturae dedit. Pythagoras (xxxiv, 59) and Euphranor (xxxv, 128) each progress towards the attainment of symmetry j of the one the critics said irpHnov . . . (TviifiiTpias SoKovvTa i(TT0)(atT6ai, of the Other primus videtur . . . usur-

' I have chosen these two passages ' Robert, Arch. March, p. 67 ff.,

for comparison, becanse of the marked conveniently prints the passages side

verbal similarities, but of course the by side. After the detailed analysis

real counterpart, among the painters, of the verdicts upon the bronze-

of Lysippos, among the statuaries, workers, it seems sufficient to refer

was Apelles. to the text.


xxviii INTRODUCTION

passe symmeirian. The highest mastery, finally, is embodied in Lysippos (xxxiv, 65) and in Apelles (xxxv, 79).

We may now proceed to recover traces of Xenokrates in the earlier sections of xxxv. It has been noted above that the con- tribution to symmetry, made respectively by Pythagoras and Euphranor, was couched in almost identical terms. But the statement that Pythagoras was the first to mark the sinews and the muscles, primus nervos et venas expressit, recalls the improve- ments attributed in an early part of the History of the Painters to Kimon of Kleonai : articulis i}iembra distinxit, venas protulit (§ 56) ^ That both are from the same hand is indubitable.

Again, the criticism of Kimon is inseparable from a whole series of similar passages, in which the earlier stages of painting were discussed. These began at § 16, and, after sundry excursus on paintings in Rome and on colours (§ 18 ff.), were resumed again at § 56. When exhibited together, the original coherence of the passages is self-evident ^

§ 16. Inventam liniarem a Philocle Aegyptio vel Cleanthe Corinthio primi exercuere Aridices Corinthius et Telephaiies Sicyonius, sine uUo etiamnum hi colore, iam tamen spargentes linias iiitns. ideo et quos pingerent adscribere institutum. primus invenit eas colore testae, ut ferunt, tiitae, Ecphantus Corinthius.

§ 56. . . . eosqne qui monochromatis pinxerint, quorum aetas non traditur, . . . fuisse, Hygiaenontem, Dinian, Charmadan et qui primus in pictura marem a femina discreverit Eumarum Atheniensem figuras omnis imitari ausum, quique inventa eius excoluerit Cimonem Cleonaeum. hie catagrapha invenit, hoc est obliquas imagines, et varie formare voltus, respicientes suspicientesve vel despi- cientes. articulis membra distinxit, venas protulit, praeterque in vestibus rugas et sinus invenit.

§ S7- Panaenus quidem frater Phidiae etiam proelium Atheniensium adversus Persas apud Marathona factum pinxit. adeo iam colorum usus increbruerat, adeoque ars perfecta erat ut in eo proelio iconicos duces pinxisse tradatur, Atheniensium Miltiaden, Callimachum, Cynaegirum, barbarorum Datim, Arta- phernen.

§ 58. . . . Polygnotus Thasius qui primus mulieres tralucida veste pinxit, capita earum mitris versicoloribus operuit plurimumque picturae primus con- tulit, siquidem instituit os adaperire, dentes ostendere, voltum ab antiquo rigore variare. [follows 7nention of a picture in Rome'\ hie Delphis aedem pinxit, hie et Athenis porticum quae Poecile vocatur . . . cum partem eius Micon . pingeret.

^ These primitives are represented as not yet sufficiently ad-

■ The parallelism of the two pas- » I here follow Munzer entirely

sages is noted— but in a different ("/"V. p. 514), who gives the passages

context— by Hartwig, Meisterschahn, freed, so far as possible, from later

p. 165. additions.


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxix

vanced to grapple with problems of harmony and symmetry ; it is sufificient for them to attempt to conquer step by step, first a knowledge of their materials, then by slow degrees the correct presentment of objects. Philokles, Kleanthes, and the earliest painters, are scarcely painters at all ; they practise mere outline. Then Ekphantos fills up this outline with red colour. Hygiainon and his fellows (§ 56) continue to use only one colour till it occurs to Eumaros to distinguish in painting between the sexes ; this he doubtless does by introducing white for the flesh of the women ^ and thus marks the first stage in the progress from monochrome to polychrome painting. So far, however^ figures have only been drawn in full face or in profile (though Pliny nowhere states this, it can be supplied from what follows) ; but now Kimon of Kleonai invents foreshortening, Kardypaipa "- He further correctly marks the articulations and the muscles, and ' discovers the wrinkles and the windings of drapery.' Artists, having now learnt to distinguish between the sexes, to articulate their figures, and to present them in various attitudes, are able to turn their attention to distinguishing between individuals. Panainos, accord- ingly, in his Battle of Marathon, introduces portraiture. But mere draughtsmanship — outline simply filled in with colour — was susceptible of still further improvements. Thus Polygnotos of Thasos first permits the draperies to reveal the bodies beneath them, and shows at the same time how to give movement not only to the body, as Kimon had done, but also to the face. Then, the capacities of this limited technique being exhausted, there appeared on the scenes the great painter Apollodoros (§ 90 above, p. xxvii), who by discovering ' the fusion and management of shade ' — we should rather say of light— first gave to objects their real semblance {primus species instituit) : thus he contributed to painting its most important factor, and thereby, as an epigrammatist pointedly said, he ' opened the gates of art ' to the great masters of Greek painting — to Zeuxis and Parrhasios and their illustrious contemporaries. The coherence of the whole history of the development and perfection of painting — the consistent logic which underlies it, of an evolution from the simpler to the more complex — is so patent that it is incomprehensible how so many

' Eumaros's innovation is generally accurately grasped, so explained, but I am not aware ^ See note on xxxv, 56.

that the significance of the introduc- * i^tvpoiv ipOopav ical &-ir6xp<^'riy

tion of this white colour has ever been (r«ios, Plutarch, De Glor. Athen. 2.


XXX INTRODUCTION

scholars — at least in the period between Jahn's Essay and Miinzer's— entirely failed to apprehend it.

It remains, however, to ask how in face of this consecutive Treatise by a Greek writer there could ever arise the complaint in XXXV, 54 : non constat sibi in hac parte (sc. historia pidorum) Graecorum diligentia multas post olympiadas cekbrando pidores quam statuarios ac toreutas, primumque olympiade LXXXX. The question involves a difficult problem. One can only imagine that the complaint, in its present form, is the result of a misunder- standing ; it is not impossible that some later writer, intermediate between the earlier Greek art-writers and the Roman, had found fault with the Greeks for failing to appreciate the naive charm and simple methods of the painters who lived previous to the innova- tions of ApoUodoros. Such a criticism, combined with the words used by Xenokrates of ApoUodoros, hie primus spedes instituit, might lead in time to the supposition that the Greek art-writers had completely failed even to mention pre-ApoUodorian painters. The Roman compilers, drawing from books (Pasiteles ? p. Ixxix) where the names of Xenokrates and Antigonos as authorities for the history of the early painters had long dropped out, piled up as proofs of the supposed inaccuracy of these writers ^ a number of facts" for which their Treatises were in reality the chief sources. Theophrastos, also, had been misrepresented in precisely the same manner. According to Pliny (vii, 205) he had attributed the invention of painting to Polygnotos, whereas Theophrastos can have intended nothing more than that Polygnotos was the first painter who could be properly so called ; writing doubtless under the influence of Aristotle's admiration for the ethical quali- ties of this artist {Poet. 1450a). Theophrastos had assigned to him the place which the PKnian authors, intent rather upon technical progress, gave to ApoUodoros. In truth Pliny's statement as regards Theophrastos, and his or Varro's complaint of the Greek inaccuracy, are, I believe, but the distorted reflection of the old controversy whether draughtsmanship or colouring was the more powerful means of expression. The opinion of Aristotle may be

» It is universally acknowledged Panainos as painters- (cf. p. li) ; the that the Greeks alluded to in the whole list of painters and their works words Graecorum diligentia are the from the early monochromatics down main authorities, i.e. Xenokrates and to Polygnotos. The account of Boul- Antigonos (perhaps also Duris) ; cf. archos (§55) may have been derived by Robert, Arch. Mdrcken, p. 25. Varro (cf.p.Ixxxivand Comm. on xxxv

^ E.g. the activity of Pheidias and 55) from some independent source. '


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxi

guessed from his predilection for the pre-Apollodorian Polygnotos ^. The testimony of Dionysios to the value which a school of criticism, practically unrepresented in Pliny, attached to the pre-Apollodorian paintings is of importance :

' In ancient paintings the scheme of colouring was simple and presented no variety in the tones ; but the line was rendered with exquisite perfection, thus lending to these early works a singular grace. This purity of draughtsmanship was gradually lost ; its place was taken by a learned technique, by the differen- tiation of light and shade, by the full resources of the rich colouring to which the works of the later artists owe their strength ^'

We learn from this passage that the methods of the later painters were practically looked upon as hostile to those of the earlier, and Xenokrates, a hot partisan of the post-Apollodorians, may well have expressed himself in language which would eventually lead to the erroneous supposition that he had ignored all earlier paintings, from Polygnotos and Panainos up to the early monochromatics.

As we have it in Pliny, the argument against the Greeks is presented with skill and vigour (Comm. on xxxv, 54) ; the theme was evidently congenial to the Roman authors, who doubtless felt for the archaic the enthusiasm — common to all decadent periods — which was to rouse the subtle satire of Quinctilian '-

After § 70 it becomes more difficult to follow Xenokrates (cf. Miinzer, op. cit. p. 516), and scarcely any sentence can be picked out as bearing the indubitable signs of his method. Later writers, as shown by the Plinian indices, had, when it came to the artists

^ Bertrand, £tudes sur la Peinture, rols i^iyimcnv ix"^""^ noMXiav, anpi^ets

p. 1 7, singularly misapprehends Aris- Sc rais ypa/j./jLais, Kal iroKh rd yapiiv

totle when he assumes that A. kv ravrais ixP^^°-^' °-^ ^^ pifT^iKeivas,

definitely stated his preference for eiypan/wi fiiv ^ttov, l^eipyaapihai Si

drawing over painting, and translates fidXXoVj aKia re Kai tpajrl iT0LKtW6fievatj

Poet. 1450b, 'en etalant les plus koX iv t£ TrX^flti tSiv pnyimraiv t^v

belles couleurs on ne fera pas le meme layyv ex""".

plaisir que par le simple trait d'une * Primi, quorum, quidem opera non

figure.' What A. says is that colours vetustatis modo gratia visenda sunt,

laid on confusedly or indiscriminately clari pictores fuisse dicuntur Poly-

will not produce as much pleasure as gnotus atque Aglaophon, quorutn

simple outline : A yap ris iva\e'u//tie simplex color tam sui studiosos adhuc

Tofs KaWiarois <papiiiicois x'^^Vi o"" habet, ut ilia props rudia ac velut

hv Spioias €i(ppa,v€tiv Kal \ivicoypaipriaas futurae mox artis primordia maxi-

tlic6va. mis, qui post eosexstiterunt, auctoribus

'^ Dionys. Halik. de Isaeo iudic. 4 praeferant, propria quodam intelli-

AaX U) TiKs apxo-iai ypa<pal, x/KuMaff' gendi, ut mea opinio fert, ambitu.

]j.\v (Xpyac jiivoi anKas, Kal ovSepiiav kv Quiuct. xii, 10.


xxxii INTRODUCTION

of the fourth century, a large mass of literature to draw from. Moreover popular anecdotes concerning the painters now take in great measure the place of more serious criticism.

The next clear trace of Xenokrates is in the special emphasis laid (§ 76) upon the fame of the Sikyonian painters. Sikyon, the cradle of art-painting (§ 16), is now shown to be the home also of its splendid maturity ; as she had produced Lysippos, the greatest master of statuary, so she produces Apelles, the greatest master of the rival art of painting, whose contributions to his art are appraised (§ 79) according to the canons applied to Lysippos in xxxiv, 65. Though Apelles was probably already an artist of established renown when he left his native Ephesos to study in the schools of Sikyon, the claims of his obscurer early masters must fade entirely before the glorious reputation of Eupompos and Pamphilos.

The Theban-Attic school, which branched off from the Sikyonian, with Aristeides I — brother-pupil of Eupompos — also claimed the attention of Xenokrates. We must recognize with Robert ^ that the account of Aristeides II in § 98 originates with him; we note the Xenokratic intent to connect the name of a great artist with some definite progress or contribution. In this case the progress accomplished is of ethical rather than of technical import; Aristeides discovers how to render not only character but transient emotions^, and in this there is a vague reminiscence of the criticism passed upon Myron, that he had failed to express ' the sensations of the mind.'

Between the two Aristeides must naturally have intervened the account of Nikomachos, son of Aristeides I, and his pupils, which in Pliny appears in §§ 108-110, away from its original context.

After a long digression in §§ 11 2-1 21, due, as we shall see, in part toVarro (p. Ixxxiv), in part to Pliny himself (cf. p.xcii), we again come upon clear traces of Xenokrates in the History of the Painters in Encaustic '- In § 122 we find it stated first that, according to certain authorities, Aristeides was the inventor of encaustic;

1 Archdologische Mdrchen, p. 69 ; ably due to Vnrro. It affords one of

cf; Munzer, p. 5T6. the many proofs of the passage of the

i.e.ferturbationes: Fnrtwangler, Greek Treatises upon Art throu<rh

Phnius u. s. Quellen, p. 65 f., points Varro's hands. "

out that this Ciceronian translation of ' Miinzer, op. cit. p. Ki7ff

the Greek ird^Tj (see Comm.) is presum-


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxiii

immediately after it is asserted that there existed pictures in this technique older than the time of Aristeides, namely those by Polygnotos, by the Parians Nikanor and Mnasilaos, and by Ela- sippos. In a word, the claims of the island-schools to priority of invention are opposed to the claims of the artists of the main- land, precisely as in xxxvi, 9-12 the Xenokratic contention that statuary was invented by the Daidalids Dipoinos and Skyllis was confronted by Antigonos with the assertion that long before their time sculpture in marble had flourished in the islands of the Aegean (p. xxvi) \ Thus it seems safe to conclude that the tradition attaching the invention of Encaustic to the name of Aristeides goes back to Xenokrates, and that Antigonos, faithful to his programme of exhibiting the various sources at his com- mand, appended to it the account now represented in Pliny by the words aliquanto vetustiores encaustae pidurae extitere . . . nisi encaustica inventa.

The school partisanship of Xenokrates at once betrays itself in § 123 in the preeminence assigned to the Sikyonian Pausias, pupil of the Sikyonian Pamphilos (§ 75), and accordingly brother-pupil of Apelles. Pausias is not only praised as "Caz first to achieve fame in the wax technique, but is also credited in true Xenokratic fashion with two distinct contributions : he is Xhe^ first to paint the panels of ceilings, the first also to decorate the vaults of roofs. It may be noted at this point that the Plinian division into painters in the ordinary tempera and painters in encaustic was probably no part of the original Greek treatise. Pausias must have been discussed in connexion with Pamphilos and the artists of § 75, while the discussion of Euphranor must have followed upon that of his master Aristeides I. That the pupils of Pausias, Aristolaos (§ 137) and Nikophanes, had also originally been discussed by Xenokrates is almost certain '^ ; but the criticism passed upon Euphranor in § 130 is to my mind the last passage in the Plinian narrative of the painters where Xenokratic authorship can be pointed to with certainty. Students, however, will read with interest Miinzer's attempts {^op. cit. p. 518) to disengage further Xenokratic threads.

' The parallelism has been kindly Nikophanes in xxxv, iii, recalls the

pointed out to me by MUnzer in elegantia attributed to Lysippos,

a private letter ; see note 3 on p. xxxiv, 66, the elegantia in render-

xliv. ing of hair attributed to Parrhasios,

^ The epithet elegans applied to xxxv, 67.


xxxiv INTRODUCTION

Before dismissing the history of the painters we still have to note a few scattered passages which afford proof that Xenokrates had not only summed up but analyzed the problems which the great artists in turn had set themselves to solve. The appreciation of Parrhasios (xxxv, 67), with the appended analysis of his special artistic achievement, contained in the words haec est pidurae summa suptilitas . . . occultat, is a striking instance. That highest and hardest aim of the painter to produce about his figures the illusion of ambient space, of enveloping light and air, could not be more vigorously or happily expressed than in the phrase : corpora enim ptngere et media rerum est quidem magni operis sed in quo multi gloriam tulerint, extrema corporum facere et desinentis picturae modum includere rarum in successu artis invenitur. Ambire enim se ipsa debet extremitas, et sic desinere ut promittat alia post se ostendatque etiam quae occultat (see Comm.). Again we can, I think, trace the hand of Xenokrates in xxxv, 29, in the analysis of the various effects attempted by painting ; with subtle understanding of artistic procedure it is told how painting after shaking off its early monotony discovered first light and shade, then the effects attainable by the juxtaposition of colours ; finally, how it discovered glow and the passage from the more lit-up to the less lit-up parts of a picture, in a word what the moderns call ' values ' (see Comm.) Such observations had doubtless formed part of the history of the development of painting from the early monochromatics to the successors of ApoUodoros, and became detached from their original context, perhaps at the time when the Xenokratic Treatise was schematized as noted on p. xxii. Furthermore it is possible that the Treatise had originally included, besides statements of the personal contribution made to the pro- gress of art by the principal artists, and aesthetic analysis of special problems, a discussion of the materials employed. Perhaps there- fore we should follow Mlinzer (pp. cit. p. 512; p. 499 ff.) in crediting Xenokrates with the chapters on colours (xxxv, 29 ff.)^ and consequently also with the notice of the various kinds of bronze (xxxiv, 9 ff.) employed by the statuaries.

The short account of modelling^ in clay in xxxv, 151-153, con-

' After considerable hesitation, we and actual works of art. decided on omitting these chapters " MUnzer, op. cit. p. 509 f. ; cf.

from the present edition, which is Furtwangler, Plinius u. o. Quellen,

concerned only with those portions p. 59 f. of the Historia that treat of artists


XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxv

tains the last marked traces of Xenokrates that we come across in Pliny. Boutades, a potter {figulus), and of course a Sikyonian, invents the fashioning of portraits in clay {fingere ex argilla similitudines). To this statement is now attached from another source an anecdote which represented this Sikyonian workman as active in Corinth (p. xxxvii). In § 152 a variant version of the discovery of modelling is given. Then with the words Butadis inventum we get back to our Sikyonian potter, who, having learnt to fashion a face in clay, is now the first {primus) to adapt faces to tile ends, whence arose in time the whole decoration of the eaves of temples. Further, he invents {invenit) how to take moulds off the clay models for statues [de signis effigies exprimere), and is thus the discoverer of the preliminary indispensable process of casting statues in bronze. Hundreds of years later another Sikyonian, Lysistratos, the brother of Xeno- krates's special hero Lysippos, first discovers {primus . . . instituif) how to take a mould off the living face. Hence the last and crowning progress of art, the advent of realistic portraiture. Miinzer is certainly right in his conjecture that the account of modelling was originally prefixed to the history of bronze-statuary, since bronze-casting presupposed the clay model (see Comm. on xxxiv, 35, and xxxv, 153), and therefore modelling passed as the older art : etenim prior quam statuaria fuii {y.^-id\, 2,^)- The place which Pliny assigns to modelling in his History is an obvious necessity of his scheme; clay being the material of modelling, he is forced to bring the discussion of this art under ' kinds of earth.'

This closes the list of passages that can be traced back with any certainty to Xenokrates. It is a proof of the vigour of his conceptions that they could so impose themselves upon subsequent writers as never entirely to lose their original character, which still asserts itself throughout the whole of the Plinian account of the bronze statuaries and the painters. Nowhere do we grasp so readily what Pliny's history of art owed to Xenokrates as in the account of sculpture, given in Bk. xxxvi, where, failing the strong thread which bound together — at least in considerable parts — the narrative of the preceding books, we get little more than a loose patch-work of facts brought together without guiding thought or dominating interest. Meagre as are the fragments that we have disengaged, they point back to a critic of other calibre than the mere maker of anecdote and epigram — to

c a


xxxvi INTRODUCTION

a critic who, conscientiously endeavouring to judge of works of art on their own merits, fails, not from garrulous digression or the desire to make a witty point, but rather from preconceived theory and love of schematizing. Xenokrates allows nothing for the fantastic freaks of artistic growth; in his rigidly con- structed system monochrome is made to precede colour, artists may not attack the problems of drapery till they have solved the rendering of muscle, and the gracious advent of perfect harmony and proportion is presented as the inevitable sum to which each of five artists had contributed his measured share. Besides, in common with most artists who have also been art-critics, he insists upon fixing the measure of artistic achievement in the successful solution of the problems which chiefly interested the school of which he showed himself the jealous partisan. Yet, crude as the scheme must appear to our modern world with its deeper sense of the complexity of things, it should win respect and sympathy as a first genuine attempt to tell the still unfinished tale of the rise and growth of art. And there is even to be traced, at a distance great enough from the modern method of comparison, that same purpose which distinguishes the modern critic— to let the actual monuments tell the tale.


§ 2. Antigonos of Karystos {born about 295 b. c).

When a writer aims, like Xenokrates, at formulating his criticism of an artist as the unbiassed impression received from a series of that artist's works, he will be anxious not to impair the strength of this impression by digressive criticism of single works ; above all, he will jealously guard the integrity of his judgement against anything that might look like borrowed appreciation. A writer who appraises an artist in the words applied by Xenokrates to Polykleitos will be the last to introduce material so foreign to the final judgement as that which describes how the boy binding a fillet about his head was ' a boy yet a man,' or his companion athlete ' a man yet a boy ' — words written, moreover, with a view to rhetorical antithesis rather than to criticism of artistic qualities.

Yet little epigrammatic or anecdotic tags are plentiful even in those parts of the Phnian account which have been shown to be essentially Xenokratic. Such, for instance, are the legends inter-


ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xxxvli

woven in xxxv, 9 with the account of the early Sikyonian artists Dipoinos and Skyllis (see Comm.); the rationalizing statements in xxxv, 16 and 151, intended to reconcile the conflicting claims to greater antiquity of the art centres of Sikyon and Corinth ; the additions made in xxxv, 59 to the Xenokratic account of Poly- gnotos and Mikon, to the effect that the former took no payment for his paintings in the Stoa Poikile, while the latter did; the anecdotic flavour given to the account of Telephanes of Phokaia (xxxiv, 68), the epigrammatic touch added in xxxv, 61 to express the connexion between Apollodoros and Zeuxis. These additions are generally so closely compacted with the original fabric that it is only recent criticism, the growing recognition of the whole tendency of the Xenokratic methods, which has detected them as extraneous. They differ totally, in this respect, from the loose and not unfrequently awkward additions to the Greek Treatises made at a later date by Varro or Pliny himself in order to introduce the mention of works in Rome or allusions to contem- porary events.

It becomes evident that the Xenokratic treatise was minutely worked over by a writer, who used it not simply to quote from, but as a solid framework into which to fit new material of his own. This writer, who appears almost as close collaborator of Xenokrates, must be one of the writers included in xxxiv, 68 in the words Artifices qui compositis voluminibus condidere haec, where the haec refers (see p. xxii) to the previous account of the insignes, which, as we have seen, is Xenokratic in the main. Now in xxxv, 67, in the discussion of Parrhasios, writers upon art are referred to in similar manner : confessione artificum in liniis extremis palmam adeptus {Farrhasius). Immediately below, the names of these artifices are given ; the one is, as we expected, Xenocrates, the other is Antigonus.

Antigonos is no longer a mere name. The brilliant essay in which Wilamowitz proved his identity with the Antigonos of Karystos ', author of a book of Marvels or 'laropiav irapaS6^a>v

' V. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, An- his review of Wilamowitz's book,

tigonos von Karystos, in Philologische Deutsche Lit.-Zeitung, 1882, p. 604

Untersuchungen, iv, Berlin, 1881 ; {cf. sisoY o\^, DeFontibus Plinianis

see Susemihl, Geschichte der Griechi- p. 24), and disputed by H. L. Urlichs,

schen Literatur in der Alexandriner Griechische Kunstschriftsteller, p. 34.

Zeit, i. p. sigff. I consider it super- Since then it has been accepted with-

fluous to discuss the question of iden- out reserve by Susemihl, and quite

tity. It was questioned by Diels in lately by Miinzer, of. cit. p. 52T ff.


xxxviii INTRODUCTION

mivayayft, and of certain Biographies of the Philosophers, from which Diogenes Laertios drew extensively ', has made almost familiar the artist who was likewise pupil of the philosopher Menedemos of Eretria, who contributed to the revival of Attic sculpture under Attalos and Eumenes of Pergamon, and was at the same time a versatile litterateur, equally at home in the poems of Euripides or Philoxenos and in the technical treatises of the painters. Scarcely a strong individuality, perhaps, but a highly finished type of his age in its wide culture and many-sided curiosities. In addition to the passages already referred to (xxxiv, 68 ; XXXV, 66-68), Antigonos is quoted by Pliny in the Indices of Books xxxiii and xxxiv as a writer de toreutice, and in xxxiv, 84 as one of the sculptors in the service of the Court of Pergamon. Diogenes mentions the sculptors Anaxagoras (ii, 45) and Demokritos (ix, 49) on his authority, and recounts (vii, 7, 187) of a namesake of the philosopher Chrysippos, the physician Chrysippos of Knidos, that he had invented concerning Zeus and Hera certain intolerable obscenities not described by the writers upon painting : ' they are found neither in Polemon, nor in Xenokrates, nor yet in Antigonos ".'

It further appears from the two following passages that, in his Lives of the Philosophers, Antigonos had allusions to the history and literature of art :

Diogenes ix, 11, 62 : Antigonos of Karystos says in his account of Pyrrhon that he began life in obscurity and poverty, and was at first a painter, and that a picture by him — of very moderate execution — representing torch-bearers, is in the Gymnasium of Elis '.

Diogenes iv, 3, 4 ; On the whole he (Polemon) was the sort of man described by Melanthios in his Book upon Painting, who says that a certain self-reliance and austerity should make itself felt in portraiture, precisely as in character '.

' The fragments of Diogenes re- on tip, ipx^v aSofos t ^v koX irivr/s

ferable to Antigonos will be found koI ^aripi.<por aii\faem r airov iv

conveniently put together by Wilamo- 'BXiSi iv t& yvpvaaiai XapL^naSiaTois

witz, op. cit. nfTfiws fxovTa^.

" Diog. vii, 7, 187: oiS\ napA roh ' Kai g^ais ^jv toiovtos oUv (p^ffi

irepl mva/aav yp&ipaai Karaicexwpia- Me\<ii/flios i (aypiipos iv tois wepi

lilvriv (sc. historiamy piin yip irapA ^aiypa^MTir <f>r,(Tl yap Setv aieddciav

lioXipavi p.i]Ti mpa BfvoKp&rei (Wi- nva xai aK\rip6r7,ra tot's ipyots im-

h.m. op. at. p. 8; K6pke,De AKdgoMo rplx^iv, dpolais Si xai (so Wilam.

Caig/stio, p. 25 note; the MSS. have p. 64; the MSS. have Si k&v) toTs

mp "t^l/mpara), aWi. p.riSi mp' 'Avti- ^S(atv. I am not able to apprehend

yovif) thai. the precise meaning which the words

' 'AvTiyovos 8e <pij<Tiv 6 Kapianos opoiws . . . TJOiaiv are intended to

Iv tS tiipt nippavos riSe ^(pl avrov, convey. The sense of the rest of the


ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xxxix

Lastly, the learned traveller and antiquary, Polemon of Ilion (contemporary of Ptolemaios V. Epiphanes, 202-131 B.C.), who wrote against Antigonos a controversial work in at least six books \ gives, in order to combat it, a verbatim quotation from Antigonos. The Polemonic fragment, which is of incomparable interest as affording an insight into the methods of these ancient controversialists, has found its way into the collection of Proverbs of the sophist Zenobios (age of Hadrian) ; it runs as follows : —

Zen. V. 82 : At Rhamnous is an image of Nemesis ten cubits high, made wholly of marble, the work of Pheidias, holding an apple branch in her hand. From this branch, according to Antigonos of Karystos, hangs a little tablet bearing the inscription ' Agorakritos the Parian made me. ' But this is no proof (ou Bavjiaarhv Sc), for many also have inscribed another's name upon their own works, a complacency which Pheidias probably showed to Agorakritos, whom he loved . . ."

These accredited fragments prove the varied experience of Antigonos in the province of art-history : we find him appealing to the testimony of inscriptions as carefully as his rival Polemon, whose industry in this respect won for him the nickname of o o-ri/XoKOTTaf ' ; he is ready to apply a phrase in a Treatise upon Portraiture to his characterization of a philosopher ; he had him- self written a statistical book upon pictures, containing minute descriptions of their subjects ' ; nor had he neglected to note the apocryphal tale which connected a certain mediocre picture at Elis with the name of the philosopher Pyrrhon.

The miscellaneous character of his information, and the

passage is finely indicated by Wilamo- Kciiiaews 'iSpvrm afaKua Se/ca-ntixv,

witz, p. 147 ; cf. also H. L. Urlichs, 6\6\i.6ov, epyov iaSiov, cx«' Si kv rfj

Griech. Kunstschrift. p. 18 ff. X"P^ ^tjXms k\6Sov. If o5 (p^aiv 'AvtC-

^ The work bore the title vfhi -yovos 6 Kaptio-Tios vrvxiiv ti luicpbv

^k&aiov KOI 'Avnyovov; of Adaios of ilripTij<reaiT^veTnypatl)fiviX'>"'f^1/opa-

Mitylene, who appears to have written xpno^ liapios k-nohjatv." oi BavimaTov

upon sculptors, Tripl dyaXimTonoiSiv S4- ical aKKoi yAp iroWoi inl tSiv

(Athenaios, xiii, 606 a), very little is oUiUav Ipyav irfpov knyeypd(paaiv

known, cf. Susemihl, i^S. «V. i, p. 518; oyo/to- i'mbs oZv ml tov ^eiBiav tS

forPolemon, seeSusemihlji, p. 665ff. ; 'AyopaicpiTai avy«ex<^priicevai, ^v yd.p

for the fragments of his treatise against airov ipii/ifvos, koX dWas iirTS-qTo irepl

Antigonos, Preller, PoUmonis ferie- T-A-ncuSiKi. It was first conjectured by

getae/ragmenta,Leipzig,iSiS,-p. 97ff.; Wilamowitz, 0/. cit. p. 13 f., that the

MuUer, P. H. G. iii, p. 132, fr. 56-69 ; whole passage goes back to Polemon ;

for the nature of the controversy, see the view has been accepted without

especially H. L. Urlichs, op. cit. reserve by H. L. Urlichs loc. cit. p_ 33 ff. ' Herodikos, af. Athen. vi, 234 d.

2 'Faiivovaia Neneais : iv "PanvovvTt ' Cf. Wilamowitz, op. cit. p. 8.


xl INTRODUCTION

varying trustworthiness of the quarters whence he obtained it, prove at once that Antigonos, unhke Xenokrates, belonged to the class of people who are curious of facts rather than critical of their significance.

Xenokrates had been guided in his selection of material by a strongly marked principle, whence the comparative ease in recovering and closing up the dissevered members of his treatise. The treatise of Antigonos on the other hand, with its looser method of synthesis, is more difficult to retrace. We cannot point to this or that fragment of the Plinian history as bearing his individual stamp. But we can distinguish certain elements in Pliny which go back to those general sources— art-historical, epigrammatic, anecdotic, &c. — whence we know Antigonos to have drawn, and, on examining these, we shall find the majority of cases to afford such strong proof of his handling that, failing contrary evidence, it will not be unfair to assume the remainder also to have come into Pliny through his medium.

From the fact that Antigonos incorporated the Treatise of Xeno- krates into his own work, and from his allusion in his life of Polemon (above, p. xxxviii) to a Treatise upon Portraiture by the pamter Melanthios, we may infer that it was he who introduced references to a number of artists as having also written upon their art. These are the bronze-worker Menaichmos (xxxiv, Index and § 80)', the painter Apelles (xxxv, Ind. and § 79, § in), Melanthios, AsklepiodorosandParrhasios {ib. Ind.),andEuphranor {ib. Ind. and § 128). Apelles as a writer upon art is fortunately more than a mere name. One trace of the work or works in which he expounded — presumably for the use of his pupils (cf. xxxv, § in) — the theories of his art has survived, as Robert justly points out', in § 107 in the words Asdepiodorus, quern in symmetria mirabatur Apelles, which at the close of § 80 had been rendered by Asdepiodoro de mensuris {cedebat Ap.). If the con- jecture be correct for Asklepiodoros it follows that Apelles's appreciation of Melanthios in the grouping of figures was also expressed in the same work. There, likewise, it must have been that he discussed the art of Protogenes (§ 80) and criticized his laborious finish. In fact, from the words quorum opera cum admi- raretih- omnibus conlaudatis, it is fair to assume that besides original theories the Apellian treatise contained criticisms — for the

^ He is otherwise unknown either p. 520, note i ; cf. Susemihl, i, p. 113, as artist or writer; see Miinzer, op. cit. note 2. '^ Arch. Mdrchen, p. 70.


ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS


xli


most part favourable — of contemporary artists '. The statement as to his own venustas, like the quod nianum de tabula scirei tollere, is the later concrete expression, practically thrown into proverbial formula, of the aims and theories expounded by Apelles as being those of himself and his school.

Antigonos, too, may be responsible for a few more Plinian passages which are faintly coloured by reminiscences of other technical treatises by artists, though these are not definitely alluded to. I have already indicated in the notes that in the words solusque hominum artem ipsam fecisse artis qpere {Polyclitus) iudicatur in xxxiv, 55, there appears to lurk an allusion to the book, the KaKcov ^, in which, as we learn more fully from Galenos, Polykleitos had laid down his theories on the proportions of the human body ' ; we have accordingly translated the passage ' he is the only man who is held to have embodied his theory of art in a work of art,' the work being the famous Spear-Bearer, which is here introduced, quite irrespectively of its first mention in § 55, as a separate work under its alternative name of the Canon '.


' Schubert, FleckeiserCs Jahrbb., Supplementband ix, p. 716, detects a reference to the work of Apelles in Pint. Dem. 22 icai iprjaiv 6 'AweWris ovTus eKTr\ay^vai Oeaffd/ievos rb epyov cuffTC Kot <paiv-^v kKXiTTiLv avT6v. dipk S^ fiireiVj fieya^ 5 novos /fat Oavfiaffrdv TO epyov, oil ^iijv ex^tv x*ipiTas, St' as ovpavov if/aiuetu ra vtt avrov ypatpS/ifva^

^ The passage was first so explained by Otto Jahn, Jihein. Mus. ix, 1854, P' 3'5 f- ('Das Kunstwerk war ein Inbegriff der Regeln der Sj'mmetrie, ein Compendinm derselben'), who argued that here ars = the theories of art, 11 compendium of the rules of art, by extension of the meaning common in the rhetors and gram- marians ; Cic. Brut. 1 2, 46 Aristoteles ait . . . artem et praecepta Siculos Cor- acem et Tisiam conscripsisse. 12, 48, similiter Isocratem . . . orationes aliis destitisse scribere, totumque se ad artis componendas transtulisse. Cf. Quinct. X. I, 15 (where see Spalding's note); Servius on Aen. vii, 787, legitur in arte. The Greek t^x"^ ^^s commonly used in the same manner, Life of


Ten Orators, Isokrates, ii, p. 838 ( = Bernardakis, v, p. 164), flat S' ot xal Te-^yas avrhv (sc. Isocr.') \eyovaiavyye- ypcupivai. At a later period Jahn abandoned his earlier opinion and saw a latent epigram in the words solus hominum . . . iudicatur i^Kunst- urtheile, p. 120); he is followed by MUnzer, op. cit. 530, note i.

' The few extant fragments of this incomparably interesting work, in which Polykleitos reveals himself as an ancient Leonardo or Albrecht DUrer, have been carefully collected and commented on by H. L. Urlichs, Griechiscke Kunstschriftsteller, p. i ff. See also Diels, in Arch. Anz., 1889, p. 10.

  • It is quite possible that Antigonos,

who had added to the Xenokratic mention of Doryphoros and Dia- dumenos the epigrammatic description which placed the two statues in pointed relation to one another (above, p. xxxvi), now introduced from his acquaintance with the literature of art a second account of the statue in its relation, not to the other works


xlii- INTRODUCTION

If the proposed interpretation of the words artem ipsamfecisse artis opere iudicatur be correct, it follows that we have traces in XXXV, 74 of another such compendium of art by the painter Timanthes : pinxit et heroa absolufissimi operis artem ipsam com- plexus viros pingendi ; i. e., like the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, the ' hero ' of Timanthes was to serve as a ' Canon,' as the embodi- ment of theories which had been expounded in an ars or re'x"";.

Finally in § 76 it is said of Pamphilos that he was especially learned in arithmetic and geometry, without which sciences, he used to declare, art could make no progress. H. L. Urlichs ^ has pointed out that these words are distinguished from the ordinary floating apothegm by a precise character such as we should expect from an opinion recorded in a written Treatise ; and indeed an opinion emanating doubtless from the whole artistic personality of Pamphilos could nowhere have been preserved intact so well as in a technical treatise, written, like the work of Apelles, for the guidance of his pupils.

The Zenobian gloss showed that Antigonos had maintained the Agorakritan authorship of the Nemesis at Rhamnous on the ground of the inscription, — an argument against which Polemon, supporting the current attribution to pheidias, retorts that Phei- dias had doubtless permitted his own work to be inscribed with the name of the pupil he loved. Now, since Pliny ascribed the Nemesis quite simply to Agorakritos, without any reference to its attribution to Pheidias by other authorities, or to the Pole- monic compromise, there can be little doubt that his ultimate source was Antigonos. Pliny gives the statement, however, in close connexion with the story of a competition between Agora-

of the master, bnt to his theories. effected by the Greek authors. It is

This second mention, made with no possible, of course, though scarcely

precise reference to the first, was after- probable, that a Greek writer had

wards understood by the Roman an- already been guilty of assuming the

thors to concern a distinct work. In canon and doryphorus to be separate

the commentary I have given Furt- works.

wangler's explanation that the Canon ^ Op. cit. p. 1 4 ff., where it is shown

appears in Pliny as a separate work that the Pamphilos who wrote a work

to the doryphorus, owing to the intro- TUfii ypa<piicijs xal iarfp&<pav (vS6(av

duction of a fresh authority at the is a distinct person to the painter,

words /((ii et quern. I would differ and is presumably identical with the

only in so far that, while F. supposes Alexandrian grammarian, first century

Pliny to have been the first to combine B. c. ; see Urlichs, Rhein. Mas. xvi,

the two notices, my own opinion is 1861, pp. 247-258, and Susemihl, i,

that the combination was already p. 903 f.


ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xliii

kritos and Alkamenes, and this again follows in natural sequence upon the mention of these artists in their common relation, as pupils, to Pheidias. The various episodes are so indis- solubly linked^ that the passage as a whole must be referred to Antigonos. Indeed, that he is Pliny's ultimate authority for the information concerning Agorakritos is confirmed by the closing attribution (§ i8, s.f.) to Agorakritos of the 'Mother of the Gods ' at Athens : another vindication for that artist — doubt- less, this time also, on the evidence of the inscription — of a work popularly ascribed to 'P]:\Q\6.ias{Schriffgu. 83 1-833), of which popular ascription Polemon, whose version is represented in Pausanias, would not be slow to avail himself. It is noteworthy that by retailing, though quite generally and in no relation to any one work, the scandal about Pheidias and Agorakritos {eiusdem — sc. Phidiae — discipulus fuit Ag. Parius et aetate grains, Hague e suis operibus pkraque nomini eius donasse fertur) Antigonos may have supplied to Polemon, as Miinzer acutely suggests (pp. cit. p. 522), the weapon wherewith to combat the Agorakritan authorship of the Nemesis ^-

We have seen how the Xenokratic accounts of the beginning of painting in encaustic (xxxv, 121; see above, p. xxxii) and of the beginning of statuary (xxxvij 9 ; above, p. xxv f.) were combined by a later writer, surmised to be Antigonos, with variant tradi- tions that proclaimed the priority of invention of the island-schools over the schools of the mainland. The theory that these combi- nations or contrasts of traditions were effected at an early date by Antigonos is now confirmed by the fact that in both cases appeal is made to the testimony of inscriptions in xxxv, 121; the iveKQcv in an artist's signature is quoted in proof of the antiquity of encaustic, while in xxxvi, 11- 13, the genealogy of the Chian sculptors ' Melas,' Mikkiades, and Archermos, and the

' See on this point Fnrtwangler, me, since I wrote the above, that

Plinius u. s. Quellen, p. 72, who how- Antigonos drew from Duris the main

ever does not trace the passage further part, if not the whole, of his account of

back than Vano. That Varro was Alkamenes and Agorakritos : the stress

the intermediary source is obvious laid upon relations of pupilship,

bam.ih&^o'cA'i quod M. Varro otnni' the supposed competition (p. Ixiv),

bus signis praetulit ; to the account of the hint thrown out of a scandalous

the Nemesis which he found in his story (see below, p. Ix) — above all,

handbook he appended, according to the imaginative element in the tale

the wont of travellers, remarks of his of how the discomfited Agorakritos

own. turned his Aphrodite into a Nemesis —

' The impression has grown upon are so many Duridian traits. Addenda.


xliv


INTkODUCTION


mention of works by Boupalos and Athenis, sons of Archermos ', at Delos, and of works by Archermos at both Delos and Lesbos, are all based upon inscriptional evidence^ (Miinzer, o/.aV.p. 524 f.). Further, as Miinzer indicates {loc. at.), Antigonos went so far in the latter instance as to quarrel with his sources; he corrected the legend according to which Hipponax had driven Boupalos and Athenis to hang themselves in despair ' by adducing proofs


' The genealogy of Boupalos and Athenis is mentioned only once again in literature — in the Scholia to Ar. Birds, 574 ; "Apx^pfiov (MSB." Apxcv- vov) yap <pa<TL, t6v ^oviraXov koX 'AOrjviSos irarepa, ol 5k 'AyKao^uivra t6v ®6.(riov ^ayypcKpov, ttttiv^v epy&- aaaBai ttjv NiKrjVj d^s of nepi Kapvoriov rbv Hepyai^rjvov (paffi. There is much to commend Miinzer's suggestion {/oc. cii.) that Karystios of Pergamon (end of second century, MUller, Fragm. Hist. Graec. iv, p. 356) appears here by confusion for our Karystian Anti- gonos, sometime resident in Perga- mon. (The words oXZ\ . .. (ojypa<pov are in any case introduced from a source other than that cited for B. and A.) We should thus obtain im- portant confirmation of Antigonos's authorship of the Plinian passage.

^ The Zenobian gloss alone shows that Susemihl (i, p. 672) does Anti- gonos an injustice when he credits Polemon with the ' epoch-making ' idea of basing researches in the pro- vince of art-history and periegesis upon a study of inscriptions. In this connexion we may recall as illus- trative of the method employed by Antigonos, without on that account proposing to refer them definitely to him, the notices, derived from the in- scriptionson their bases, of the group of Alkibiades and ' Demarate ' of Niker- atos (xxxiv, 89), and of the trainer of athletes by Apollodoros («'^. 89) ; for the poftrait statue of Lysimache by Demetrius (zff. 76), see below, p. Ixxvi.

^ Repeated study of the passage xxxvi, 11-13, convinces me that Anti-


gonos borrowed from Duris of Samos the genealogy of the Chian sculptors and the whole story of Hipponax ; especially Duridian is the adjustment to a new set of personages of the story of Archilochos and Lycambes (see Comm.). I am glad to receive on this point confirmation from Miinzer, who (in a private letter) explains Antigonos as having corrected Duris somewhat as follows : ' It is true that the Chians were already practising the art of sculpture (i.e. at the time when, according to the Xenokratic theory, the Daidalids were inventing sta- tuary), but it is not true that the verses of Hipponax (as probably maintained by Duris) drove Boupalos and Athenis to death, for works by these artists exist which were created after the portrait of the poet, as, for example, the Delian statue bearing the inscription noK vitibus tantum, &e.' Moreover, in another note, the gist of which he also allows me to publish, Miinzer obsei-ves that Antigonos seems likewise to have borrowed from Duris that notice of the existence of paintings in encaustic older than Aristeides which he con- fronted with the Xenocratic account : 'The appeal to the signature of the otherwise totally unknown Elasippos would be characteristic of Duris (cf. below, p. liii). Equally unknown are Nikanor and Mnasilaos, and it is not clear whether the ethnic Fariorum applies also to Polygnotos, and whether this Polygnotos should ac- cordingly be distinguished from the celebrated Thasian artist.' In the


ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xlv

to the contrary, again borrowed from inscriptions : quod fahuin est, complura enim in finiiimis insulis simulacra posiea fecere sicut tn Delo quibus subiecerunt carmen non vitibus tantum censeri Chion sed et operibus Archer 7ni filiorum.

It is reasonable to suppose that Antigonos, who diligently studied the inscriptions carved on the actual monuments, did not neglect so fruitful a source as the literary epigram. He is almost certainly to be credited, as we have seen (p. xxxvi), with the epigrammatic qualification attached to the Xenokratic mention of the Diadumenos and the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, while the ascertained fragments of his writings display a wide-ranging familiarity, not only with the greater poets, but also with the poetasters and epigrammatists of his day ^ Since, however, the actual extent of his responsibility for the epigrammatic element in Pliny cannot be precisely determined, it will be best to reserve for separate consideration (p. Ixviii) material which plays a con- siderable part in the Plinian descriptions of works of art.

The Lives of the Philosophers reveal Antigonos as a lover of personal anecdote and characteristic bans mots ^- Hence we are naturally disposed to credit him with the anecdotic material which forms so large a bulk of the Plinian narrative, and, as a fact, there are frequent proofs of its passage through his hands. The preservation, however, in the case of one highly distinctive anecdote, of the name of Duris of Samos (xxxiv, 6i) enables us to penetrate further — to the very source whence Antigonos drew the larger part of his anecdotes '-

text I have adopted the reading stress on the learning of Antigonos,

Mnasilai as beyond dispute, but in searching for traces of his art-

MUnzer provides me with a satis- treatise in Pliny ; he accordingly in-

factory proof that the Arcesilai of clines to trace back to him certain

the inferior codices is impossible; passages which evince literary interest :

were this reading correct, we should c. g. the allusions to the ' Banquet '

expect to find that Antigonos in his of Xenophon (xxxiv, 79) and to his

biography of the Akademic Arke- Treatise on Horsemanship (ib. 76). silaos had mentioned this namesake See on this point Wilamowitz,

of the philosopher (Antig. Kar. ap. Antigonos, p. 33. Diog. Laert. iv, 45 ; cf. Wilamowitz, ' That Antigonos drew from Duris

p. 70 ff.) ; but he only notes the for his Treatise upon art, and was

sculptor Arkesilaos of Paros on the thus the ' first intermediary ' through

evidence of an epigram of Semonides. which Duridian material found its

' Miinzer, of. cit. p. 529. Miinzer, way into Pliny, was first suggested

I may note here, lays considerable by Susemihl, i, note 325, p. 58S.


xlvi INTRODUCTION


3. Duris of Samos {born about 340 b. c.) / the anecdotic element in Pliny.

Duris, historian and tyrant of Samos, is one of the most striking figures among those older Greek writers whom German scholar- ship — the researches of Roesiger' and Schubert^, the brilliant sketch by Wachsmuth , call for grateful mention — has succeeded in calling back to a new life. The facts we know about his career are few, but the scanty fragments ' of his writings suffice to prove the strength of his literary personality. Together with his brother Lynkeus he had been a pupil of Theophrastos °, and, like the later Peripatetics, he became a curious inquirer into personal anecdote, which he freely used for purposes of history. His imagination was stimulated by his studies of the tragedians ° till he developed into an accomplished master of dramatic anecdote, where heroes and heroines, dressed in appropriate costume, play on a stage whose properties seem inexhaustible. It is to Duris that Plu- tarch owes some of his most picturesque descriptions — such as the gorgeous pageantry of the return of Alkibiades, and the picture of the admiral's galley entering the harbour with purple sails ' as if some maske had come into a man's house after some great banquet made .' Yet Plutarch more than once casts severe doubts on the historical trustworthiness of Duris *, and the censure has been confirmed by Grote ".

From Diogenes, who mentions a painter Thales on the authority of Duris (Diog. i, i, 39 = Duris fragm. 78), we learn that he wrote Lives of the Painters (Trepl fmypd^mi/), and, as we shall

' A. F. Roesiger: (i) De Duride ^ Curt Wachsmuth, Einleitung in

Samio Diodori Siculi et Plutarchi das Studium der alten GeschUhte,

aiictore Diss., Gottingen, 1874; (2) Leipzig, 1895, pp. 543-546; see also

Die Bedeutung der Tyche bei den Susemihl, 1, p. 585 ff.

spdteren Criechischen Historikern, * To the collected fragments in

Konstanz, 1880. For Duris, see espe- Miiller, K H. G. ii, pp. 466-468, must

cially p. 20 f. be added the new fragments noted by

" Rudolf Schubert : (i) Die Quellen Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 12.

Plutarchs in d. Lebensheschreibungen * Athen. iv 128 a.

' des Eumenes, Demetrios und Pyrrhos, ' Fr. 69, Fr. 70, and the remarks

inSupplementbandixoftheya;4>-i5«V/5^r of Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 15.

fur Philologie, pp. 648-833 ; (2) Ge- ' Akib. xxxii, tr. North, ed. Wynd-

schichte des Agathokes ,^\&A3.\i,i%%,i ,f. ham, ii, p. 133.

I3fr. ; and (3) Geschichte des Pyrrhus, « Pint. loc. cit. ; Perikl. 28, &c.

Konigsberg, 1894, pp. 11-24, give » In reference to the story of

a full and vivid account of Duris. Alkibiades' return, Hist, vi, p. 368.


DUmS OF SAMOS xlvii

presently see (cf. p. xlix), that he also wrote Lives of the Sculptors. Pliny mentions him in the Index to Book XXXIV as having written de toreutice. In the same book (§ 6i) he appears as the authority for the statement that Lysippos of Sikyon had no master, but that he was originally a coppersmith and ventured upon a higher profession at a word of the painter Eupompos, who in presence of the young craftsman had enounced the dictum that ' nature and not any artist should be imitated.' The story will repay careful analysis. The meeting between the young Lysippos and Eupompos, though not chronologically impossible, belongs to a class of anecdote devised in order to bring the celebrity of one generation into pointed contact with the rising genius of the next. The story of Lysippos and Eupompos reminds one of nothing so much as of those legends invented by the Italian art-historians, on a hint afforded by two famous lines in Dante ', in order to bring the young Giotto into connexion with Cimabue — legends which represent Giotto neglecting his clothmaker's trade to watch Cimabue at his work, or Cimabue opportunely passing along the road ' da Fiorenza a Vespignano ^ ' precisely at the moment that the boy Giotto, while tending his flock, had drawn a sheep with such surprising fidelity that the delighted Cimabue begged Giotto's father to let him have the boy as pupil. But antiquity was rich in similar examples ; the young Thukydides was said to have burst into tears of emotion on hearing Herodotos recite his History at Olympia, so that the elder historian was moved to congratulate the father of so gifted a son'. The undoubted pupilship of Xenophon to Sokrates was invested, by the later biographers of the philosophers, with the additional interest of that first meeting ' in a narrow lane ' where Sokrates, barring the way with his stick, had refused to let the young man pass till he should have answered the question ' where men were made good and virtuous *.' So, too, an exquisite legend had been spun to connect

' Purgat. Tii, ^^-^6 : Geschichtsforschiing, Bd.'x, pp. 244ff.).

' Credette Cimabue nella pittura ' Vasari ed. Milanesi, p. 3 70.

Tener lo campo, ed ora ha Giotto ^ Souidas, s. v. Thuc.

il grido * Diog. Laert. ii, 6, 2 ; the analogy

Si che la fama di colui oscura.' to the Lysippos-Eupompos story is

The entirely apocryphal character of pointed out by H. L. Urlichs, Griech-

the Cimabue-Giotto legend has been ische Kuntschriftsteller, p. 27. For

thoroughly exhibited by Franz Wick- further instances of such relation-

hoff, Ueber die Zeit des Guido von ships cf. Diels, Rhein. Mus. xxxi,

Sima (Mitth. des Inst. f. Oesterr. p. I3ff.


xlviii INTRODUCTION

the greatest of the Sokratic disciples with the master already from the hour of birth : not only was Plato born the day after one of Sokrates' birthdays, but on the eve Sokrates had dreamed of a swan flying from the altar of Eros in the Academy, to take refuge in his bosom, and lo ! as the philosopher was recounting the vision Ariston brought in the new-born babe, in whom Sokrates at once divined the swan of his dream '. In the case of Eupompos and Lysippos there was no pupilship to emphasize, nor could pupilship be invented, since they practised different arts; yet there remained the temptation to link the most brilliant of the Sikyonian statuaries, the chosen portraitist of Alexander, to the celebrity of the passing generation, that greatest of Sikyonian painters, whose fame had occasioned, in order to comprise him, a redivision of the schools (xxxv, 75).

The statement that Lysippos had no master arose in great measure, I take it, out of the good advice put into the mouth of Eupompos ' to imitate nature and not any artist ' — advice which amounted to an aphorism expressing the naturalistic tendencies of the Lysippian school. But from saying that Lysippos followed nature and no special master it was but a step to concluding that he never had a master at all. Then, once the master's name suppressed or forgotten, legend and the art-historians might fill up the gap as they pleased, and the theory of self-taught genius was the readiest to hand. But here was an opportunity for further elaboration : the self-taught boy, the poor coppersmith, is destined to become the leading artist of Sikyon, at that time the acknowledged head of the Greek schools. Not only so, but he achieves great wealth, as we learn from another Duridian fragment preserved in Pliny (xxxiv, 37), but now separated from its original context". So that the information as to the early career of Lysippos, which has been accepted with the utmost gravity by archaeologists and historians of art, is found to resolve itself into three apocryphal stories : (i) the autodidaktia assumed to account for the artist's master being unknown; (2) the meeting with Eupompos, intended to bring into presence Sikyon's greatest painter and her greatest sculptor ; (3) the rise from obscurity to fame and riches. Armed with these observations, we shall have

1 Apuleius, de Platone I. understand on what grounds it is

2 The authorship of Duris for this doubted by Snsemihl, i, p. 587, note passage had been pointed out by 325. (See also Munzer, op. cit. Brieger, De Fontibus, p. 61 ; I cannot p. 542.)


DURIS OF SAMOS xlix

no difficulty in detecting the Duridian authorship of a number of other anecdotes preserved in Pliny. We can at once follow Miinzer ' in attributing to him the story which tells how Proto- genes, whose master, like that of Lysippos, was unknown {quis eum docuerit non putant constare, § loi), began his career in abject poverty [summa paupertas) as a ship-painter, yet lived to decorate the most celebrated spot in the world, even the Gateway of the Athenian Akropolis; the story of Erigonos (xxxv, 145), the slave who rubbed in the colours for the painter Nealkes, who yet lived to be a great master himself, and to leave in Pasias a pupil of distinction; further, the kindred story of how the sculptor Seilanion (xxxiv, 51)^ became famous nulla doctore, and yet, like Erigonos, formed a pupil of his own, Zeuxiades. The kinship of the whole group is self-evident, and even if the name of Duris in xxxiv, 6 1 were not there to reveal the author we should be led to fix upon him, because of the precise parallelism of these stories to that recounted by Plutarch, on the authority of Duris, of how, through the unexpected favour of Philip, Eumenes of Kardia rose from being the son of a poor carrier, who earned a scanty living in the Chersonese, to wealth and position'. Such anecdotes seem in measure prompted by the desire to illustrate the changes of Fortune, of that Tu;^)) whose caprices were so favourite a theme of the Peripatetics *-

Duris was the author of yet one more anecdote of an artist's rise from obscurity to fame, which has been preserved in two scattered fragments in Pliny and in Diogenes. In Plin. xxxvi, 2 2 we read : non postferuntur et Charites in propylo Atheniensium

^ Op. cit. p. 534. Kioiv Kal traXaiff^Ta TToiBuy, kv o7s

' The Duridian authorship is de- eirjiiepfiffavTa rhv Ei/ievr] Kal (pavivra

tected by H. L. Urlichs, op. cit. p. 28. avvtrov Koi avdpeiov dpeffai tw ^iXiTTirtu

The notice of Seilanion appears in Kal dva}^7f(p67jvai. The analogy is

the chronological table, awkwardly pointed out by Miinzer, 0/. «V. p. 534,

tacked on to the artists of the 1 13th who also refers to Duris all the stories

Olympiad, where it is evidently out of discussed above of artists rising to

place; Add. to Comm. on xxxiv, 51, 1. fame from humble beginnings. The

' Plut. £am. I Eiiihri &i t&v Duridian authorship had become evi-

KapSmvof laropft Aovpts Trarplis /ttv dent to me since analysing the anec-

apia^ivovTos ev Xeppovrjaai SicL ucviav dotic material in Pliny in the light of

yfviaSat, Tpacj)rjvai Si (KevSepias (v the hints thrown oat by H. L. Urliclis,

ypdfifiafft Kal irtpl traKaiffTpav en 5e op. cit. p. 21 ff. Addenda. ■naibbs ovTos avrov ^'iMirirov irapemSTj- * See especially Roesiger, Bedeut-

fiovvTa Kal axoKrjv ayovra tA, tSiv ung der Tyche, passim. Susemihl, i,

KapSiavwy BiaaaaSai irayKpaTM fieipa- p. 592.


1 INTRODUCTION

quas Socrates fecit, alius ille quam pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. In his Life of Sokrates, Diogenes (ii, 5, 4) has the story on the authority of Duris that a Sokrates had begun life in slavery, and as a stone mason '- Now, although Diogenes appUes this story to the philosopher, there is nothing in the fragment as it stands to show that Duris had this Sokrates in his mind. Indeed, since nothing is known of the slavery of the philosopher, there is every reason to suppose that Duris was speaking of the sculptor, and was recounting of him the same tale of modest beginnings as in the cases of Lysippos, of Protogenes, and of Erigonos. Like Erigonos he had been a slave, and in this capacity had practised an inferior branch of the art in which he was afterwards to excel. Like Protogenes, moreover, this man rose from the humblest circumstances to see his works — the famous Charites — in propylo Atheniensium ! Further, the peculiar use in both passages of propylon for the gateway of the Akropolis, instead of the invariable propylaion or propyiaia, affords satisfactory corroborative evidence of their common origin'. We get an interesting trace of the story's passage through the hands of Antigonos in the words alius ille quam pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. The identity of

' Diog. Laeit. ii, 5, 4 AoC/iis koX nothing abont it), it was inevitable

hovKtvaai airuv (XmicpaTq) koX epya- that it should arise in face of the

aatrOat \l6ovs. The statement which said Charites by a namesake, com-

immediately follows, concerning the bined with the fact that the father of

Charites on the Akropolis, which Sokrates, Sophroniskos, was a scnlp-

some said (Ji/ioi ipaaiv) to be by tor. That the contaminatio of philo-

Sokrates, does not concern us ; H, L. sopher and sculptor occurred at an

Urlichs ( Griechische Kunsischriftst. early period is proved by some Attic

p. 43) is certainly right in referring coins of Hellenic date bearing the

it to another source than Duris. name of an official Sokrates who, in

'^ Duris was quite capable of in- evident allusion to his famous name- venting the story had it suited him ; sake, had the group of the Charites but in the first place there is nothing from the Akropolis stamped on the to show that he wrote concerning the Reverse. (See Furtwangler, ap. philosophic Sokrates or any philoso- Roscher, i, p. 881.) The celebrity phers ; in the second, it is odd that so of the relief, owing to the supposed striking a circumstance as that of the authorship of Sokrates, accounts for its philosopher's slavery, once invented, numerous copies. See note on xxxvi, should not have found its way to any 32, and Furtwangler, Statuenkopien authors besides Diogenes.— As to the im Alterthum, p. 532 f. (where the l«gend that the philosopher had been writer modifies his earlier view as to the sculptor of the Charites (Paus. i, the date of the extant Charites reliefs). 2 3, 8; ix, 35, 3; Schol. Aristoph. = Wachsmuth, .Sto/i ^M^k, i, p. 36, vK^iKai, 773 ; Souidas, s. v. Sokrates : note 2 ; cf. also B. Keil in Hermes, Pliny, it should be noted, knows xxx, 1895, p. 227.


DURIS OF SAMOS li

Sokrates the sculptor with the painter of the same name was maintained against a previous writer who had disputed it. The nature of the controversy recalls at once Antigonos and his hostile critic Polemon\ (See Addenda.)

We have seen that one factor in these stories is the desire to account for the absence of any record concerning the masters of certain celebrated artists. We may therefore suspect that a second little group of Plinian anecdotes of sculptors who were ifiMo pictores and who exchanged painting for sculpture may be traced back to the same workings ". The case of Pheidias (xxxv, 52) is specially deserving of analysis. The ambiguous character of the information concerning the painted shield, upon which his reputation as a painter rests, has been detected by H. L. Urlichs (see Commentary). We may now carry the argument further and recognize in the statement that Pheidias was initio pictor an attempt to solve a problem which greatly exercised the ancient art-historian, namely the problem who was the real master of Pheidias.

Three answers to this question may be distinguished in ancient criticism. According to one tradition, Pheidias had, like Myron and Polykleitos, been the pupil of Hagelaidas of Argos ', a view which has long been shown — by Klein *, Robert, and others — to be improbable, if not as impossible as it apparently is in the case of Polykleitos '. The tradition has all the apocryphal air of those stories, common to all times and countries, which group great names together without regard to temporal probabilities'. In certain circles, however, the real fact, as recent morphological study reveals it ', that Pheidias was the pupil of Hegias, had

'So H. L. Urlichs, Gr. Kunst- sound criticism requires us rather to

schriftsteller, p. 43. lay it aside, if not absolutely to reject

^ Cf. Miinzer, of. cit. p. 533. it. The chronological difficulties have

' Schol. to Aristoph., Frogs, 504, been hinted at above. Moreover, by

whence the information was copied exhibiting Hagelaidas as the master

by Tzetzes and Souidas. of the three most representative artists

  • Klein, Arch. -Ef. Mitth. aus of the fifth century, the tradition be-

Oesterreich, vii, p. 64 ; cf. Robert, trays that tendency which is, to quote

Arch. Mdrchen, p. 93 f. ; Furtwangler, a modern writer, ' so easily explained

pieces, p. 53. pyschologically, but so fatal to criti-


° Robert, /. c. cism, of making one great name stand

" Lately Ernest Gardner, ^a«rt^&a/J for a whole epoch or style.' (Bemhard

of Greek Sculpt, i, p. 193, has at- Berenson, Lorenzo Lotto, an Essay in

tempted, by straining the dates to the Constructive Criticism, p. 26.) Add. utmost, to defend the tradition for all ' Furtwangler, loc. cit. The Hegias

three sculptors. Failing, however, tradition is preserved by Dio Chryso-

suflicient evidence for its truth, a stom. Or. Iv, ircpi 'O/^. «aj "Zaxp. i.

da


Hi INTRODUCTION

either remained unforgotten or, as is more probable, had been recovered from the monuments. Neither tradition, however, can have been widely current, for had it been generally reported that Pheidias was the pupil of either artist some mention of the fact, or at least some argument disputing it, would surely have filtered into Pliny, who mentions Hegias twice (xxxiv, 49, 78) and Hagelaidas three times {ib. 49, 55, 57), noting, moreover, that the latter artist was the master of Myron and of Polykleitos. The Plinian authors were on a totally different track, and their solution of the problem reveals the existence of a third class of critics, who, ignorant of the Hagelaidas and Hegias theories, filled up the gap in tradition by declaring that the early training of Pheidias was that of a painter. To this theory some writer of the stamp of Duris would give more point by the opportune discovery of a shield reputed to be painted by Pheidias, though, strange to say, unable to fix the whereabouts of so weighty a piece of evidence more precisely than by saying it kad been at Athens.

But if Duris of Samos is to be held responsible for the story that Pheidias had begun life as a painter it follows that we must likewise trace back to him the similar story concerning Pythagoras of Samos, and hence the whole ridiculous splitting into two of an artist who happened to sign sometimes 2a/jios from the home of his birth, sometimes 'Vrj-ftvos from that of his adoption (see Comm.). UvBayopas 'S.diJ.ios would have a triple interest for Duris : as a native of Samos ; as a namesake of the philosopher Pythagoras, also a Samian celebrity, whom Duris had mentioned in his second Book of the History of Samos (fr. 56) ; and as a famous portraitist of athletes, for Duris, who had himself as a boy won a victory at Olympia (Paus. vi, 13, 5 '), appears in later life to have written a book on athletic games, wEpi aywvwv ^, the material for which he would doubtless derive in great measure from the inscriptions on the bases of the athlete statues. It was perhaps thus that, coming upon the alternative ethnic of Pythagoras, he jumped at the con- clusion that there were two artists of the name. Then, having discovered a Tlvdayopas ^dfnos, it became necessary to find out his master. Klearchos — himself a Rhegine— must be left for Pytha- goras of Rhegion (Paus. vi, 4, 3), and so Duris, instead of involving

' See the reading proposed by passage seems entirely erroneous. Susemihl, i, p. 586, note 323. Schu- ' SusemiM, i, p. 5875.

bart's emendation of the corrupt


DURIS OF SAMOS liii

himself in false school genealogies, simply filled up the gap by declaring the Samian Pythagoras to have, like Pheidias, begun life as a painter. Finally, since a sentimental harping upon family relationships has been acutely detected by Miinzer {op. cit. P- 533) ^s a characteristic of Duridian anecdotes, we may trace back to Duris the mention of Sostratos, the pupil and nephew — filius sororis — of Pythagoras of Rhegion. I have noted in the Commentary that there is nothing to lead us to identify this Sostratos with any of the other sculptors of the name, and Duris was nothing loth to provide his heroes with pupils, with children or other near relations, of whom history has otherwise no record. So the Arimnestos (Duris, fr. 56), son of the philosopher Pythagoras, and himself master of the philosopher Demokritos, appears a pure creation of Duris, as, for the rest, do the pupils of Seilanion and of Erigonos.

The whole group of stories we have been considering were precisely of the kind to attract Antigonos of Karystos, who in his Life of Pyrrhon (above, p. xxxviii) had especially noted the poverty and obscurity of the philosopher's early days, adding that he had begun as a painter ^ In the case of Pythagoras there is a further interesting little proof that the story was handled by Antigonos. The words in § 61, hie {Pyth. Samius) supra dido {Pyth. Rhegino) facie guogue indiscreta similis fuisse traditur, contain a sharp criticism, which has amusingly escaped Pliny and before him Varro, upon the statement that the Rhegine and Samian Pytha- goras were different persons. The fact of the criticism turning upon a question of identity of artists, no less than the manner in which the criticism is passed, at once betray Polemon of Ilion, the indefatigable assailant of Antigonos, whose error, as regards Pythagoras, Polemon now corrects. 'Your second Pythagoras, my friend Antigonos,' wrote the amused Polemon, 'looks to me suspiciously like your first '.' ' Polemon's whole book was merely the comprehensive criticism, the improvement and en- largement of that of Antigonos' (Miinzer, op. cit. p. 526), and it was characteristic of its controversial parts, as H. L. Urlichs was

  • The analogy between the anec- steller, p. 39 ff., but I owe it to Prof,

dotes is pointed out by Miinzer, op. W. Klein to have explained to me,

cit. p. 533. as I believe correctly, the whole

^ Polemon's authorship of the criti- satirical force of the words hie supra

cism was rightly detected by H. L. dicto, &c. . . . Urlichs, Griechische Kunstschrift-


liv INTRODUCTION

the first correctly to apprehend, that, while Antigonos had inclined to multiply names and attributions, Polemon on the contrary wished to reduce them \ He was wrong in the case of the Agorakritan Nemesis ; in that of Pythagoras of Samos and Rhegion he was — as it happens — quite right.

Having thus detected in Pliny a number of anecdotes betraying the Peripatetic, and more especially Duridian, delight in dwelling upon unexpected turns of fortune or upon paradoxical changes of profession, we now turn to another class of story, intended primarily to give point to striking traits of character. In xxxiv, 71 it is recounted of the painter Parrhasios that he made an insolent use of his success, taking to himself the surname of the ' Lover of Luxury ' (li^poSiatros), boasting moreover of his descent from Apollo, and that he had painted Herakles even as the hero had appeared to him in a dream. Finally the artist's intolerable pride finds its highest expression in the insult flung at his rival Timanthes. The story recurs in an amplified form, though with the Apolline descent omitted, in Athenaios, who has the first part of it on the authority of the Peripatetic Klearchos of Soloi.

Athen. xii, p. 543 c ' : ' Among the ancients ostentation and extravagance were so great that the painter Parrhasios was clothed in purple and wore a. golden wreath upon his head, as Klearchos says in his Lives. Parrhasios,

' Zenobios, v, 82 (above, p. xxxix) ; the ' Mother of the Gods.'

with Athenagoras, UpeaPfia, 17 = The alternative account in Athe-

( = onr App. XI), of. Pans. ii. 27, 2 ; uaios (xv, 687 b) should be compared

see also Pans, i, 24, 8 and the remarks (lack of space compels omission of

of Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 412, the Greek): —

on the artist of the Apollo Parnopios. • Though Parrhasios the painter

With the statement preserved in was vain beyond the measure of his

Pliny XXXV, 54, to the effect that the art, and had, as the saying goes, drunk

gold-ivory Athena at Elis was the deep of the cup of liberty that his

work of Kolotes, it is interesting to pencil gave, yet he had pretensions to

compare Pans, vi, 26, 3, where the virtue, writing on all his paintings at

words itvat fiiv Si) *ei5i'ou ipaalv airriv Lindos,

(i. e. the Eleian Athena) seem to " One who lived in luxury ... (djSpo-

imply, as Miinzer kindly points out Siairos)."

to me in an unpublished note, that But a wit, who was, I imagine, angry

the authorship of the statue was with him for defiling the delicacy and

a controverted point — in other words, beauty of virtue by diverting to vulgar

the phrase of Pausanias is the echo luxury the fortune given to him by

of a' Polemonic criticism such as chance, wrote at the side,

that surviving in the Zenobian gloss, " One worthy of the stick . . . (Ja0So-

and that which doubtless attached to Simros)."

the question of the authorship of In spite of all, however, he must be


DURIS OF SAMOS Iv

while arrogant beyond what his art warranted, yet laid claim to virtne, and would write on his paintings

One who lived in luxury {d0poSimTos) and honoured virtue painted this.

' And some person who was stung by the words wrote at the side : —

One worthy of the stick (/5ai8SoSiaiTos), &c.

' He further wrote these lines on many of his works : —

A man who lived in luxury and honoured virtue painted this, Parrhasios bom in famous Ephesos. Nor have I forgotten my father Evenor, who begat me as his lawful son, first in my art among all Greeks '-

' And he spoke a vaunt with no offence in the lines : —

Though they that hear believe not, I say this. For I aver that now have the clear limits of this art been discovered by my hand, and a bound is set that none may overpass. Yet is nothing faultless among mortals '.

' Once at Samos, when competing with his Aias against an inferior picture, he was defeated j and when his friends condoled with him he said that, for himself, he cared little, but he was grieved for Aias, who was worsted a second time.

' As signs of his luxurious living he wore a purple cloak and Iiad a white fillet upon his head, and leaned upon a staff with golden coils about it, and fastened the strings of his shoes with golden latchets.

' Nor was the practice of his art toilsome to him, but light, so that he would sing at his work, as Theophrastos in his treatise on Happiness tells us. And he uttered marvels when he was painting the Herakles at Lindos, saying that the god appeared to him in a dream and posed himself (rd. airov) as was fitting for the picture. Hence he wrote upon the painting : —

As many a time in nightly visits he appeared unto Parrhasios, such is he here to look upon ^'

Jahn has pointed out, in his discussion of the passage *, that Klearchos had only the story of the artist's effeminacy. That Athenaios derived the rest of his information concerning Parrhasios from another source is manifest from the clumsy repetition of the

pardoned, because he said that he tc'xitjs evpijaSai repimra rijaSe

loved virtue. This is the story of aa<prj

Klearchos. X*'/"^' "^' 4/«fep»)s' dvvircpBKrjTos

^ afipoSiaiTOS avrjp apniiv t( ai0a>y SI Treirrjycv

t65' eypaipa ovpos' &fi6jfj.rjTov S* ouSec eyevTO

Xlappcunos, ic\eivrjs irarpiSos e( fiporots.

'E<^6ffow. ^ Otos 8' iw^x^^^ tpavrd^cTO -noWaici

ov8i TTaTp6s \a06p.7]v Evrivopos, 5s (ponaiv

pa pt 6(pvff€ Ilappaaiq/ Bi' ijiryov, toTos o5

ypriaiov, 'EWrivav TrpSira tpipov- iarh dpav.

ra TEX""?'- ' Kleins Beitrdge 2. Geschichte d.

^ el KoX ainaTa xKvovai, \(fa T&ie alien Literatur (in Sdchsische Berichte

<^r)pi y&p ijdj) for 1857), p. 285, note i.


Ivi INTRODUCTION

epigram a^pobiairos avf]p, as also from the variant details respecting the artist's headgear — a gold crown in the first passage, a white fillet in the second. If we analyze the stories in Pliny and in Athenaios we obtain the following elements :

(i) The story of the artist's effeminacy and luxury, given in Athenaios, first on the authority of Klearchos, and repeated from an unnamed author; in Pliny it occurs combined with that of the artist's arrogance : fecundus artifex, sed quo nemo insolentius usus sit gloria artis habrodiaetum se appellando.

(2) The boast recorded both in Athenaios and Pliny that Herakles often appeared to the artist in dreams w^hile he was engaged upon the hero's picture.

(3) The story, given also by both writers, of the competition at Samos, and the insult to Timanthes.

(4) The story, preserved only in Pliny, of the artist's boasted descent from Apollo.

It is evident that these membra disieda must all have been found united in some older writer, from whom they found their way through different channels into Pliny and Athenaios re- spectively. Now Klearchos of Soloi was himself a pupil of Aristotle ' ; and, although Athenaios does not name his authority for the rest of the story, it is evident from its character, and from the mention moreover of Theophrastos for the parenthetical anecdote that Parrhasios was in the habit of singing at his work, that we are full among the Peripatetics. Therefore, as H. L. Urlichs has pointed out, the original authority must be a Peripatetic who had written upon the painters; in a word, it must be Duris of Samos ". This conjecture finds confirmation in the comments respectively made by Schubert ' and Miinzer * on the especial delight which Duris takes in describing details of dress (above, p. xlvi). It is significant that out of eighty-four fragments in Miiller no less than ten ^ are concerned with elabo- rate descriptions of costume. Parrhasios the effeminate, with his purple robe and his golden crown, is reminiscent of the effeminate Demetrios, with his yellow hair and painted face, of frag. 27; of the regal Demetrios, with the gold-embroidered robes and the hair-band shot with gold (/iiVpa ;i(/)uo-o'7ra(r7-or), of frag. 31.

' Athen. xv, p. 701 c. * Op. cit. p. 536.

^ Griechische KanstschriftsteUer, ■' Fr. 14, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29, 31, 47,

P- 25- 50, and 64. ' Pyrrhus, p. 15.


DURIS OF SAMOS Ivii

But Parrhasios was not the only painter who delighted in gorgeous apparel. According to Pliny (xxxv, 62), his rival Zeuxis carried the same taste so far as to make his appearance at Olympia displaying his own name woven in letters of gold into the em- broideries of his garments — aureis litteris in palliorum tesseris intextum nomen — a detail which recalls the description of the chlamys of Demetrios, into which was inwoven the vault of heaven with its golden stars and twelve signs of the zodiac ^ Robert ^ had already pointed out that the similarity of the stories narrated by Athenaios of the costume of Parrhasios, and by Pliny of that of Zeuxis, showed them to be derived from the same author. Since in the case of Parrhasios this author was Duris of Samos, it follows that it is to him also we must refer the Plinian anecdote of the luxury of Zeuxis ^.

A word remains to be said about the epigrams out of which the stories concerning Parrhasios are in great measure elaborated. It was the opinion of Jahn that all the epigrams purporting to have been written by Parrhasios upon himself, and inscribed upon his pictures — with the exception perhaps of the one celebrating the nocturnal apparitions of Herakles — were apocry- phal *- Jahn included in the same category the self-laudatory epigrams placed in the mouth of the painter Apollodoros by one Nikomachos °, and the epigram which, according to the orator Aristeides (Or. xlix, vol. ii, p. 521 Dindorf), had been elicited from Zeuxis in answer to the boasts of Parrhasios.

' Listen now,' writes Aristeides, ' to another swaggering painter,' and quotes the following epigram of Zeuxis :

' Herakleia my Fatherland, Zeuxis my name ; if any among men pretend to have attained the limits of my art, let him come forward and be proclaimed conqueror. . . . Yet methinlis that mine is not the second place °.'

^ Duris «/. Athen. xii, 535 f ( = fr- hung in front of pictures which he

31) ; al Si x^^A^^fs outou ^(roj" exhibited at Olympia (see Arch. Ep.

if^vivov ixovaai rb (peyyos rijs )(p6as, Mitth. aus Oeslerreich, xii, 1888, p.

TO i\ Ttav [verba suspecta, Keil] 1 06 f., and the article /Vir/«?-o in Smith's

TTcJ^os eviJ<))avTo -xpvaom dffrepas ex""' Du/. of Ant. vol. ii, p. 410).

KoX ToL SiiSeKa (wSia. Cf. Plut. De- * Kleine Beitrdge, p. 286 ff.

metrios, ^\. ° ApudYLs^aisXiointiplyiirpav koX

^ Arch. Mdrchen, p. 80. -noaiix. iv, 7 :

^ The remarks made above will OStos S^ aoi 6 KKftvbs &v' 'EWiSa

show sufficiently why I have thought irdaav 'AiroWS-

it unnecessary to refer either here or Soupos' yiyvdufftcets Tovvo/ja tovto

in the Comm. to the witty explanation aKvav.

of the pallia of Zeuxis as the curtains ' 'HpaK\na Trarpis, ZeCfis 8' broji'-


Iviii INTRODUCTION

These poetical criticisms, passed in similar vocabulary by three great contemporary painters upon their own or one another's achievements, seemed suspicious to Jahn. Bergk, however, saw no reason to dispute their authenticity', and in the case of Zeuxis at least it has lately been pointed out that his epigram has a parallel in the acrostic inscribed upon the grave of the rhetor and sophist Thrasymachos of Chalkedon, a younger contem- porary of Sokrates : ToiVo/ia e^ra 'P£ "AX^a %av 'Y Mu "AX^o Xci Oi Sax, I TTarph XoKKriSmv- ^ 8c rex"'] <TO<f>lr] (Athen. X, 454 {=Anih. App.

359)^- We may gather from the observation that Zeuxis stood;, as probably also Polykleitos, in close relation to the Sophists *. And the same is possibly true also of Parrhasios.

But to return to Duris. We have seen that those episodes of the Zeuxis-Parrhasios legends, designed to point the ethical qualities of the artists, might with certainty be referred to him. Now it has been finely discerned by Robert that the amiable Apelles and Protogenes are conceived as a pendant, so to speak, to the haughty and arrogant Zeuxis and Parrhasios, ' the faults of the older couple serving as a foil to the virtues of the younger. As a contrast to the productive and luxurious Parrhasios, we get Protogenes, struggling with the bitterest poverty, working with the most painstaking care, and accordingly producing but little : summa paupertas initio artisque summa intentio et ideo minor fer- tilitas. The portrait of Apelles is drawn with an even more loving hand; his simplicitas, which manifests itself in his un- grudging recognition of the superiority of masters who surpassed him in special points ; his comitas, to which he owed the intimacy of Alexander ; his benignitas displayed towards Protogenes — are dwelt upon with admiration, and instances are adduced in their support *.'

The intercoherence of the two sets of anecdotes is so patent

(1 Se Tis avlfSiv ^/icrepi;? rtx^n^ duces himself to the reader as : ifioX

TTCipara ip-qaiv ix^iv Sei^as viKcnai- 'AyaBias niv ovojm, Mvptva Si irarpU

SokSi Se, (ptjaiv, fiixas oixl tcL Sevrep' (VLeiivovios Si TtaTqp), Tcx^ij SI rd

cX""- 'PaiMiav vdiu/M ko! oi Tfiy Sixaarripianr

The resemblance to the second epi- aySii'es. See Reitzenstein, Hermes,

gram of Parrhasios, quoted by Athe- xxiv, 1894, p. 238.

naips, is striking. a Roijgrt, VoHvgemalde eines Apo-

1 ZyW«Cra««,ed.4,vol.ii,p.3i6f. baten,-p. 20; Diels, Deutsche Liter.-

■ Imitated as late as the second half Ztg. May 29, 1886, p. 784, and Arch.

of the sixth cent. A. D. by Agathias Anz. 18S9, p. 10.

(pp. 8, 18, ed. Niebuhr), who intro- » Arch. Mdrchen, p. 81.


DURIS OF SAMOS lix

as of itself to justify us in assuming Duris, to whom we owe the one set, to be the author also of the other. This assumption is confirmed when we look more clearly into the details.

Most of the anecdotes recounted of Apelles and Protogenes are intended, as Robert has already remarked, to give concrete expression, above all, to the moral qualities of the artists, and at times also to their technical excellencies. The famous story of the 'splitting of the line' (xxxv, 80-82), like that of the circle traced by Giotto in presence of the Pope's envoy', is merely a comment on the delicate draughtsmanship of Apelles. Proto- genes is made to split the line which Apelles divides once more, that the latter's superiority may be only the more triumphantly established by a great rival's acknowledged discomfiture. The setting of this particular anecdote moreover — the description of the studio with the solitary old woman (see Comm.) guarding in the master's absence the large easel with the panel ready to be worked upon — is specially Duridian in its picturesque detail.

The two proverbs attributed to Apelles, 'No day without a stroke ' (§ 84), and ' Cobbler, stick to thy last ' (§ 85), were intended to bring out his industry, and his respect for the opinion of others, though naturally only in so far as they speak of what they understand. The moralizing tone of the Peripatetic is heard in both the anecdotes elaborated out of the proverbs ; nor is it superfluous to note that Duris seems to have had a strong leaning to proverbial sayings, possibly actually to have collected them \

The anecdote recounted in §§ 85, 86 of Alexander the Great's visit to Apelles illustrates another of the artist's qualities, his comitas or amiability. The kindly snub administered by Apelles to the king is evidently apocryphal, belonging to that class of anecdotes which, as Freeman would say, ' go about the world with blanks for the names V for Ailianos (see Comm.) has it of Zeuxis and a Megabyzos or Priest of Kybele. The story of Pankaspe, which, on the other hand, is a comment on the monarch's generosity and self-control, is not only practically inseparable from the first, but Alexander's detection of his artist friend's trouble, and the magnanimous self-denial with which he gives up

' Vasari, ed. Milanesi, vol. i, p. id. 11,28; b. ^s^^VhA. Lysander, \%. 383. " Freeman, Methods of Historical

^ See fr. 49 = Zenob. v, 64; fr. 68= Study, p. 134.


Ix INTRODUCTION

to him the most beloved of his mistresses, bear an extraordinary resemblance to the tale recounted by Plutarch (Demetr. xxxviii) of how King Seleukos gave up his wife Stratonike to his sick son Antiochos, whose love to his step-mother had been discovered by the physician Erasistratos as the cause of the young man's disease. The Plutarchian story has been traced back to Duris ', whose partiality for erotic subjects, moreover, is abundantly proved by the extant fragments'*.

The story told in § 87 emphasizes the benignitas of Apelles towards all rivals, by singling out for our admiration his conduct in the case of Protogenes. The episode was evidently originally of a piece with the visit recounted in §§ 81, 82. To the story of the horses in § 95 we shall return later (p. Ixiv) ; it may, how- ever, be noted here that it shows the amiable and good-tempered artist losing patience, as in the case of the cobbler, with people pretending to know more about art than himself.

The Duridian character of the story of the rise of Protogenes from poverty to fame (§ loi) has already been noted in another connexion. His homely fare of soaked lupins gives point to his poverty and sobriety. The story in § 103, telling how the froth at the dog's mouth in the picture of 'lalysos' was rendered by a lucky accident, when all the artist's efforts had failed, is eminently Peripatetic and Duridian in its delighted insistence upon the miracle of chance {canis . . . quem pariter et casus pinxerit ; fecitque in pictura fortuna naturani) ^^ It is almost the anecdotic

' Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 21. xiii, p. 605 E), who not impossibly had

^ Cf. fragm. 2, 3, 19, 27, 35, 37, himself got it from Duris, the statue in

42,43,58,63. Thus he might possibly question having been at Samos. We

be responsible for the story of Pausias learn, moreover, from Athenaios (xiii,

and Glykera (xxxv, 125), and for the p. 606 A), on the authority of Adaios

anecdote recounted in xxxv, 140, of ofMitylene,thatitwasthework ofone

a Queen Stratonike, who may be Ktesikles (cf. Brunn, K. G. i, p. 424) :

identical with the Stratonike men- he is otherwise unknown, and the

tioned above. Perhaps too he had name happens to be identical with

the stories of the lovers of the Knidian that of the painter of ' Stratonike and

Aphrodite (xxxvi, 2i) and of the Eros the Fisherman.'

at Parion (ib. § 22) ; the stories, it is ' The similar story recounted of

true, were derived by Pliny from Nealkes (xxxv, 104) is probably a

Mucianus (p. xc), but the latter may mere doublette of that of Protogenes;

quite well have had access to Duris but there is nothing in the date of

(cf. p. xci) or to art-literature based Nealkes, as now established by Miin-

upon Duris ; at any rate we find a zer (see Comm.), to prevent its having

similar anecdote recounted by Klear- originated with Duris. chos of Soloi (fragm. 46 ap. Athen.


DURIS OF SAMOS Ixi

illustration of a line of Agathon quoted by Aristotle : rfx^i Tvxnv

fo-rep^e, koX Tvxr) Tex"'! '■' (Addenda.)

The story of the protection accorded by Demetrios (who by the way is a favourite hero of Duris) to Protogenes '■', and of the friendly intercourse between the warrior and the artist (§§ 104, loc), recalls the intercourse of Alexander and Apelles. Moreover, the scenic setting, the description of the artist living in hortulo suo (see Comm.), must be by the hand which had described the anus una keeping watch in the empty studio. Of the Satyr upon which Protogenes was at work when Demetrios besieged Rhodes, Strabo (xiv, p. 652) tells an anecdote characteristic of Duris. The Satyr was represented leaning against a column upon which perched a partridge ; now so greatly was the painting of the bird admired that it detracted from the attention due to the central figure ; the painter, accordingly, vexed because his main theme had become subsidiary (to tpyov irapepyov •yeyoi'dr), erased the bird. The story is identical in spirit and intention with that of the boy and grapes painted by Zeuxis, and recounted by Pliny (xxxv, 66) and Seneca Rhetor (see Comm.\ I incline to credit the Samian historian with the authorship of both. Lastly, the story of Aristotle's advice to Protogenes to paint the feats of Alexander is obviously more likely to proceed from the Peripatetic Duris than from any other of the Plinian authors.

We have thus recovered considerable fragments of as many as four of Duris's Lives of the Painters. There still remain scat- tered up and down the Plinian narrative a number of Duridian passages, which I propose to examine in conclusion.

Closely connected with the anecdotes illustrative of character comes another series, designed to give concrete form to certain art-problems which had at different times exercised different schools. A striking instance is the story told in xxxv, 64, of how Zeuxis combined the beauty of his Helen painted for Kroton (the Agrigentum of Pliny is a mistake, see Comm.) from the best features of the five fairest maidens of that city. The anecdote embodies the axiom that since ' there is no excellent Beauty, that hath not some strangenesse in the proportions,' the artist, striving for the ideal perfection, must needs ' take the best Parts out of Divers Faces to make one Excellent '.' Both the problem and

"■ Ethics, vi. 4. lSbc Addenda. Demetrios, for which Duris is one of

^ The story is also told with only the main sources, slight discrepancies by Plutarch in the ^ Bacon, Essays, xliii.


Ixii INTRODUCTION

its solution had been discussed by Sokrates in the studio of Parrhasios\ Cicero, recounting the story of Zeuxis and the maidens as an illustration of the method he had himself followed in his study of rhetoric, had naturally combined it with the axiom it was originally intended to illustrate. The long passage {de Invent. Rhet. ii, i, i) is too well known to need full quotation, but the closing words are significant for our purpose, as showing how the anecdote had its rise in philosophic speculations : —

'. . . he (Zeuxis) did not believe that all the excellencies he needed for his beauteous image could be found in one body, for this reason, that nature never puts the perfect finishing touch to all the parts of any one object. Therefore, precisely as though by bestowing everything on the one she would have nothing left for the rest, she confers some benefit, now here now there, which is always inseparable from some defect ^'

Dionysios irav apx- KplcTLs I), by using the anecdote to prove that we may, out of a varied erudition (ffoXu^d^fia), combine and inform the indestructible image of Art, shows his thorough appreciation of the philosophic lesson it was intended to convey. To a genial inventor like Duris, trained moreover in philosophic doctrine, may well be attributed the shaping of a story so much more apt to clothe an aesthetic problem than to convey an actual artistic practice. The fable of the five maidens of Kroton is of perennial interest ; it haunted the imagination of Raphael, who, writing of his Galatea to Baldassare Castiglione, says that 'per dipingere una bella, mi bisognerei veder piii belle,' and at a later date we find it astutely criticized by Bernini ' (see Add.).

Duris may also be credited, I think, with the expression of another problem of kindred nature, conveyed this time, how- ever, not as an anecdote but as an apothegm. The judgement which Lysippos had passed upon his predecessors (xxxiv, 6r), saying that, while iAey represented men as they are, Ae strove to represent them as they appeared to be, expresses, as I have pointed out in the notes, a dominant problem of art, the

' Xenophon, Memorah. iii, lo, i : simpliciin genere omnibus ex partibus

. . . IjreiS^ ov fiaSiov kvl avepimai iripi- perfectum natura expolivit. Itaque,

TVxeTv diieinrra irivra ex""", l« toK- tanquam ceteris non sit habitura

Xav amayovTis rd ef kiciaTov icaWia-- quod largiatur, si uni euncta conces-

TatovTOJs oKa to, aii/mra aaXA troiarf serit, aliud alii commodi, aliquo

tpalveaSai ; iroioviiiv yap, itprj, ovrms. adiuncto incommodo muneratur.

' Ncque enim putavit omnia, quae ' See Baldinucci, Notizie del' Pro-

quaereret ad venustatem, una se in fessori del Disegno da Cimabue in

corpore reperire posse idea, quod nihil qua (Firenze, ed. 1847), p. 661.


DURIS OF SAMOS Ixiii

problem of impressionism versus realism. Miinzer' has lately referred the passage to Antigonos, who records a somewhat similar judgement passed by the philosopher Menedemos upon his prede- cessors '\ This, however, only proves the later hand of Antigonos. So illuminating an aphorism could only have arisen in the brain of a far more powerful writer. The Lysippian judgement recalls, as has often been noticed ', that which Aristotle makes Sophokles pass on himself and Euripides (Arist. Poetics, 1460 b*) — is, in fact, but the application to a new problem of a phrase traditional in Aristotelian circles °. It is evident that Duris, who moreover is expressly named by Pliny as the authority for the early career of Lysippos, is far the likeliest of the Plinian authors to be responsible for the Lysippian apothegm'- The attribution is corroborated, moreover, by his partiality for such sayings, which he possibly collected systematically in emulation of the dno(j)deynaTa or anoiivTuioveifiaTa of his brother Lynkeus '.

He was an adept at deducing apothegms out of well-known lines of the poets and dramatists, even at the cost of occasional misapplication (Plutarch, Demetr. 14, 35, 45, 46 ; with Athen. vi, 249 c, cf. Odyss. xi, 122- Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 20 f.) ; and I would therefore likewise refer to him the apothegm of Euphranor to the effect that 'his Theseus was fed on meat, but that of Parrhasios on roses' (xxxv, 128). Miinzer has detected in the words the latent reminiscence of an Aristophanic line preserved in Diogenes on the authority of Antigonos ' (see Comm.), but this

^ Op. cit. p. 527. p. 95 (for Greek, see Comm.).

^ Antig. Kar. ap Diog. ii, 1 34 ( = ^ To say this, however, is far from

Wilam. p. 98); ^av h\ StSaaxaKaiv admittingthe theory of OttfriedMuUer

Ttuj' irept HX&Twva KoX BiVoKparqv iri {Kunst-Archdol. IVerie, ll.p. 165 ff.),

8^ Hapm^aTrjv rbv Kvptivawv icare- lately revived by K^kule {Arch.

<j>p6vu, 'SriXTToiva 8' iTiBavpaKa' xai Jahrb. viii, 1893, p. 39 ff.), that the

TTore kptoTijBels Trepi aitrov dWo p.'iv original Greek of the Lysippian say-

ovS\v (lire irXiiv on (\ev9ipios. The ing was a slavish imitation of the

resemblance to the Lysippian phrase Sophoklean (Kekule, p. 45) — and the

is little more than formal and verbal. guales viderentur esse of Pliny a

' Among others by Vahlen in the clumsy misunderstanding of something

notes to his ed. of the /farfzVj (Leipzig, like oi'ous Ioikcv dvai. On the con-

1885), p. 265. trary, the viderentur is the very pith

  • ' Further, if it be objected that of the apothegm, which conveys a

the description is not true to fact, the problem totally different to the Sopho-

poet may perhaps reply, — " But the klean.

objects are as they ought to be ": just ° Duridian authorship seems hinted

as Sophokles said that he drew men at by Diels, Arch. Anz. 1893, p. II.

as they ought to be drawn ; Euripides ' Ath. vi, 245 ; viii, 337.

as they are.' Tr. S. H. Butcher, ' I trust I am not misapprehending


Ixiv INTRODUCTION

is no proof that Antigonos is also responsible for the new turn given to the phrase in the mouth of Euphranor.

There remains to note, with H. L. Urlichs^ and Miinzer'-*, that Duris was presumably the source for sundry stories of art-com- petitions preserved in Pliny. Their authenticity is suspicious, as Jahn long ago maintained ^ because in all of them the competition itself offered no interest whatsoever to the writer, but was merely used — we may at once say invented — in order to bring great artists of the same or adjoining epochs into presence, and often to point some saying supposed to have been uttered on the occasion. The animating idea is the same as in the story which represented the young Lysippos venturing upon the higher paths of art at the bidding of Eupompos. Such is the contest between Parrhasios and Timanthes, already discussed in another connexion (above, p. liv), where we are not even told the subject of the picture by the latter artist ; the competition between Zeuxis and Parrhasios with the curtain and the grapes {ib. 65) ; and the kindred anecdote of Apelles' appeal from the verdict of human judges to that of beasts (ib. 95).

The story of the four statues of Amazons made in competition by four great artists for the Temple of Ephesos belongs to the same series. The garb it borrows from the legend of the award of the prize of valour after Salamis (see Comm.) sufiSciently betrays its apocryphal character, even though it have a groundwork of truth. There is the undoubted existence of four distinct types of Amazons, similar in size and pose; and Furtwangler has lately made the acute suggestion that the anecdote of the evaluation grew out of the order in which four statues of Amazons by the said four masters were exhibited in the Ephesian Artemision (see Comm.). Certainly such an order of exhibition *, could it be proved, would

the rapprochements attempted on it from Greek art-writers : Aug., De

p. 5275. of Miinzer's article. Doctrina Christiana, ii, 8 : Non enim

^ Griechische Kunstschriftsteller, audiendi sunt err ores gentilium super-

p.aSf. stitionum qui novem Musas Icniis

' Op. cit. p. 534. et Memoriae filias essefinxerunt. Re-

' Kleine Beitrdge, p. 289 f. fellit eos Varro, quo nescio titrum

' It may be worth pointing out apud eos quisquam talium rerum

here that the story of the Four Ama- doctior vel curiosior esse possit. Di-

4pns has a curious parallel, not, I be- cit enim civitatem nescio quam, non

lieve, observed before, in Augustine's enim nomen recolo, locasse apud tres

explanation of the origin of the num- artifices terna simulachra musarum,

ber of the Muses ; it is quoted on the quae in templo Apollinis dona poneret,

authority of Varro, who of course had et quisquis artificum pulchriora for-


DURIS OF SAMOS Ixv

be a fine opportunity for imagining the rivalry of the four artists, precisely as a joint inscription of (the Elder) Praxiteles and Kalamis had given rise to some popular explanation, afterwards elaborated by Duris or a writer of his stamp into the anecdote recorded in xxxiv, 71, of the kind consideration of Praxiteles for the artistic reputation of Kalamis— an anecdote, by the way, that recalls the kindness of Apelles to Protogenes. Finally, the competition between Panainos and a totally unknown Timagoras (xxxv, 58), on the testimony of a carmen vetustum, of whose content, however, no hint is given, looks suspiciously like fiction.

There is still one passage in conclusion where Miinzer (p. 535) detects, I believe rightly, the influence or authorship of Duris. This is the account of the women painters in xxxv, 147, ' woman ' being one of the most favourite Duridian themes '. Miinzer further remarks that the painter Olympias is a namesake of the mother of Alexander the Great, for whom Duris evinced a lively interest,' as for every one connected with Alexander ; that Aristarete is the daughter of Nearchos, who, as the namesake of one of Alexander's generals ", would likewise interest Duris ; and that the three women Timarete (xxxv, 59), Irene, and Aristarete, at once daughters and pupils of their respective fathers, Mikon, Kratinos, and Nearchos, are conceived too manifestly on the same pattern to be above suspicion. Finally, the dancer Alkisthenes and the juggler Theodoros, painted by Kalypso, are evident Duridian personages ; they recall the BaviiaTovowi, Xenophon and Nymphodoros, of fragm. 44 ( = Ath. i, p. 19, f), where the clever tricks of Xenophon's pupil Kratisthenes of Phlious are described. The analogous formation of the names Alkisthenes — Kratisthenes, Theodoros — Nymphodoros, is certainly significant.

This closes the list of passages that may be attributed with any certainty to Duris. It is most improbable that either Varro or Pliny had direct access to his writings ; he seems so certainly the authority of Antigonos for the statement concerning Pythagoras of Samos (above, p. liii), and so many of the passages traced back to

masset ab illo fotissimum electa emeret. posuisse vocabula. Non ergo lupiter

Itaque contigisse ut opera sua quoque novem Musas genuit, sed tres fabri

illi artifices aeque pulchra explica- ternas creaverunt.

rent, et placuisse civitati omnes novem ' Cf. fragm. 2, 3, 19, 24, 35, 42,

atque omnes emplas esse, ut in Apol- 58, 63.

linis templo dcdicarentur. Quibus ' Ft. 24.

postea dicit Hesiodum poetam im- * Plut. Alex. 66, 73 and often.


Ixvi INTRODUCTION

Duris were likely to interest Antigonos from their purely anecdotic character, that it is not unreasonable to assume that all the Duridian stories we meet with in Pliny were brought in by Anti- gonos, who had drawn largely from Duris for his Book of Marvels (Miinzer, op. cit. p. 531). Antigonos presumably did not always give the name of his authority; like Pliny and most ancient writers, he would be willing enough to assume the credit of the greater part of his information, and would only mention his authorities by name in cases where the statements seemed to him to outpass belief. So, too, Varro quoted the artifices qui condidere haec, in xxxiv, 68, and again in xxxv, 68 (giving them here a second mention by name), in cases where he felt he needed an excuse for a weak explanation, or a warrant for an over-bold criticism. Thus it was that, after passing through many different hands, the name of Duris of Samos, preserved in xxxiv, 61 in testimony of the incredible story that the great Lysippos of Sikyon had been wholly a self-taught artist, has given us a clue leading us to assign, as I believe, to their right author no inconsiderable portion of the Plinian anecdotes.

At the same time the vindication of these tales for the Samian historian throws considerable light on the nature of his art-writings. They reveal him as above all a biographer in spirit and not only in form. He seeks to bring before his readers the individuality of the man rather than the technical or aesthetic quality of his work. For this purpose he employs popular traditions, giving to these voces populi the literary form which was to secure them from oblivion. In the attention he bestowed upon character-drawing, real and fictitious, he was a true product of his age in its newly awakened desire to ascertain the features of great men present or past. The words of Pliny were as true of the third century as of his own : pariunt . . . desideria non traditos vultus, sicut in Homero evenit: sculptors were not content to portray contemporaries — a Menander or a Poseidippos — but must needs discover and fix for a late posterity the likeness of Aisop, Archilochos, Epimeni- des, nay of Homer himself ^ In many cases the monuments are still there to show how nearly a deep intuition of the genius peculiar to each personage portrayed might help to restore the •image which no contemporary hand had traced. The same occurred in literature : the Peripatetics, Chamaileon of Herakleia,

' See the remarks of Wilamowitz, Antigonos -von Karystos, p. 149 ff.


DURIS OF SAMOS Ixvii

or Dikaiarchos of Messana— to quote two out of a host — had attempted to reconstruct the Hves of Alkman, of Alkaios, or of Semonides. Duris himself had written a biography of Euripides ', of which recent criticism has recovered at least one characteristic fragment, which tells how Sophokles on receiving the news of the death of Euripides clad himself in robes of mourning. When Duris wrote his biographies of the artists he determined they should be ' Lives ' in the most realistic sense of the word, refusing to discuss the works divorced from the artists' personalities. It is little wonder if in essaying to breathe back life into the persons of Lysippos, of Apelles, or Protogenes, his vivid imagination and strong powers of presentment led him, when historic facts failed, to offer telling anecdote in their place.

We may feel impelled from the side of historical verity to echo the complaint of Plutarch that Duris shows, even where not misled by interest, an habitual disregard of truth, but we are none the less indebted to him for what is perhaps the most enduring charm in the history of the ancient artists. The stories we have been studying, like those countless others which enliven the pages of Greek history, have their rise in a profoundly popular instinct, in the desire to find expression, at once simple and striking, for distinguishing qualities of temperament or of workman- ship. And in their graphic force, that ' power,' if we may borrow from the words which Dionysios applies to the oratory of Lysias, of ' driving home to the senses the subject of discourse ^' they have entered into the very substance of our thought. While every schoolboy is familiar with the tale of Zeuxis and the grapes, a scholar such as August Boeckh could express his ideal of the learned life in the words dies diem docet ut perdideris quant sine linea transmiseris, or the orator Burke sum up the qualities of that masterly state-paper, ' whose every stroke had been justified by historic fact,' in the telling phrase Thus painters sign their names at Co.*^

' Printed at the commencement of one allusion to Duris {Att. vi, i, i8)

Kirclihoff's ed. Berlin, 1867, vol. i, judges him more leniently. p. viii. Cf. Schubert, ij/^r^aj, p. 16. 'Dion. Hal. de Lys. vii 8t;Va/«'s

^ Pericl, xxviii : Aovpt^ i^^v ovv ovb' tis vtt6 rds aitjOrjffds dyovffa toL Ktyo-

birov liTjilv avT^ rrp6ai(Tnv iSiOV iraSos /j-fva.

fiaSais Kpwruv t^i' diTifr]aiv iirl t^s * Burke, ^fl?-Ai(ed. 1823), vol. viii,

&\Tj9eias. . . . Cicero, however, in his p. 129 (Letters on a Regicide Peace).


e 2,


Ixviii INTRODUCTION

IV. Literary Epigrams.

The literary epigram, at once descriptive of a work of art and embodying its criticism or eulogy, was among the most fruitful sources of information at the disposal of ancient writers upon art '. It plays accordingly, as Otto Jahn first perceived ^, a considerable part in Pliny's descriptions of pictures or statues, where it becomes of the highest importance to the critic to detect it : for, as it strongly coloured the Plinian narrative, so it has gone on to this day, colouring our appreciation of ancient works of art, nay, predisposing us in many cases to read into them intentions, which are within the expressive range of poetry rather than of the plastic arts. Pliny's own phrase describing what the Apellian Aphrodite owed to the verses written in her praise remains true in greater or less degree of all works extolled in epigrams : versibus Graecis tali opere, dum laudatur, victo sed illustrato.

A first list of the Plinian passages based upon epigrams was drawn up by Otto Jahn [loc. cit.), and afterwards supplemented by Benndorf '- The subjoined list is compiled from theirs, but with some few additions indicated by an asterisk.

1. — xxxiii, 156 Antipater (sc. Diodoros, see note) — qui Satyrum in phiala gravatum somno conlocavisse verius quam caelasse dictus est. Cf Anth. Plan. 248 :

Tov ^arvpov AiSSwpos eKoif^ifffv, oiiK eropevtrep' fiv vv^rj^, kyepiis' apyvpos virvov ^x** *-

2. — xxxiv, 55 Polyclitus . . . diadumenum fecit molliter iuvenem . . . et dory- phorum viriliter puerum.

(The epigrammatic qualification is so finely knitted to the mention of the works that it must have been brought in at a very early date^)

3. — xxxiv, 59 Pythagoras — fecit — claiidicantem, cuius ulceris dolorem sentire etiam spectantes videntur.

1 See in connexion witli the epi- = De AniAologiae Graecae Epigram-

grams of the Anthology which deal matis quae ad artes spectant; diss,

with works of art the admirable essay Leipzig, 1862.

of J. W. Mackail, Select Epigrams * ' This Satyr Diodorus engraved

from the Greek Anthology, p. 47 ff. ; not, but laid to rest ; your touch will

^cf. P. Vitry, &tude sur les Elpigr. wake him ; the silver is asleep.' Tr.

de PAnthol. Pal. qui contiennent la J. W. Mackail, op. cit. p. 179. description d'une auvre d'Art, in = Munzer, o>. «V. p. 529. Dilthey,

Rev. Arch. xxiv. 1894, p. 315 ff. Rhein. Mus. xxvi, 290, first pointed

^ Kunsturtheile des Flinius, p. out the epigrammatic juxtaposition of

118 ff. the two works.


LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixix

Cf. Antk. Flan, iv, 113; 11. 1-2 :

o7Ba ^iKotcrqrrjV dp6aiv, Srt Traffi (paeivei 0X705 l^(/ /caJ Tots Trj\60i SepKOfiivOiS '.

  • 4. — xxxiv, 1^0 (Praxiteles) fecit et puberem Apollinem subrepenti lacertae corn-

minus sagitta insidiantem quem sauroctonon vocant.

Cf. the same or perhaps identical epigram as adopted by Martial, xiv, 172 :

Ad te reptanti, picer insidiose, lacertae Farce ; cupit digitis ilia perire tuts ^

5.' — ^xxxiv, 70 (Praxitelis) spectantnr et duo signa eius diversos adfectus expri- mentia, flentis matronae et meretricis gaudentis. hanc putant Phrynen fuisse deprehenduntque in ea amorem artijicis et mer- cedem in voltu. meretricis.

The juxtaposition of the statues is purely epigrammatic ; in the description of Phryne's portrait lurks perhaps a reminiscence of Anth. Plan, iv, 204 (see Comm.).

  • 6. — xxxiv, 71 Ipse Calamis et alias guadrigas bigasque fecit se impari, equis

sine aemulo expressis.

The rhetorical point betrays the underlying epigram; the Propertian Exadis Calamis se mihi iactat equis (Prop, iii, 9, 10) is doubtless from the same source, for where should Kalamis boast of his horses so well as in some epigram purporting to be written by the artist himself?

7. — xxxiv, 74 Cresilas volneralum deficientem, in quo possit intellegi quantum restet anim^e, et Olympium Periclen dignum cognomine, mirumque in hac arte est quod nobiles viros nobiliores fecit.

8. — ib. 11 Euphranoris Alexander Paris est, in quo laudatur quod omnia simul intelleganlur, iudex dearum, amator Helenae et tamen Achillis interfector.

9. — ib. 78 Eutychides Eurotam, in quo artem ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi dixere.

^ ' I behold Philoktetes. His agony hatefulthan the Greeks was my maker,

is made manifest, even to those who a second Odysseus, who brought back

look on from afar.' The analogy tothe to me my woeful dire disease. The

Flinian description is pointed out by rock, my rags and blood and wound

Miinzer, /. c. In the notes I have fol- and grief, were not enough, but he has

lowed Brunn in quoting Anth. Plan. even wrought my pain in bronze.' 112 {where the omission of the name ' Pointed out by Miinzer op. cit.

of Philoktetes is perhaps the cause of p. 527, note i. its unusual omission in Pliny) : ' More


Ixx INTRODUCTION

Cf. Antk. Pal. ix, 709 :

Eipiirav oii apn Sii,0poxov, iv tc fieeSpois

a\icv(j^ & rext'tTTjs iv irvpl \ova6,p.evov' iraai ycip kv K&iKois vbaroi^ivos &fi(ptV€vevK€y

e« Kopv(pTJs Is aKpovs vypoparwv ovvxct^ a 5i rkxvo. Trora^ai avv^-n-iipuc^v a ris 6 irciffas

XaXxdy aajp^^etv vSaros vypSrepov ^ ;

  • 10. — xxxiv, 79 Lycius . . . fecit dignum praeceptore puerum sufflantem

languidos ignes.

The description of the 'dying fire,' which was of course not

represented in bronze, betrays the epigram.

11. — xxxiv, 79 Leochares aquilam sentimlem quid rapiat in Ganymede et cut ferat parcentemque unguibus etiam per vestem puero.

Cf. Anth. Pal. xii, 221 :

STcfxc Trpos oXQkpa. Siov, avipxto Trai^a KO/u^ajv

aiere, ras 5i<pvits k/cinT&ffas irrepvyas' trreixe Toy a^phv exaiv TavvfirjSea, f^rjde fif9eir]S

ritv Atbs ^Siaroy olvox^ov kvKikojv (peiSeo 5* atpd^at Kovpov yap^ijvvxt rapffa,

fjiil Zei;s dhyrjari^ tovto ^apvv6fievos^.

12. — xxxiv, 80 Naucerus (censetur) luctatore anhelante.

The analogy to xxxv, 71, makes it probable that the anhelante

is from an epigram ; cf Benndorf, op. cit.

xxxiv, 81 Styppax uno celebratur signo, splanclinopte — Periclis Olympi vernula hie fuit exta torrens ignemque 07'is pleni spiritu accendens.

The last words, the insistence on the swelling cheeks of the boy as he blows the fire, clearly point to an epigram. How far removed the real 'Entrail Roaster' would be from the Plinian description may be seen at a glance by studying the boy's statue from the Olympieion at Athens, which has lately been brought, with much probability, into relation with the statue by Styppax (see Comm. on passage).

13.— xxxiv, 81 Silanion ApoUodoram fudit . . . nee hominem ex aere feeit, sed iraeundiam.

(See Add. to the Comm. on the passage.)

^ 'Dragged by the artist through flowing than the Hoods ? '

a bath of fire, the Eurotas seems fresh ^ ' Speed on to the heaven divine,

from the water and amidst his streams. go thy way, eagle, with the boy.

He bends to either side while water spreading either pinion wide. Speed

pours from all his limbs, and the drops on with beauteous Ganymedes, nor

fall from his head even to his feet. suffer the boy to fall who poureth

Art too hath joined in contest with sweetest cups for Zeus. Yet spare to

the river ; ah, who hath taught the wound the boy with thy crooked talon,

bronze to burst into waves more lest Zeus sorrow in grief thereat.'


LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixxi

14. — xxxiv, 88 Epigonus . . . praecessit in ... matri interfectae infante miserabiliter blandiente. (From an epigram similar to the one on the ' dying mother ' by Aristeides in xxxv, 98.)

15. — xxxiv, 141 Ferreus Hercules, qnem fecit Alcon laborum dei fatientia

inducius. 16. — xxxv, 59 (Zeuxis) fecit et Penelopen, in qua pinxisse mores videtur. 17. — a. 69 (Parrhasius) pinxit demon Atheniensium argumento quoque in-

genioso. ostendebat namque varium, iracundum iniustum incon-

stantem, eundem exorabilem clementcm misericordem, gloriosum,

excelsum humilem, ferocem fugacemque et omnia pariter. 18. — ih. 70 (Parrhasius) fueros duos, in quibus spectatur securitas et aetatis

simplicitas. 19. — ib. 71 (Parrhasi) duae picturae nobilissimae, hoplites in certamine ita de-

currens ut sudare videatur, alter arma deponens tit anhelare

sentiatur.

20. — ib. 94 (Apelles) pinxit et heroa nudum, eaquepictura naiuram ipsampro-

vocavit. 21. — ib. 98 (Aristidis) oppido capto ad matris morientis ex volnere mammam

adrepens infans, intellegiturque sentire mater et timere ne

emortuo lacte sanguinem lambat.

Cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 623 :

"EXxe, TaKav, napd fxijTpbs bv oiiKeri fiaffrov d/icAfeis,

f\Kv(Xov varcLTLOV vdfia KaTa(pOifiivtjs' tJStj yap ^t<pee(f(ri \i-rr6jryoos' d\Ad tcL fjiT]Tp6s fpiKrpa Kal ftv 'Ai'Sjj iratdofcofxiiv efJiaSev^. 22. — xxxv, 99 (Aristides pinxit) supplicantem paene cum voce.

  • 23. — ib. 99 (Aristides pinxit) anapauomenen propter fratris amorem.

(Cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 183, 184, and see H. L. Urlichs' note in the Comm. on the passage.)

24. — xxxv, 106 (Protogenis) Satyrus — ^est, qnem anapauomenon vocant, ne quid

desit temporis eius securitati, tenentem tibias. (Cf. Anth. Plan. 244.)

  • 25. — xxxv, 138 Antiphilus ^Kew ignem conflante laudatur ac pulchra alias

domo splendescente ipsiusque pueri ore.

I suspect an epigram from the forced point made in the de- scription of the room ' which is in itself beautiful.'

26. — xxxvi, 21 (Praxitelis Veneris) eSSgies deafavente ipsa, ut creditur, facta.

(Cf. Anth. Plan, r 59-1 70.) 27. — xxxvi, 24 Cephisodotus . . . cuius laudatum est Pergami symplegma nobile digitis corpori verius quam marmori inpressis.

' ' Drink, poor bahe, from thy taken her life, yet a mother's love

mother, whose breast thou shalt suck knows, even in Hades, how to care

no more ; drink thy last draught from for her child.' her in death. Now has the sword


Ixxii INTRODUCTION

Cf. Herondas iv, 59 f. ^ quoted in the Comm. on the passage.

Besides the epigrams descriptive of works of art, we may note, for the sake of completeness, the allusion to the epigrams on Myron's cow (xxxiv, 57) and on the Anadyomene of Apelles (xxxv, 92) ; the epigram upon Zeuxis which lurks in the words ab hoc {ApoUodord) artis fores apertas, Z£uxis . . . intravit in xxxv, 6 1 (see Comm.) ; the epigram in which Apollodoros reproached Zeuxis with having not learnt — but stolen the art of his masters (ib. § 62) J finally the reference to the laudatory verses composed by Parrhasios upon himself, discussed above (p. liv f.). In all these descriptive passages it is evident that the writer has been concerned to outstrip rather than to explain the artistic aim. We are confronted by a series of pointed sayings, inspired indeed, or they would miss their effect, by some quality actually existent in the work of art, but using this quality as a theme to be expanded freely into the fluidity of language, whereas the artist had been forced to compress his conceptions within the limits imposed by visible form. Whatever Euphranor's ethical conception of the separate or conflicting traits in the character of Paris, he must perforce combine and fuse them in the portrayal of one single personage. The versifier, on the other hand, remains within the limits of his art if he picks out the qualities suggested rather than definitely indicated by the Paris of Euphranor, and embodies these in a series of consecutive images : thus the Paris of the sculptor will be converted by the epigrammatist from a unit into a triad ; the compacted whole is resolved into the judge of the goddesses, the lover of Helen, the murderer of Achilles— each trait calling up in the mind of the reader a distinct sensuous image, whereas the statue, however complex, called up only one. Or, again, the epigram may catch at a purely accidental detail — accidental so far as regards any ethical import — such as the drapery which Leochares gave as a background to his Ganymede, and interpret it to mean what it lay entirely outside the power of the formative arts to express, — the eagle's care to avoid wounding the boy. The achievement of artist and of epigrammatist is bound to be different, because of the dissimilarity of the material with which each clothes his thought. The question touches one of the

' ' Pray look at this naked child ; flesh palpitates in the picture like if I pinch him can you not fancy I a warm spring'— (a< f antes calidi, shall really hurt him Kynno? For the v. Crusius, orf /<;;:.).


LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixxiii

most difficult of all the problems suggested by the study of art, the problem how far the language of form can be translated into that of words, and vice versa. It could only be adequately treated in context with the written Greek epigrams of the same class as those we have been considering, and with the various descriptions in ancient literature, outside Phny, based upon such epigrams; and this, after all, would be only one chapter of a vast discussion that should embrace the literature, whether ancient or modern, that aims at the analysis of works of art. But I have touched upon it here only as a passing protest against the practice, still too common, of searching in what were often but plays of fancy for definite evidence concerning the intention to be conveyed by a work of art. The modern scholar shows himself scarcely less credulous in this respect than Pliny himself, who introduced most of his epigrammatic descriptions by the intelligere, which, as we learn from Cicero, was the special term used of the insight and criticism of the man who knows \

These descriptive epigrams were doubtless interwoven with the original Xenokratic fabric that underlies the Plinian account at different times. We have seen that some — perhaps even a large number — were certainly due to Antigonos of Karystos. Others may be due to the Greek artist and writer upon art, Pasiteles of Naples (p. Ixxviiff.); Varro or Mucianus may have brought in others; nor need we decide whether Varro, or Pliny, or another Roman, was first guilty of the comic blunder arising from the attribution in xxxiv, 57 to the sculptor Myron of the little monument, sung by two poets of the Anthology, which the girl Myro had raised to her pets, a cricket and a grasshopper '.

' Brutus, 184 etenim necesse est, wily craft of the servile character.'

qtii ita dicat, ut a multitudine pro- Possibly the notice in xxxiv, 88 of

betur, eundem doctis probari ; nam Nikeratos' group of Alkibiades and

quid in dicendo rectum sit aut pravum, his mother ' Demarate sacrificing by

ego iudicabo, si modo is sum, qui id torchlight' belongs to the same class

possim aut sciam iudicare : qualis (cf. note 2 on p. xliv). The descrip-

vero sit orator ex eo, quod is dicendo tion in xxxiv, 93 of the Hercules

efficiet poterit intelligi. See O. Jahn, 'wearing the tunic,' considered by

loc. cit. p. 120. Benndorf (p. 55) as epigrammatic,

^ The list of works whose descrip- seems inseparable from the notice

tion is based upon literary epigrams of the three tituli on the statue,

should further include the notice in and is presumably an observation of

xxxiv, 79 of the group by Leochares Pliny's own, not borrowed from any

of the slave-dealer Lykiskos and a special source, boy ' on whose face may be read the


Ixxiv INTRODUCTION

V. Heliodoros of Athens {fl. igo B.C.).

Heliodorus qui de Atheniensium anathematis scripsit is cited in the Indices of authors to Books xxxiv and xxxv ; the mention of his name in the Index to Book xxxiii, which contains no material that could be derived from him, must be looked upon as an interpolation. Till recently the literary personality of Heliodoros remained so shadowy ' that all attempts to recover traces of him in Pliny had proved ineffectual I Now, however, that Bruno KeiP has succeeded in proving Heliodoros to be the source for the periegetic portions in the Pseudo-Plutarchian Lives of the Ten Orators, it has become possible to ascertain also the extent of Pliny's debt — and it remains very small — to the Athenian periegete.

The interest of the results attained by Keil lies almost entirely outside Pliny ; it will suffice to indicate them briefly. The passage in the Life of Hypereides (849 c) concerning the burial-place of

the orator itpo tmk 'lititahav ■nvKav, &s 0r;crii» 'HXtoSmpor iv Ta rpira

wept Mvrjfidrav forms the basis of the inquiry. The reading of the MSS. 'HXid8(Bpor, which Ruhnken had unnecessarily altered to AidSfopor, has been rightly retained in this place by both Keil (I.c) and by Bernadakis in the new edition of the Moralia (vol. v, p. 193). For not only does the date of Heliodoros* accord precisely with the date required by certain other statements of periegetic nature contained in the Lives (cf. in particular Lyk. 842e=fr. 5* KeiP), but the information conveyed in these dateable fragments and in the remaining periegetic passages scattered through the Lives is of a strictly homogeneous character, which Keil defines as follows (op. cit. p. 237, cf. p. 201) : 'The first interest of Heliodoros is for extant monuments; he gives details concerning the nature of the monument, its material, its locality and present condition ; then follow in natural sequence statements of an historical character, such as the original con- dition, change of locality, occasional details concerning cost,

' Seven fragments are collected by ' Hermes, xxx, 1895, pp. 199-240.

Miiller, F. H. G. iv, p. 435. See * After Antlochos Epiphanes (b. C.

also Susemihl, Geschichte d. Al. Lit. 175-164), cf. Athen. II, p. 45 c.

i, p. 692 f. ' KaJ iartti avTav (Lyknrg. and his

' E. g. the attempts of Wachsmuth, children) tA lairiiiaTa avrixpii T^i

Stadt Athen, i, p. 36, note 2 ; on the IlaiajKtas 'Afli/i/as iv ry tlLi\av6iov toS

difficulty of the Heliodoran question <pi\o(T6tl>ov xfjua (date of Melanthios

see Brieger, De Fontibus, p. 33. circ. B.C. 150, Keil, /. c).


HELIODOROS OF ATHENS Ixxv

artists, or donors. These statements are corroborated by the epigrams and inscriptions . . . relative to the monument de- scribed \'

Now if we turn to Pliny we shall find some four passages which bear this peculiar Heliodoran stamp. Three occur in Book xxxiv, in the first alphabetical list of the bronze-workers ; one in Book xxxv, towards the close of the main account of the painters. In xxxiv, § 74, the passage Cephisodorus Minervam mirabilem in portu Atheniensium et aram ad femplum lovis Serva- toris in eodem portu, cui pauca comparantur (sc. fecit) has long been admitted by a number of authorities ■', though on different grounds, to be from a source other than that of the main account. It will repay careful analysis. We know from Pausanias (i, i, 3) that the 'Minerva' and the 'Jupiter' belonged to the same temple, namely to the Aio-cor/ypioi', where Zeus and Athena were worshipped respectively as Smrijp and SmTcipa". Now, if we examine the Plinian passage we note at once a certain looseness of construction, a certain hesitancy in the wording ; it is as if Pliny, or the author from whom he quotes, were not fully conscious — or at least fully persuaded — that the 'wondrous Athena ' which was to be seen ' in the harbour of Athens ' were really in the same place as the altar, which was in the same city, ' in the temple of Zeus the Saviour.' I accordingly believe that we have here the juxtaposition of two statements derived from separate sources. The words Cephisodorus Minervam mirabilem in portu Atheniensium would belong to the main account — the mention of the Athena, which was bronze {^oKkov fiev afxcpoTepa ra ayaXfjiaTa), being in place in a history of bronze-sculpture — while a later hand introduced from another source the mention of the ara, another work by Kephisodoros. Now this altar, which would naturally be marble and be decorated with reliefs, is obviously out of place in a history which was only concerned with works in the round and in bronze ; this discrepancy, however, was unnoticed by the art-writer (Pasiteles (?), p. Ixxx) who made the addition.

' Cf., in particular, Isokr. 838 pieces, p. 145 ; Oehmichen, Plin.

(= Keil, fr. 4), the inscription from Studien, p. 151.

the statue of Isokrates by Leo- ' See Comm. p. 60 ; cf. Liv. xxxi,

chares, which Timotheos put up at 30, 9. The whole literature on

Eleusis. the passage, both ancient and modem,

  • Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, i, p. given by Hitzig and Bliimner, Fau-

36, note 2; Furtwangler, Master- sanias,^. i2oi.


Ixxvi INTRODUCTION

The connecting link was afforded by the name of Kephisodoros. Nor was any special attention bestowed upon the fact that the ara which was now mentioned stood not only in eodem portu, but actually in the same temple as the Athena. That the addition itself is Heliodoran seems probable from the precision with which the locality of the altar is noted {ad temflum lovis Servatoris), whereas the Minerva was simply cited as being in portu Atheni- ensium. The altar moreover — doubtless itself an avddriaa — was a likely object to be included in a work de anathematis.

Close by the notice of Kephisodoros occurs the second passage detected as Heliodoran by Keil. The statement in xxxiv, 76 that ' Demetrios made a statue of Lysimache, who was priestess of Athena for sixty-four years,' has a precision of detail, due to the fact that the years of Lysimache's priesthood were taken from the inscription on her statue (see Comm.), unlike anything that meets us in the main account, where such detail is alien to the nature of the inquiry.

With these two passages recognized as Heliodoran by both Keil and Miinzer ^ I incline to associate a third, claimed for Heliodoros by Wachsmuth ^, but rejected by Keil (/. c). The passage (xxxiv, 72) concerning the 'Lioness' of Amphikrates, whose name was doubtless taken from the inscribed basis, belongs essentially to a book de anathematis, and accordingly to Heliodoros, one of whose works specially described the monu- ments of the Athenian Akropolis (n-epi Tr\s 'ABrji/rjcnv aKpoTroX^as, fr. I—

3 Miiller). At the same time, it must be admitted that the story related in connexion with the monument has, in its Plinian form, a more imaginative flavour than we find in any of the accre- dited Heliodoran fragments or in those more recently recovered by Keil. It is possible, therefore, that only the kernel of the passage is Heliodoran, and that the anecdote itself was expanded under the influence of other sources ^

' "/• "'• P- 541- from the same source as Pliny, while

' loc. cit. The Heliodoran author- the words of Pausanias (i, 23, 2),

ship seems admitted by Gurlitt, Pau- ^€701 tk ovk Is avyypacpiiv irpoTipov

samas, p. 96. ij/covTa, seem to indicate that Pausanias

= It is noteworthy that the name of had the story merely from hearsay ;

Amphikrates is preserved only in moreover, he has no allusion to the

Pliny. As regards the mention of the animal's tonguelessness. The story,

statue and the anecdote attached without mention of the statue, recurs

thereto,Plut.,Gff>7-«/. 8, andPolyainos, once again in Pliny (vii, 87), and

Sirategem. viii, 45, appear to draw is told by Athen., xiii, 596 f.


PASITELES OF NAPLES ixxvii

We return to safer ground in the passage in Book xxxv, claimed for Heliodoros by Keil. He argues that the sentence (§ 134) pinxit (i. e. Aihenion) in templo Eleusine Phylarchum et Athenis frequentiam quam vocavere syngenicon is marked off from the rest of the account of Athenion's pictures by the careful notice of locality, a special Heliodoran characteristic, while the rest of the enumeration, being resumed with item, points to the juxta- position of different sources. Both the ' Phylarchos ' and the ' syngenicon,' moreover, being votive offerings, fall within the range of the de anathematis.

As already hinted, it seems probable that these additions from Heliodoros to the older text-books of Xenokrates and Antigonos were made by Pasiteles, the Plinian author whom we pass to consider next.

VI. Pasiteles of Naples.

This curiously many-sided man *, at once worker in marble, in ivory, and in bronze, who was a careful student of animal life, who modelled and chiselled, who could raise a chryselephantine statue or make the design for a silver mirror, and who was the master of a considerable school, is known to us only from Pliny and from one mention in Cicero {de Div. i, 36, 79). His date is given by the former (xxxiii, 156) as circa Pompei Magni (b. 108 B.C., murd. 48 B.C.) aetatem. He received the right of Roman citizenship in 88 b. c. (xxxvi, 40, where see Comm.), at a time when he had presumably attained to manhood ^ if not yet to fame. Of his five volumes concerning famous works of art [quinque volumina scripsit nobilium operum in toto orbe, xxxvi, 40) we may expect to find traces in Pliny's work, where a distinguished place is assigned to him in the Indices of authors : in the Indices to xxxiii and xxxv he heads the list of Greek writers, in the Index to xxxiv he closes it ; for xxxvi he appears as sole Greek authority. Brunn's researches have proved that a writer appearing in so prominent a position must be a main

See Jacobi, FleckdserCs Jahrb. 1873, ' The fullest account of Pasiteles

p. 367 f. ; Gurlitt, he. cit.\ Kalk- is still that of Kekule, ZJze C?-;.!//* (^ej

mann, Pausanias der Perieget, p. 52, Kiinstlers Menelaos, 1870, p. 11 ff. ;

note I ; Reisch, Weihgeschenke, p. 13, see also Helbig, Untersuchungen

note I. Grote {Ilist. iii, p. 332) Uber die campanische Wandtnalereij

inclined to accept the story of p. 10 f. ; Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis,

Leaina, but took no notice of the p. 26 f. monument. " Kekule, op. cit., p. 1 1 f.


Ixxviii INTRODUCTION

authority — yet there is no writer so difficult to lay a definite hold on as Pasiteles, when we come to analyze the Plinian text. The only passage (xxxvi, 40) where he was thought to be cited by name for an expression of opinion has fallen away before Furtwangler's criticism : the reading admiraior et Pasitelis must be restored in place of the unsatisfactory admiratur et Pasiteles of the editions '- The attempt of Brieger ^ to detect Pasitelean authorship in passages betraying periegetic interests or points of view, and that of Otto Jahn ' to detect it wherever a work of art was qualified by the epithet nobilis, have likewise been disposed of by Furtwangler, whose own association of Pasiteles, however, with all the more properly artistic criticism in Pliny is in- adequately based upon the fact that Pasiteles was an artist, since, as we have seen, he only shared that qualification with Xenokrates, Antigonos, and others. Nor are there any accredited fragments of his writings which could serve as clues. We are left, in order to account for his singular position in the Indices, with the sole alternative, already indicated by Brunn *, of accrediting him with a final and wholesale working up of the old Greek Treatises upon art into his own five volumes. That Pasiteles should thus have elected to return to the Treatises of Xenokrates and Antigonos, rather than apply himself to formulate fresh theories and judge- ments, accords admirably with his artistic leanings : he created no style of his own, but turned back to Greek models — at times simply copying them, at others adapting or combining them for the presentment of a new subject ". Even as we doubtless owe to him and his school ° not a few of those copies which have rescued Greek statues from complete oblivion, so we may owe it to his reverence for the art-literature of the Greeks that some part of it has filtered down to us through the subsequent medium of the Roman authors. Thus Varro, and Pliny after him, would quote, as their manner was, the names of Xenokrates,

' Furtwangler, Plinius und seine 1890), p. 134 f. ; Hauser, Die neu-

Quellen, p. 40 f. attischen Reliefs, p. 182 ; cf. the

' De Fontibiis, p. 36. interesting summary of Wollers,

' Kunsiurtheile,^. 12^. Jahrh. xi, 1896, p. 3 f, and now

  • Sitzungsberichte der Munchener Furtwangler, Staitienkopien im AUer-

Aiademie (phil.-hist. Classe), 1875, thum, p. S44 f.

P- 313- " For Stephanos, pupil of Pasi-

'- On this point see especially teles, and Menelaos.pupilof Stephanos,

Furtwangler, Eine argivische Bronze see Commentary on xxxvi, 33.

(50, Winckelmannsprogramm, Berlin,


PASITELES OF NAPLES Ixxix

of Antigonos, and other Greek writers, at second or third hand^ And that Pasiteles himself should chance not to be quoted in the actual text, for any of the additions which he made, is natural enough if we suppose that he gave merely an uncoloured enumeration of new material, unaccompanied by striking or disputable comment. For it is clear, if we inspect the cases in which authorities are cited in the Plinian text (xxxiv, 6i, 68, &c.), that the mention is in no wise determined by the modern conscientiousness in such matters — not even by a senti- ment of honour among thieves — but by the occasional wish to disclaim responsibility (cf. p. Ixvi). Pliny, at any rate, thought it sufficient to acknowledge the debt which he owed indirectly to Pasiteles, whom he found cited as main Greek authority in Varro, by assigning him the leading place in the Indices, a place corre- sponding to that which he doubtless occupied in the Varronian lists of Greek authors ^ Varro seems to have marked his debt to Pasiteles by a general complimentary allusion to his productiveness both as writer and artist (xxxvi, 40). The quae fecisse nominatim non refertur is an addition by Pliny, who, not seizing the precise intention of the passage, expected to find the works of Pasiteles enumerated singly in this particular connexion. He forgets that just above he has mentioned on Varro's authority the gold-ivory Jupiter in the temple of Metellus; Varro himself, who was a contemporary and possibly a friend of Pasiteles ', must have known his works well.

To Pasiteles, moreover, may be traced almost certainly one important extension of the original Greek treatises. These terminated, as we have seen (p. xxi), with 01. 121, a date which, though purely accidental, was accepted by subsequent writers

' That the name of Antigonos naeo — Menandris Prienaeo et Hera-

reached Pliny only through Pasiteles cleote with the Varronian item Am-

has been suggested by Wilamowitz, philochus Atheniensis . . . Menandri

Antigonos von Karystos, p. 7. duo unus Prienaeus alter Heracleotes.

^ For Pliny's method of compiling Brunn (de Indicibus, p. 48) coa-

long lists of authors from Varro see in jectures that the nine Greek writers

especial the Index to Book viii; it con- vepl fifXtTovpyixd, ladex to Book xi,

tains the names of twenty-nine Greek were taken straight over by Pliny

authors, not one of which is cited in from the lost work of Hyginus ; cf.

the text of the work ; they appear to also Brunn, p. 50, and F. Aly, Zur

have been taken bodily over from Varro, Quellenkritik des dlteren Plinius,

Re Rust. i. 1, 8, Pliny even adopt- 1885, p. 7 ff.

ing for a long stretch the same order ^ Kekule, p. 17. of enumeration ; cp. Amfhilocho Athe-


Ixxx INTRODUCTION

as the close of a period of art. It was probably Pasiteles who, while preserving this date as the lower chronological limit for Greek art, brought in the mention of the revival in 01. 156 (xxxiv, 52)^- This revival seems connected with the works of art and decorations executed for the buildings of Metellus, for which at a later date Pasiteles himself had made a Jupiter in ivory and gold. But if Pasiteles be the author of the additions to the chronology of the statuaries he must also be credited with the similar extension of the history of the painters, to include those who flourished from 01. 156 onwards (xxxv, 135) To the actual contents of the five volumes nobilium operum we have no clue, but from their number a certain .vidth of range may reasonably be argued. The design of Pasiteles was, we may conjecture, to give a general survey of all the arts of antiquity, rather than, like Xenokrates, to develop a definite scheme in relation to the department of art in which he was himself engaged, or which came within the sphere of his personal interest. We may therefore tentatively attribute to him — at any rate without violating any ascertained principle upon which he worked — the otherwise unallotted information in the early parts of xxxiv concerning bronze as used {a) for furniture, (b) for temple ornaments, (c) for statues of the gods, [d) for statues of mortals ; each category is linked to the following by the purely artificial conception of progress from the less to the more noble. Under these headings the Roman authors afterwards fitted in, as best they could, fresh material concerning Roman art, com- mitting themselves in the process to singular contradictions" Statuary proper, moreover, was further divided into colossal images and lesser images (§ 49). These artificial categories seem likely enough to have been adopted by Pasiteles as a convenient mode of tabulating his vast material. Thus he would further break up the old Greek Treatises into a chronological table and an alphabetical list (above, p. xxii), into which new names or works of special merit were introduced from Heliodoros ' or other sources, only the insignes being reserved for separate treatment. New lists were appended ; of these it is significant that the first comprises almost solely the names of artists who were also distinguished for their silver-chasing, a branch of

1 Munzer, op. cit., p. 538; cf. ^a>-£--4. p. 135, note i. Comm. on xxxiv, 52, 1. 4. » Cf. Miinzer, p. 501.

2 Munzer, I.e.; Robert, Arch. * Cf.B.KeU,^«/-»j«xxx,i895,p.226.


PASITELES OF NAPLES Ixxxi

art in which Pasiteles himself specially excelled. Indeed, with regard to the account of the silver-chasers themselves in xxxiii, 154-157, failing information concerning the unknown writers Menaichmos ^ and Menander , who appear as authorities in the Index to Bk. xxxiii, or any clue to guide us here to Antigonos, Pasiteles must, for the present, be accepted as authority for the whole passage, with the sole exception of the subsequent interpolations and additions commented upon in the notes.

In Bk. XXXV, again, it may be Pasiteles who divided the painters into two classes, according as they painted in tempera (53-111) or in wax by the process called encaustic (122-149), and who elaborated the curiously artificial theories (§ 149) as to its development. The latter recall the conventional notions of artistic progress unfolded at the commencement of Bk. xxxiv; they are equally devoid of that apprehension of a living growth within a living organism which, in spite of all blunderings, never seems to have deserted Xenokrates. In his written works, as in many of the copies of Greek statuary attributed to him, Pasiteles had caught the sense but not the spirit of the masters he so zealously emulated. Lastly, he arranged the painters of second rank (§§ 138-145), those of third rank (§ 146), and the women painters (§ 148) in three closing alphabetical lists.

That the account of modelling (xxxv, § 151 f.) went through his hands is clear from the exceeding stress he laid upon the indispensable function of modelling in every branch of the plastic arts ; his opinion on this subject, quoted by Varro, was probably the main addition Pasiteles made to the original Greek Treatise. That Pasiteles would leave the account of the modellers prefixed to that of the statuaries in bronze is evident from the connexion he established between the two, Jilasticen matrem caelaturae et statuariae sculpturaeque dixit. It has already been noted (p. xxxv) that the exigencies of his plan compelled Pliny to transfer the account to its present awkward position.

Pasiteles is the last writer upon art, properly so called, whose name meets us in the pages of Pliny. His comprehensive work proved not only a rich but a convenient store for the Roman encyclopaedists. Above all does he seem to have been excerpted

' Above, p. xl, note i.

Only known through Pliny ; cf. Susemihl, i, p. 524, note 47. f


Ixxxii INTRODUCTION

by Varro, whose extracts from Pasiteles, altered and re-adapted to his own purposes by Pliny, have thus survived down to our own day.


VII. Varro (116-28 li. c.)— Cornelius IVepos (circ. 99-24 b. c.)— Fabius Vestalis.

The first step in Plinian criticism went from Pliny back to Varro as authority for the bulk of the history upon art. In the light of a clearer analysis, Varro has fallen again into a subor- dinate place, overshadowed no longer indeed by his debtor Pliny, but by those earlier authorities to whom he was in his turn indebted. By the emergence now into a certain definiteness of the Greek authorities : of Xenokrates and Duris, with their very distinctive histories, the one of art, the other of the artists ; of Antigonos in whom this uncongenial and even antagonistic material was worked up into a singular union ; and of Pasiteles, who yet further manipulated, rearranged, and amplified it, the Roman Varro is reduced from his position as authority to the humbler office of final intermediary. Though he is undoubtedly the author whom Pliny quotes most frequently in his account of the Artists ^, as generally throughout the Historia Naturalis, yet any discussion of his literary or scientific personality would be foreign to the present enquiry^. It is perhaps fortunate for his great reputation that so few of his voluminous writings have survived : the criticism of their comparatively meagre fragments will, for the world at large, always be outmatched by that picture of his learning which we owe to the genius of Cicero {Acad. Post, i, 3, 9), who as a fact neither loved nor admired him, but who, in order to secure by a counter-compliment the gratification of his own vanity, was ready to flatter the ttoKv- ypa(j)ii>Taros homo " Neither in the great list of his works preserved by Jerome, nor outside it, do we come upon traces of any work exclusively devoted to the history of art. The probability is that in the case of Varro, as in that of Pliny, this history formed but

1 xxxiv, 56; XXXV, 113, 136, 154, sen, vol. Ill, p. 602 ff. On Varro's

J55 ff- ; xxxvi, 14, 17, 39, 41 ; cf. compilatory methods see the just

Furtwangler, Flinius, p. 56 ff. estimate of G. Boissier, £tude sur

' For Varro, see especially Teuffel, la vie et Us ouvrages de Varron, p.

Geschichte der Romischen Literatur, 27 ff. 5§ 164-169, and the sketch in Momm- * Cic. Ep. ad Att. xiii, 18.


VARRO Ixxxiii

an episode of a larger work, such for instance as the section on 'Human Affairs' in the 'Antiquities.' Further, we know from extant fragments ^ that various notices of artists were scattered up and down a number of Varro's lesser works.

It only remains to indicate the few and comparatively insigni- ficant passages which we know, in most cases from Pliny's express mention of him, to be in a more special sense Varronian, for which Varro is, so far as we know, the final and sole authority. Even these I shall be content to summarize very briefly, apologizing for a brevity that may seem disproportioned by reminding the reader that till lately the disproportion has been all to the score of Varro, and that as a fact the value of the Plinian sources increases in the order, not of their nearness to Pliny, but of their approach to the distant fountain-head.

Varro seems occasionally, as in the passage (xxxiv, 6g) on Praxiteles, to have modified and doctored the Greek account (above, p. xxii) so as to suit the Roman taste. Occasionally also he brought in parenthetical scraps of interesting or curious infor- mation; for instance, to the statement in xxxvi, § 14, that the archaic sculptors worked in marble he tacked on the truly Varronian etymology of the word lychnites (see Comm.). For the rest, his additions mostly express his personal opinion, or retail his personal knowledge, in many cases, of contemporaries. Thus from PUny's paraphrase we learn that to the account he borrowed from his Greek authors of the Nemesis at Rhamnous (xxxvi, 1 7) he added a sentence expressive of his own admiration of the statue, which he had doubtless seen during his stay at Athens. Thus too his mention of the lady artist laia of Kj'zikos, a friend of his youth, is adjoined to the lists of women painters (xxxv, 147). In like manner he praises the marvellously naturalistic modelHng of fruits by another acquaintance, Possis (ib. 155); this is followed (}b. 15s) by the laudatory notice of the friend of Lucullus, the Athenian Arkesilaos— who may well have been known to Varro — and of Pasiteles (above, p. Ixxix). Further, it appears from § 154 that he had combined the Greek account of modelling, as he took it from Pasiteles, with some account of the art in Rome, and in this same connexion of modelling, though scarcely in its present context, he had given yet another reminiscence of his Athenian

■ When the whole of the Varronian siderable traces of lost Greek writings fragments dealing with art-questions are certain to be revealed; see e.g. are collected and analyzed, con- Ling. Lat.'vii,^,\2; ■ib.Sx.,\i.

fa


Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION

visit in his explanation of the term Ceramicus. Two statements are still more closely personal : he mentioned that he had once possessed (habuisse) a bronze figure by the silver-chaser Mentor (xxxiii, 154), and a marble group of a Lioness and Cupids by Arkesilaos (xxxvi, 41). From his use of the past tense it has been justly surmised that Varro had lost these treasures at the time of the proscriptions of b. c. 43.

It is evident that Varro is the authority for both the genre pictures by Peiraikos and the huge pictures by Serapion, as well as for the portraits by Dionysios (xxxv, 113, 114). All three artists are placed antithetically to one another, and moreover, as we learn from § 148, they were evidently all three contemporaries of Varro. Upon these follows the mention of Kalates, a painter only once again mentioned in literature, namely in Varro's Life of the Roman People (fr. i Keil). Lastly, it is at least a signi- ficant coincidence that, while the pictures of Antiphilos mentioned by Pliny {ib. § 1 14) were either inside or in the neighbourhood of the Gallery of Pompeius, the same painter is mentioned in Varro's Treatise on Rustic Affairs (iii, 2, 5), in that part of the dialogue which is supposed to take place b. c. 54, a few months after the dedication of the theatre and the Gallery of Pompeius in the Field of Mars ^- It shows, at any rate, that Varro, writing after his eightieth year, was still interested in the pictures of the Egyptian painter, whom he may have discussed in a previous work.

To Varro likewise Pliny owes, as appears from xxxv, 136, a number of notices of the high prices paid for works of art — mostly pictures. Varro had apparently collected together from his Greek authors a number of these instances, and had at the same time given, for the benefit of Roman readers, the Roman equivalent of the Greek talent : hence the takntum Atticum ^VI taxat M. Varro {loc. cit.) of Pliny. Three of the works of art which obtained specially high prices are mentioned together in vii, 126 (where, however, there is no reference to Varro's evaluation of the talent), and again separately at different parts of the account of the painters: thus the price paid by Attalos for the ' Dionysos ' of Aristeides of Thebes is given again twice in xxxv, 24 and 100; the price, 'its weight in gold,' of the picture by Boularchos, ib. 55 ; lastly, the price paid by Caesar for the 'Aias' and the ' Medeia ' of Timomachos, ib. 136". To these

' Miinzer, p. 541. 2 Miinzer, /. c.


MUCIANUS Ixxxv

undoubted instances of Varronian authorship I incline to add as a fourth the notice of the price paid for the ' Diadumenos ' of Polykleitos (xxxiv, 55).

Cornelius Nepos, who at one time (e. g. Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 25) was credited with the anecdotic portions in Pliny, which recent criticism has gradually but surely traced back to Duris, is mentioned in xxxv, 16 as Pliny's authority for the existence of an early Greek painter Ekphantos, who accompanied the Corinthian Damaratos in his flight to Italy. Presumably, therefore, Pliny also obtained from him the mention of the Corinthian potters, also companions of Damaratos (ib. 152). These extracts may be from the same work of Nepos, dealing apparently with Roman customs, from which Pliny has citations in other parts of the Historia (ix, 61, 136 ; x, 60, &c.) '.

For Fabius Vestalis, qui de pidura scripsit (Index, xxxv), and who possibly had also written on statuary and sculpture, since he figures in the Indices to xxxiv and xxxvi, not even the acuteness of Miinzer has been able to recover one single fragment out of the Plinian history. He is entirely unknown^, save for the references in Pliny ' (see Addenda).

VIII. G. Licinius Mucianus (date of birth unknown ; died before B. c. 77, cf Plin. xxxii, 62). To the History of the Artists which he borrowed from Varro, Pliny made one notable group of additions from the work in which his contemporary G. Licinius Mucianus, ter consul'^, had published the more or less trustworthy observations compiled during a prolonged sojourn in the East. These additions concern the works of art of the coast cities of Asia-Minor and the adjacent islands, a region that had practically lain outside the ken of the Greek art-writers Xenokrates (cf p. xxi) and Antigonos , and after them of Pasiteles ^

' Miinzer, p. 542 f. ' We must except, of course, the

^ Teuffel, § 267, II. traditions derived by Antigonos from

' Indices, vii, xxxiv-xxxvi ; cf. vii, Duris concerning the island-schools

213. of the Aegean.

  • Cited Indices to xxxi, xxxiii, ^ Pasiteles, so far as we can tell,

xxxv, xxxvi, and repeatedly in the seems not to have enlarged the geogra- body of the Historia (see Detlefsen's phical range of his predecessor, except

Index). for the notice of the Greek artists in


Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION

Mucianus, coming from the South ', would first encounter .the civilization of the Aegean in Rhodes (v, 132 ; xix, 12 ; xxxiv, 36) ; of the islands which he visited, Delos (iv, 66), Syros {ib. 67), and Andros (ii, 231) lay furthest to the West, Samothrake (xi, 167) to the North ; along the coast proper he came at least as far as Kyzikos (xxxi, 19). Pliny not unfrequently introduces the notices of works of art extant within this geographical district by such words as hodie or nunc, showing that he is quoting from a con- temporary or recent authority. Finally, we have also to guide us, in our search for the information borrowed by Pliny from Mucianus, our knowledge of the man's superstitious credulousness, of his keen interest for everything marvellous or miraculous". The greater number of the additions to be traced back to Mucianus have been detected by Leopold Brunn in an exhaustive dissertation', and accepted as Mucianian by the later com- mentators of Pliny *. The following list of the passages derived from Mucianus in the art-books follows a geographical order from south to north.

I. Rhodes.

LiNDOS. That Mucianus visited its temple of Athena and noted its treasures and curiosities in detail, appears from xix, 12, where Pliny, specially using the word nuperrime, describes on the authority of Mucianus the cuirass of the Egyptian king Amasis, there preserved ; each thread in this cuirass was composed of three hundred and sixty-five strands ; Pliny adds that Mucianus, who had verified the fact, had remarked that ' almost nothing was left of the cuirass owing to these frequent verifications ^' Hence the following descriptions of works of art in the same temple of Lindos have been justly referred to him °-

I. xxxiii, 81 : a cup, with the strange story attached to it that

Rome employed on the buildings of ' De C. Licinio Muciano, Diss.,

Metellus. Leipzig, 1870.

' Miinzer, op. cit., p. 544. ' Cf. Furtwangler, Plinius und

'^ E. g. he was in the habit of wearing seine Quellen, pp. 52-56; Oehmichen,

rotind his neck a fly tied up in a linen Plinianische Studien, pp; 141-149. rag as a remedy against ophthalmia, "... Quod se expertum nuperrime

Plin. xxviii, 5. I am not concerned prodidit Mucianus ter cos., paruasque

here to reconcile such statements with iatn, reliquias eius superesse hoc ex-

the glowing tributes paid to Mucianus perientium iniuria, by Tacitus (Hist, i, 10; ii, 5, &c.). « First by Brieger, de Fontibus,

For an estimate of Mucianus see p. 59 ff. especially Teuffel, § 314.


MUCIANUS Ixxxvii

it was dedicated by Helena, who had moulded it on her breasts. (L. Brunn, 43.)

2. xxxiii, 155: silver cups chased by Boethos, the hodie showing that Pliny was quoting from a contemporary authority. (L. Brunn, 44.)

Rhodes (city): 3. xxxiii, 155: silver cups chased by Akragas and Mys. (L. Brunn, 44.)

4. xxxiv, 36 : Rhodi etiamnum LXXIII signorum esse Mucianus ter COS. prodidit. (L. Brunn, 12.)

5. lb. 41, 42 : the description of the colossus of Rhodes (L. Brunn, 45) ; it evidently rests on the testimony of an eye- witness, and the delighted insistence on the marvellous appearance {miraculo est) of the fallen colossus, and its size and its cost, betrays the special bent of Mucianus '.

6. lb. § 42 : Sunt alii centum numero in eadem urbe colossi minores (L. Brunn, 45) ; the words are inseparable from the notices of the large colossus, and moreover recall xxxvi, 37.

7. xxxv, 69 : the picture by Parrhasios of Meleager, Herakles, and Perseus, thrice struck by lightning and yet not effaced — }wc ipso miraculum auget — (L. Brunn, 46), the insistence upon the miracle being thoroughly after the manner of Mucianus.

8. To the seven passages on Rhodian works of art, which critics agree in tracing back to Mucianus, should be added the mention in xxxiv, 63, of the chariot of the Sun by Lysippos, in primis vero quadriga cum Sole Rhodiorum ^.

II. Knidos.

9. xxxvi, 20, 21: description of the Aphrodite of Knidos ; it is that of an eye-witness, who is interested neither in the motive nor technique of the statue, but whose tourist's curiosity was roused by the story of King Nikomedes, by the tradition that the artist had made two rival statues, the one draped, the other not, and finally by the anecdote of the statue's lover '-

10. lb.: Sunt in Cnido et alia signa marmorea inlustrium artificum — inseparable from the preceding notice of the Aphrodite ; cf. above, 6 and 5 '

' Brieger, I.e. ' The passage first referred to

^ Miinzer (p. 504) correctly omits Mucianus by Furtwangler, op. cit.,

it from the original Xenokratic list p. 53 f. ; cf. Oehmichen, of. cit.,

of Lysippian works, but makes no p. 148.

further suggestion as to its authorship. * Furtwangler, /. c.


Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION

III. Halikarnassos.

11. xxxvi, 30, 31 : description of the Mausoleion; it resembles in character that of the Knidian Aphrodite ; the size, the beauty, and the labour expended upon the monument are described, but nothing is said of the subject presented ; the words hodieque certant manus point to a contemporary authority ^-

IV. Miletos.

12. xxxiv, 75: Apollo of Kanachos, with the wonderful stag. That this is an addition to the original Greek account of the artist has already been pointed out (above, p. xxii) ; the periegetic character of the description, and the insistence upon trivial pecu- liarities which were perhaps only the result of accident^, are characteristic of Mucianus '.

V. Samos.

13. XXXV, 93 : portrait of Habron by Apelles *.

VI. Ephesos.

14. xxxvi, 95 : description of Temple of Artemis; it is evidently from the same hand as xvi, 213 (= App. IV), where Mucianus is quoted by name. Besides, the description bears the same character as that of the Mausoleion (No. 11) : the interest of the describer centred in the wonder of the foundations, in the size and number of the columns, and in the apparition of the goddess to the tired artist.

15. lb. 32 : the Hekate, against whose radiance the guardians of the temple advised visitors to shade their eyes. (L. Brunn, 51.)

16. XXXV, 92 : the portrait of Alexander by Apelles; the descrip- tion seems by Mucianus; the price of the work is dwelt upon, and the motive of the thunderbolt mentioned only because digiti eminere videntur et fulmen extra tabulatn esse. (L. Brunn, 53.)

17. XXXV, 93: picture of the procession of a Megabyzos by Apelles. (L. Brunn, 53.)

1 First attributed to Mucianus by conversation, first suggested to me

Furtwangler, /. c. that the puzzling Plinian description

" See note on passage. Ernest of the stag was a periegetic fable In-

Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculp- vented out of some trivial failure in

ture, p. 194, note i, hints at the same the casting.

possibility. If my memory serves me = Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, p.

right, it was Mr. A. S. Murray who, 142 f.

some years ago, in the course of ' Oehmichen, p. 146.


MUCIANUS Ixxxix

i8. lb. 129 : picture of the Madness of Odysseus by Euphranor ; Mucianus interpreted the action of Palamedes differently to other authorities ^ (see Comm.).

19. lb. 131 : grave picture of a priest of Artemis by Nikias. (L. Brunn, 54.)

20. xxxiv, 58 : Apollo by Myron, taken away by Antonius and restored to the Ephesians by Augustus, in obedience to a dream. Miinzer (p. 544) has astutely detected the apocryphal character of a story invented by a jealous priesthood in emulation of their Samian neighbours. (See Comm. on pass.)

VII. Smyrna.

21. xxxvi, 32 : the drunken old woman by Myron (for the epithet ebria, see Comm.) .

VIII. lasos.

22. xxxvi, 12 : Artemis, by the sons of Archermos ° j evidently from the same writer as following fragment ^

IX. Chios.

23. Ib.\T,: mask of Artemis by the same artists ; the Mucianian character patent in the description of the face, which appears sad to those who enter the temple, gay to those who leave it.

X. Pergamon.

From xxxvi, 131 we learn that Mucianus was in that region; accordingly we should perhaps refer to him the notices concerning Pergamene art. These are foreign to the original treatises (above, p. xxi) : Xenokrates lived too early to take Pergamon into account ; Antigonos, although himself one of the artists employed by the Pergamene kings (xxxiv, 84), accepted the chronological hmit of the Xenokratic Treatises. Pasiteles did the same, marking his only addition to the chronology as a 'Revival' (above, p. Ixxix f.). It only remains to conjecture that Pliny took from Mucianus his descriptions of Pergamene works '"-

' Rightly attributed to Mucianus by ' Oehmichen, p. 147 ; cf. Miinzer,

Oehmichen,/.c., asagainstFurtwangler of.cit., p. 525, note i. (p. 44), who gave the passage to * That Mucianus visited lasos

Pasiteles. appears from ix, 33.

"^ Cf. Furtwangler, op. cit., p. 54. * Cf. Miinzer, op. cit., p. 544.


xc INTRODUCTION

24. xxxiv, 84 : Plures artifices . . . Aniigonus ; the words ^ui volumina condidit de sua arte may be an addition of Pliny's own.

25. XXXV, 60 : Aiax fulmine incensus by Apollodoros, the hodie pointing clearly to a contemporary authority'. (Oehmichen, 71.)

26. xxxvi, 24: the 'symplegma' by Kephisodotos, with the epigram attached thereto. (Oehmichen, 81.)

XI. Samothrake. From xi, 167 it appears that Mucianus visited this island; hence we may refer to him :

27. xxxvi, 25 : an Aphrodite and Pothos by Skopas ; the words sandissimis caerimoniis coluntur are characteristic of the pious and superstitious Mucianus. (Oehmichen, 78.)

XII. Parian.

28. xxxiv, 78 : Herakles by Hagesias (Oehmichen, 67). That this is an addition to the early Greek account was pointed out above, p. xxiv. Parion, moreover, only became a colonia under Augustus (see Comm.). It was not known as such to Varro, who only refers to it as Parion (cf. vii, 13, in Hellesponto circa Parium, on the authority of Varro) ; thus Mucianus remains the only one of the Plinian authors known to have visited this region at a time when it would be generally described as P. colonia.

29. xxxvi, 22 : nude Eros by Praxiteles in Pario colonia, with the story of its lover Alketas of Rhodes, closely resembling the story of the lover of the Knidian Aphrodite. (Oehmichen, 68.)

XIII. Lysimacheia.

30. xxxiv, 56 : a Hermes by Polykleitos, no longer extant when Mucianus visited the city '.

This bald list serves to indicate the immediate indebtedness of Pliny to Mucianus, but there arises the further question whence Mucianus derived his own information. That he relied in great measure, perhaps mainly, on the tales of ciceroni, is evident from the nature of what he relates. Yet in some cases, e. g. in the description of the Mausoleion, or of the colossus of Rhodes, he

1 Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 53. city which lay in the route of Mucianus

= First attributed to Mucianus by —must be referred to this author : ' it

Munzer, op. cit., p. 535. In a private has all the characteristic signs :

note Miinzer further points out to me personal observation and interest in

that the description of the temple of the miraculous.'

Erythreia (xi, in, and xxxv, 161) — a


ROMAN MUSEOGRAPHY xci

doubtless had handbooks which informed him of such details as price and size, or gave the names of the artists employed. To ascertain what these handbooks may have been, and whether fragments of Greek writings other than those of the Xenokrates- Antigonos-Pasiteles group reached Pliny through Mucianus, is a task which lies outside the compass of the present essay.


IX. Fliny's mvn additions. — Roman Museography. Retrospect.

Besides the Varronian additions to the material derived from the Greek art-treatises, and besides the material which he derived inde- pendently from Varro, Pliny enriched his account of the artists by notices concerning the locality in Rome of a number of Greek works. It is well known that in the days of Pliny, and already long before his time, Rome displayed within her galleries, her temples, and her public places an unrivalled collection of works of art, gathered together from every part of the Hellenic world. From the day when Marcellus had first induced the Romans to admiration of Greek art by displaying the spoils of Syracuse \ down to that crowning day of a triple triumph when Caesar Augustus cele- brated his victory over the last of the Hellenic powers ", statues and other works of art had come to be as much a part of the pageantry of triumphs as captives or military booty ^ The solemn dedication of these objects in some public building was the natural sequel of the triumphal procession. The great generals of the Republic *, and after them the Emperors '^, had shown themselves zealous for the preservation and arrangement of these collections. Only a short while before Pliny compiled

' Liv. XXV, 40 ; see Comm. on cf. Comm. on xxxiv, 54, the statues

XXXV, 24, 1. 16. dedicated by Catulns in the temple

^ In 23 B. c. ; for the works of art of the Fortune of the Day, and on

brought to Rome from Alexandria, xxxiv, 77, the Minerva dedicated by

see Wunderer, Manibiae Alexan- Q. Lutatius Catulus below the

drinae. Capitol.

^ So much so that works of art * E. g. Gallery of Octavius, xxxiv,

were even displayed in triumphs over 13 ; Gallery of Pompeius, xxxv, 114,

barbaric and Western nations; the 126,132.

art booty acquired from Macedonia by ° E. g. Gallery of Octavia, xxxiv,

Aemilius Paullus, for instance, seems 31 ; xxxv, 139 ; xxxvi, 24, 35, &c. ;

to have formed an inexhaustible mine and consult the Museographic Index

whence other conquerors could draw ; (ii).


xcii INTRODUCTION

his history of the artists, his patron Vespasian had opened the great Temple of Peace, destined with its surrounding Forum ^ to receive, alongside the treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem, those Greek masterpieces which the greed of Nero had gathered within the Golden House ^- The pages of Pliny are certainly the richest mine of information concerning the art treasures of Rome. Owing, moreover, to his preference for books over personal observation of actual fact, Pliny not unfrequently records the locality of works of art which had disappeared in his day '. Yet a dis- cussion of the sources whence Pliny obtained his museographic information, though of matchless interest for the study of Roman history and topography, lies entirely outside an inquiry concerned with the Greek element in Pliny. It suffices to point out that Pliny doubtless had straight from Varro (p. Ixxxiii f.) most of the Roman notices relating to events up to the close of the Republic ; that for the Early Empire, up to the reign of Nero, he may have borrowed from authors such as Deculo * or Fenestella ^ ; while his allusions to Nero ", and his eulogies of the Flavian Emperors, and of the works of art in their possession ', were probably part of the material he had himself compiled for his own History of Rome, a work embracing the period from the accession of Nero to the Judaic triumph of Vespasian and Titus *.

It is little or nothing, then, of intrinsic importance from our point of view, that Pliny added to the Greek Treatises as he found them excerpted in Varro. At most does he bring the information thus derived from the Greeks into consonance with the taste of his day by occasional flashes of rhetoric, such as the repeated lament over the decay of art ' ; his outburst of admira- tion at the power of art, which ' could turn the eyes of the Senate of the Roman people for so many years upon Glaukion and his

' xxxiv, 84. evidently from the same source as

^ ib- the mention of the ' Archigallus '

' This remark applies to a great loved by Tiberins, in xxxv, 70 ; see

portion of the Roman statues men- Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, p. 123.

tioned in the earlier part of xxxiv. * Cf. Oehmichen, op. cit. p. 125.

Cf. also xxxiv, 69 (statues by Praxi- ° xxxiv, 45, 48, 63, 84; xxxv, 51,

teles which had stood in front of 91, 120, &c.

the Temple of Felicity) ; xxxv, 99, ' See especially xxxiv, 84 ; the

the Dionysos and Ariadne of Aris- appreciation of the astragalhontes

teides. belonging to Titus in xxxiv, 55, and

  • From whom he had the anecdote of the Laocoon in xxxvi, 37.

of Tiberius' passion for the Apoxyo- ° Praef. Hist. Nat. 20.

menos of Lysippos, xxxiv, 62 ; it is « Cf. xxxiv, 5 ff. ; xxxv, 4,39.


PLINY'S ADDITIONS xciii

son Aristippos, persons otherwise quite obscure ' ; ' his simulated indignation at the cruelty of Phalaris^; and his allusion to the present merited dishonour of that Carthaginian Hercules to whom human victims had once been offered up ^

In estimating Pliny's account of the artists we must never forget that it was inserted into the Historia Naturalis as a digres- sion, which was artificially linked to the history of mineralogy on the pretext of the materials employed. In doing this Pliny was responding rather to the curiosity of his time in artistic matters * than following any special inclination of his own. If Pliny cared for art at all, it was only for its most realistic and imitative aspects. He admires the brutal realism of the dog licking her wounds ^ and in the workshop of Zenodoros his enthusiasm is roused by the colossal model which, even when covered with its wax tubings, betrayed an extraordinary likeness to Nero°. Occasionally too — and we may pay this tribute to our author as we take our leave of him — we seem to detect that, if he appears too often as an indiscriminating compiler, this is not so much through total lack of the critical faculty as through lack of time. At least he does not omit to rail at those critics who ascribed to Polykleitos (the elder namesake being the only Polykleitos known to him) the statue of Hephaistion, the friend of Alex- ander, although Hephaistion had lived nearly one hundred years after the artist', while in xxxiv, 79 he expresses by a vigorous turn of phrase his astonishment at finding Daidalos, whom in his hurry he confuses with the old Homeric craftsman, figuring among the artists of the historic age*. Yet the critical note is rare, and, in the larger inquiry concerning the sources whence Pliny drew, his own estimate of these sources appears but as a trivial accident.

Thus the tendency of modern research is to lessen more and more the importance of Pliny's personal contribution in his account of the artists, as indeed in the whole of his great work. Yet, by a singular irony, the fundamental faults of his work have bestowed upon it a permanent value. He has given us what is better than any original criticism which his century could have produced — a short compilation which is, to borrow the word he

' XXXV, 38. in Plutarch treating of art.

xxxiv, 89. ^ xxxvi, 39. « xxxiv, 38. ° ib. 45-46.

  • Cf. Bertrand, £tudes, p. 329 ff., ' ib. 64.

and his remarks, ib., on the passages * ib. 76.


xciv INTRODUCTION

applies to the whole Historia, the ' storehouse ' or thesaurus wherein are consigned fragments from the lost text-books of Xenokrates, from the Biographies of Duris and Antigonos, nay, priceless sayings that had filtered through the ages from the very writings of Apelles and Pamphilos \

' A short but admirably just estimate of the precise value of Pliny's work is given by J. W. Mackail, Latin Literature, 1895, P" ^97-


BIBLIOGRAPHY ^


Editions. Barbarus, Rome, 1492 ; Dalecampius, Lyons, 1586 ; Gro- Novius, Leiden, 1669; Harduinus, Paris, 1686; Sillig, Gotha, 1853-55; LuDwiG VON Jan, Leipzig, 1854-65; Detlefsen, Berlin, 1866-1873; Urlichs, Chrestomathia Pliniana, Berlin, 1857 ; Littre (Text and Trans- lation), Paris, 1883.

Amelung, Walther : Die Basis des Praxiteles aus Mantinea

(Munich, 1895). Arndt-Bruckmann : Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker

Sculpturen (Munich, 1893, &c.). Babelon: Monnaies de la Rdpuhlique Romaine (Paris, 1885, 1886);

Cabinet des Antiques d, la Bibliothique Nationale (Paris, 1887). Baumeister : Denkmdler des Klassischen Alterthums (Munich

and Leipzig, 1885-1888). Becker, W. A. : RSmische Topographie (being the first vol. of

Handbuch der rSm. Alterthiimer, Leipzig, 1843). Berger, Ernst : Eeitrdge zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Maler-

technik (I and II, Munich, 1893 and 1895). Bergk: Poetae Lyrici Graeci (ed. 4, Leipzig, 1878-82). Bernoulli, J. J. : RSmische Ikonographie (Stuttgart, 1882-1894). Bertrand, Edouard : Etudes sur la Peinture et la Critique d'Art

dans r Antiquiti (Paris, 1893). Blumner : Technologie und Terminologie der Gewerbe tend Kiinste

bei den Griechen und Romern (Leipzig, 1 875-1 887). Brunn, Heinrich : Geschichte der Griechischen Kunstler (Brunswick,

1853 and 1859 ; the second edition, Stuttgart, 1889, is merely a

reprint of the first) =^.C

' Only the most important works and those most constantly cited in the notes are given. The bibliography of the Plinian sources will be found on p. XT f. of the Introduction.


xcvi BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brunn-Bruckmann : Denkmdler Grieckischer -und Romischer

Scul^tur (Munich, 1888-1895). COLLIGNON, M. : Histoire de la Sculpture Grecque (vol. I, Paris, 1892)

—Sculpt. Grecque. CuRTius, Ernst : Stadtgeschichte von Athen (Berlin, 1891). Detlefsen: De Arte Romanorum antiquissima (I, II, III, Gluck-

stadt, 1867, 1868, 1880). DiTTENBERGER AND PuRGOLD : Die Inschriften von Olympia

(Berlin, 1896). FiCK, A. : Die GriecMschen Personennamen (second edition, Gottingen,

1894). FORSTER, G. H. : Die Sieger in den Olympischen Spielen (I, II,

Zwickau, 1891, 1892). Frankel, Max : Die Inschriften von Pergamon (Berlin, 1890). Freeman, E.: History of Sicily (Oxford, 1891-1894). Friederichs-Wolters : Die GipsabgUsse antiker Bildwerke (Berlin,

1885). Furtwangler, a. : Der Domauszieherund der Knabe mit der Gans

(Berlin, 1876). Die Sammlung Sabouroff(^tr\m, 1883, 1887).

Meisterwerke der GriecMschen Plastik (Leipzig — Berlin, 1893).

Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture, ed. by E. Sellers London,

189s).

Statuenkopien im Alterthum (Munich, 1896).

Gardner, E. A. : A Handbook of Greek Sculpture (London, 1896). Gardner, P. : The Types of Greek Coins (Cambridge, 1883). Gardner, P., and Imhoof-Blumer : A Numismatic Commentary

on Pausanias (London, 1887, reprinted from Journal of Hellenic

Studies).

Gardthausen, V. : Augustus und seine Zeit (Leipzig, 1891, 1896).

Gilbert, Otto : Geschichte und Topographie derStadtRom (Leipzig, 1883-1890).

GURLITT, W. : Ueber Pausanias (Graz, 1890).

Hartwig, Paul : Die GriecMschen Meisterschalen (Stuttgart and Beriin, 1893).

Head, B. V. : Guide to the Coins of the Ancients (second edition, London, 1881).

IjELBIG: Wandgemalde der vom Vesuv verschiltteten Stddte Cam- paniens (Leipzig, 1868)= Wandgem.

Untersuchungen iiber die Campanische Wandmalerei (Leipzig,

1873) = Untersuch.


BIBLIOGRAPHY xcvii

Helbig : Guide to the Public Collections of Classical Antiquities in Rome, English ed. by James, F., and Findlay Muirhead (Leipzig, l89S) = C/aw. Ant.

HiLLER VON Gaertringen : Inscriptiones Graecae Insularum Rhodi, Chalces, Carpathi cum Saro Casi (Berlin, 1895).

HITZIG AND Blumner : Pausaniae Graeciae descriptio (I, I Attica,

Berlin, 1896). Holland, Philemon : The Historie of the World, commonly called

the Natural Historie of C. Plinius Secundus (London, 1635). JACOBI, Franz : GrundzUge einer Museographie der Stadt Rom zur

Zeit des Kaisers Augustus (Part I, Spires, 1884). Jahn, Otto : Kleine Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Alien Literatur

(in Sachsische Berichte, Leipzig, 1857, p. 284). Jordan, H. : Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alterthum (1871-1885). KiEPERT, H., ET Huelsen, Ch. : Formae Urbis Romae Antiquae

(Berlin, 1896). Kroker, E. : Gleichnamige Griechische Kiinstler {L€\^z\%, 1883). KUHNERT, E. : Statue und Ort in ihrem Verhdltniss bei den Griechen

(in the Jahrbiicher f. Classische Philologie, Supplementband xiv,

Leipzig, 1884). KiJLB, H. : C. Plin. Secundus Naiurgeschichte Ubersetzt underldutert

von . . . (Stuttgart). Lange, Julius : Fremstilling of Menneskeskikkelsen i dens aeldeste

Periode indtil H-oj depunktet af den graeske Kunst (Kopenhagen,

1892). LOEWY, E. : Untersuchttngen zur Griechischen Kiinstlergeschichte

(Vienna, 188$)= Untersuch.

Inschriffen Gfiechischer Rildhauer (LeiTpzig, i8Zc,)=I.G.B.

Marquardt : Privatleben der Romer (Leipzig, 1886).

Romische Staatsverwaltung (Leipzig, 1894).

Mayhoff : Lucubrationes Plinianae (1865).

Novae Lucubrationes Plinianae (1874).

MOMMSEN, Th. : Romische Geschichte (7th edition, Berlin, 1882). Res Gestae divi Augusti (Berlin, 1883).

Romisches Staatsrecht (Leipzig, 1887, 1888).

Romische Forschungen (Berlin, 1864).

Geschichte des Romischen Miinzwesens (Berlin, i860).

MtJLLER, J. : Der Stil des dlteren Plinius (Innsbruck, 1883). MlJLLER, Ottfried : Handbuch der Archaeologie der Kunst (third

edition, by Welcker ; Stuttgart, 1878). Murray, A. S. : A Handbook of Greek Archaeology (London, 1892).

S


xcviii BIBLIOGRAPHY

Otto : Sprichworter der Romer (Leipzig, 1890).

OvERBECK : Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der Bildenden Kiinste bei

den Griechen (Leipzig, 1 868) = 5. Q. Pauly : Real-Encyclopddie (new edition, by G. Wissowa, Stuttgart,

1893- )• Preger : Inscriptiones Graecae Meiricae ex scriptoribus praeter

Anthologiam collectae (Leipzig, 1891). Preller : Romische Mythologie (third edition, by H. Jordan, Berlin,

1881).

Griechische Mythologie (fourth edition, by C. Robert, Berlin,

1894). Raoul-Rochette : Peintures antiques inddites (Paris, 1836). Reinach, S. : Chroniques d'Orient (1883-1895, reprinted from Revue Arch^ologique).

AntiquiUs du Bospkore Cimmirien (Paris, 1892).

Bronzes figurds de la Gaule Romaine (Paris, 1 894).

Reisch, Emil: Griechische IVeihgeschenie (Leipzig, 1890). Robert, C. : Bild und Lied (Berlin, 1881).

Die lliupersis des Polygnot, Halle'sches Winckelmannspro-

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Die Marathonschlachtin der Poikile, und weiteresiiber Polygnot,

Halle'sches Winckelmannsprogramm xviii, 1895.

Votivgemdlde eines Apobaten nebst einem Excurs iiber den sog.

Ares Borghese, Halle'sches Winckelmannsprogramm xix, 1895.

ROSCHER, W. H. : Lexikon der Griechischen utid Romischen Mytho- logie (Leipzig, 1884- ).

V. Schneider, Robert : Album auserlesener Gegenstdnde der antiken Sammlungen des allerh. Kaiserhauses (Vienna, 1895).

Schreiber, Theodor: Die AlexandrinischeToreutik {Leipzig, 1894).

Hellenistische Reliefbilder {Leipzig, 1894).

SiLLlG, Julius : Dictionary of the Artists of Antiquity (trans, by

H. W. Williams, London, 1837). SUSEMIHL : Geschichte der Griechischen Literatur in der Alexan-

drinerzeit (I, H, Leipzig, 1891, 1892).

Teuffel : Geschichte der Romischen Literatur (fifth edition, by L. Schwabe, Leipzig, 1890).

TURNEBUS: Adversariorum libriiaa (Paris, 1580). Urlichs, Ludwig v. -. Anfdnge der Griechischen Kunstlergeschichte (Wiirzburg, 1871, 1872).

Die Malerei in Rom vor Caesar's Dictatur (Wiirzburg, 1876).


BIBLIOGRAPHY xcix

Uruchs, Ludwig v. : GriecMsche Statuen im Republikanischen Rom (Wiirzburg, 1880).

Das holzerne Pferd (Wiirzburg, 1881).

Pergamenische Inschriften (Wiirzburg, 1883).

■ Arkesilaos (Wiirzburg, 1887).

Wachsmuth, C. : Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum (I, II, Leipzig, 1874, 1890).

Weisshaupl : Grabgedichte der Griechischen Anthologie (Vienna, 1889).

WiCKHOFF, Franz: Die Wiener Genesis (Vienna, 1895). WiNCKELMANN : Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (first edition, 1763 ; I quote from the Vienna edition of 1776).

History of Ancient Art, tr. by G. Henry Lodge (London, 1881).

WuNDERER : Manibiae Alexandtinae, eine Studie zur Geschichte des

romischen Kunstraubes (Wiirzburg, 1894).


Ann. Inst.=Annali delP Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (Rome, 1829-1885).

Ant. Denkm.^= Antike Denkrndler, herausgegeben vom K. Deutschen Archdologischen Institut (Berlin, 1887).

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A. Z. = Archdologische Zeitung (Berlin, 1843-1885).

Ath. Mitth.= Mittheilungen des K. deutschen Archdologischen Instituts, Athenische Abtheil. (Athens, 1876- ).

Berl. Phil. Woch.= Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift.

B. C.H.— Bulletin de Correspondance HelUnique (Athens, 1877). Bull. Inst.= Bullettino delf Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica

(Rome, 1829-1885).

Class. Rev. = Classical Review (London, 1887- ).

AeXT. = AcXTioj/ 'A/);(aioXo'yiKdj' (Athens, 1888- ).

'E0. 'Apx. — 'Eiprjiiepls'ApxaioXoyiKrj (Athens, 1883- ).

Fleckeiseris Jahrb.=Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie u. Padagogik (ed. Fleckeisen u. Masius).

Hermes = Hermes, ZeitschriftfUr Classische Philologie (Berlin, 1866- ).

Jahrb.=Jahrbuch des K. deutschen Archdologischen Instituts (Berlin, 1886- ).

J. H.S.= Journal of Hellenic Studies (London, 1880- ).


c BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mon. Inst.—Monumenti inediti delP Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (Rome, 1829-1885).

Rev. Arch.=Revue ArcMologique (Paris, 1844- ).

Rhein. Mus.=Rheinisches Museum fur Fhilologie.

Rd7n. Mitth.=Mtttheilungen des K. deutschen Archdologischen InstittUs, Rom. Abtheil. (Rome, 1886- ).

T. J. B.= Topographischer Jahresbericht (contributed to the Romische Mittheilungen).

Woch. f. Klass. Phil.= Wochenschrift fiir Klassische Fhilologie (Berlin).

C. I. A. — Corpus Inscriptionum Atiicarum (Berlin, 1873- ).

C.I. G. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum (Berlin, 1828-1870).

C. I. G. S. = Corpus Inscriptionum. Graeciae Septentrionalis (vol. I, Berlin, 1892).

C. I. L. = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. (Berlin, 1863- ).

C. I. Rhen. = Corpus Inscriptionum Rhenarum (Elberfeld, 1867- ).


MANUSCRIPTS REFERRED TO.

Bamb. = the Codex Bambergensis M. V. 10, of the ninth to tenth centnry (see our plate) ; in the Royal Library at Bamberg (it contains only the last six books of the Hist. Nat.).

Rice. = the Codex Riccardianus M. II. ii. 488, written about the year iioo according to Detlefsen, but probably older ; in the Bibliotheca Ric- cardiana at Florence.

Voss. = the Codex Vossianus Latitvus 61 in folio, of the ninth century (cf. Chatelain, Paliographie des Classiques Latins, pi. cxli); in the University Library at Leiden.

Lips. = the Codex Lifsii 7 ^see Geel, Cat. n. 465), copied from the Vossianus when this codex was more complete than it is now, and before it had been corrected (cf. Chatelain, pi. cxlii) ; in the University Library at Leiden.

e corr.=« corredione and refers to the corrections introduced into a MS. by a later hand.

reliqui=th.e remaining codices save the particular codex or codices anywhere quoted.

    • = a corrupt readmg which has not yet been satisfactorily restored.


t printed before an artist's name in the English translation signifies that the artist is so far known only from Pliny.


C. PLINII SECUNDI NATURALIS HISTORIAE

LIBER XXXm §5 154-157 LIBER XXXIV §§ 5-93 ; 140-141

{CAELATURA ET STATUARIA)


I. CAELATURA.

Lib.

xxxm.

154 MiRUM auro caelando neminem inclaruisse, argento

multos. maxime tamen laudatus est Mentor de quo supra diximus. quattuor paria ab eo omnino facta sunt, ac iam nullum extare dicitur Ephesiae Dianae templi aut Capitolini incendiis. Varro se at aereum signum eius habuisse scribit. 5

155 proximi ab eo in admiratione Acragas et Boethus at Mys


§ 154. 2. maxime . . . laudatus : the silver chasers are arranged in order of merit in four groups (a) max. laudatus, {b) proximi ab eo, (c)fost has celebrati, id) item laudantur. Within each of these groups the names are arranged alphabetically, Benndorf, de Anthol. Graec. Epigramm. quae ad artes spectant, p. 52, note i. The main account, derived, through a Roman source, from some Greek writer, is interrupted (i) by the mention of Varro's statue ; (a) by a description {extant . . . habuii) of chased works in Rhodes, drawn pre- sumably from Mucianus (Brieger, de Fontibus Flin. p. 60), Introd. p. Ixxxvi ; (3) by the quotation of an epigram.

de quo supra diximus : the refer- ence is to vii, 127, where the cups of Mentor are again alluded to as being in the Ephesian and Capitoline temples. The reader, however, would naturally think of (xxxiii, 147) Lucius ' uero Crassus orator duos scyphos Men- toris artificis manu caelatos HS. c (sc. emptos habuit); but this statement being at variance with the present one, they must have been made indepen-


dently and at different times ; the present passage seems a later addition, taken straight from vii, 127 (Furt- wangler, Plinius u. j. Quellen, p. 57, note i).

3. quattuor paria : cups are men- tioned in pairs, xxxiii, 147 (quoted above) ; xxxiv, 47 {duopocula Calami- dis manu); below § 156 {in duobus scyphis). It was apparently customary to decorate the pair with one con- tinuous subject, as is expressly stated in the case of the cups by Zopyros (cf. Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 96, note 63) and known from extant in- stances, e.g. the superb pairs of caps from Bemay, Schreiber, Alex. Toreu- tik, 54*, 55* (= Babelon, Cab. des Antiques, pi. 51 and 14, with Ken- taurs and Kentauresses); ib. 6'j*, 68*; id. 63*, 64* (at Naples) = ^aj. Borb. xiii, pi. 49.

4. lEjpliesiae . . . incendiis : tH, 127. The fire, which occurred in B.C. 356, gives us a lower limit for the date of Mentor. For the numerous passages in ancient authors referring to this, the most celebrated silver chaser of antiquity, see Overbeck's


I. SILVER CHASING.

Book XXXIII. Curiously enough, none have become famous as gold chasers, 154 many as chasers of silver. Of these the most esteemed is that Mentor, whom I have already mentioned. He made four pairs of cups in all, none of which, it is said, are extant ; they perished when the temples of Artemis at Ephesos and of Jupiter on the Capitol were burnt down. Varro speaks of a bronze statue in his possession also from the hand of Mentor. Next to him -^Akragas, 155 Boethos, and Mys were had in great admiration. Works by these


Schriflquellen,2i6^-2i%i. The Capi- toline fire occurred B. C. 83, during the Civil War, Appian, 'E^k^. i, 83.

5. Varro : cf.xxxvi,4i, where Varro is likewise cited both as author and owner. — Like a number of other caela- iores (so Kalamis, Ariston, Eunikos) Mentor was also a sculptor in bronze.

§ 155. 6. Acragas : the name, which is that of the eponymous river-god of Agrigentum (Ailian, Horn. lar. ii, 33), shows him to have been a native of that city, whose early connexion with Rhodes (cf. T. Reinach, /(ev. Arch, xxiv, 1894, p. 178), would ac- count for the artist seeking a field for his activity in the brilliant and art- loving city of Rhodes (cf. Museogr. Index) founded B.C. 408; at present, however, we have no nearer clue to his date. Against the theory of Th. Reinach, op. cit. pp. 170-180, that a chaser Akragas never existed, but was merely assumed owing to a misunder- standing of the legend AKPAFAS on coins inserted as the umbilici of silver cups, Hans Dragendorff in Terra


Sigillata, p. 58, maintains that when a coin impression decorates the interior of a cup, it is always the only ornament and therefore inad- missible for cups decorated in relief, like those of Akragas. For names derived from river-gods cf. Atarjiros, as early as the sixth century (see Fick, Gr. Personennamen, p. 347, where a further list of such names is given). That the chaser Akragas appears only in Pliny need not astonish us : to mention only Epi- gonos (xxxiv, 88), this apparently very famous artist was up to the date of the Pergamene finds known from Pliny alone.

Boethus : xxxiv, 84. Cic. Verr. II, iv, 14, I- 32 . . . hydriam Boethi manu factam. A gem representing the wounded Philoktetes, signed BOHQOT is probably to be referred to him (Furtwangler, Gemmen m. KUnstler- inschriften, Jahrb. iii, pi. VIII, 2 1 and p. 216).

Mys : he was a contemporary of Parrhasios (xxxv, 65, 68-73), from


B %


4 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIII

fuere. exstant omnium opera hodie in insula Rhodiorum, Boethi apud Lindiam Minervam, Acragantis in templo Liberi patris in ipsa Rhodo Centauros Bacchasque caelati scyphi, Myos in eadem aede Silenos et Cupidines. Acra- gantis et venatio in scyphis magnam famam habuit. post 5

156 hos celebratus est Calamis. et Antipater quoque Satyrum in phiala gravatum somno conlocavisse verius quam caelasse dictus est. Stratonicus mox Cyzicenus, Tauriscus, item Ariston et Eunicus Mitylenaei laudantur et Hecataeus et circa Pompei Magni aetatem Pasiteles, Posidonius Ephesius, lo

  • //i?ifj/j *,Thrakides qui proelia armatosque caelavit, Zopyrus

qui Areopagitas et iudicium Orestis in duobus scyphis HS [XII] aestimatis. fuit et Pytheas cuius duae unciae 5€ X venierunt. Ulixes et Diomedes erant in phialae

157 emblemate Palladium subripientes. fecit idem et cocos 15 magiriscia appellatos parvolis potoriis, e quibus ne exem-

II. Hedys, Thrakides] Furtwangler, FlecTeeiserC s Jahrb. v, xxii, 1876, /. 507 ; hedystrachides ^a/n^. ; iedis thiaaides re/i^ui ; Hedystracbides .SV//;^, Detlcfsen ; Telesarchides coni. Dilthey ap. Benndorf, de Epigr. p. 53.

whose designs he executed the Ken- Akragas. in scypMs — the plural as

tanromachia on the shield of the usual because two cups or perhaps a

Athena Promachos (Paus. i, 28, 2). set were decorated with one continuous

The epigram, from a cup at Herakleia subject.

(Athen. xi, p. 782 B), beginning Vpay.- 6. Calamis : xxxiv, 47, 71.

/MiJ llappaffioio, rexva- Mi/(Js . . . must § 156. 6. Antipater : the name of

however, owing to the expression the writer of an epigram has been

Tfxra riv6s, which does not occur in substituted for Diodoros, the real

pre-Imperial times, be a later forgery ; name of the artist, and moreover that

Preger, Inscript. Graec. Metr. p. 142, required by the alphabetical arrange-

note 185. ment; cf. Anth. Plan. 248

I. exstant . . . Cupidines : while lov Sarvpov AtSSapos e/coi/uaey, oix

the introduction of the word hodig eTopfvfffv.

points to a recent authority, the repeti- ^v "uf i/s, eyepur apyvpos vmiov f x"-

tion of the artists' names in a different an epigram similar to the one quoted

order, marks the sentence as an inter- in the words gravatum . . . caelasse.

polation (Introd. p. Ixxxvii). Introd. p. Ixviii.

3. Csntauros : for the subject cf. 8. Stratonious : xxxiv, 85 ; he is

the cups in the Biblioth. Natipnale mentioned Athen. xi, p. 782 B, among

and in Naples mentioned above. the si'Sofoi Topevrai.

5. venatio : Dragendorff (Inc. cit.) Tauriscus : in xxxvi, 33 Pliny

suggests that the hunting scene on the expressly distinguishes him from the

silvered terra-cotta cups, Ann. d. Inst. sculptor of the same name.

1871 PI. Q, and kindred compositions 9. Ariston, Eunicus . . . Heca-

raay be derived from the venatio of taeus : xxxiv, 85.


/. SILVER CHASING 5

three are still to be seen in the island of Rhodes : by Boethos in the temple of Athena at Lindos, by Akragas cups with figures, of Kentaurs and Bacchantes in the temple of Dionysos in the city of Rhodes, and in the same temple cups by Mys, with figures of Seilenoi and Erotes. Cups decorated round the interior with hunting scenes by Akragas were also well known. Next in merit to these chasers came Kalamis, \Antifater — whose sleeping Satyr 156 was said to have been not chased but laid to rest within the cup—, Stratonikos of Kyzikos, and t Tauriskos. Other famous chasers are ■fAriston and ^Eunikos of Mitylene, t Hekataios, Fasiteles, a contemporary of the Great Pompeius, i Foseidonios of Ephesos, ■*Hedys*, t Thrakides, whose favourite subjects were battles and warriors, and t Zopyros, who represented the court of the Areiopagos and the trial of Orestes on a pair of cups valued at 1,200,000 sesterces [£10,500 circ.J. -^ Pytheas too made a cup weighing two ounces which sold for 10,000 denarii [£350 circ.]; the design on the interior represented Odysseus and Diomedes stealing the Palladion. He further made small drinking cups in the shape of 157 cooks, called \j.ayapujKxa, the delicate chasing of which was so liable


10. Pasiteles : xxxv, 156; xxxvi, 39 f. and above § 1 30. Cic. de Div. i- 36, 79 mentions a toreutic work by him representing the infant Roscius wrapped in the coils of a serpent. Possibly Pasiteles was influenced in the presentation of the subject by the ' infant Herakles strangling the snakes ' of Zeuxis (xxxv, 63).

Posidonius : xxxiv, 91.

11. Thxakides: for the name cf. Fick, op. cit. p. 141. The corrupt Hedys conceals a name whose initial letter lies between P — T.

12. Areopagitas . . . Orestis : i. e. Orestes undergoing his trial before the Areiopagos, the subject being spread over both cups. Cf. Winckelmann, Mon. Ined. pi. 151 for a silver cup in the Corsini coll. re- presenting this subject ; better repro- duced by Michaelis, Das Corsinische Silhergefdss, Leipzig, 1S59.

13. fuitet: like the ^aiJ««V«^ below, introduces <t new artist who had no place in the canonical lists quoted in


Pliny's main authority. Pytheas and Teuker, therefore, lived presumably in the period subsequent to Pasiteles. The continuance of silver chasing at least as late as the reign of Nero is proved by the case ofZenodoros (xxxiv, 47). The decay of which Pliny com- plains only applies to his own time ; nor need we attach too precise a mean- ing to this, or the similar complaint on the decay of painting in xxxv, 4, both being evidently rhetorical, cf. Oehmichen, PUnianische Siudien, p. i6i f.; Furtw'angler in Berl. Phil. Wochenschr., 1895, p. 814.

14. mixes et Diomedes : for the subject cf. the celebrated Spada relief, Schreiber, Hell. Reliefbilder, pi. VII, the gem, signed Calpumius Felix, Jahrbuch iii, 1888, Pi. x, 7 ; cf. Furtwangler, ib. p. 312 ; and the relief on the neck of one of the Bemay oino- choai, Babelon, Cab. des Ant. pi. 41.

§157. 15. cooos; [i.e. silver cups in the shape of figurines. — H. L. U.]

16. magiriscia : from /iiyeipos, a


Lib. XXXIV.


6 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

plaria quidem liceret exprimere, tarn opportuna iniuriae subtilitas erat. habuit et Teucer crustarius famam, subito- que ars haec ita exolevit ut sola iam vetustate censeatur, usuque attritis caelaturis, si nee figura discerni possit, aucto- ritas constat. 5

II. STATU ARIA.


5 Quondam aes confusum auro argentoque miscebatur, et tamen ars pretiosior erat, nunc incertum est peior haec sit an materia, mirumque, cum ad infinitum operum pretia creverint, auctoritas artis extincta est. quaestus enim causa ut omnia exerceri coepta est quae gloriae solebat — ideo lo autem etiam deorum adscripta operi, cum proceres gentium claritatem et hac via quaererent — adeoque exolevit fundendi aeris pretiosi ratio ut iamdiu ne fortuna quidem in ea re ius

6 artis habeat. ex ilia autem antiqua gloria Corinthium maxime laudatur. hoc casus miscuit Corintho, cum cape- 15 retur, incensa, mireque circa id multorum adfectatio furit, quippe cum tradatur non alia de causa Verrem quem

A.u.c. 711. M. Cicero damnaverat proscriptum cum eo ab Antonio, quoniam Corinthiis cessurum se ei negavisset. ac mihi maior pars eorum simulare earn scientiam videtur ad segre- 20 gandos sese a ceteris magis quam intellegere aliquid ibi

7 suptilius, et hoc paucis docebo. Corinthus capta est olym-

4. si nee] UrlicJis in Chresiom. p. 301 ; sine Bamb. ; ne reliqui, Detkfsen. II. autem] om. omncs praeter Bamb., Detkfsen.

cook. [The subject influenced perhaps now the amount of precious metals

by the Middle or New Comedy.— yielded by the analysis of ancient

H. L. U.] bronzes is so small as scarcely to war-

i. Teucer: possibly identical with rant Pliny's statement that gold and

the gem engraver Tempos {ct/aArb. silver were regularly employed in

'"> P- 323)- the most ancient Greek alloys; cf.

crustarius : this shows him to Blumner, Technol. u. Terminal, vol.

have been especially a worker of iv, p. 1 78 ff. ; O. MUUer, Handbuch

e/iPKrifiaTa or crustae, i. e. of figures 306, Daremberg and Saglio, s. v. aes.

in relief, wrought separately and § 6. 15. hoo casus miscuit: cf.

sKtached to the object to be decorated; Florus, ii, 16 ; this and several other

cf. Cic. Verr. II, iv, 22, § 49 duo anecdotes (see in especial Paus. ii, 3, 3,

focula non magna, verum tamen cum and Plut. De Pyth. Or. 2, p. 395 B)

emblemate: z\s.o1ms.\.,i(>. Add. were invented to account for the origin

§ 5. 6. auro argentoque : up to of Corinthian bronze when the secret


//. BRONZE STATUARY 7

to injury that it was impossible to take a cast of them. Teuker also enjoyed some reputation for his embossed work. The whole art then suddenly disappeared so completely that nowadays we only value wrought silver for its age, and reckon its merit estab- lished when the chasing is so worn that the very design can no longer be made out.


II. BRONZE STATUARY.

Book XXXIV. Bronze was formerly alloyed with both gold and silver, and yet 5

the workmanship used to be more valuable than the metal ; now ^"i^y "f

it is hard to say which is worse. It is extraordinary that when 'Mork.

the price given for works of art has risen so enormously, art itself

should have lost its claim to our respect. The truth is that the

aim of the artist, as of every one else in our times, is to gain money,

not fame as in the old days, when the noblest of their nation

thought art one of the paths to glory, and ascribed it even to the

gods. The process of founding valuable bronze is so completely

lost that for generations even fortune has not been able to secure

the results formerly ensured by skill.

Of the bronzes renowned in antiquity, the Corinthian is the g

most esteemed. An accident first produced this alloy in the fire Connthan

which followed on the sack of Corinth and the rage for it is

marvellously widespread. For instance, there is a story that when

Antony proscribed Cicero he also proscribed Verres (whose 43 b. c.

condemnation Cicero had once procured), simply because Verres

had refused to give up to him his Corinthian bronzes. In my

own opinion, however, most people affect a knowledge of

the subject solely to exalt themselves above the common herd,

without having any real insight into it ; this I can prove in a few

words. Corinth was taken in the third year of the hundred and 7

of its mixture liad been lost. Pliny witty satire in Petronius, Sat. 50, on

sees the impossibility of reconciling Corinthian bronze and its wonderful

the story of the Corinthian alloy and alloy.

the dates of famous statues, but instead 18. pToscriptum ab Antonio:

of questioning the truth of the story, cf Seneca Rhetor, .Jaaj. vi,vii, /««/»».

he proceeds to deny in toio the exist- For the use to which Augustus put the

ence of Corinthian bronzes, though it proscriptions, in order to obtain Cor.

is excellently and repeatedly attested : bronzes, see Suet. Aug. 70 ; cf. Plin.

e.g. Martial, xiv, 172, 177, and often. xxxvii, 81, where Nonius is proscribed

The reader will ieA reminded of the by Antonius for the sake of a fine opal.


8 C. PLINIl SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

piadis CLVIII anno tertio, nostrae urbis DCVIII, cum ante saecula fictores nobiles esse desissent, quorum isti omnia signa hodie Corinthia appellant, quapropter ad coar- guendos eos ponemus artificum aetates. nam urbis nostrae annos ex supra dicta comparatione olympiadum colligere 5 facile erit. sunt ergo vasa tantum Corinthia quae isti elegantiores modo ad esculenta transferunt, modo in lu-

8 cernas aut truUeos nullo munditiarum dispectu. eius tria genera: candidum argento nitore quam proxime accedens in quo ilia mixtura praevaluit, alterum in quo auri fulva 10 natura, tertium in quo aequalis omnium temperies fuit. praeter haec est cuius ratio non potest reddi, quamquam hominis manu sed ad fortunam temperatur in simulacris signisque, illud suo colore pretiosum ad iocineris imaginem vergens, quod ideo hepatizon appellant, procul a Corinthio, 15 longe tamen ante Aegineticum atque Deliacum, quae diu optinuere principatum.

9 Antiquissima aeris gloria Deliaco fuit mercatus in Delo celebrante toto orbe, et ideo cura officinis. tricliniorum pedibus fulcrisque ibi prima aeris nobilitas, pervenit deinde 20 et ad deum simulacra effigiemque hominum et aliorum animalium.

10 Proxima laus Aeginetico fuit. insula et ipsa est, nee quod ibi gigneretur, sed officinarum temperatura nobilitata. bos aereus inde captus in foro boario est Romae. hoc erit 25 exemplar Aeginetici aeris, Deliaci autem luppiter in Capitolio in lovis Tonantis aede. illo acre Myron usus

§7. 2. fictores: from meaning liter- 8. trulleos: apparently identical

ally a modeller in clay, the vorAfictor with the felvis, a basin to wash hands

is extended to workers in bronze ; see or feet. For a pelvis of bronze of.

note on XXXV, 153. Juy. x, 64; for one of Corinthian

4. ponemus . . .aetates: in §§ bronze, Orelli, 3838. 49~5^- §8. 9. oandidum argento: for

nam : elliptical ' for of course, as some bronze objects fonnd at Suessula,

I shall draw from a Greek source, really containing small quantities of

I shall give them only in Olympiads,' gold and silver, see BlUmner oj>. cit.

Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 19; for the p. 184, note 5.

ellipse cf. xxxv, 137 {nam Socrates); § 9. 18. Deliaoo : mentioned three

xxxvi, 32 {nam Myronis illius), where times, along with Corinthian bronze by

see note. Cicero, _^;-o Sext. Rose. Am. 46, 133;

7. luoernas: the familiar oval oil Verr. II, ii, 34, § 83; ib. 72, § 176. lamp with flat top. meroatus in Delo : i.e. the fair


//. BRONZE STATUARY g

fifty-eighth Olympiad, that is, the year of Rome 608 [146 b.cJ, centuries later than the celebrated workers, whose statues our amateurs still assume to be all of Corinthian bronze. I shall prove that they are wrong by giving the dates of the artists, for it will be easy to turn the Olympiads into years of Rome by referring to the two corresponding dates given above. It follows that the only vessels of Corinthian bronze are those which these connoisseurs use as dishes or lamps or basins, with no regard for their workmanship.

There were three varieties of Corinthian bronze — a white 8 bronze, that shone almost like silver, and contained a very large proportion of that metal; a second, in which a reddish tinge of gold prevailed; and a third, in which the three metals were blended in equal proportions. There is also a fourth alloy, of which no scientific account can be given ; it is employed for images and statues, and though it is produced by the hand of man, yet fortune partly determines the resuk. It is known as TjiraTi^ov from the peculiar tint, verging on liver colour, which is its chief merit. It is inferior to the bronze of Corinth, but superior to those of Aigina and Delos, though these were long thought the best.

The bronze most celebrated in early times was that of Delos, 9 for as all nations resorted to the market of the island, great care f^J^"" was bestowed on the manufacture of bronze. It was first employed there for the feet and framework (Add.) of couches, and afterwards its use was extended to images of the gods, and figures of men and animals.

Aiginetan bronze was the next to become celebrated. Aigina 10 also is an island ; it had no mines, but owed its reputation to ■f'S"^^'"^

... * oronze.

the admirable alloys produced in its foundries. A bronze bull, jj^n ^„

taken from Aigina, and now in the Cattle Market at Rome, may Cattle

Market Stand for an example of Aiginetan bronze, and the Jupiter in the „ '

temple of Jupiter the Thunderer on the Capitol for an example oi Jupiter the

Thunderer.

held in connexion with the quinquen- §10. 23. Aeeinetioo : the alloy was

nial festival of Apollo and Artemis. renowned because of the famous artists

21. ad deum simulacra: cf. § 15 who employed it. For a vivid picture

transit deinde ars vulgo ubique ad of the Aiginetan SchooI,seeCollignon,

effigies deormii : the imagined pro- Sculpt. Grecque, i, 280-307.

gress of art from furniture to images 25. in foro boario : Tac. Ann.

of gods and hence to images of men xii, 24.

and animals is purely conventional ; 27. lovis Tonantis aede. Cf.

seeMunzer, ^er/KW XXX, 1895, p. 501. xxxvi, 50. A small temple built (B.C.


lo C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

est, hoc Polycletus, aequales atque condiscipuli, sed aemu- latio et in materia fuit.

11 Privatim Aegina candelabrorum superficiem dumtaxat elaboravit, sicut Tarentum scapos. in his ergo iuncta com- mendatio officinarumest. nee pudet tribunorum mihtarium 5 salariis emere, cum ipsum nomen a candelarum lumine inpositum appareat. accessio candelabri talis fuit Theonis iussu praeconis Clesippus fullo gibber et praeterea et alio

12 foedus aspectu, emente id Gegania HS L. eadem osten- tante in convivio empta ludibrii causa nudatus atque to inpudentia libidinis receptus in torum, mox in testamentum, praedives numinum vice illud candelabrum coluit et banc Corinthiis fabulam adiecit, vindicatis tamen moribus nobili sepulchre per quod aeterna supra terras Geganiae dedecoris memoria duraret. sed cum esse nulla Corinthia candelabra 15 constet, nomen id praecipue in his celebratur, quoniam Mummi victoria Corinthum quidem diruit, sed e compluri- bus Achaiae oppidis simul aera dispersit.

13 Prisci limina etiam ac valvas in templis ex aere facti- A.u.c. 587. tavere. invenio et a Cn. Octavio qui de Perseo rege nava- 20

lem triumphum egit factam porticum duplicem ad circum Flaminium quae Corinthia sit appellata a capitulis aereis columnarum, Vestae quoque aedem ipsam Syracusana super- ficie tegi placuisse. Syracusana sunt in Pantheo capita

22) by Augustus near the great temple delubrum dicunt ; and Macrob.

of Jupiter Capitolinus to commemorate Satur. iii, 4, 2; cf. Martial, xiv, 43. his miraculpus escape from death by 8. Clesippus : the slave was of

lightning (,Suet,/ia^. 29); ilf«K.^Kfj/y. course a Greek (KX^o-iTnroj). The

xix, 4, S ; Mommsen, Res Gestae, story is attested by an inscription (close

p. 81. The temple appears on coins of Republic) C. I. L. i, 805, Clesippus-

of Augustus, Cohen, Aug. 178-180; Geganius mag. CapifypTymag. luperc.

184-186. For the bronze statue by viat. tr. apparently belonging to the

Leochares, see below § 79. sepulchre mentioned in § 12.

Myron ... Polycletus, §§55- § 13. 19. limina etiam ao valvas:

S^- either of massive bronze or plated,

§ 11. 5. tribunorum . . . salariis : Marquardt, Privatleben der Romer,

cf. Juv. iii, 132. p. 223 ff.

^6. a candelarum lumine: the 20. Cn. Ootavio : the portico (built

etymology is Varronian; cf. Varro, b.c. 167) stood in the Campus

ap. Servius on Aen. ii, 225 ... a/ in Martius near the Circus Flaminius

quo figimt candelam candelabrum and the theatre of Pompeius. It was

appellant, sic in quo deum ponunt burnt down and rebuilt by Augustus


//. BRONZE STATUARY n

Delian bronze. Aiginetan bronze was employed by Myron, and Bromcs

Delian by Polykleitos. These two artists were contemporaries ^Myronand

and fellow-pupils, who carried their rivalry even into their choice Polykleitos.

of a material.

At Aigina it was the trays, at Tarentum the stems of cande- ii

labra which were specially elaborated, so that the efforts of several f '^"'^'«-

labra. workshops combme to recommend these utensils. They are

things without even a name except the one which they borrow

from the light of their own candles, and yet we are not

ashamed to give as much for them as the year's pay of a military

tribune. Theon, the auctioneer, once included in the same lot as Story of

one of these candelabra a slave, a fuller named Clesippus, who and

was humpbacked and altogether hideous. The lot was bought for Gegania.

50,000 sesterces (£440 circ.) by Gegania, who displayed her 12

purchase at a banquet, and exposed Clesippus naked to the

ridicule of the company, yet afterwards, through sheer wantonness,

made him her lover, and at last her heir. Thus enriched, he

worshipped the candelabrum as a deity, providing yet another

story about Corinthian bronzes. Morality, however, was avenged

in the magnificent tomb that he built only to keep the

remembrance of Gegania's infamy alive upon the earth. Although

none of these candelabra are really Corinthian, yet they are called

so because Mummius destroyed Corinth ; people forget that his

victory also scattered the bronzes of various other Greek cities.

In early times the thresholds and folding-doors in temples 13

were commonly made of bronze. I find, too, that Gnaeus ^j^" '

Octavius, who was granted a triumph for his naval victory over 167 b.c.

King Perseus, built a gallery with double colonnade by the Circus

of Flaminius, called the Corinthian Gallery, from the small bronze

capitals of its columns. A decree was also passed that the temple

of Vesta should be roofed with plates of Syracusan bronze.

(Festus, p. 178; Mon. Aiic. xix, 4, Top.der Stadt Rom\\i,-^. 2io,n..2^

2-4. Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 80), 23. Vestae . . . tegi; cf. xxxiii, 57.

after the Dalmatian Triumph, B. c. 33. 24. plaouisse : probably after the

It must be distinguished from the great fire of B.C. 241, cf. vii, 141.

porticus Octaviae, § 31. Invenio in Pantheo : built (B. c. 27)

shows that Pliny is quoting from an by Agrippa in his third consulate,

ancient authority; either the building This earlier building was altered to

no longer existed in his day, or the its present shape in the reign of

outer colonnade had not been restored Hadiian. For recent discoveries and

after the fire, so that the remarks as to literature, cf. C. Hulsen in T.J. B.

the columns apply to the pre-Augustan iv, p. 305 (A'oot. Mitth.im, 1893) and

building. (See O. Gilbert, Cesch. u. Gardthausen .^^jwrfaj ii, p. 43of.


12 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

columnarum a M. Agrippa posita. quin etiam privata opu- lentia eo modo usurpata est. Camillo inter crimina obiecit A.u.c. 363. Spurius Carvilius quaestor ostia quod aerata haberet in domo.

14 Nam triclinia aerata abacosque et monopodia Cn. s Manlium Asia devicta primum invexisse triumpho suo quem duxit anno urbis DLXVII L. Piso auctor est, Antias quidem heredes L. Crassi oratoris multa etiam triclinia aerata vendi- disse. ex acre factitavere et cortinas tripodum nomine Delphicas, quoniam donis maxime Apollini Del'phico dica- lo bantur. placuere et lychnuchi pensiles in delubris aut arborum mala ferentium modo lucentes, quale est in templo Apollinis Palatini quod Alexander Magnus Thebarum ex-

A.u.c. 419. pugnatione captum in Cyme dicaverat eidem deo.

15 Transiit deinde ars vulgo ubique ad effigies deorum. 15 Romae simulacrum ex acre factum Cereri primum reperio

A.u.c. 270. ex peculio Spuri Cassi quem regnum adfectantem pater ipsius interemerit. transit et a diis ad hominum statuas

9. nomine] nomine ac Barnb.; nomine a Voss.

3. Spvirins Carvilius : his part in arise from a copyist's misunderstanding

the trial is mentioned only by Pliny. of Delfhicas as a separate object.

ostia quod aerata; koX ^ra Kal ii. lychnuchi; ori^nally lamp-

eipat Tivh iXiyovTO x"^*"'" "■"/>' stands {Kvxvoiixot), whence the name

oirS (pavTJvai Toiy aixiMxKiiTav. Plut. was transferred to the whole candela-

CanUll.YM. brum, Marquardt, op. cit. p. 711;

§14. 5. abacosque: the use of DarembergetSaglio,s.v.^3«i&Mr«»j.

a/iaci as sideboards appears really to pensiles; Verg..4««i, 726; Petron.

date from the conquest of Asia, Mar- Sat. 30 et lucema bUychnis de camera

qnardt, Privatkben, p. 319. pendebat.

Cn. Manlium: Liv. xxxix, 6, 7 12. quale: sc. candelabrum, to be

ii primum lectos aerates . . . et quae supplied from § 12.

turn magnificae supelleciilis habe- templo Apollinis: dedicated by

bantur inonapodia et abacos Romam Augustus B.C. 27, cf. xxxvi, 32.

advexerunt. § I5. ij. Transiit ... ars : note

6. Asia devicta : cf. xxxiii, 148. on § 9.

7. L. Piso; Lucius Calpumius 16. simulacrum: restricted as Piso, sumamed Frugi ; cos. B.C. 133; usual to images of the gods, while frequently quoted by Pliny, Teuffel, stcdua is more particularly used for G. R. L. § 132, 4. mortals. The notion that the Cassian . Antias, Valerius, fl. ab. 45 b. c. ; simulacrum was the first of its kind

_ frequently quoted by Pliny; Teuffel, at Rome is in flagrant contradic-

§ '56> 2. tion to the mention in § 33 of a

9. nomine ; cf. Diodoros, xvi, 26. Hercules, consecrated by Evander and

The corrupt ac of the MSS. must of Noma's Janus ; moreover since in


//. BRONZE STATUARY 13

Syracusan bronze was also employed by Marcus Agrippa for the capitals of the columns in his Pantheon. Wealthy individuals even adopted this fashion for their private houses. The quaestor Spurius Carvilius accused Camillus among other things of having 39' ^c- had bronze plated doors to his house. doors.

The practice of using bronze for couches, side-boards and 14 tables supported on a single foot, was first introduced, according f^y^lt^J^ to Lucius Piso, by Gnaeus Manlius, after the conquest of Asia, when he triumphed in the year of Rome 567 [187 B.C.]. Antias adds that the heirs of Lucius Crassus, the orator, sold a number of bronze coucTies. The cauldrons of tripods were also made of Delphic bronze ; they were called Delphicae, because they were the gift "■^° ^' most frequently dedicated to the Delphic Apollo. Hanging lamps Hanging in shrines were also made of bronze, and lamps with the lights '^'"*^- fixed like apples on trees, as for instance, the lamp now in the temple of Apollo of the Palatine, which Alexander the Great carried off when he took Thebes, and dedicated, also to Apollo, 335 ^.c. at Kyme.

Later on bronze was universally employed for statues of the 15 gods. I find that at Rome the first bronze image was made ^^^j"*/^/ in honour of Ceres out of the confiscated property of Spurius of mortals. Cassius, who was put to death by his father because he aimed 484 b.c. at becoming king. From figures of the gods, bronze came to be used in various ways for statues and images of men. The

§§ 31, 2g, a whole series of portraits on the other hand, speaks of several

from the period of the Kings and statues. The story involves a com-

early Republic are mentioned, it is plicated problem. There is much to

irreconcilable with the theory that art commend the view of Gilbert, Rom ii,

progressed from the statues of gods to p. 243, note 2 s.f. that the consecration

those of men. Pliny is quoting from to Ceres, the special patroness of the

a variety of sources, without even plebeians, of the private property of

attempting to harmonize them. Cassius was an extension — more accu-

Cereri : in her temple near the rately an ironic application ( Verhoh-

Great Circus, vowed by Aulus Postu- nung) of the lex sacrata for the pro-

mius the victor at Regillns, B.C. 49.^ ; tection of the Trib. PI. (cf. Liv.iii, 55)

for its paintings and plastic decora- ut qui trib. fl. nocuisset eius caput

tions see XXXV, 154. loui sacrum esset , familia ad aedem

17. pater ipsius: cf. Liv. ii, 41, 10 Cereris Libert Liberaeque vemum iret ;

sunt, qui pairem auctorem eius sup- Dionys.x, 42 where the Patricians who

pliciiferant : eum cogitita domi causa offend against the assembly of the

verberasse ac necasse,peculiumque Jilii people convened under the Tribunes

Cereri consecravisse ; signum inde fac- are punished by confiscation of their

turn esse et inscriptum ' ex Cassia property to Ceres (rdr ovfrias avrSiv

familia datum.' Dionysios (viii, 79), Upas ilvu AqfuiTfoi),


14 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

atque imagines multis modis. bitumine antiqui tinguebant eas, quo magis mirum est placuisse auro integere. hoc nescio an Romanum fuerit inventum, certe etiam Romae

16 non habet vetustatem. effigies hominum non solebant ex- primi nisi aliqua inlustri causa perpetuitatem merentium, s primo sacrorum certaminum victoria maximeque Olympiae, ubi omnium qui vicissent statuas dicari mos erat, eorum vero qui ter ibi superavissent ex membris ipsorum simili-

17 tudine expressa, quas iconicas vocant. Athenienses nescio an primis omnium Harmodio et Aristogitoni tyrannicidis lo publice posuerint statuas. hoc actum est eodem anno quo

A.u.c. 245. et Romae reges pulsi. excepta deinde res est a toto orbe terrarum humanissima ambitione, et in omnium municipiorum foris statuae ornamentum esse coepere prorogarique memoria hominum et honores legendi aevo basibus inscribi, ne in 15 sepulcris tantum legerentur. mox forum et in domibus privatis factum atque in atris honos clientium instituit sic colere patronos.

18 Togatae effigies antiquitus ita dicabantur. placuere et nudae tenentes hastam ab epheborum e gymnasiis exem- 20 plaribus, quas Achilleas vocant. Graeca res nihil velare,

19. ita] ista Riccard., Voss. {e corr) ; sta Voss.

1. bitumine: in order to give a forboxing, 01. 59( = B.c. 544). Pans, patina to the new bronze. vi, i8, 7.

2. auro: xxxiii, 61, 82 ; xxxiv, 63. 7. ubi omnium . . . ioonioas Tlie custom of gilding statues was vocant : Lessing has made these known la Greece, cf. the gilt statue words the text for a famous passage of Gorgias of Leontinoi, Pans, x, 18, in the Laokoon (ii, § 13). Visconti 7 (Plin. xxxiii, 83, where, however, {Iconograpkie Grecque, Discours pr^- it is stated that the Gorgias was of lim. p. viii, n. 4) arguing from Lucian, solid gold), and the gilt Phryne by v-nip tSiv (iic6vaiv xi, takes iconicas to Praxiteles,Pans. x, 15,1; cf. Eliimner, mean 'grand comme nature'; Prof. Technol. iv, p. 308 ff. Klein, however, in a note which he

4. non habet vetustatem: the kindly allows me to publish, points

oldest recorded Roman instance of a out that Pliny's statement bears an

f/a/«aa«?-atoistoM'.AciIiusGlabrio apocryphal character, which has es-

(B. c. 131), Liv. xl, 34, 6 quae prima caped every one save perhaps Eliimner

omnium in Italia est statua aurata. in his Comm. on Lessing's Laokoon,

§ 16. 6. Olympiae : the long p. 503. It is evident that the dis-

list of athlete statues began with the crepancies between ideal and iconic

ancient cypress wood statue of Praxi- statues were explained by Pliny,

damas of Aigina, who won the prize or his author, as the result of an


//. BRONZE STATUARY 15

ancients tinted the figures with bitumen, which makes the later practice of gilding them the more curious. This may very well be a Roman invention, and certainly even at Rome it is not of great antiquity. The ancients did not make any statues ofie individuals unless they deserved immortality by some distinction^ qI*"^!-"'* originally by a victory at some sacred games, especially those of Olympia, where it was the custom to dedicate statues of all those who had conquered, and portrait statues if they had conquered three times. These are called iconic. (See Addenda.)

The Athenians were, I believe, introducing a new custom 17 when they set up statues at the public expense in honour '^^ ^^^lui-tors Harmodios and Aristogeiton, who killed the tyrants. This occurred in the very year in which the kings were expelled from 509 b.c. Rome. A refined ambition led to the universal adoption of the custom, and statues began to adorn the public places of every town ; the memories of men were immortalized, and their honours were no longer merely graven on their tombstones, but handed down for posterity to read on the pedestals of statues. Later on the rooms and halls of private houses became so many public places, and clients began to honour their patrons in this way.

Formerly statues were dedicated wearing the toga. Nude 18 statues holding a spear were also in favour, modelled after young ^^^'^^^^^ men in the gymnasia ; these were called Achillean. The Greek statues.

improbable rule, simply because the toni : below § 70. ancients had no habit of applying § 18. 19. tcgatae effigies : such historical criticism to art, and con- as the statues of the kings, § 23. sequently of discriminating between 20. tenentes hastam : statues of the works of a, time when only the athletes in the scheme of the Poly- type was aimed at, from those of kleitan Doryphoros, or leaning on periods when art had advanced to their spear. Achilleas (fiom Achilles, individual portraiture. It is instruc- the typical hero of the ephebes) a tive to compare with Pliny's words a convenient generic term under which passage in Dio Chrysostom, Or. xxi, to group such portraits, Furtwangler, I TicpX KaWovs, where he attempts Plinius, -p. ,\.'j, note 11. The custom of to explain the difference between portraying mortals other than athletes the statues of an earlier and a later in heroic nudity during their lifetime, date by alleging physical degene- seems to have been introduced by ration. The difference observable in Alexander and his successors ; cf. the the Olympic statues generally, dis- bronze portrait of a Hellenistic ruler tinguished pre- from post- Lysippian in the Museo delle Terme (Helbig, portraiture; as it is very well said in Class. Ant. 1052). XXXV, 153 hie (Lysistratos) et simili- 21. Graeoa . . . addere: no pre- tudines reddere instituit, ante eum cise historical information can be quam pukherrimasfaeere studehatur. drawn from these words, which merely § 17. 10. Harmodio et Aristogi- contain a broad comparison between


i6


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


at contra Romana ac militaris thoraces addere. Caesar

quidem dictator loricatam sibi dicari in foro suo passus est.

nam Lupercorum habitu tarn noviciae sunt quam quae

A.u.c. 617. nuper prodiere paenulis indutae. Mancinus eo habitu sibi

IS statuit quo deditus fuerat. notatum ab auctoribus et 5 L. Accium poetam in Camenarum aede maxima forma statuam sibi posuisse, cum brevis admodum fuisset. eques- tres utique statuae Romanam celebrationem habent orto sine dubio a Graecis exemplo, sed illi celetas tantum dica- bant in sacris victores, postea vero et qui bigis vel quadrigis 10 vicissent. unde et nostri currus nati in iis qui triumpha- vissent. serum hoc, et in his non nisi a divo Augusto seiuges, aut elephanti.

20 Non vetus et bigarum celebratio in iis qui praetura functi curru vecti essent per circum, antiquior columnarum, 15 sicuti C. Maenio qui devicerat priscos Latinos, quibus ex

13. aut] E. Sellers; sicnt codii., Detlefsen.


the typical Greek athlete statues and the numerous Roman portraits of late Republican and Imperial times.

I. thoraoea: the statue of Augustus in the Vatican, Helbig, Class. Ant. 4, well illustrates the combination of the military element with the nude athletic type. As a reminiscence of the athlete statues the legs are left bare, but the Emperor wears the cuirass, with the mantle rolled round below the waist.

■i. loricatam, sc. efflgiem: be- longing to the class of statues just mentioned, of which there are nume- rous examples, see Rohden in Bonner Studien^^-p. 1-80. Very little is known about this particular statue of Caesar or the spot in his Fonim where it stood. Pliny the Younger {Ep. viil, 6, 14) says that a decree of the Senate in favour of Pallas, the freedman of Claudius, was put up ad sialuam loricatam divi Julii. • 3. IiupercoTum, i. e. with only a goatskin aboutthe loins, like the priests of Lupercus at the festival of the Lu- percalia (Ov. Fast, v, loi).

5. quo deditus fuerat: nudus ac


fast tergum religatis manibus Veil. Paterc. II, i, 5.

not. ab auetoribus : probably the statue was no longer extant when Pliny wrote.

§ 19. 6. Ii.Aooium: the tragic poet, B.C. 170-103. There is no reliable copy of the statue, EernouUi, Rom. Iconographie, i, p. 289.

Camenarum = Musarum, in the first region, Porta Cafena.

10. postea vero : the notion that art progressed from the representations of statues of horsemen to chariot- groups, is in harmony with the for- malizing theories of the growth of art, hinted in § 9 and 515, but it is the in- verse of fact (cf. Miinzer, op. cit. p. 502): the race with four-horsed chariots was introduced at Olympia, Ol. 25 (b. c. 680), the race on horseback (iWor KiKrii), 01. 33 (B. c. 648), and the race with two-horsed chariots, 01. 93 (B. c. 408). The earliest monument of a victor on his four-horsed chariot was that of Kleosthenes of Epidamnos by Hagelaidas, Ol. 66 (B.C. 516), Pans, vi, 10, 2.


//. BRONZE STATUARY 17

custom was to leave the body quite nude ; but the Roman and military custom was to add a breastplate, while Caesar, when Dictator, allowed a statue of himself wearing a cuirass to be set up in his forum. Statues in the dress of the Lupercals are as Qg^^ill recent an innovation as those lately introduced wearing short lius Man- cloaks. Mancinus set up a statue in his own honour, wearing ""!^^J^ the dress in which he had been given up to the enemy. I find 19 it mentioned by some authors that Lucius Accius the poet set up Lucius in his own honour in the temple of the Camenae a statue, which -Acaus. was of great size, although he was a very small man.

Equestrian statues, which are so common at Rome, were Equestrian undoubtedly first borrowed from Greece. The Greeks, however, only dedicated equestrian statues of those who had been victors on horseback at the sacred games ; later on we find statues of the victors in the two and four-horse chariot races. From this arose our custom of setting up chariots in honour of those who Chariots. had triumphed. Until recent times this was unknown, and chariots drawn by six horses or by elephants were only introduced by the god Augustus.

The erection of two-horse chariots in honour of those who as 20 praetors have led the procession round the Circus is also of late date. The custom of erecting statues on columns is more ancient. Statues on witness the column in honour of Gaius Maenius, conqueror '"l""^"^- of the Ancient Latins, a people to whom the Romans were G.Mamius.

II. currus : Juv. viii, 3, mentions it might be inferred tliat triumphal

the statue of a triumphator standing chariots were drawn by elephants as

erect in his triumphal car in the early as Augustus, whereas this oc-

vestibulum. curred for the iirst time in the reign

13. seiuges: a gilt chariot, drawn of Alexander Severus, cf Aelius Lam- by six horses, had already been dedi- pridius, Vita Al. Sev. 57, 4. The cated to Jupiter Capitolinus in B. C. chariots drawn by elephants on early i69,bytheConsuIP.Comelius(j«««^ej imperial coins refer to the Pompa in CapitoHo auratilj-y.^x-xymtiij^)- circensis, Marquardt, Staatsverw. ii, Pliny's meaning must be that under p. 586, note 7. Addenda. Augustus the team of six horses was § 20. 15. per ciroum, sc. Maxi- first used for other than religious mum, on the occasion of the Ludi purposes. Mommsen, Staatsrecht, i, ^/o/ZiKarM, instituted B. c. 212. For 3rd ed. p. 395, n. i, points out that, the praetorial biga, cf. Mommsen, according to Dio Cassius, lix, 7, Staatsrecht, i, 3rd ed., p. 394, note 4 ; Caligula was the first to drive in the pp. 412, 447.

circus with six horses : tA api^a t6 columnarum : from § 36 it is

■nopmiKov . . Ai Umi tX\Kvaav t lOj- evident that the columnaeyttis statues

viivoTf i-^i'y6vH. placed on high pedestals.

elephanti : from Pliny's words 16. C. Maenio : cf. vii, 213. He


i8


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


foedere tertias praedae populus R. praestabat, eodemque

in consulatu in suggestu rostra devictis Antiatibus fixerat

anno urbis CCCCXVI, item C. Duillio qui primus navalem

A.u.c. 494. triumphum egit de Poenis, quae est etiam nunc in foro,

21 item L. Minucio praefecto annonae extra portam Trige- 5 A.u.c. 315. minam unciaria stipe conlata — nescio an primo honore tali

a populo, antea enim a senatu erat — praeclara res, nisi frivolis coepisset initiis. namque et Atti Navi statua fuit A.u.c. 702. ante curiam — basis eius conflagravit curia incensa P. Clodii A.u.c. 304. funere — fuit et Hermodori Ephesii in comitio, legum quas 10

22 decemviri scribebant interpretis, publice dicata. alia causa, alia auctoritas M. Horati Coclitis statuae, quae durat hodie-

A.u.c. 246. que, cum hostes a ponte sublicio solus arcuisset. equidem et Sibyllae iuxta rostra esse non miror, tres sint licet : una quam Sextus Pacuius Taurus aed. pi. restituit, duae quas 15 M. Messalla. primas putarem has et Atti Navi, positas


had conquered the Latins with Fnrius Camillus ; additus triumpho honos, ut statuae equestres eis, rara ilia aetate res, in foro ponerentur Liv. viii, 13, 9. The statue of Camillus had stood on the old Rostra (§ 23), and was apparently still extant in the days of Pliny the Younger (see Paneg. 55, 6). The exact site of the statue of Maenius is unknovm, of. Jacobi, Museographie, p. 60.

I. ex foedere, i. c. the treaty con- cluded by Sp. Cassius in B. c. 493, cf. Kom. Forsch. ii, p. 163, note 22.

■i. Antiatibus : the orator's plat- form was from that time called the rostra (Liv. viii, 14, 12). For its statues, see Gilbert, .ffoTO, p. 153, note 3.

3. C. Duillio: a portion of the in- fcribed basis, restored in antiquity, belonging to the columna Duilia, was found in i565(Helbig, Class. Ant. $^1; C./.i. i, 195).

4. de Poenis. After the battle of Mylae, B. c. 260.

I 21. 5. L. Minuoio : his column, surmounted by the statue, is shown on the reverse of a denarius of B. c. 129 of C. Minucius Augurinus (Babelon,


Monn. de la Rip. Rom., ii, p. 22S ; Mommsen, Rom. Miinzw. p. 550, no. 265). Livy, iv, 16, 2, mentions only a gilt ox erected in honour of Minu- cius.

praefecto annonae : Liv. iv, 12, 8, cf Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte,

P- 134-

6. unciaria stipe collata: accord- ing to Mommsen, Staatsrecht, iii, p. 1185, note 3, this possibly means that the expenses were met by volun- tary contributions, whereas they other- wise fell to the Aerarium.

8. frivolis, because the statue was set up in honour of the supposed miracles of the whet-stone (Liv. i, 36) and of the Ficus ruminalis. For Pliny's scepticism in these matters see XV, 77.

Atti ITavi : he was represented as under average height, and wearing the priestly fillet (Dionysios iii, 71, S"). The statue stood on the left of the steps leading up to the curia (Livy, loc. cil.). The mention of this statue, in confirmation of the statement antea eniTn a senatu, brings with it a long digression, thoroughly


II. BRONZE STATUARY 19

bound by treaty to give one third of the spoils taken in war.

In the same consulship, in the year of Rome 416 [338 B.C.], he

defeated the people of Antium, and fixed the beaks of The

their ships upon the platform in the forum. Another column, ' ^o^'^^-

in honour of Gains Duillius, who enjoyed the first naval triumph c. Duil-

for his victory over the Carthaginians, is still standing in the forum. ^"" >

Another was set up outside the Porta Trigemina, in honour of 21

Lucius Minucius, chief commissioner of the corn supply, and Lucius

for it a rate of one twelfth of an as was levied. This was, ^^^"""'"^

439 BC. I believe, the first time this honour was conferred by the people,

for previously it had been left in the hands of the Senate. Cer- tainly the distinction were an honourable one save for the slight grounds for which it was first conferred. For instance, there was in front of the Senate House a statue of Attus statue of

Navius, the base of which was destroyed when the Senate House ^/'"f

, . Navtus.

was burnt down at the funeral of Publms Clodius, and in the .^ ^ j,

comitium there was another, dedicated at the public expense, ol Hermo-

Hermodoros, the Ephesian, who expounded the laws drawn up ?^^^-^^

by the Decemvirs. Very different were the reasons which 22

entitled Horatius Codes to the statue which is still standing : ^oratius

single-handed he had held the Sublician bridge against the foe. 508 b.c.

Nor am I astonished that a statue, or even three statues, of the 755^ three

Sibyl should stand near the Rostra. One of these was replaced ^^h^^-

by Sextus Pacuvius Taurus, when plebeian aedile, and the two

others by Marcus Messala. I should consider these statues and

that of Attus Navius, which date from the reign of Tarquin the

Ancient, to be the earliest we have, were it not that on the Capitol

in Pliny's manner, on ancient statues the area Volcani Aul. Gell. iv, 5, i.

in Rome ; the subject of the statues Codes was represented full-armed,

raised on columns is not resumed till with perhaps an indication of his

§ 27. lameness, Dionysios v, 25 ; Plut. Publ.

fait, i.e. the statue had disappeared xvi. when Pliny wrote. 14. iuxta rostra, i. e. the old ros-

10. Hermodori : cf. Strabo xir, tra. These new Sibyls are probably

p. 642; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1, 36, 105. identical with the rpio <faTa mentioned

The statue presumably stood in front by Procop. De Bell. Goth, i, 25, p. 122,

of the old rostra, by the Twelve Tables as standing between the curia and the

upon which the laws were inscribed. temple of Janus (O. Gilbert, Rom, iii.

It had been removed in Pliny's day, p. 228, note 2). cf. Jacobi, Museographie, p. 50. 15. Sextus Paouius Taurus,

§ 22. 12. Horati Coolitis : below probably identical with the trib. pi.,

§ 29. The statue stood in comitio B.C. 27. Liv. ii, 10, 12 ; afterwards removed to

c a


20 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

aetate Tarquinii Prisci, ni regum antecedentiutn essent in

23 CapitoHo. ex his Romuli et Tatii sine tunica, sicut et Camilli in rostris. et ante aedem Castorum fuit Q. Marci Tremuli equestris togata, qui Samnites bis devicerat capta-

A.u.c. 448. que Anagnia populum stipendio liberaverat. inter anti- 5

quissimas sunt et Tulli Cloeli, L. Rosci, Spuri Nauti, A.D.C. 316. C. Fulcini in rostris, a Fidenatibus in legatione interfectorum.

24 hoc a re p. tribui solebat iniuria caesis, sicut aliis et P. lunio, A.u.c. 524. Ti. Coruncanio, qui ab Teuta lUyriorum regina interfecti

erant. non omittendum videtur quod annales adnotavere 10 tripedaneas iis statuas in foro statutas. haec videlicet men- sura honorata tunc erat. non praeteribo et Cn. Octavium ob unum SC. verbum. hie regem Antiochum daturum se responsum dicentem virga quam tenebat forte circum- scripsit priusque quam egrederetur circulo illo responsum 15 A.u.c. 592. dare coegit. in qua legatione interfecto senatus statuam poni iussit quam oculatissimo loco, eaque est in rostris.

25 invenitur statua decreta et Taraciae Gaiae sive Fufetiae virgini Vestali, ut poneretur ubi vellet, quod adiectum non minus honoris habet quam feminae esse decretam. 20 meritum eius ipsis ponam annalium verbis : quodcampum Tiberinum gratificata esset ea populo.

I. regum. Cf. xxxiii, 9, 10, 24. 3. Q. Marci Tremuli: Liv.ix, 43,

in Capitolio: cf. Appian, 'E/i<^. 22 statua equestris in foro decreta

i, 16, where Tib. Gracchus is killed est quae ante temflum Castoris posita

bythe doors ofthe temple of Capitoline est; cf. Cic./I4z7. vi, 5, 13. Forapos-

Jupiter near the statues of the kings. sible echo of the statue see Mommsen,

§ 23. 2. sine tunica, i.e. wrapped Rom. Miinzw. p. 549, n. 263. in the toga alone, cf. Aul. Gell. vi, gui . . . liberaverat ; these words 12; Asconius (on Cic. pro Scaur. 30) appear to come from an inscription says that the younger Cato as praetor in Saturnine verse, qui bis devicit used to lay aside the tunic ex vetere Samni | -leis Anagniamque || cepit consuetudine, secundum quam et populum stipendi | 6 liberavit (Urlichs Romuli et Tatii statuae in Capitolio in Chrestom. p. 307). et in rostris Camilli fuerunt togatae 5. stipendio; according to the sinetunicis. The difference of costume treaty concluded by Sp. Cassius in shows that the statues of the kings were B.C. 486, the Hernicans had been en- put up at different dates. Pliny's in- titled to a third of the war booty ; formation seems derived from Verrius, on this clause see Mommsen, Rom. ci. iL-a-^m, f. 167. n. 22. Tarquinium Priscum Verrius docet. inter antiquissimas sunt : the et Camilli : see the passage from use of the present shows that Asconius quoted above. Pliny is transcribing direct from his


//. BRONZE STATUARY ai

we have the statues of Tarquin's predecessors. Among these the 23

figures of Romulus and Tatius are without the tunic, and so is ^»"««'

kings* that of Camillus on the Rostra. In front of the temple of Castor

there also stood an equestrian statue of Quintus Marcius Tremulus q, m.

wearing the toga. He had conquered the Samnites in two battles, Tremulus.

and by taking Anagnia had freed Rome from payment of 306 b.c.

the war tax. The statues on the Rostra to Tullus Cloelius, Roman

Lucius Roscius, Spurius Nautius, and Gaius Fulcinus, ambassadors '^f^"f-'fj ,

killed by the people of Fidenae, are also among the earliest, by the

This honour was usually paid by the state to those who had P'-^^"'^'^^-

been killed in violation of the law of nations ; it was done in many 24

cases, notably that of Publius Junius and Tiberius Coruncanius, 23° b-c.

who were put to death by Teuta, queen of Illyricum. It is '^Q'^^ Junius and

noticing that according to the annals the statues set up in the Tiberius

forum on these occasions were three feet high ; apparently this was canills.

the height in vogue in those days. I shall mention the statue of

Gnaeus Octavius, on account of one clause in the decree of the Cn.

Senate. King Antiochos had wished to delay an answer, where- '^'i'^'"""-

upon Octavius drew a circle round him with a rod which he

chanced to have in his hand, and compelled the king to give an

answer before he stepped outside the circle. Octavius was killed 162 b.c.

while on this embassy, and the Senate ordered a statue to be set

up in his honour ' in as visible a place as possible ' : the statue

accordingly stands on the Rostra. I find a decree giving a statue 25

to Taracia Gaia or Fufetia, a Vestal virgin, ' to be placed where Taraaa

she pleased,' a clause no less to her honour than the actual

dedication of a statue to a woman. According to the words of 1

the annals, which I will quote, she received these honours

'because she had presented to the people the field by the Tiber.'

author ; the statues had already dis- the last-mentioned statues, but also to

appeared in Cicero's time : Lars those of the ambassadors to the

Tolumnius rex Veientium quattuor Fidenates.

legates populi Romani Fidenis in- 12. On. Oetavium, § 13, murdered

teremit, quorum statuae steterunt at Laodicea in B. c. 162 ; cf. Cic.

usque ad meam memoriam in rostris. Phil, ix, 2, 4 statuam videmus in ros-

Phil. ix, i, 4. tris. By a confusion Plmy attributes

§ 24. 8. P. luBio, Ti. Corun- to Octavius an act performed by C.

canio. Polybios, ii, p. 131 (ed. Popilius Laenas, on the occasion of his

Biittner-Wobst), calls them Titos and embassy to Antiochus IV Epiphanes

AevKios (KopoyitdviOi). They had been in B. C. 168, Cic. Phil, viii, 8, 23 ; Liv.

sent to put down piracy on the lUyrian xlv, 12. coast. § 25. 18. Taraciae Gaiae sive

II. tripedaneas refers not only to Fufetiae . . . populo : this curious


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


26 Invenio et Pythagorae et Alcibiadi in cornibus comitii A.u.c. 411. positas, cum hello Samniti Apollo Pythius iussisset

fortissimo Graiae gentis et alteri sapientissimo simulacra A.u.c. 666. celebri loco dicari. eae stetere donee Sulla dictator ibi curiam faceret. mirumque est illos patres Socrati cunctis 5 ab eodem deo sapientia praelato Pythagoran praetulisse aut tot aliis virtute Alcibiaden et quemquam utroque

27 Themistocli. columnarum ratio erat attolli super ceteros mortales, quod et arcus significant novicio invento. primus tamen honos coepit a Graecis, nullique arbitror plures 10 statuas dicatas quam Phalereo Demetrio Athenis, siquidem CCCLX statuere nondum anno hunc numerum dierum

A.u.c. 670. excedente, quas mox laceravere. statuerunt et Romae in

8. toUi onines praeter Bamb., Detlefsen.


statement is best examined in the light of a passage from Aulus Gellius, vii, 7, 1-4 Accae Lareniiae et Gaiae Taraciae, sive iila Fufetia est, nomina in anli- quis .nnnalibus celebria sunt. eai~um alterae post mortem, Taraciae auiem vivae amplissimi honores a populo Romano habiti. et Taraciam quidem virginem Vestalem fidsse lex Horatia testis est, quae super ea ad populu7?i lata, qua lege ei plurimi ho^iores fiunt, inter quos ius quoque testimonii dicendi trib of Pacuvius ; Peter ap. Macrobius, Sat. i, 9, 10, and John

Roscher, i, 291 1 ff. ; cf. note on xxxv, Lydos, mpl /irjvwv, i, 4. A number of

19), and below on § 33. ingenious explanations are quoted in

19. lanus geminus : in his temple Hardouin's note on the passage.


aS C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV

significationem anni temporis et aevi esse deum indicent.

34 signa quoque Tuscanica per terras dispersa quin in Etruria factitata sint non est dubium. deorum tantum putarem ea fuisse, ni Metrodorus Scepsius cui cognomen a Romani

A.u.c. 489. nominis odio inditum est propter M M statuarum Volsinios 5 expugnatos obiceret. mirumque mihi videtur, cum sta- tuarum origo tam vetus Italiae sit, lignea potius aut fictilia deorum simulacra in delubris dicata usque ad devictam

35 Asiam, unde luxuria. similitudines exprimendi quae prima fuerit origo, in ea quam plasticen Graeci vocant dici con- 10 venientius erit, etenim prior quam statuaria fuit. sed haec ad infinitum effloruit multorum voluminum operi, si quis plura persequi velit, omnia enim quis possit ?

36 M. Scauri aedilitate signorum M M M in scaena tan- A.u.c. 695. ^yjj^ fuere temporario theatro. Mummius Achaia devicta 15 A.u.c. 608. replevit urbem non relicturus filiae dotem. cur enim non

cum excusatione ponatur? multa et Luculli invexere. Rhodi etiamnum LXXIII signorum esse Mucianus ter COS. prodidit, nee pauciora Athenis, Olympiae, Delphis

37 superesse creduntur. quis ista mortalium persequi possit 20 aut quis usus noscendi intellegatur ? insignia maxime et aliqua de causa notata voluptarium sit attigisse artificesque celebratos nominavisse, singulorum quoque inexplicabili multitudine, cum Lysippus MD opera fecisse prodatur, tantae omnia artis ut claritatem possent dare vel singula, 25 numerum apparuisse defuncto eo, cum thensaurum effre- gisset hereSj solitum enim ex manipretio cuiusque signi

12. operi Bamb. ; opere reliqut, Detlefsen. 18. LXXIII] Bamb. Rice. ;

LXXIII Voss. {teste Detlefsen) ; numerus aferte corruftus.

I . aevi esse deum : aiad. toC aiwos of olive wood in the Erechtheion at

naripa, John Lydos, loc. cit. Athens, Pans, i, 26, 6 ; 27, I ; ii,

§34. 4. Metrodorus Soepsius : 25, j, &c.

bom about B.C. 145 ; MuUer, F. H. G. fictilia : xxxv, 157.

iii, pp. 202-205; Susemihl, Griech. §35. 11. prior quam statuaria :

Lit. in der Alexandr. Z.eit, ii, p. since a bronze statue presupposed

352 'f- a clay model, note on xxxv, 153.

7. lignea : in Italy, as in Greece, § 36. 14. M. Scauri aedilitate :

statuary began with the wooden idols viii, 64, xxxv, 127. For the theatre

which not unfrequently remained see xxxvi, 5, 50, 113-115, 189; it

objects of worship even in the greatest was erected in the Campus Martius,

periods of art, e. g. the Athene Polias but the exact spot is unknown.


//. BRONZE STATUARY 29

days in the year, and by thus indicating the year they mark him as the god of time and the age. We also find, scattered in 34 dififerent countries, statues in the Tuscan style, which must certainly have been made in Etruria. I should incline to think that these were only figures of the gods, did not Metrodoros of Skepsis, whose other name of /uio-opm/iaio? or Roman-Hater was given him from his hatred of Rome, accuse us of having taken Volsinii for the sake of its two thousand statues. To me it seems 365 b.c. strange that, though statuary in Italy has so ancient an origin, ^^'^S^^ "f the images of the gods dedicated in the shrines were by preference term-cotia made of wood or of terra-cotta until the conquest of Asia intro- P^'^fi/^ed

m the

duced luxury. It will be better to speak of the origin of the model- temples. ling of portraits when we treat of the art which the Greeks call ^^ TrXao-TiKij, as it is earlier than statuary. The latter art has been infinitely developed; a fuller discussion would require many volumes, an exhaustive treatise is scarcely possible.

Marcus Scaurus in his aedileship adorned the stage of a mere 36 temporary theatre with three thousand statues. Mummius filled ^^ ^/^' . all Rome with sculpture after his conquest of Achaia, and yet Theatre of I must add in his favour that he eventually died too poor to ^'^^ leave his daughter a dowry. The Luculli too brought over a 146 b.c number of statues ; seventy-three thousand are still to be seen at a.d. 67, 70, Rhodes, according to Mucianus, who was three times consul, '^' and it is supposed that at least as many still remain at Athens, Olympia and Delphoi. A detailed knowledge of all these is 37 unattainable and would moreover serve no purpose ; still I should like to touch on the most famous, and those which any par- ticular circumstance has made noteworthy, and to name the illustrious artists. Even the works of individual sculptors are too numerous to be catalogued; Lysippos, for example, is said to 1500 have made fifteen hundred pieces of statuary, all of such merit /^'"lij'f that any one alone would bring him fame. Their number was

15. Achaia deviota: xxxiii, 149. ed. Schoene, p. 139: templa Rho-

16. dotem: cf. Frontinus, Strateg. diorum depopulaius est Cassius, but iv, 3, 15. from Pliny it appears that the

17. et Luculli: i.e. L. Licinius, plundering cannot have been so the conqueror of Mithridates, cos. B. c. thorough as set forth either by Appian 74 (xxxv, 125, 155), and his brother iiitj>vK. iv, 81, Val. Max. i, 5, 8, or Marcus, below §39; cos. B.C. 73; Orosius, vi, 18, 3.

triumphed B.C. 71. Mucianus : see Introd. p. Ixxxv.

18. Ehodi etiamnum : Jerome § 37. 24. Lysippus : the anecdote (see Addenda) Chron. 01. 184, 4, of the money-box may be traced


30 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

38 denarios seponere aureos singulos. evecta supra humanam fidem ars est successu, mox et audacia. in argumentum successus unum exemplum adferam, nee deorum hominumve similitudinis expressae. aetas nostra vidit in Capitolio,

A.u.c. 822. priusquam id novissime conflagraret a Vitellianis incensum, 5 in cella lunonis canem ex acre volnus suum lambentem, cuius eximium miraculum et indiscreta veri similitudo non eo solum intellegitur quod ibi dicata fuerat, verum et satis- datione, nam quoniam summa nulla par videbatur, capita tutelarios cavere pro ea institutum publice fuit. 10

39 Audaciae innumera sunt exempla. moles quippe excogitatas videmus statuarum, quas colossaeas vocant, turribus pares, talis est in Capitolio Apollo tralatus a

A.u.c. 681. M. LucuUo ex Apollonia Ponti urbe, XXX cubitorum,

40 D talentis factus, talis in campo Martio luppiter a Claudio 15 Caesare dicatus, qui devoratur Pompeiani theatri vicinitate, talis et Tarenti factus a Lysippo XL cubitorum. mirum in eo quod manu, ut ferunt, mobilis — ea ratio libramenti est — nullis convellatur procellis. id quidem providisse et artifex dicitur modico intervallo, unde maxime flatum opus erat 30 frangi, opposita columna. itaque magnitudinem propter difficultatemque moliendi non attigit cum Fabius Verru-

A.u.c. 545. cosus, cum Herculem qui est in Capitolio inde transferret.

41 ante omnis autem in admiratione fuit Solis colossus Rhodi,

back to Duris, below § 51 ; Introd. 9. capite: cf. xxxvi, 29 . . . capi-

p. xlviii. tali satisdatione fama iudicet dignos

I. denarios : the Roman golden (i. e. two statuary groups),

denarius was worth about (.1, but the § 39. 13. Apollo: KdKa/uSos epyov.

reference here must be to the araTrip^ Strab. vii, p. 319.

16s. nearly. Introd. p. Ixxxiv. | 40. 15. a CI. Caesare. Claudius

§ 38. 4. in Capitolio : after the restored the theatre of Pompeins

temple had been burnt down in B.C. 83, after a. fire, and probably dedicated

Sulla undertook its reconstruction, the Jupiter on the same occasion. Tac.

which was eventually carried out by Q. ^nn. iii, 72.

Lutatius Catulus, who dedicated the 16. Pompeiani theatri ; near the

new temple in B. c. 69. It was burnt Great Circus,

again a Vitellianis, Tac. Hist, in, 71. 17. factus a Lysippo : it repre-

6. in cella lunouis ; on the sented Zeus, and according to Strabo,

right of the central cella of Jupiter ; p. 278, was the tallest colossus after

the cella on the left was dedicated to that of Rhodes. Minerva.


//. BRONZE STATUARY 31

discovered when his heir broke open his money-box after his death, for it was his custom to lay by a piece of gold out of the price he received for each statue.

Art has made extraordinary progress, in technique first and 38 afterwards in audacity. As an example of successful technique £,^'™"jj I shall mention a figure representing neither god nor man. Be- fore the last fire on the Capitol, caused by the soldiers of Vitellius, a.d. 69. our own generation could see in the temple of Juno a bronze dog licking its wound : the wonderful workmanship and Bronze absolutely life-like treatment are sufficiently proved not only by ^' the sacred spot where the work was dedicated, but also by the unusual guarantee demanded for it. No sum of money was considered equivalent : it was a public ordinance that the curators should pledge their lives for its safety.

Of audacity countless instances can be given. For example 39 artists have conceived the idea of gigantic statues called colossi, /^w * //(, as tall as towers. Of this class is the Apollo in the Capitol, in the brought from Apollonia in Pontos by Marcus Lucullus ; it is j^^f" forty-five feet high, and cost five hundred talents [;^i 20,000]. {h) Jupiter Another is the Jupiter dedicated in the Field of Mars by Claudius ^-/^f r Caesar, which, however, is dwarfed by its proximity to the theatre Jfew. of Pompeius. Yet another is the Zeus at Tarentum by Lysippos, 40 which is 40 cubits [58 ft.] in height and is noteworthy because the ^P ^T^^- weight is so nicely balanced that the colossus can, they say, be turned at Taren- round by a touch of the hand, and yet cannot be overthrown by the '""*" wind. The artist is said to have provided against this by placing a column a little way off, on the side where it was most necessary to break the violence of the wind. The size of the statue and the ^ ^ difficulty of transporting it prevented Fabius Verrucosus from (d) Hera- touching it, although he brought the Herakles in the Capitol from c"J//J " Tarentum. The most marvellous of all, however, is the statue 41

mirum . . . procellis : periegetic Fabiiis himself (Phit. i^ai. ^ajr.xxii), explanation. which he doubtless set up in imitation

22. non attigit Fabius: cf. Liv. ofCarvilius.

xxvii, 16, 8. § 41. 24. ante omnis ... in ad-

23. Herculem : Avai-mrov ijrjov, miratione : cf. hue. /tip. Trag. 11. Strabo, loc. cit. The hero was repre- It was even reckoned among the Seven sented without weapons and seated, Wonders of the world. The notion resting his head on his left hand ; cf. that it stood with one foot on each of Niketas Akominatos de signis Con- the moles which formed the entrance stantinop., p. 859. Near the Hercules to the harbour while ships passed full stood a bronze equestrian statue of sail between its legs was unknown to


32 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

A.u.c. 527. quern fecerat Chares Lindius, Lysippi supra dicti discipulus. LXX cubitorum altitudinls fuit. hoc simulacrum post LVI annum terrae motu prostratum, sed iacens quoque miraculo est. pauci pollicem eius amplectuntur, maiores sunt digiti quam pleraeque statuae. vasti specus hiant defractis mem- 5 bris, spectantur intus magnae molis saxa quorum pondere stabiliverat eum constituens. duodecim annis tradunt effec- tum CCC talentis quae contigerant ex apparatu regis

42 Demetrii relicto morae taedio opsessa Rhodo. sunt alii centum numero in eadem urbe colossi minores hoc, sed lo ubicumque singuli fuissent, nobilitaturi locum, praeterque

43 hos deorum quinque quos fecit Bryaxis. factitavit colossos et Italia, videmus certe Tuscanicum Apollinem in biblio- theca templi Augusti quinquaginta pedum a pollice, dubium aere mirabiliorem an pulchritudine. fecit et Sp. Carvilius 15

A.u.c. 461. lovem qui est in Capitolio victis Samnitibus sacrata lege pugnantibus e pectoralibus eorum ocreisque et galeis. ampli- tudo tanta est ut conspiciatur a Latiari love, e reliquiis limae suam statuam fecit quae est ante pedes simulacri eius.

44 habent in eodem Capitolio admirationem et capita duo quae 20 A.u.c. 697. P. Lentulus cos. dicavit, alterum a Charete supra dicto

factum, alterum fecit . . . dicus conparatione in tantum victus

45 ut artificum minime probabilis videatur. verum omnem amplitudinem statuarum eius generis vicit aetata nostra Zenodorus Mercurio facto in civitate GalHae Arvernis per 25

the ancients, and arose in the Middle p. 60. Introd. p. Ixxxvii.

Ages. See Cecil Torr, Rhodes in 8. ex apparatu : Pint. Demetr. 20.

Ancient Times, -p. ^6 i. 9. opsessa Rhode; vii, 126;

2. LXX cub. altitudinis : pre- xxxv, 104, 105.

sumably from Varro, the measurement 5 42. 12. Bryaxis: below, § 73.

being practically identical with that § 43. 13. Tuscanicum ApoUinem:

given by Vibius Sequester {^Colossus from what we know of Etniscan work-

Rhodi alius pedes CF), who is known manship, Pliny's admiration must be

to have drawn from Varro, Urlichs, prompted by patriotism.

Quellen-Reg. p. 11. in bibliotheoa : belonging to

hoc simulacrum . . . Bryaxis : the temple of Augustus (xii, 94),

th% picturesque desciiption of the built by Tiberius and Livia in B.C.

prostrate colossus, and the mention of 14, Die Cassius, Ivi, 46 ; cf. Suet.

the hundred other colossal statues in Tib. 74 in bibliotheca templi novi.

Rhodes, have been rightly referred to Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. I2i, n. 3 ; it also

Mucianus by Brieger, de Font. Plin. contained, besides the customary busts


//. BRONZE STATUARY 33

of the Sun at Rhodes, made by Chares of Lindos, a pupil of the (e) Colossus Lysippos already mentioned. It was seventy cubits [102 feetl in f^^f^"

,■,.,_ T,-„„ ■'by Chares

height, and after standmg for fifty-six years was overthrown by an of lindos.

earthquake, but even as it lies on the ground it arouses wonder, b.c 227.

Few men can clasp their arms about its thumb, its fingers are taller

than most statues and wide caverns gape within its broken limbs,

while inside can be seen huge fragments of rock, originally used

as weights to steady it. According to tradition, its construction

lasted twelve years, and cost 300 talents [£72,000], contributed

by the Rhodians out of the siege-train left with them by King 42

Demetrios when he wearied of the siege of Rhodes. There are Other

a hundred smaller colossal statues in this city, any one of which "t^f^l at

would have made famous the place it adorned, besides five Rhodes.

representing gods, made by Bryaxis. In Italy too colossal ^^y^^^

statues have been made ; we have before our eyes the Tuscan 43

Apollo, in the library of the temple of Augustus, which mea- Tuscan

sures 50 feet from its toe. It is not easy to say whether the ^^"

beauty of the statue or of the bronze is the more worthy ol JJ^^^ ^^

wonder. After the victory over the Samnites, who fought Italy-

bound by a solemn vow, Spurius Carvilius made from their b.c. 293.

breastplates, greaves, and helmets the Jupiter in the Capitol, /«/«V«?-.

a statue large enough to be visible from the temple of Jupiter

Latiaris. From the filings he made a statue of himself, to . .

stand at the feet of the other. Two heads, also placed on the Colossal

Capitol, deserve to be admired. They were dedicated by "^'^"■'"•

Publius Lentulus : one is the work of the Chares mentioned

above, the other is by . . . dikos, who however suffers by

the comparison so as to seem a most unattractive artist. In 45

our own times however Zenodoros exceeded the proportions Zenodoros.

of all other statues of this class. His Mercury was made in His

Gaul, in the state of the Arverni; he spent ten years upon ''")'■

ofillustrious men, a statue of Minerva, later date, and that Pliny, or his

Plin. fii, 210. author, confused the first and second

16. viotis Samnitibus : cf. Liv. consulship of Carvilius.

X, 38-46. It is at least curious that 18. Xiatiari love : on the Mons

Livy in his elaborate accoxmt of the Albanus (Monte Cavo).

triumph of B.C. 293 should only men- 5 44. 21. Charete supra dicto :

tion the temple of Fors Fortuna (x, in §41. Pliny is the only author who

46, 14) as erected out of the booty. mentions any worli of Chares besides

A. Schaeffer (Comm. phil. in hon. the Colossus.

Momms. p. 7) accordingly supposes § 45. 25. Zenodorus : perhaps an

the statue to have been set up at a Alexandrian established in Uaul, see S.


34 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


annos decern, HS [CCCC] manipreti, postquam satis artem ibi adprobaverat, Romam accitus a Nerone, ubi destinatum illius principis simulacro colossum fecit CXIXS pedum longitudine, qui dicatus Soli venerationi est damnatis sceleri- 48 bus illius principis. mirabamur in officina non modo ex 5 argilla similitudinem insignem, verum et de parvis admodum surculis quod primum opens instaurati fuit. ea statua indicavit interisse fundendi aeris scientiam, cum et Nero largiri aurum argentumque paratus asset et Zenodorus scientia fingendi caelandique nulli veterum postponeretur. lo

47 statuam Arvernorum cum faceret provinciae Dubio Avito praesidente, duo pocula Calamidis manu caelata, quae Cassio Salano avonculo eius praeceptori suo Germanicus Caesar adamata donaverat^ aemulatus est ut vix ulla differentia esset artis. quanto maior Zenodoro praestantia fuit, tanto 15 magis deprehenditur aeris obliteratio.

48 Signis quae vocant Corinthia plerique in tantum capiuntur ut secum circumferant, sicut Hortensius orator sphingem Verri reo ablatam, propter quam Cicero illo iudicio in altercatione neganti ei aenigmata se intellegere respondit 20 debere, quoniam sphingem domi haberet. circumtulit et Nero princeps Amazonem, de qua dicemus, et paulo ante

3. CXIXS] Urlichs in Chrestom. Plin. ; CVIS Detlefsen ; qui nonagiuta

Bamb.

Reinach, Bronzes Figuris de la Gaule Hercules, which were afterwards re-

Romaine, p. 12, who shows that the moved (AeliauLamprid. Ce»2?»0(/. 17,

name is met with principally in Syria 10). The size of the Neronian colossus

and Egypt. became proverbial, C. I. L. viii, i,

Arvernis : where Mercury had a 212, p. 36, 1. 82. Cf in xxxv, 51,

celebrated ritual in his temple on the the colossal painted portrait of Nero.

Puy de D8me ; see Addenda. § 46. 5. mirabamur : practically

3. colossum : in the vestibule of the only instance where Pliny speaks the Golden House, Suet. Nero, 31. from personal observation.

4. dicatus Soli venerationi : i. c. in officina : sc. aeraria, cf. below, by Vespasian, Suet. Vesp. 18, who set § 134 ; xvi, 23 ; xviii, 89 ; C. I. L. vi, up the colossus on the Sacred Way, 8455, &c. Addenda. DioCassius, 66,15; Marti.il, .S^crf. 2, 6. argilla ; i.e. the irpowKacrna, 1,71,6. The basis may still be seen 2« cf. xxxv, 155.

niu between the temple of Venus and 7. surculis : the surculi must, I

Rome and the Colosseum. Com- think, be the Tpvn-rniaTo. or wax tubes

modus replaced the head by a portrait with which the wax model was

head of himself (Herodian, i, s, 9), covered previous to its being cased

and gave to the statue attributes of in loam; these tubes were intended


// BRONZE STATUARY 35

it and received in payment forty million sesterces [£350,000

circ.J. After he had won his reputation in Gaul, Nero sum- ms colossal

moned him to Rome, where he made a colossal statue 11 94 feet ^"

in height. It was originally intended to represent the Emperor,

but after Nero's crimes had met with their punishment, it

was dedicated to the worship of the Sun. In his workshop 46

our wonder was excited not only by the extraordinary likeness

in the clay model, but by the slender tubing which was the

first stage towards the completion of the work. This statue

proved that the secret of the composition of bronze was lost,

since Nero had been ready to provide the gold and silver,

and in modelling and chasing Zenodoros was the equal of any

ancient artist. When he made the statue for the Arverni, during 47

the governorship of Dubius Avitus, he imitated two cups, chased -^* "P^^^

by the hand of Kalamis, which Germanicus Caesar had prized byKalamis.

very highly, and had given to Cassius Silanus his tutor, the

uncle of Dubius, with such nicety that scarcely any difference can

be detected between the original and the copy. Thus the artistic

cunning of Zenodoros only strengthens the proof that the art of

alloying bronze was forgotten.

The figures known as Corinthian are often so much prized that 48

the owners carry them about with them, as the orator Hortensius ^"ifg„f

did the figure of a sphinx which he had taken from his cUent Corinthian

Verres. The image was mentioned in the course of the trial, for sphinx of

when Hortensius declared that he could not guess riddles, Cicero \Hortensius.

replied that he should be able to do so since he kept a sphinx in his

house. Nero when Emperor also took about with him an Amazon /iViroV

Amazon.

to produce in the loam-coating holes 12. Calamidis : xxxiii, 156; xxxvi,

for the pouring in of the bronze, and 36.

the letting out of the air. The co- 13. praeoeptori : in oratory- Ovid

lossalwaxcast of ahorse covered with addressed the Pontic Ep. ii, 5, to

tubings, Clarac, Musie de Sc. i, pi. v, Salanus.

figs. 5, 6, p. loi ff., exactly illustrates § 48. 18. Hortensius : the cele-

what I imagine would be the appear- brated orator and art amateur, re-

ance which the Neronian colossus peatedly mentioned by Pliny, viii,

presented when Tliny saw it. Oddly 211 ; ix, 170; xxxv, 130, &c.

enough neither Clarac nor Bliimner 21. sphingem : according to Pint,

(cf. Technol. iv, p. 325) comment, so Apophthegm. Rom. Cic. ii. it was

far as I am aware, on this interesting silver, but according to the same

passage. author, Cic. vii, a, it was of ivory.

8. indicavit interisse : cf. § 5. See Addenda.

§47. II. Dubio Avito. Tac. 22. de qua dioemus : below,

Ann. xiii, 54. § 82.

D a


36


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


C. Cestius consularis signum, quod secum etiam in proelio habuit. Alexandri quoque Magni tabernaculum sustinere traduntur solitae statuae, ex quibus duae ante Martis Ultoris aedem dicatae sunt, totidem ante regiam.

49 Minoribus simulacris signisque innumera prope artificum s multitude nobilitata est, ante omnis tamen Phidias Atheni- ensis love Olympio facto ex ebore quidem at auro, sed et ex acre signa fecit, floruit autem olympiade LXXXIII, cir- citer CCC urbis nostrae annum, quo eodem tempore aemuli eius fuere Alcamenes, Critias, Nesiotes, Hegias, et deinde lo olympiade LXXXVII Hagelades, Gallon, Gorgias Lacon, rursus LXXXX Polyclitus, Phradmon, Myron, Pythagoras,

50 Scopas, Perellus. ex his Polyclitus discipulos habuit

7. Olympiae omnes praeter Bamb., Detlefsen.


1. C Cestius. Tac. Hist.y, 10. consularis signum : where Frbh-

ner {Rhein. Mus., 1892, p. 292) proposes consularis (plans') signum. But Pliny is concerned merely with proving what store was laid by Corin- thian bronzes, and not with their subjects. If he specifies Nero's Amazon, it is only because it had become a familiar object.

2. tabernaoulum : Pliny has here misunderstood the Greek word aKTjvrj

= tent or canopy. The description in the original can only have been of the golden Nikai, which according to Diodoros (xviii, 26) supported at each of its comers the canopy of the chariot upon which Alexander's corpse was borne to Alexandria; Urlichs, Chrest. p. 314.

3. Martis Ultoris: in the forum of Augustus, dedicated B.C. 2. Mon. Anc. (iv) xxi, 21-22 ; Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 88.

4. regiam : close to the temple lof Vesta.

5 49. 5. Minoribus, i.e. colossis supradictis.

7. love Olympio, § 54; xxxvi, 18.


8. floruit = iJKiia^e.

olymp. LXXXIII : probably date of commencement of Parthenon. Then about Pheidias as representative are grouped — failing more precise his- torical information — other artists con- nected with the restoration of Athens after the Persian wars and its subse- quent embellishment. The group of the Tyrant-slayers, madeby Kritios and Nesiotes (archonship of Adeimantos B.C. 477, Marm. I'ar.), replaced the older group by Antenor, which had been carried away by Xerxes (5 70). Hegias appears as contemporary of K. and N. (cf. Lucian, A'^ei. Praec. 9) ; Alkamenes worked chiefly for Athens {Schrifiquell. 812-82 2)'. The follow- ing groups likewise, when they can be determined at all, seem the result of similar uncritical combinations. As a rule the given Olympiad strictly refers only to the first artist in each group.

circiter : i. e. more accurately, 306.

9. aemuli : the epithet is applied quite loosely, and means little more than ' of rival merit ' : so in xxxvi, 30, the fellow- workers of Skopas on the Mausoleion are called his aemuli; in


//. BRONZE STATUARY


31


which will be mentioned later on, and a little earlier Gaius ' Sestius, a consular, had a statue which he even took into battle. It is said too that the tent of Alexander the Great was 7V»/ of always supported by statues, of which two have been dedicated '^¥^'^"'^- in front of the temple of Mars the Avenger, and two in front of the Regia.

The number of artists whose reputation rests on images and 49 statues of smaller size can hardly be counted. Pheidias of ^"'""'".S?' Athens, however, stands first of all with his Olympian Ztns. principal This was of ivory and gold, but he also worked in bronze. He '"'*• flourished in the eighty-third Olympiad [448-445 B.C. J, about three hundred years after the foundation of Rome. Of the same date were his rivals, Alkamenes, Kritios, Nesiotes, and Hegias. In the eighty-seventh Olympiad [432-429 e.g.] came Hagelaidas, Kallon and the Laconian Gorgias, and in the ninetieth [420-417 B.C.] Polykleitos, Fhradmon, Myron, Pythagoras, Skopas, \Perellos.


xxxT, 64, Illustrious contemporaries of Zeuxis figure as iiis aequales et aemuli; cf. also xxxv, 124.

II. Hagelades : a contemporary of tlie Elder Kanachos; flourished circ. B. c. 515-485, Robert, Arch. March- pp. 39, 93. He is placed in 01. 87, because his Herakles, 'AKf^'maKos (in Melite, Schol. Aristoph. Barpaxoi, 504), like the Apollo Alexikakos of Kalamis, Paus. i, 3, 4 (cf. Brunn, A'. G. i, p. 126), was connected in the popular imagination with the staying of the great Plague in the third year of the Peloponnesian war — the asso- ciation arising of course from the epithet (Brunn, i, p. 68). The real occasion for the dedication of the Herakles remains obscure ; cf. Robert, loc. cit. ; Studniczka, Rom. Mitth. ii, 1887, p. 99, note 27 ; Wolters, Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, p. 160. The mention of Hagelaidas brings with it that of his contemporaries, Gorgias and Kallon. See Addenda.

Gallon : it is uncertain whether the Eleian Kallon (Paus. v, 25,4; 27, 8 = /. C B. 33), or his more cele- brated Aiginetan namesake (/. G. B. 27 ; Paus. ii, 32, 6 ; iii, 18, 8).


Gorgias : /. G. B. ^6 ==€./. A. iv,

373 (214)-

12. Polyclitua : § 55, possibly dated by the gold and ivory Hera, which he made for the new Heraion at Argos, after the fire of E. c. 424. Together with Polykleitos are grouped, besides Phradmon (probably a real contemporary, Paus. vi, 8, i, below, § 53), Myron and Pythagoras, for no other reason, I imagine, than that, all three masters being celebrated for their statues of athletps, they fitted in better with him than with any other fifth-century artist for whom a date could be found. As a fact the best activity of Myron falls within the first half of the century (Fiirtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 182), while Pytha- goras, as we know from his statues of athletes whose victories ranged from B.C. 488-480, was considerably the older artist.

13. Scopas : he appears here by a singular anachronism : in xxxvi, 30, he is correctly dated from the Mauso- leion at Halikarnasso.'!. The error is however insufficient reason for assum- ing (with Klein and Robert cf. Arch. Marchen, p. 46) an elder Skopas.


38


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


Argium, Asopodorum, Alexim, Aristidem, Phrynonem, Dino- nem, Athenodorum, Demean Clitorium, Myron Lycium. LXXXXV olympiade floruere Naucydes, Dinomenes, Canachus, Patroclus, centesima secunda Polycles, Cephi- sodotus, Leuchares, Hypatodorus, CIIII Praxiteles, Eu- 5 51 phranor, centesima septima Aetion, Therimachus. CXIII Lysippus fuit, cum et Alexander Magnus, item Lysistratus frater eius, Sthenis, Euphron, Sofocles, Sostratus, Ion,

I. Argium Asopodorum Vetle/sen. Phrynonem Dinonem omnes praeter Bamb., [Dinonem] Detlefsen. 8. Sofocles] coni. Loewy in Inschr. Gr.

Bildh. 102<^J>. 384; fucles Bami.; icles Jlicc, Voss.; Eucles_^», Detlefsen.


§ 50. I. Asopodorum : a later artist than the Asopodoros who worlced on the bathron of Praxiteles of Kama- rina at Olympia {I.G.B. 30). See Add.

Alexim : if identical with the father of Kantharos of Silsyon in § 85 (the pupil of Eutychides; Pans, vi, 3, 6), he must have been a pupil of Polykleitos II. His insertion here would be due to an error of Pliny.

2. AthenodoTum, Demean : men- tioned together, Paus. x, 9, 7, as em- ployed on the Lakedaimonian votive offering set up at Delphoi in comme- moration of Aigospotamoi (b. c. 405).

Lycium : as his father appears in the same Olympiad with Polykleitos, he is placed in the 01. of the sons of Polykleitos; but he was already a flourishing artist in B.C. 446, if Lolling (AeXTi'oy, 1889, p. i8i ff.) is right in referring the statues ofhorsemen (Paus. i, 22, 4), on whose basis his signature occurs, to the expedition of Perikles to Euboia.

3. Kaucydes : § 80, son of Patro- kles (/. G. B. 86), and brother of Daidalos of Sikyon, Pans, vi, 34 ; /. G. B. 88-89. On his relation to the older Polykleitos, next to whose statue of Hera at Argos had stood a Hebe by Naukydes, Paus. ii.*i7, 4 (the two statues on coins of Argos.P. Gardner, iV«»«. Comm.l,xv), see Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 226, and cf. Robert, Arch. March, p. 104 ff.


Dinomenes : below, § 76.

4. Canachus, i.e. the younger: a Sikyonian and a pupil of Polykleitos (Paus. vi, 13, 7). His chronology, like that of Patrokles, is determined by the fact that he worked on the votive offering of Aigospotamoi (Paus. X, 9; ?)•

Polycles : § 80.

Cephisodotus ; father of Praxi- teles? (Brunn, ^. G. i. p. 269) or elder brother ? (Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 295). His chronology seems de- termined by his Eirene holding the infant Ploutos, which should probably be dated shortly after B. o. 375 ' to correspond with the institution of the annual offering to Eirene consequent on the victories of Timotheus' (Furt- wangler, loc. cit.).

5. Leuehares = Leochares. Cf. Leutychides = Leotychides in Hero- dotos. For his works, see below, 79 and xxxvi, 30. The extant dates for his activity are comprised between (a) a period previous to the banish- ment of Timotheus in B.C. 355, for whom he made a statue of Isokrates (Heliodoros ap. Ps. Plut. Vita X Orat. Isocr. 27), and (b) the year in the reign of Alexander, when, in conjunc- tion with Lysippos, he made Alex- ander's Lion Hunt (below on § 64).

Hypatodorus : he is possibly identical with the H. who, in con- junction with another artist Sostratos,


//. BRONZE STATUARY


39


The following were pupils of Polykleitos, Argeios, Asopodoros, 50 Alexis, Aristeides, \Phrynon, \Deinon, Atkenodoros, and Demeas of Kleitor. Myron was the master of Lykios. In the ninety-fifth Olympiad [400-397 b.c.J Naukydes flourished, with Deinomenes, Kanachos, and Patroklos ; in the hundred and second [372-369 B.c.J, Polykles, Kephisodotos, Leuchares, Hypatodoros ; in the hun- dred and fourth [364-36 1 b. c], Praxiteles and Euphranor ; in the hundred and seventh [352-349 b.c.J, Action and \Therimachos. Lysippos lived in the hundred and thirteenth [328-325 B.c.J, in 51 the days of Alexander the Great ; so also did his brother Lysi- stratos, as well as Sthennis, \Euphron, Sophokles, Sostratos, Hon,


made for the Arkadian Aliphera (pre- vious to B.C. 372, see Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 295) a bronze Athena, Pans, viii, 26, 5; Polyb. iv, 78. He must however be a distinct personality from the Hypato- doros who, with his colleague Aristo- geiton, made for a certain Orcho- menian the monument of which the inscribed basis is still extant (/. G. B. loi). The archaic style of the epi- graphy (Kirchhoff, Studien, 4th ed., p. 142, note l^ compels us to follow Robert {Hermes, xxv, 1890, p. 4i2ff., and Uall. Winckelmannspr. xviii, 1895, P- 4^0 ™ referring the artists to the early part of the fifth century. To this date accordingly we must also refer their group set up at Delphoi by the Argives, whatever view we may take of the date of the Attico-Argive victory at Oinoe which the group commemorated, or was supposed to commemorate Paus. i, 10, 3 (see espe- cially Robert, //. cc, and Furtwiingler, Masterpieces, p. 41).

Praxiteles : dated with reference to his activity in Mantineia (Paus. viii, 9, i), the third year of 01. 104 (b. C. 462) being the date of the great battle (Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 21).

Kuphranor : although he ap- pears here as a sculptor (§ 77), the cine to his date is afforded by his painting, in the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios at Athens (Paus. i. i, 4), of the cavalry engagement that preceded the battle


of Mantineia (equeslre proelium, xxxv, 129).

6. Aetion, Ther. : Action being only knovm as a painter (xxxv, 78), and Therimachos being unknown ex- cept for this passage and xxxv, 78, it is reasonable to suppose with Furtwangler {loc. cit.) that the whole passage, centesima . . . Therimachus, has been interpolated from xxxv, 78.

§ 51. 7- Lysippus : his d«;ji7 is determined by the central Olympiad of the reign of Alexander. (Loewy, Uniersuch. p. 64.)

Lysistratus, xxxv, 153.

8. Sthenis of Olynthos, inf. § 90. From /. G. B. 83 we learn that he was a fellow-worker of Leochares; and from /. G. B. 103' (cf. on /. G. B. 541, p. 370) that he was still active in the reign of Lysimachos (B. c. 306-281).

Sofocles : Loewy's reading is made practically certain by BuUe's observation {Olympia, Bd. ii, p. 156) that the bases from the statues of riders by Sophokles at Olympia (/. G. B. 123-125) closely resemble, in form and profile, the basis (/. G. B. 103") of Sthennis from the Amphia- reion at Oropos. This near connexion of the two artists explains the place assigned to them in the Plinian chrono- logy.

Sostratus : probably identical with the Sostratos, son of Euphranor, /. C. B. los.



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


Silanion — in hoc mirabile quod nullo doctore nobilis fuit, ipse discipulum habuit Zeuxiaden — CXXI Eutychides, Euthycrates, Laippus, Cephisodotus.Timarchus, Pyromachus.

52 cessavit deinde ars, ac rursus olympiade CLVI revixit, cum fuere longe quidem infra praedictos, probati tamen, Antaeus, 5 Callistratus, Polycles Athenaeus, Callixenus, Pythocles,

53 Pythias, Timocles. ita distinctis celeberrimorum aetatibus insignes raptim transcurram rehqua multitudine passim dispersa. venere autem et in certamen laudatissimi, quam- quam diversis aetatibus geniti, quoniam fecerant Amazonas, lo quae cum in templo Dianae Ephesiae dicarentur, placuit eligi probatissimam ipsorum artificum qui praesentes erant iudicio, cum apparuit earn esse quam omnes secundam a sua quisque iudicassent. haec est Polycliti, proxima ab ea Phidiae,

54 tertia Cresilae, quarta Cydonis, quinta Phradmonis. Phidias i5


1. Silanion : from Pans, vi, 4, 5 we learn that he made a statue of Satyros of Elis, who appears as winner of a double victory in a catalogue of the Amphiaraia (C /. G. S. 414). According to a conjecture of J. Dela- marre (Reo. de Phil, xviii, p. 162 sqq^, this catalogue belongs to the same period as C.I. G.S. 4253 (under arch- onship of Niketas B. c. 332-1), and C. I. G. S. 4254 (archonship of Kephi- sophon B.C. 329-8). It would thus appear that the date assigned by Pliny to Seilanion is correct. For his works, cf below, 581. See Addenda.

nullo doctore, i. c. his school dia- dochy had been lost ; cf. the similar case of Lysippos. Introd. p. xlvii £f.

2. Zeuxiaden: known from one of the Mattel inscriptions (/. G. B. 483- 485) as sculptor of a statue of Hype- reides (d. B. c. 322). See Addenda.

Eutychides : below, § 78 ; xxxv, 141. The date assigned to him by Pliny coincides approximately with the restoration of Anliocheia by Se- leukos, 01. 1 19, 3 = B. c. 302. For the new city E. made an allegorical figure of Tyche supported on the river-god Orontes — a work of which a copy has


survived in the exquisite statue in the Vatican, Helbig, Class. Ant. 376.

3. Euthycrates : § dd. Laippus {ibid.) = the Daippos of Pans, vi, 12, 6 ; 16, 5. The name is coiTectly given below, § 87. Either Pliny in transcribing from the Greek mistook A for A, or he is quoting from a Lathi author who had already been guilty of the blunder.

Cephisodotus, Timarchus : sons of Praxiteles, Vil. X Oral. Lykurg. 38. The fact that they made a statue of Menander (Pans, i, 21, i, /. G. B. ioS = C. /. A. ii. 1370), who died B.C. 291, shows that they were older than the sons of Lysippos. After the great masters, their pupils are lumped together without any strict chronological order (cf. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 309).

Pyromachus : there appear to have been several artists of that name, see below on § 80, § 84 ; xxxv, 146.

§ 52. 4. cessavit deinde ars : marks the end, not of a period of art, but of Pliny's main Greek authority (cf. the similar break in the account of the Painters, xxxv, 135), Brunn, K. G. i, p. 504 f. Between B. c. 296


//. BRONZE STATUARY 4i

and Seilanion. It is remarkable that Seilanion owed nothing to

the instruction of any master ; his own pupil was Zeuxiades. In

the hundred and twenty-first Olympiad [b. c. 296-293] came

Eulychides, Euihykrates, Laippos, Kephisodotos, Timarchos, and

Pyromachos. A period of stagnation followed, and again a revival 52

in the hundred and fifty-sixth Olympiad [b.c. 156-153], the age of

fAn/aios, Kallistratos, Polykles of Athens, iKallixenos, \Pythokles,

^Pythias and Timokles, artists of merit, but still far below those

already mentioned.

Having given the dates of the most celebrated artists, I shall ^, . , , , J The five

touch briefly on the great names, and group the others under most

various heads. The most famous artists, although born at some/"'"*

distance of time from each other, still came into competition, since Amazons

each had made a statue of an Amazon, to be dedicated in the/'"'.?.'^'""'

petition. temple of Artemis at Ephesos, when it was decided that the prize

should be awarded to the one which the artists themselves, who

were on the spot, declared to be the best. This proved to be the

statue which each artist placed second to his own, namely that of

Polykleitos ; the statue of Pheidias was second, that of Kresilas

third, Kydon's fourth, and Phradmon's fifth.

Besides his Olympian Zeus, a work which has no rival, Pheidias 54

and the 'revival' in B.C. 156 came types, distinct in conception, but vrith

the great school of Pergamon, which externalresemblancesoftype and dress

Pliny omits in his chronological table, have been identified (Fnrtwangler,

but which he mentions below, § 84. Masterpieces, p. 128 ff.), the story of

The revixit in B. c. 156 appears con- the competition contains a kernel of

nected with the family of Polykles, truth. Two of the extant statuary

father of Timokles and Timarchides types can be traced back to Kresilas

(below, I 92 ; xxxvi, 35), and grand- and Polykleitos respectively, father of Polykles II and of Dionysios, 11. placuit . . . iudicassent : we

who made the statues for the temples have here in another garb the iden-

of Juno and Jupiter erected by Q. tical anecdote told by Herodotos, viii,

Metellus Macedonicns, B.C. 149, cf. 123, Plut. 7%fwzzV^. xvii, of the allot-

Gyn\\\X,Pausanias,^. 361 ff. ; Loewy, ting of the prize of valour after Salamis. I. C.B.^. IIJ. 15. Cresilae . . . Cydonis. In

6. Callistratus : perhaps iden- three out of the four extant inscriptions

tical with the artist mentioned, Tatian of his name, Kresilas calls himself

p. 36, 14, ed. Schwartz (Brunn, K. G. KvSavtiTtjs (7. G. B. it^-'tJ I for the in-

i> P- 635)- scription recently foimd at Delphoi cf.

§ 53. 9. quamciuam . . . geniti : Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 116) ; it

by which Pliny attempts to reconcile is evident that Pliny's Latin author

his chronology (where Polykleitos is in transcribing from the Greek forged

placed twenty-eight years after Phei- out of a form TLiZav, the name of a

dias) with the story of the competition. fifth artist (cf. O. Jahn, Sacks. Bet,

10, Amazouas : since foarAmazon 1850, p. 37).


43


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


praeter lovem Olympium quern nemo aemulatur fecit ex ebore aeque Minervam Athenis, quae est in Parthenone stans, ex acre vero praeter Amazonem supra dictam Minervam tarn eximiae pulchritudinis ut formae cognomen acceperit. fecit et cliduchum et aliam Minervam quam Romae Paulus s Aemilius ad aedem Fortunae Huiusce Diei dicavit, item duo signa quae Catulus in eadem aede palliata et alterum colossicon nudum, primusque artem toreuticen aperuisse 55 atque demonstrasse merito iudicatur. Polyclitus Sicy- onius Hageladae discipulus diadumenum fecit molliter lo iuvenem centum talentis nobilitatum, idem et doryphorum viriliter puerum. fecit et quem canona artifices vocant linia- menta artis ex eo petentes veluti a lege quadam, solusque hominum artem ipsam fecisse artis opere iudicatur. fecit


554. I. lovem Olympium: xxxvi, 18, where the gold-ivory Minerva is also described.

3. Minervam . . . pulchr. : i.e. the bronze Athena surnamed the ' Lemnia,' Pans, i, 38, 2 ; Lucian, fiic6vei 4 ; for extant copies of the statue, Furtwangler, Masterpieces, pp. 4 ff. ; see Add.

5. oliduohum : votive portrait statue of a priestess, same subject by Euphranor, below § 78. See Add.

P. Aemilius : probably on the occasion of his triumph after Pydna (b. c. 168). For the magnificent statues and works of art which he brought from Makedonia see Liv. xlv, 33 ; they filled 250 chariots which graced his triumph. Plut. Aem. Fault. 32 ; cf. Veil. Pater, i, 9.

6. Portunae Huiusce Diei : on the Palatine where was » Vicus huiusce diei (Gilbert, iii, p. 422); there was another temple of Forluna H. D. in campo (see R. Peter ap. Roscher, i, 1514. C. I. L. i, p. 298 f.).

7. Catulus : i. c. the Elder, who on- the day of the battle against the Cimbri ev^aro . . , dvaffxojv tols x«joas KaOteptjjffciv rffv rvxqv ^fiepas exeivTjs. Plut. Marius, 26: Plin. xvii, 2. Whence Catulus obtained these Pheidian works


remains uncertain. Cf. Urlichs, Gr. Statuen in Kep. Mom, p. 9 f.

palliata : i. e. portraits (cf. the pal- liati, XXXV, 136), while the colossus nudus presumably represented a hero or local god; cf. H. L. Urlichs in Woch.f. Ktass. Phitol. 1894, 488.

alterum : the duo palliata are to be considered as one group, in apposition to alterum, by an extension of the construction of xix, 34 ; xxi, 128 ; XX, 9 ; XXXV, 71. H. L. Urlichs loc. cit. See Addenda to p. 38, 5.

8. primusque aperuisse : this criticism forms, together with the similar criticisms attached to Myron, Polykleitos, Pythagoras and Lysippos, a consecutive canon or series of axioms intended to link with definite great names the successive steps in the development of bronze-casting. After Pheidias, the reputed discoverer of the possibilites of the art, each artist is appraised in his relation to symmetry, the highest award falling to Lysippos, Otto Jahn, Kunsturtheile des Ft. p. 128 if.; C. Robert, Arch. March. p. 28 ff. For the author of the verdicts cf below ou § 56. Introd. p. xvi ff.

toreuticen; a term applied by Pliny to the whole of statuary as opposed to pictura (cf. xxxv, 77),


//. BRONZE STATUARY


43


made in ivory the Athena at Athens, which stands erect in the Artists of Parthenon. In bronze, besides the Amazon already mentioned, -^7«S* he made an Athena of such passing beauty that she was sur- named the Fair. He also made a Key-Bearer, or KXfihovxps, another Athena which Aemilius Paullus dedicated at Rome in front of the temple of the Fortune of the Day, two draped statues dedicated by Catulus in the same temple, and a nude colossal statue. He is rightly held to have first revealed the capabilities of sculpture and indicated its methods.

Polykleitos of Sikyon was a pupil of Hagelaidas. He made 55 an athlete binding the diadem about his head, which was famous ^fsik"on for the sum of one hundred talents [£21,000 circ] which it realized. This hia&oijievos has been described as 'a man, yet a boy': the Sopv(j>6pos or spear-bearer as 'a boy, yet a man.' He also made the statue which sculptors call the 'canon,' referring to it as to a standard from which they can learn the first rules of their art. He is the only man who is held to have embodied the principles of his art in a single work. He also made


while Statuaria ars is, according to Latin usage, reserved for bronze statu- ary; cf. § 35 ; § 65; XXXV, 156; xxxvi, 15, 37-

§ 55. 9. Sioyonius : by Plato (JProtag. p. 311 C) Pol. is called 'A/)7cfor; cf. also I.G.B. 91; Furt- wangler. Masterpieces, p. 355 ff. It is natural that a confusion as to the exact place of his birth should have arisen, as his family appear to have migrated from Argos to Sikyon (/. G. B. 89).

10. Hag. discipulus : this is chro- nologically impossible — the activity of Hagelaidas reaching back as far as 01. 65 = B.C. 530, that of Polykleitos as low down as 01. 90 = B. c. 420 (above, § 49), Robert, Arc/i. Mdrchen, p. 92 ff. By a loose juxtaposition the greatest Argive master in the fifth century is made into the pupil of the greatest Argive master in the sixth.

diadumenum . . . puerum : the neat antithesis points to an epi- gram as the source of this statement; Dilthey, Rhein. Mas. xxvi, p. 290.


The Doryphoros represented an athlete carrying his palaistric javelin. Themost complete copy of theDiadou- menos is the Vaison statue {Br. Mus. Cat. i, 500) ; of the Doryphoros the statue in Naples (CoUignon, Sculpture Grecque, i, pi. xii). See Addenda.

11. oentum taleutis; cf. vii, 126, where the same price is paid by Attalos for a picture by Aristeides of Thebes. Introd. p. Ixxxiv.

12. et quemcanona: the 'canon' was, however, identical with the Doryphoros (see the passages Schrift- quell. 953 ff.). It erroneously appears here as a separate statue, the comment on the Doryphoros qua canon being, as Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 229, note 4, detected, taken from a different source to what precedes ; cf. Miinzer, Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 530, note i.

14. artem Ipsam fecisse : ap- parently an allusion to the treatise on art by Polykleitos, called the Canon. What Pliny states in epigrammatic form is told more plainly by Galenos isifX rSiv 'limoKf,


44


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


et destringentem se et nudum telo incessentem duosque pueros item nudos talis ludentes qui vocantur astragali- zontes et sunt in Titi imperatoris atrio — hoc opere nullum

56 absolutius plerique indicant — item Mercurium qui fuit Lysi- macheae, Herculem qui Romae, hagetera arma sumentem, 5 Artemona qui periphoretos appellatus est. hie consummasse hanc scientiam iudicatur et toreuticen sic erudisse ut Phidias aperuisse. proprium eius est uno crura ut insisterent signa excogitasse, quadrata tamen esse ea ait Varro et paene ad

57 unum exemplum. Myronem Eleutheris natum Hageladae et lo ipsum discipulum bucula maxime nobilitavit celebratis ver- sibus laudata, quando alieno plerique ingenio magis quam suo commendantur. fecit et canem et discobolon et Perseum

I . telo] Benndoif in Gesammelte Stud, zur Kunstgesch. Festschr. fiir A, Springer, 1885,^0^. 260; taXo codd. Deile/sen. 3. z;«</a Addenda.


Kai nXttT. Soy fjt. 5 : (pyq) rbv \6yov 6/f/3ejSafa;fff, SrjiMovpyqaas avSpt&VTa KarcL rd tou X6yov irpoffrdyfjiaTa Kot KoXeaas 5^ Kai avrov rhv avbptdvTa KaBa-mp teal rb aiyy pap, jjui, icav6va ; cf. XXXV, 74 (Timanthes) pinxit et heroa . . . artem ipsani complexus viros pingendi. Introd. p. xli.

1 . destringentem se : i. e. an

telo incessentem : Furtwangler {^Masterpieces, p. 249) compares Ovid, Metam. 14, 402 saevisque parant incessere telis. See also Woelfflin, in ArchivfUr Lat. Lexicogr. ix, 1894, p. 119 ff. Addenda.

2. astragalizontes : [possibly for a votive or grave monument, Woch.

f. Klass. Phil. 1895, 548. For a kindred subject on a Roman sarko- phagos, see Helbig, Class. Ant. 97. — H. L. U.] See Add. to p. 42, 5.

3. et sunt . . . atrio : this addition concerning the Roman locality of the astragalizontes is loosely co-ordinated to the main account ; cf. Oehmichen, Blin.Studien,^. 119. Introd. p. xxxvii.

§ 56. 4. fuit : before the destruc- tion of Lysimachea by the Thracians in 01. i45,4=B.c. i97(Liv.xxxiii,38,ii).

Lysimacheae: built B.C. 309 by


Lysimachos in the Thracian Cher- sonnese. Where the statue had pre- viously stood is not knovifn.

5. hagetera : the Doric form points to a metrical epigram which was doubtless inscribed on the basis of the statue ; cf. H. L. Urlichs in Woch.f. Klass. Phil. 1894, p. 1299 ff.

6. Artemona : according to Ephoros {ap. Plut Per. 27), A. was an engineer who directed the blockading works during the siege of Samos by Perikles. Ovring to his lameness, he was carried about in a litter, whence he received the surname Periphoretos. Plutarch adds, however, that the story was confuted by Herakleides of Pontes, who showed from Anakreon (cf. Bergk, Poetae Lyr. iii, p. 261, Fr. 21-46, where see note), that Art. Periphoretos lived long before the Samian war. It is evident that there was contaminatio between the two namesakes, the engineer becoming credited with the surname of the notorious voluptuary, while the story of the lameness was invented to ac- count for it. Addenda.

7. hano scientiam : harks back to § 54 Phidias . . . primus artem toreuticem aperuisse.


//. BRONZE STATUARY 45

an athlete scraping himself, a nude figure advancing with a weapon, and two boys, also nude, playing with knucklebones, who are known as the do-T/iayaXt'foiTf £ [dlcc-players], and are now in the Hall of the Emperor Titus. Many people think that the faultless execution of this work has never been surpassed. Other works of his are 56 a Hermes, which was at Lysimacheia ; a Herakles at Rome ; a captain or iyirrip putting on his armour j and finally a portrait of Artemon, known by the name of jrepi(j>6i>T]Tos or ' Man in the litter.' He is considered to have brought the scientific knowledge of statuary to perfection, and to have systematized the art of which Pheidias had revealed the possibilities. It was his peculiar characteristic to represent his figures resting their weight on one leg ; Varro however says that they are square and almost exactly after the same type.

Myron was born at Eleutherai, and was also a pupil of 57 Hagelaidas. He is best known by his heifer, thanks to the well- £^^t"frai. known verses written upon it, for people very generally owe their reputation to the talent of others, rather than their own. He also made a dog, and a fiio-xo^oXof, or athlete hurling the disk, a Perseus, sawyers, a Satyr gazing with wonder at the

8. uno crure ut insisterent: ladae: the pupilship can neither be implies a shifting of the weight from proved nor disproved ; possibly, how- one leg to the other in the act of ever, the tradition only arose from a walking, and therefore accurately general likeness between the early describes the favourite Polykleitan works of Myron and those of Hage- attitude of ' arrested motion.' Had laidas. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, the figure been represented at rest p. 196. Introd. p. li, note 6.

with its whole weight on one leg, the Sleutheris : on the frontier

expression used must have been uni between Boeotia and Attica (cf.

cruri insist., MichaeUs, Ann. d. Inst. I. G. B. 417).

1878, p. 29 (cf. J. Lange, Frem- 11. bucula: the heifer (doubtless

stilling, p. 466). a votive offering) had originally stood

9. quadrata ... ait Varro : the in Athens, Cic. Verr. II, iv, 60, § 135. mention of Varro shows that the Later it was transferred to Rome, criticism of Polykleitos and conse- where Prokopios (5«//. Goth, iv, 21) quently the kindred criticisms of the saw it in the Forum Pads. — No less remaining four artists were derived than thirty-eight of the epigrams from him, though Varro himself was of alluded to are extant (collected in course drawing directly or indirectly Overbeck, Schriftquell. 550-588). from a Greek author, whom we now 1 3. canem : votive-offering, cf. know to have been Xenokrates of Antk.Pal.m, 175; 176. The list of Sikyon (§ 83), Introd. p. xvi ff. works down to Delph. pentathlon is

quadrata = rerpw^oiva, cf. Plato, alphabetic (Petersen, A. Z. xxxviii, Protag. 344 a. 1S80, p. 25).

§ 57. 10. Myronem . . . Hage- disoobolon : the best copy is


46


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


et pristas et Satyrum admirantem tibias et Minervam, Delphicos pentathlos, pancratiastas, Herculem qui est apud circum maximum in aede Pompei Magni. fecisse et cicadae monumentum ac locustae carminibus suis Erinna significat.

58 fecit et Apollinem quern ab triumviro Antonio sublatum 5 restituit Ephesiis divus Augustus admonitus in quiete. primus hie multiplicasse veritatem videtur, numerosior in arte quam Polyclitus et in symmetria diligentior, et ipse tamen corporum tenus curiosus animi sensus non expressisse, capillum quoque et pubem non emendatius fecisse quam 10

59 rudis antiquitas instituisset. vicit eum Pythagoras Re- ginus ex Italia pancratiaste Delphis posito ; eodem vicit et Leontiscum ; fecit et stadiodromon Astylon qui Olympiae ostenditur et Libyn, puerum tenentem tabellam eodem loco et mala ferentem nudum, Syracusis autem claudicantem, 15


14. loco, et Detlefsen.


in Palazzo Lancellotti (Collignon, Sculpture Grecque, i, pi. xi).

Peraeum : presumably identical with the Perseus by Myron on the Akropolis (Pans, i, 23, 'j).

I. pristas : Dalecampius was the first to give the true meaning of the word ; Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 89, note 30, correctly explained the curious subject as a votive offering; cf. H. L. Urlichs in Woch. f. Klass. Phil. 1893, p. 220 f. See Addenda. Satyrum . . . et Minervam = Pans, i, 24, I ; Collignon, Sculpture Grecque, i, p. 465 f. Petersen, loc. cit., showed that the two must be considered as one group owing to the alphabetical enumeration noted above. 3. in aede Pompei Magni : this new temple of H. was presum- ably near to the ara maxima in the foro boario, the chief centre of the hero's worship (Gilbert iii, p. 434 ; cf. H. Peter ap. Roscher i, 2918 ; cf. above on § 33 ; xxxv, 19). Pompeius had probably dedicated it on the occasion of his last triumph in B.C. 6t, and brought the Herakles from Asia Minor (cf. Urlichs, Chrest. p. 139).


Herculis


Vitr. 3, 2, 5 : aedes Pompeiani.

4. Srinna: Hardouin (1685) had already detected that this ridiculous statement arose from a confusion be- tween Mvpiiv and the maiden Mvpii, for whom the poetess Erinna must have written an elegy similar to the ex- tant one by Anyte {Ani/t. vii, 190). 'AitpiSi ra KaT* apovpav aijdovi adt

SpvoKoira TGTTiyi ^whv TvfiPov erev^a Mvpccr,

§ 58. 5. sublatum restituit : cf. Man. Anc. (xxiv) iv, 49-5 1 : /«  templis omnium civitatium provinciae Asiae victor ornanienta reposui. quae spoliatis templis is cum quo helium gesseram privatimpossederat. Momm- sen. Res Gestae, p. 95 f. MUnzer, op. cit. p. 545, suspects the Ephesian story of being a doublette of Augustus' restoration of Myronian works to Samos, recounted Strabo xiv, i, 14.

7.. multiplicasse veritatem : ex- plained byBrunn {K. C i, p. 151) to mean that Myron ' widened the range of representation in art, inasmuch as he laid hold on moments disclosed by attentive observation of nature, but not


//. BRONZE STATUARY


47


pipes and Athena, winners in the five contests at Delphoi, pankratiasts, and the Herakles which is near the great Circus in the temple of the great Pompeius. A poem by Erinna also tells us that he made the monument of a cicada and a locust ; he also 58 made the Apollo which was taken from the Ephesians by the' triumvir Antonius, and restored to them by the god Augustus, in obedience to a dream. He was apparently the first to multiply truth ; he was more productive than Polykleitos, and a more diligent observer of symmetry. Still he too only cared for the physical form, and did not express the sensations of the mind, and his treatment of the hair of the head and of the pubes con- tinued to betray an archaic want of skill.

Pythagoras of Rhegion in Italy surpassed Myron with the 59 pankratiast placed at Delphoi ; with the same statue he also sur- Pp^'^'^,"^ passed Leontiskos. He further made the statues of the runner Astylos and of a Libyan, which are to be seen at Olympia ; for the same place he made the boy holding a tablet, and a nude male figure bearing apples. At Syracuse is a statue by him of a man


utilized before.' A striking example of course is the Diskobolos, represented in the act of hurling the disk.

nmnerosior : cf. xxxv, 1 30, dili- gentior quam numerosior ; ibid. § 138 numerosaque tabula [numerosus in Pliny always of number; cf. vii, 101, 143; A, 176 numerosiora in fetu; XV, 8, and often.— H. L. U.].

9. animi sensus : the translation given above is from Pater, Greek Sttidies, p. 301.

§ 59. 12. eodem . . . Xisontiscum : Leontiskos was a winner both in the Pythian and Olympic games, whose portrait was made by Pythagoras (Pans, vi, 4, 3). He figures here as an artist, doubtless through mis- understanding of some Greek sen- tence such as iviKa koX tovtov iroiwv «ai AeovTia/tov, i. e. ' he conquered, both when he made the pankratiast and when he made the Leontiskos' (Urlichs, JiAein. Mus. 1S89, p. 261).

13. Astylon: Pans, vi, 13, x.

qui Olympiae ostenditur : belongs to Libyn as well as to


Astylon. In the following sentence, likewise, eodem loco belongs to both puerum and mala ferentem nudum ; cf. the analogous construction in xxxiii, 5 murrina ex eodem tellure et cry- stalina effodimus. (H. L. Urlichs in Gorlitz. Verhandl. p. 330.)

14. Libyn, i. e. Mnaseas of Kyrene. Pans, vi, 13,7 ; 18, i.

puerum . . . tabellam: pro- bably an iconic mvaxiov, Reisch, Weihgeschenhe, p. 44. The statue may be identical with that of the boy victor Protolaos, Pans, vi, 6, i ; cf. H. L. Urlichs, loc. cit. See Addenda.

15. mala ferentem : cf. the statue of Theognetos, who carried mrvos t^s 7' ^/j-epov xal /5mSj KapirSv, Pans, vi,

■ 9, I. Pythagoras's statue of Euthy- mos (7. G. B. 29, Pans, vi, 6, 4-6) is mentioned in Bk. vii, 152.

elaudicantem : the identifica- tion of this statue with a wounded Philoktetes is due to Gronovius (Bliim- ner, Comm. to Lessing's Laokoon, p. 508 f). The following words cuius . . , videntur are evidently epi-


48 C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV

cuius ulceris dolorem sentire etiam spectantes videntur, item ApoUinem serpentemque eius sagittis configi, citharoedum, qui Dicaeus appellatus est, quod, cum Thebae ab Alexandre caperentur, aurum a fugiente conditum sinu eius celatum asset, hie primus nervos et venas expressit capillumque 5

60 diligentius. fuit et alius Pythagoras Samius, initio pictor, cuius signa ad aedem Fortunae Huiusce Diei septem nuda et senis unum laudata sunt, hie supra dicto facie quoque indiscreta similis fuisse traditur, Regini autem

61 discipulus et filius sororis fuisse Sostratus. Lysippum 10 Sicyonium Duris negat uUius fuisse discipulum, sed primo aerarium fabrum audendi rationem cepisse pictoris Eupompi response, eum enim interrogatum, quem sequeretur ante- cedentium, dixisse monstrata hominum multitudine naturam

62 ipsam imitandam esse, non artificem. plurima ex omnibus 15 signa fecit, ut diximus, fecundissimae artis, inter quae destrin- gentem se quem M. Agrippa ante Thermas suas dicavit mire gratum Tiberio principi. non quivit temperare sibi in eo, quamquam imperiosus sui inter initia principatus, trans-

grammatic ; Anth. Plan, iv, II3, of § 60. 6. fuit et alius : in Paus.

a broDze Philoktetes, seems to refer vi, 4, 3, Pythagoras is called ■p?;7ri'os,

to the work of Pythagoras, the un- and immediately after (vi, 6, 4) he is

usual omission of the name of the named as the artist of the statue of

hero portrayed accounting for its Euthymos. Now on the basis of the

omission by Pliny (cf. Brunn, K. G. i, Euthymos (/. G. B. 23). Pythagoras

p. 134). signs himself "SAixios; it is clear

2. configi : for the construction therefore that the Samius and the

cf. XXXV, 144 (pinxif) ab Oreste ma- Rheginus were one and the same per-

trem et Aegisthum interfici. son. He was probably among the

citharoedum ; a Theban poet Samians who migrated to Italy in Ol.

named Kleon. The inscription on his 71 (Herod, vi, 23) and became subjects

statue is quoted by Athenaios, i, of Anaxilas of Rhegion (Loewy on

p. 19 b, who adds the story of the /. G. B. 23). He evidently signed

gold on the authority of Polemon ; cf. sometimes with the one sometimes

Preger, Inscripiiones, 140. with the other ethnic, a fact which

5. hio primus nervos: his rela- misled some art historian into dividing

tion to symmetry is not given by him into two persons. A critic cor-

Pliny. It is preserved however, rected this blunder and stated his belief

by Diogenes Laertios viii, 46 : 01 h\ (hat the two were identical, a remark

KoJ . . . dvSpiavTOTTOtbv 'Fr;yTvov ye- which would afford the clue to Pliny's

yovivai <paai livB. irpHiTOV Soicovvra ridiculous statement about the like-

fivB/iov xal (Tv/JiaeTpias iaroxaaSai. ness. It is noteworthy that Diogenes

Koi aWov avSpiavTotroibv 'Saiuov (loc. cit.) is likewise guilty of dividing

(Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 70). the sculptor into two.


I //. BRONZE STATUARY 49

limping, the pain of whose ulcer even the spectators seem to feel. He also made an Apollo piercing a serpent with his arrows, and a man with a cithara, which bears the name of SUaws [the Just], because when Thebes was taken by Alexander, a fugitive concealed b.c. 335. some money in its bosom, where it remained safely hidden. He was the first to make the sinews and veins duly prominent, and to bestow greater pains on the hair. A second Pythagoras, 60 a Samian, was a painter in early life. Near the temple of the Fortune of the Day are seven nude figures by him, and an old man, which are praised. According to tradition his personal resemblance to the other Pythagoras was so strong that the two could be mistaken ; it was the Rhegine Pythagoras, however, of whom Sostratos was the pupil and nepjiew. ^ „ ^

Duris declares that Lysippos of Sikyon was no man's pupil ;'.§i;' that he was originally a coppersmith, and was encouraged to ven- gf stkyon. ture on a higher path by the words of Eupompos. That painter when asked which of the earlier artists he followed, pointed to a crowd of people, and replied that nature should be imitated and not any artist. Lysippos produced more works than any 62 other artist, possessing, as I have said, a most prolific genius. Among them is the ii^n sMapingJiimself, which Marcus Agrippa dedicated in front of his baths. In this statue the Emperor Tiberius took a marvellous delight, and though capable of self- ','

6. initio piotor: so of Pheidias Sostratus see Munzer, Hermes, 1895, XXXV, 54. p. .i;33.

7. ad aedem Fortunae H. D. : § 61. 11. negatulliusfuissediaoi- aboTe § 64 ■; it seems to have con- pulum : In other words the name of tained a real Museum; the septem his master was lost, ct Seiknion signa need not have formed a group, above § 6') Protogenes in xxxv, loi. but were seven athlete statues, col- 12. pietoiis Eupompi : xxxv, 75, lected together into one place for the among the aequales et aemuli of first time at Rome. To these was Zeuxis. On chronological grounds added the portrait of an old man by there is nothing to prevent Eupompos the same artist (cf. H. L. Urlichs in as an old man from having known the Woch. f. Klass. Phil. 1894, p. 488, young Lysippos. The anecdote, how- and Sauer, Anfdnge d. Stat. Grupfe, ever, was probably concocted in order p. 20, note 73). to bring into connexion the greatest

8. facie quoque indisoreta : cf. painter and the greatest sculptor of the similar expressions above § 38 ; Sikyon ; cf. Introd. p. xlvii f.

vii, 53; xxxv, 88 similitudinis in- 14. naturam . . . non artiflcem : a

discretae, Sfc. hit at the schools which worked accord-

10. Sostratus: his identity with ing to a fixed cokcw. Introd. p. xlviii.

Sostratos, sixth in artistic descent §62. 16. utdiximus : above, § 37.

from Aristokles of Sikyon (Pans, vi, 17. ttermas: at the back of the

9, 3), is quite doaibtful. On this Pantheon. See Addenda.

E



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


tulitque in cubiculum alio signo substitute, cum quidem tanta populi Romani contumacia fuit ut theatri clamoribus reponi apoxyomenon flagitaverit princepsque quamquam adamr.tum

63 reposuerit. nobilitatur Lysippus et temulenta tibicina et canibus ac venatione, in primis vero quadriga cum Sole 5 Rhodiorum. fecit et Alexandrum Magnum multis operibus

a pueritia eius orsus. quam statuam inaurari iussit Nero princeps delectatus admodum ilia, dein, cum pretio perisset gratia artis, detractum est aurum, pretiosiorque talis existima- batur etiam cicatricibus operis atque concisuris in quibus 10

64 aurum haeserat remanentibus. idem fecit Hephaestionem Alexandri Magni amicum, quern quidam Polyclito ad- scribunt, cum is centum prope annis ante fuerit, item Alexandri venationem quae Delphis sacrata est, Athenis Satyrum, turmam Alexandri in qua amicorum eius imagines 15

A.u.c. 608. summa omnium similitudine expressit — banc Metellus Mace- donia subacta transtulit Romam — fecit et quadrigas multo-

65 rum generum. statuariae arti plurimum traditur contulisse


§ 63. 4. temulenta tibicitia : a votive or grave statue, cf. the anus ebria of Myron, xxxvi, 32 ; the fsal- tria by the painter Leontiskos, xxxv, 141, &c.

5. canibus ao venationo : cf. the Alexandri ven. below, § 64. Large hunting groups came largely into vogue from Alexaniier onwards ; cf. Kuhnert, Statue und Ort, p. 331. Ur- lichs {Skopas, p. 196) believes that the fine fragment of a rider from the Mausoleion (Brit. Mus.) had formed part of such a group.

Sole Bhodiorum : for a head of Helios with Lysippian characteristics, found in Rh odes, cf Hartwig, ' Testa di Helios,' Rom. Mitlh. ii, pp. 159-166.

6. Alexandr. Magnum : the most famous was the Alexander with the snear (Plut. itipi t^s 'hK. tix^^ ii, 2) ; the motive seems reproduced in the nude bronze portrait in the Terme Mus. (Helbig, Class. Ant. 1052 ; Ant. Denkm. i, 5; Furt dangler, Masterpieces, p. 364, n. :.). For


portraits of Alexander see Koepp, Winckelmannsprogramm, 1892. The story told in Bk. vii, 125 (cf. Plut. Alex, iv), that Lysippos alone was privileged to make bronze statues of Alexander, must like the similar stories of Apelles (xxxv, 85) and Pyrgoteles (xxxvii, 8) be accepted cum grano.

% 64. 13. cum is centum prope annis : Pliny's difficulty arises from his only knowing of the Elder and more famous Polykleitos, whereas a younger P. is known from Pans, vi, 6, 3 (also /. G. B. 92). Since the greater artists often become credited with the works of their less illustrious confreres, it is probable that, as Loeschcke {A. Z. 1878, p. 10 ff.) has already pointed out, the Hephaistion really was by the younger Polykleitos. So too a number of the works by the pupils of Pheidias cnme to be reckoned as by the master himself. Introd. p. xciii.

14. venationem . . . Delphis : dedicated by Krateros on the occasion narrated by Plutarch {Alex. 40), who


//. BRONZE STATUARY 51

control in the first years of his reign, he could not refrain from having the statue removed into his private chamber, substituting another in its place. The populace of Rome resented this so deeply that they raised an outcry in the theatre, demanding the restitution of the mro^vofievos, to which the emperor was fain to

yield, in spite of the passion he had conceived for the statue.

Lysippos has also won fame by his drunken flute-player, his dogs es and huntsmen, and above all by the four-horse chariot and the figure of the Sun made for the Rhodians. He also made a number of portraits of Alexander the Great, beginning with one of him as a boy, which the Emperor Nero, who was greatly charmed with the statue, ordered to be gilded. Then, as this costly addition spoiled the beauty of the work, the gold was removed, and the statue was considered more valuable without it, in spite of the scars upon it and the incisions for fixing the gold. Further he made a statue 64 of Hephaistion, the friend of Alexander the Great, which some ascribe to Polykleitos, although that artist lived almost a hundred years earlier. We have also from his hand an Alexander in a hunting group, which is consecrated at Delphoi, a Satyr at Athens and a troop of Alexander's bodyguard, in which all his friends' portraits are rendered with great fidelity. This group was transported to Rome by Metellus after the conquest of 146 b.c. Makedonia. By Lysippos also are various four-horse chariots. His 65 chief- cantrjbutions^ to -the art of sculpture are said to consist

states that the work was executed which -would serve Lysippos as guide;

conjointly with Leochares. According cf. the undoubted portraits on the

to Loeschcke {Jahrh. iii, 1888, p. 'Alexander' sarkophagos from Sidon,

139!) an echo of this work has sur- where, however, we can hardly suppose

vived on a relief from Messene in the the persons represented to have given

Louvre {loc. cit. pi. vii), cf. also Hans the artist sittings.

Dragendorff, Terra Sigillata, p. 57. 16. Maoedoniasubaota: thegroup

15. turmam Alexandri: i.e. the had stood in Dion, probably in the

twenty-five officers who had fallen in temenos of Zens, where were the statues

the first attack at the Granikos. A of the Makedonian kings (Heuzey,

statue of Alexander formed the centre Mont Olymfe, p. 1 1 8). Arrian, writing

of the group. Veil. Paterc. i, II, 3. A.D. 124, mentions it as still at

amieorum . . . imagines : this Dion, probably because he is quoting

assertion has been supposed to clash from some life of Alexander written

with the statement that the dead -H-ere previous to the Roman conquest,

buried on the battle-field (Arrian i, 17. Bomam: first in the forticus

16, 6). But seeing how extensively Melelli, which was afterwards ab-

portraiture was encouraged in the sorbed into i\ieporticus Oclaviae (Veil,

circle of Alexander, there doubtless Paterc. loc. ai.). The statues were on

were extant portraits of the officers, the area (cf. Varro «/. Macrob. iii,

F. 1


52 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

capillum exprimendo, capita minora faciendo quam antiqui, corpora graciliora siccioraque, per quae proceritas signorum maior videretur. non habet Latinum nomen symmetria quam diligentissime custodit nova intactaque ratione qua- dratas veterum staturas permutando, vulgoque dicebat ab 5 illis factos quales essent homines, a se quales viderentur esse, propriae huius videntur esse argutiae operum custoditae in

66 minimis quoque rebus, filios et discipulos reliquit laudatos artifices Laippum, Boedan, sed ante omnes Euthycraten, quamquam is constantiam potius imitatus patris quam lo elegantiam austere maluit genere quam iucundo placere. itaque optime expressit Herculem Delphis et Alexandrum Thespis venatorem et Thespiadas, proelium equestre, simu- lacrum ipsum Trophonii ad oraculum, quadrigas complures,

67 equum cum fuscinis, canes venantium. liuius porro 15 discipulus fuit Tisicrates et ipse Sicyonius, sed Lysippi sectae propior, ut vix discernantur compLura signa, ceu senex Thebanus et Demetrius rex, Peucestes Alexandri

13. Thespiadas] om. Bamb., Deiiefsen. 15. fiscinis Bamb., Detlefsen.

4, 3) in front of the temples — Jupiter 7. argutiae operum : cf. xxxv,

and Juno (frontem Oedinm speciant 67 Parrhasius . . . dedit primus ar-

Velleius loc. cit.\ cf. xxxvi, 35, 40. gutias ■aoltus ; Cic. Bruins, 45, 167

§ 65. 3. symmetria: so in xxxv, and O. Jahn's note.

67, 128 Pliny retains the Greek word, § 66. 8. filios et discipulos: the

although, as Otto Jahn has pointed notice of the sons of Lysippos is from

oat {Kunsiurtheile, p. 131) proportio the same author as the preceding five

or commensus afforded an adequate appreciations. Introd. p. xxi.

Latin equivalent. For a like reluc- 9. Laippum: above § 51; cf.

tance to translate a Greek word which § 87. — Boedan : below § 73- —

had come to have a precise meaning Euthykraten : § 83.

cf. xxxv, 98 quae vocant Graeci eihe. 10. quamquam.. . . maluit : points

6. quales viderentur esse ; Pliny, to a reaction within the Lysippian

or his authority, is here finding a school to the older and severer Argive

formula for the conflict between the manner.

desire to represent things as they are constantiam : cf. Petron. 88 Ly-

known to be, and that of presenting sippum, stattiae unius Uneamentis

them as they appear to be. The form inhaerentem, inopia extinxit.

ofthe aphorism seems influenced by the 12. itaque optime: explanatory,

jfords Aristotle puts into the mouth of not of the preceding quamquam, but

Sophokles, Poet. 1 460 b : "Ztx^oxKri^ eiprj of the general excellence of E. (Blilm-

aiiTos fiiv o'iov^ dtiTTOieiv, EvpiwiSrjv Si ner, Rhein. Mus. xxxii, p. 610).

ofoi flaiv (cf also in Poet. 1448, ff'. the 13. Thespiadas : a Praxitelean

judgement passed on Polygnotos, Pau- subject, xxxvi, 39 ; so his father made

son and Dionysios), Introd. p. Ixiif. for the same Thespiai an Eros, as


//. BRONZE STATUARY 53

in his vivid rendering of the hair, in making the heads smaller than older artists had done, and the bodies slimmer and with \ less flesh, thus increasing the apparent height of his figures. There is no word in Latin for the canon of symmetry [uu/ijucTpio] | which he was so careful to preserve, bringing innovations which / had never been thought of before into the square canon of the / older artists, and he often said that the difference between him- / self and them was that they represented men as they were, and he as they appeared to be. His chief characteristic is extreme delicacy of execution even in the smallest details.

He left artists of high reputation in his sons and pupils, Laippos, 66 t Boedas, and above all Euthykrates; the latter however imitated '^"^^jl^ not so niKch the refinement as the perseverance of his father, choosing to win approval by an austere rather than a lighter style of execution. In this manner he made for Delphoi an admirable statue of Herakles, for Thespiai an Alexander hunting, a group of the Thespiades and a combat between horsemen, a statue of Trophonios within his oracular cave, several chariots with four horses, a horse carrying hunting prongs, and hunting dogs.

His pupil was Teisikrates, also a native of Sikyon, who 67 followed more closely the school of Lysippos, so that many of his Teisikrates works can hardly be distinguished from those of the master : Euthy- witness his portrait of an old man at Thebes, of king Demetrios Urates. and of Peukestes, who saved Alexander's life and well deserves the honour of a statue.

Praxiteles before him. It may be Mopsos on the cylix by Glaukytes and

that the Thespians owed to the bounty Archikles in Munich (Klein, Meister-

of Alexander (whose allies they had sign. p. 77 = Gerhard, Auserksene

become in B. C. 335) these Lysippian Vasenbilder, iv, 235). Further, on an

bronzes, rivals of the celebrated Praxi- archaic cylix from Kameiros (men-

telean marbles. (So Klein, _/a,4?-*. ix, tioned, A. Z. xxiv, 1866, p. 296),

1S94, p. 166.) Bellerophon, riding Pegasos, is re-

proelium equestre : a votive offer- presented with a similar pronged fork ;

ing like the turmam Alexandri, § 64, also in hands of one of the huntsman

cf. Kuhnert, Statue u. Ort, p. 331. on two amphoras in Berlin (Furt-

[From simulacrum to canes yte have wangler, Cat. 1705, 1706), otherwise

an inverted alphabetical list. — H.L.U.] the pronged fork is known only as

14. ad oraculum : the actual cave a fishing implement. The horse, the as distinct from the temple, which quadrigae just mentioned, and the contained a statue of the god by following canes (cf. note on canem Daidalos (Paus. ix, 39, 8), and another in § 57) all belong to the usual class by Praxiteles (ib. § 4). of votive offerings.

15. fusoinis : two-pronged spears, J 67. 16. Tisiorates ; § 83.

such as are used by Meleager and 18. senex Thebartus : not Pindar


54


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


68 Magni servator, dignus tanta gloria, artifices qui com- positis voluminibus condidere haec miris laudibus cele- brant Telephanen Phocaeum ignotum alias, quoniam in Thessalia habitaverit, et ibi opera eius latuerint, alioqui suffragiis ipsorum aequatur Polyclito, Myroni, Pythagorae. 5 laudant eius Larisam et Spintharum pentathlum et Apol- linem. alii non banc ignobilitatis fuisse causam, sed quod se regum Xerxis atque Darei officinis dediderit, exfetimant.

69 Praxiteles quoque marmore felicior, ideb et clarjor fuit. fecit tamen et ex aere pulcherrima opera : Pro^erpinae 'o raptum, item catagusam, et Liberum patrem, et EbJ-ietatem nobilemque una Satyrum quern Graeci periboeton! cogno- minant, et signa quae ante Felicitatis aedem fuere, Venerem- que quae ipsa aedis incendio cremata est Claudii principatu,

70 marmoreae illi suae per terras inclutae parem, item stepha- 15


as some have supposed — or the name would almost certainly have been preserved, but merely a portrait. Furt- wangler, Domauszieher, p. 92.

Demetrius : i. c. Poliorketes, be- came king B.C. 307, died B.C. 283.

Peuoestes : tribus iaculis con- fossus, non se tamen scuto, sed regem, tuebatur Q. Curtius ix, ch. 5, 21; the episode occurred during a siege in the territory of the Oxydrakai, or ac- cording to Arrian vi, 10, and Plutarch, Alex. Ixiii, in that of the Malloi.

§ 68. I. artifices qui : i.e. Xeno- krates and Antigonos, see Introd. p. xxii. haec, i. e. everything men- tioned §§ 49-68.

3. Phocaeum : from the Ionian Phokaia, $eu«aros ; cf. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 57. It is unnecessary to look upon the word as a variant for Phocencis.

6. Iiarisam : it is worth noting in this connexion the beautiful head of the nymph Larissa on the coin, P. Gardner, Types, pi. vii, 1 7 ; Rev. hotse and horseman treated in a style reminiscent of Parthenon frieze.

7. alii non : see Introd. loc. cit. The names of Xerxes (b. C, 485-465)


and of Dareios (the First B.C. 521- 485, the Second B. c. 425-405) are apparently only introduced to attach the statement to well-known names. The dates are plainly irreconcilable.

§ 69. 10. Proserpinae raptum ; the extant representations of the Rape of Persephone have been carefully col- lected by Fbrster, Raub u. Riickkehr d. Perseph. in Philologus, Supplement- band iv. A number are reproduced by Overbeck, Atlas d. Kunst Myth. Taf. 17, 18 ; none however can be referred with any certainty, or even probability, to the group by Praxiteles. Forster hesitatingly suggests that the coin of Kasa (Overb. K. M. Milnztafel, ix, 12) reproduces the group of Praxiteles. The subject of the Rape was treated by the painter Nikomachos, xxxv, 108.

II. item: introduces a new sub- ject, catagusa ; the true meaning was given as early as by Dalecampius, t^i* Karayovaav quae pensa nendo ducet unde et xaTayixa ; so independently Loeschcke, A. Z. 38 (1880), p. 102 f. The meaning of xark-iav is further discussed by Fbrster, loc. cit. p. 719 ; H. L. Urlichs iJVoch. f. Klass. Phil.


//. BRONZE STATUARY


55


Those sculptors who have written treatises on the subject give 68

high praise to Telephanes of Phokaia, who is otherwise unknown, TeUphanes ,,,.,. of Phokma.

since, they say, he hved in Thessaly, where his works remained

unnoticed. These writers however adjudge him a place beside

Polykleitos, Myron and Pythagoras, praising his statues of Larissa,

of Spintharos, a winner in the five contests, and of Apollo.

Others give a different reason for his comparative obscurity,

saying that he passed into the service of king Xerxes and of

Dareios.

Praxiteles also, though more successful and consequently 69

better known as a worker in marble, created admirable works Praxiteles.

in bronze : a rape of Persephone, the Koraynvira or Girl Spinning,

a Dionysos, a figure of Intoxication grouped with an admirable

Satyr known among the Greeks as the irepi^driTos or Renowned,

and also the statues which stood in front of the temple of

Felicity, and an Aphrodite which was also destroyed when the

temple was burned down in the reign of Claudius, the worthy

peer of his famous marble Aphrodite. Other works of his are 70

the (TT((l>avovcra, or woman presenting a wreath, the -^eXioviisvr), or


1894, p. 227 f.) compares for the motive the spinning maiden, Furt- wangler, Samml. Sabouroff, PI. xix ; and the bronze statue, Munich, Glypth. 314. I take the Kardyovaa to have been a grave statue ; for spinning and similar motives on graves, see Weiss- hanpl, Gratgedichte der Gr. Anthol. p. 77, note 3.

Liberum patrem : [it is usual to understand the Dionysos as forming a group with the two following statues, but the fact that up to Veneremque the enumeration of single works is given by et., shows that Pliny, at any rate, understood the Dionysos as a separate statue, and the figure of In- toxication and the Satyr only (their close connexion being indicated by the use of -que) as forming a group together ; the second et is omitted in Cod. Bamb., but in cases of omission of syllables or even words, little faith can be put in this otherwise excellent MS. — H. L. U.]. This observation disposes of a recent conjecture Liberum


ebriolatum {Mus. Ital. d. Antic A. Class, iii, p. 787) ; not only is it irre- concilable with the evidence of the MSS., but the use of the word ebrio- lare, only known from a fragment ofthe.ffi!^««?'«of Laberius(a/.Nonius, 108, 6), is quite unproved for prose writers.

13. Felicitatis aedem : on the Triumphal Street (Dio Cassius 43, 21) built by L. Lucullus, B.C. 151; see note on xxxvi, 39. The signa being bronze are of course distinct from the marble Thespiades of xxxvi, 39 ; a number of Praxitelean works had been gathered together in the precinct of Felicitas, just as the temple of the Fortune of The Day contained works by Pheidias and Pythagoras (above,

§§■ 54. 6o)-

15. marmoreae illi : xxxvi, 20.

§ 70. stephanusam : probably in a group with an athlete, in which case the GTi'^avov^ifj. would be the personification of the festal city where the athletic victory had been won;


56


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


nusam, pseliumenen, oporan, Harmodium et Aristogitonem tyrannicidas, quos a Xerxe Persarum rege captos victa Perside Atheniensibus remisit Magnus Alexander, fecit et puberem Apollinem subrepenti lacertae comminus sagitta insidiantem quern sauroctonon vocant. spectantur et duo S signa eius diversos adfectus exprimentia, flentis matronae et meretricis gaudentis. hanc putant Phrynen fuisse de- prehenduntque in ea amorem artificis et mercedem in vultu 71 meretricis. habet simulacrum et benignitas eius, Cala- midis enim quadrigae aurigam suum inposuit, ne melior in lo equorum effigie defecisse in homine crederetur. ipse Calamis et alias quadrigas bigasque fecit se impari, equis sine aemulo expressis. sed, ne videatur in hominum effigie inferior,

I. oporan] Rice; operan Voss.; eplioram Bamb.; canephoram Urlichs in Chrest., DetUfsen. 12. sem pari equis Bamb., corr. Trazcbe; equis semper

reliqui, Detlefsen.


cf. Athen. xii, 534 D : b yXv (sc. ■triva^ etx^v 'OXvfiTndSa Kal IlvdidSa (rT£cf)avovo'as avTov {^Aktci^idSTjv'). For the artistic motive cf. the relief in the Akrop. Mus., A. Z. 1869, 24 = Friede- richs- Wolters, 1188. [From Stephan. to Harmod. et Arist. we have an inverted alphabetical list (cf. § 66) ; this confirms the MS. reading oporan, — H. L. U.]

1 . pseliumenen : for an analogous motive see the little bronze, yaA;-i5. ix 1894, pi. xi; its connexion vrith Prax- iteles cannot however be pressed further.

oporan : [for a personification of autumn cf. Ar. Etpiivti 523 ff., where imiipa is brought in to wed Trygaios ; thus the subject, which fits excellently into the Praxitelean series, is also proved to have been a conception familiar in the fifth and fourth cen- turies, H. L. U.].

2. quos a Xerxe . . . Alexander: since this statement is true only of the group by Antenor, Pans, i, 8, 5, it seems probable that the mention of Praxitelean Tyrant-Slayers is due to a confusion. Urlichs, A. Z. 1861,


p. 144, supposes the displacement of a heading Antenor, belonging probably to the alphabetical list which begins in § 72.

3. Magnus Alexander: so also Arrian, Anab. iii, 7, 8 \ Antiochos according to Pans. loc. cit. ; Seleukos according to Val. Max. ii, 10, ext. i.

4. subrepenti laoertae : from a descriptive epigram ; cf. Martial, xiv, 172.

5. sauroctonon: finest replica in Louvre, phot. Giraudon 1200.

6. flentis . . . gaudentis : epi- grammatic antithesis, cf. the molliter iuvenis and viriliter pusr of § 55. The statues were certainly only jux- taposed in the epigram. The Jlens mairona, like the similar figures by Sthennis (below § 90) was a portrait statue for a grave ; Praxiteles is known to have made at least two grave monuments ; (a) the warrior and his horse, Pans, i, 2, 3 ; {b) the monu- ment to which C, I. G. 1604 belonged J cf Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 91 , note 43 ; above note on catagusa. ¥ox the artistic motive see the fine statue in the Louvre, phot, Giraudon 1 1 74.


II. BRONZE STATUARY


57


woman clasping a bracelet on her arm, oircipa or Autumn, and statues of Harmodios and Aristogeiton, the Slayers of the Tyrant. These were carried off by Xerxes, king of the Persians, and i restored to Athens by Alexander the Great after his conquest of : Persia. He also made a young Apollo with an arrow watching a lizard as it creeps up with intent to slay it close at hand ; this is known as the a-avpoKToms or Lizard-slayer. There are two statues by him expressing contrary emotions, a mourning matron and a rejoicing courtesan.. The latter is believed to be Phryne. , The sculptor's love may be read in the whole statue, and Phryne's satisfaction is depicted on her face.

There is also a statue which testifies to the kindness of 71 ' Praxiteles, for he made a charioteer for a four-horse chariot by ^"^^^"<>f Kalamis, not wishing it to be thought that Kalamis failed in the towards man after succeeding in the horses. Kalamis made other four ■^"^'^wmj. and two-horse chariot-groups with varying success, though un- rivalled in his horses. And yet, for it must not be thought that


7. putaut Phrynen : doubtless correctly ; it should be noted,, however, that Pliny mentions neither of the celebrated statues of Phryne at Thes- piai and at Delphoi, Furtwangler, loc. cit.

8. mercedein : the meaning is not altogether clear ; the words may contain an allusion to the yafffiiJs given by Praxiteles to Phryne, in the shape of the Eros which she dedicated at Thespiai, Anth. Plan. 204 (cf. Benn- dorf, Efigr. p. 53). Again the merces may refer to Phryne's reward in the artist's love; or — in the lower sense of payment — it maycontain an allusion to her venality as meretrix.

% 71. 10. aurigam suum im- posuit : since Kalamis (above § 47 ; xxxiii, 156; xxxvi, 36) flourished in the early part of the fifth century, the auriga must have been by the Elder Praxiteles (Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitth. 1879, p. 8 ; Benndorf, CuUusbild der Athena Nike, p. 47 ; Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 102 ff., &c.). A division of labour in the case of important monuments was quite common, e. g. for Hieron,


Onatas makes the chariot, while Kalamis makes the «eA.7/Tes iVttoi at either side, Paus. vi, 12, i. [In the case of the Younger (?) Praxiteles it is expressly mentioned as noteworthy, that for a grave monument he made both the horse and the horseman : Koi T^v LTrnov Kai rbv arpaTLdn-Tjv Paus. i, 2, 3, — H. L. U.] The inscription on the bathron of the chariot gave the names of both artists, and the juxta- position was sufficient to give rise to the story of the benignitas. The chariot was of course a votive offering, a viib^r\}i.a t^s v'mris (cf. in this book §§ 64, 86, 88 ; XXXV, 27, 99, 108, 141, &c). Introd. p. Ixv.

1 2, se imparl, equis sine aemulo expressis ; the reading, while derived straight from Cod. Bamb., further brings out an epigrammatic antithesis; the full meaning is as follows : ' This same K. failed through his inability to do the human figure, in other chariot-groups as a whole, albeit the horses taken alone were unrivalled ' ; cf. Prop, iii, 9, 10 exactis Calamis se mihi iactat equis. Introd. p. Ixix.


58


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


72 Alcman poeta nullius est nobilior. Alcamenes Phidiae discipulus et marmorea fecit et aereum pentathlum qui vocatur encrinomenos, at Polycliti discipulus Aristides quadrigas bigasque. Amphicrates Leaena laudatur. scortum haec lyrae cantu familiaris Harmodio et Aristogitoni con- 1 silia eorum de tyrannicidio usque in mortem excruciata a tyrannis non prodidit, quamobrem Athenienses, et honorem habere ei volentes nee tamen scortum celebrasse, animal nominis eius fecere atque, ut intellegeretur causa honoris,

73 in opere linguam addi ab artifice vetuerunt. Bryaxis Aesculapium et Seleucum fecit, Boedas adorantem, Baton Apollinem et lunonem qui sunt Romae in Concordiae

74 templo, Cresilas volneratum deficientem in quo possit

1. Alcman poeta] E. Sellers ; alcamen et Bamb. (alcame et e corr.) ; alchimena reliqui ; Alcmena Dethfsen.


I. Alcman poeta; it was pointed out by Benndorf {op. cit. p. 47) that the original reading had been cor- rupted by the neighbouring^/^a/«f m^^. The readings Alcmena or Almmena are unsatisfactory, since the subject could hardly be reckoned among homi- num effigies. The reading Alcman poeta now proposed meets this difh- culty, while the subject falls within the range of Kalamis. He is known to have worked for Sparta from Paus. X, 16, 4 (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitih. 1881, p. 84), and might well be called upon to execute a statue of its greatest poet. For a statue of Alkman cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 709, an epigram which W'eisshaupl {Grabgedichte der Gr. Anth. p. 45) suggests may have be- longed to a statue of the poet at Sparta, cf. also Anth. Pal. vii, 18, 19. Nobilior — cf. nobilis applied below to the portrait of Perikles by Kresilas.

§ 72. Alcamenes : above § 49, xxxvi, 16.

3. encrinomenos : encrinomenos vocatur i qui atkletis ad?iumeratur, id est qui in eoi'uvi nuviero recipitur, so Turnebus {Advers. p. 486, cf. the note of Dalecampius) explains the


term with reference to the eyiepiait clOKtitSiv. Modem commentators, how- ever, generally refer the epithet to the statue, and explain it as approved, chosen^ classical or canonical ('class- isch ' ' mustergiltig,' Urlichs in Chrest. p. 325 ; cf. O. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, p. 125; H. L. Urlichs, Blatter f. d. bayr. Gymnasialsch. 1894, pp. 609- 61 jl. But the iyxpiais d9\. (Lucian, virip Tav flxov. 1 1 ; cf. Xen. Hell, iv, I, I o), lit. the 'examination' of the athletes (probatio Cic. Off. i, 144) was too well known as an athletic term for the epithet kyKpivofievos as applied to the portrait of an athlete to be understood in any other sense than the one given to it above. The present participle, instead of the more usual kyxpiSeis (cf. the inscr. Ross. Griech. Konigsreisen, i, p. 96) shows that the athlete was represented in the act of submitting to the eyKptffis. The occurrence of the epithet Encrinomenus as a Roman proper name (C /. Z. v, 1, 4429), by proving its familiarity, suffices to dis- credit the old emendation of Bar- barus encriomenos, which had lately come again into favour. The proposed identification of the encrinomenos with the statue of an athlete holding


//. BRONZE STATUARY


59


he was inferior to others in representing the human figure, no artist has better portrayed the poet Alkman.

Alkamenes, a pupil of Pheidias, produced works in marble as 72 well as a winner in the five contests in bronze, called the iyKpivofifvns [undergoing the test]. A pupil of Polykleitos, Aris- teides, made chariots with four horses and with two. ■\Amphikrates Monument is famous for his \iaiva or Lioness : this Leaina was a courtesan, °j ^■'■"'■■ intimate through her playing on the lyre with Harmodios and Aristogeiton, whose plot of assassination she refused to betray, although tortured to death by the tyrants. The Athenians were anxious to pay her honour, and yet unwilling to commemorate i a courtesan by a statue ; they accordingly made a figure of the ' animal whose name she bore, and to indicate their reason for honouring her, they forbade the artist to give it a tongue. Bryaxis made an Asklepios and a Seleukos ; \Boedas a praying 73 figure, Baton the Apollo and Hera which are in the temple of Concord at Rome, Kresilas, a wounded man at the point 74


the disc preparatory to the throw (Brit. Mus. and Vatican ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 331, where see literature) is, to say the least, open to doubt.

Aristides : possibly identical with the painter, master of Euphranor, xxxv, 75 ; Kroker, Gleichnamige Kunstler, p. 25.

4. Xjeaena : vii, 87 ; the story, told also Plut. de Garrul. 8 ; Pans, i, 23, 1 ; Polyainos, XTparrj-piii. viii, 45 ; cf. Cicero, Glor. ii,fr. 12 (all without men- tion of artist's name), is an obvious invention. Had the ' Lioness ' been originally connected with the Tyrant- Slayers her monument must have stood by theirs kv Kepa/ieiKw (Arrian, Anal). iii, 16, 8), instead of at the entrance to the Akropolis (Pans. he. cit.). Further, since the oldest authorities, Herodotos and Thulcydides, in their account of the murder of the Tyrants, know nothing of this Leaina, it is probable that she was an ordinary votive-offering; the fact that the artist had failed to give the animal a tongue, or that in the course of time the tongue had got broken away, having given rise to the anecdote


(cf. also Athen. xiii, 596 f.) Introd. p. Ixxvi, note 3.

§ 73. 10. Bryaxis : above § 42 ; xxxvi, 30.

11. Aesoulapium : for Megara he made an Asklepios grouped with Hygieia, Paus. i, 40, 6.

Seleuoum: i.e. Nikator, reigned B. c. 312-280 ; cf. below § 86; for his portraits see Wolters, Hiim. Mitth. iv, 1889, pp. 32-40.

Boedas : above % 66.

adorantem : in the scheme doubt- less of the ' Praying Boy' (Berlin, Cat. 2), ci.Jahrb. i, 1886, p. i ff. (Conze) ; for the type of the adorans on coins Jahrb. iii, 1886, p. 286 ff. (Imhoof- Blumer), on a gem ib. I. p. 217 (Furt- wangler).

Baton : below § 91 ; known from /. G. .5. 61, as a native of Herakleia.

12. Coneordiae tempi : at the base of the Capitol, vowed B. C. 367 by Camillus, and built afler his death by the State; restored by Tiberius (ded. A. D. 9). It was the most usual meeting place of the Senate.

§ 74. 13. Cresilas: above § 53. vulneratum : apparently identical


6o


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


intellegi quantum restet animae et Olympium Periclen dignum cognomine, mirumque in hac arte est quod nobiles viros nobiliores fecit. Cephisodorus Minervam mirabilem in portu Atheniensium et aram ad templum lovis Servatoris 75 in eodem portu, cui pauca comparantur, Canachus ApoUinem 5 nudum qui Philesius cognominatur in Didymaeo Aeginetica aeris temperatura, cervumque una ita vestigiis suspendit ut

  • linum* subter pedes trahatur alterno morsu calce digitisque

retinentibus solum, ita vertebrate dente utrisque in partibus ut a repulsu per vices resiliat. idem et celetizontas pueros, 10 Chaereas Alexandrum Magnum et Philippum patrem eius


3. Cephisodorus] Bamb. ;


Cephissidorus reliqui. trahantur Bamb.


8. inlitum Bamb.


with the statue of Dieitrephes pierced by arrows, Paus. i, 23, 3 (where the artist is not named) ; the extant inscription ('Epit6\vicos Aieirpe- <pos dvapxev Kpiai\as lircSccrec /. G. B, 46) should place this beyond a doubt, were it not that the epigraphy is too early for the date of Dieitrephes, who according to Fausanias was identical with the Athenian general mentioned Thuc. vii, 29 (b. c. 414) ; cf. Kirchhoff on C. I. A. i, 402. Furtwangler {^Masterpieces, p. 122) accordingly proposes to identify the Dieitrephes of the statue with an older name- sake, father of the Nikostratos,'who was a general at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war (Thuc. iii, 75 ; 'V. 119, 129). For possible re- productions of the statue see Furt- wangler, op. cit. figs. 48, 49, 50 (against his views cf. C. Robert, Hall. Winckelmannspr. 1895, p. 21 f.).

I. Periolen : for the portrait (without name of artist), cf. Paus. i, 25, I. Its inscribed basis was dis- covered in 1888, see AiXriov, 1889, p. 36 ff. (Lolling). A terminal por- tr^t of Perikles, extant in several replicas (Br. Mus. Cat. i, 549 ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 281, where see literature) has been identified as a copy of the Kresilaian portrait. Addenda.


3. Minervam mirabilem . . . et aram : cf Paus. i, i, 3 : flt'as %\ a^iov Twv iv UeipatH pidXiara 'AOtjvcls kffrt Kai Atos Tf/jievos' x^^*^**^ f^^^ ajj^poTipa rd ^70X^x0, ex^* ^^ ^ P-^^ anTjTTTpoi/ Kal viKTiv, ij 5e *ABrivas S6pv. The Tiftfvos has been shown to be probably contemporary with the restoration of the Peiraios by the architect Hippo- damos of Miletos (Arist. Bol. ii, 8, i), under Perikles (so Wachsmuth, Stadt AtAen, ii, p. 141 f.). Thus, if the monuments mentioned by Pliny and Pausanias are, as seems reasonable to suppose, identical, Kephisodoros would be an artist of the Periklean age. — I see no reason for following Furt- wangler {Masterpieces, p. 145 f.) in assuming a displacement of Pliny's notes, and giving the works mentioned to Kresilas (cf. B. Keil in Hermes, xxxi, 1895, p. 225). Introd. p. Ixxv ; Add.

§ 75, 5. ApoUinem : it was the exact replica of the same artist's Apollo at Thebes, except that the latter was of wood, cf. Paus. ix, 10, 2 ; ii, 10, 4; the type is reproduced both on the autonomous and Imperial coinage of Miletos, A. Z. 18, ix, pi. vii, and page 90 (= CoUignon, Sculpt. Grecque, %• 153) and in the 'Payne-Knight bronze ' (Br. Mus.) ; cf Furtwangler, ap. Roscher i, 451 : the god, nude,


//. BRONZE STATUARY


6i


of death, whose face betrays how fast his life is ebbing, and also an Olympian Perikles, worthy of the epithet. The marvel Perikles. of his art is that it made famous men yet more famous. /L- ^Kephisodoros made a wondrous Athena in the harbour of Athens, ' and in the same city, in the temple of Zeus the Saviour, an altar to which few are comparable. Kanachos made the nude Apollo, 75 which is named the Lover and is in the temple at Didyma, of Aeginetan bronze, and with it a stag so poised upon its feet, Apollo and that a thread can be drawn beneath them while the heel and toe ^' alternately catch the ground, both parts working with a jointed mechanism in such a way that the impact suffices to make them spring backwards and forwards. He also made boys on race- horses, t Chaireas made an Alexander the Great and his father


stands erect, holding a small stag on the palm of his R. hand, and the bow in his L. The work was executed previous to 01. 71, 3 ( = B. c. 494), in which year Dateios (Herod, vi, 19 ; Pans, viii, 46, 3, erroneously says Xerxes) sacked Miletos and took away the statue. The Apollo was restored by Seleukos Nikator, Pans. loc. cit. and i, 16, 3.

' 6. Philesius : aitiology sought to explain the epithet by allusion to Apollo's love for Branches (Strabo, xiv, p. 634), so Varro, p. schol. to Statins, Thebais, viii, 198 (ed. Lin- denbrog, p. 282 f.) ; Macrobius {Sat. i, 17, 2) gives a symbolic explanation. Aeginetioa temp. : above § 8. 7. suspendit : for the meaning given above cf. xxxvi, 117 iheafra iuxta due fecit amtlissima ligno, cardinum singulorum versatili sus- pensa libramento. From the word solum it is evident that Pliny conceived the stag to have its feet on the ground, an arrangement however which is in irreconcilable contradiction to the testimony of the coins, which show the stag resting on the god's hand. We must suppose, therefore, that the exact place of the stag was not described in the original account, and that Pliny, unacquainted with the statue, assumed, naturally enough,


either that the animal was on the ground, or, according to a scheme familiar from statues of Artemis (also for Apollo in the gem Cades, Impronte, iv, 19, 20) that its hind feet were on the ground while its front ieet were held in the hand of the god. It is evident that in the inlitum of cod. Banib. we have a corruption, while the linum of the later codices is a mere Interpolation intended to g£t an ordinary Latin word out of the corrupt reading ; the original word must have given the instrument provided with the dens vertebratus. Whether the stag was in reality provided with some curious mechanism, or whether the fact that it had been cast separate and did not accurately fit on to the god's palm had given rise to an explanation which has a flavour of concoction, it is now impossible to tell (cf. however the ingenious article of Petersen, A. Z. xxxviii, 1880, pp. 22, 192).

10. repulsu: ai. -a., \^j^ pare eodem praegnas veneno impresso dentium repulsu virus fundit in morsus (Petersen) .

oeletizontas pueros : cf. on the Akropolis the bronze statue of Iso- krates as irafs KiXryrL^w. Lives of Ten Orators, Isokr. 42 ; at Olympia Aisypos, son of Timon, Pans, vi, i, 8 ; cf. id. vi, 12, I. A Kikr(TL^t>>v on the


62


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


76 fecit, Ctesilaus doryphoron et Amazonem volneratam, Demetrius Lysimachen quae sacerdos Minervae fuit LXIIII annis, idem et Minervam quae *musica* appellatur, quoniam dracones in Gorgone eius ad ictus citharae tinnitu resonant, idem equitem Simonem qui primus de equitatu scripsit. 5 Daedalus et ipse inter fictores laudatus pueros duos destrin- gentes se fecit, Dinomenes Protesilaum et Pythodemum

77 luctatorem. Euphranoris Alexander Paris est, in quo laudatur quod omnia simul intellegantur, iudex dearum, amator Helenae et tamen Achillis interfector. huius est 10 Minerva Romae quae dicitur Catuliana, infra Capitolium

A.u.c. 6j5. a Q. Lutatio dicata, et simulacrum Boni Eventus, dextra pateram, sinistra spicam ac papa vera tenens, item Latona

I. Ctesilaus] Sillig, Detlefsen ; G. tesilaus Bamb. ; desilaus reliqui. 3. myetica Bamb.


coin of Tarentum, Head, Guide, pi. 24, 7. Addenda.

§ 76. I. Ctesilaus : the name, though uncommon, is a good Greek formation (cf. the formations ending -Xeois, -Xaos in Fick, Gr. Personen- namen, pp. 186 ff.), so that I see no grounds for altering the reading to Kresilas as proposed by Bergk {Zeitschr. d. Alterth. Wissensch. 1845, p. 962), who is followed by most archaeologists. The argument derived from the Amazon (§ 53), though strong, is scarcely sufficient.

2. Demetrius : the famous a,v- 6pajircyjroi6sj Lucian, T/te Liars, l8.

Lysimaclien = Paus. i, 27, 4: w/xis S^ vam Tw T^s 'A6T]vas, the follow- ing information is derived from the inscription on the basis of the statue, Tbpffer, Ait. Geneal. 128 ; for a similar inscr. from the Akropolis (but belonging to a larger statue) of a priestess who had served (?) \i^r{\KovTa 8' Itt; [k]o! rkaaaf\_a\, see /. G. B. 64 ; Hitgig and Bliimner, Paus. p. 295.

3. musica : the reading is an obvious interpolation, to make sense out of the corrupt myetica; the epithet is not found of Athena or any other


god. Frbhner in Rhein. Mus. 1892, p. 292, proposes to read mystica for myetica, adding that ' the mysterious resonance of the aegis recalled the music of the Eleusinian mysteries when the Hierophant struck the ^X"'"'.' Dr. Traube suggests that the reading might possibly be mycetica, i.e. ' the Roarer ' — fmKrjriKlis as an epithet of Poseidon occurs ap. Comutos, Nat. Dear. ch. 22, p. 42, Lang — it is quite possible that an aitiological explana- tion, derived from the resonance of the bronze aegis, had been found for an epithet of which the original meaning had been forgotten.

5. de equitatu: iiepi limiicrjs Xen. de Re Eg. i, 3.

6. Daedalus : son of Patrokles (/. G. B. 88, 89 ; Paus. vi, 3, 9, cf. above § 50). D. signs "XiKviuvLos {I. G. B. 89) and seems to be the first member of the family who migrated to Sikyon ; cf. Furtwangler, Master- pieces, p. 225.

et ipse : marks Pliny's astonish- ment at the appearance of Daidalos among the bronze-workers (rightly ex- plained by Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, p. 192), perhaps because the only


//. BRONZE STATUARY


63


Philip. t Ktesilaos made a Sopvtfiopos, or Spear-bearer, and 76 a wounded Amazon ; Demetrios a statue of Lysimache, who was priestess of Athena for sixty-four years. He also made the Athena called the Musical because the snakes of her Gorgon resound to the notes of the cithara, and an equestrian statue of Simon, the first writer on horsemanship. Daidaios, who appears here among the famous statuaries, made two boys scraping them- selves, Deinomenes a Protesilaos and a portrait of Pythodemos the wrestler. A statue of Alexander Paris by Euphranor is 77 said to display every phase of the Trojan's character: he is Jf'^'"^ ."-^ at once the judge of the goddesses, the lover of Helen, and yet his triple the slayer of Achilles. The Athena at Rome known as the '^^P"^^- Minerva of Catulus, which was dedicated below the Capitol by ■■ Quintus Lutatius, is by Euphranor ; so is the statue of Good b,c. 7S. Luck holding in the right hand a bowl, and in the left an ear of corn and a poppy. He also made a Leto with the new-


personage of the name with whom he

is familiar is the mythical Daidaios

(vii, 198, 209 ; xxxvi, 85, cf. vii, 205).

destringentes se : for the motive

cf. §§ 5S. 62-

7. Dinomenes . above § 50 ; distinct from the artist of the first century who made the statues of lo and Kallisto (Paus. i. 25, J\ I. C, B. 233), cf. Gurlitt, Pausanias, p. 267 ff.

§ 77. 8. Euphranoris : above § 50; XXXV, 128. His activity ranges from B.C. 375-330-

Alexander Paris : the second name is added to distinguish him from the king. The statue has not yet been identified among our copies, Furt- wangler, Masterpieces, p. 357 ff. and Robert, Hall. Winckelmannspragr. xix, 1895, p. 20 ff. arrive at sur- prisingly different results. Addenda.

11. infra Capitolium : Urlichs {Griechische Staiuen im Rep. Rom, p. 11), suggests on the open space afterwards occupied by the temple of Vespasian.

12. Q,. Lutatio, i. e. Catulo: after the fire of B.C. 85, the restoration of the Capitoline temple and adjacent buildings was entrusted to him; cf.


Tacit. Hist, iii, 72 ; Plutarch, Popl. 15 ; above xxxiii, 57, &c. It is not known whence he obtained Greek works of art ; possibly from the inex- haustible booty of Aemilius Paulus ; cf. Urlichs, loc. cit.

Bonl Eventus : from the de- scription it is evident that the statue originally represented the Greek Trip- tolemos (Urlichs, Chresiom. p. 326), and was re-christened as a Roman agrarian divinity. Frbhner (.^Mid. de VEmpire Romain, p. 35) was the first to recognize the type on the obverse of a bronze medal of Hadrian : youth, holding in one hand two ears of corn and two poppies, and in the other a libation cup, is sacrificing at an altar. For a still better reproduc- tion on a gem (5r. Mus. Cat. 929) cf. Furtwangler, op. cit. p. 350, where the gem is made the starting-point for a suggestive reconstruction of the works of Euphranor.

13. Latona . . . sustinens : the work is still unknown ; cf. E. Reisch, ' Ein vermeintliches Werk des Eu- phranor' in Fesigruss aus Innsbruck an die Phil. Versamml. in Wien, 1893.


64


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


puerpera Apollinem et Dianam infantis sustinens in aede

78 Concordiae. fecit et quadrigas bigasque et cliduchon eximia forma, et Virtutem et Graeciam, utrasque colossaeas, muli- erem admirantem et adorantem, item Alexandrum et Philippum in quadrigis, Eutychides Eurotam, in quo artem 5 ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi dixere. Hegiae Minerva Pyrrhusque rex laudatur, et celetizontes pueri, et Castor ac Pollux ante aedem lovis tonantis, Hagesiae in Pario colonia

79 Hercules, Isodoti buthytes. Lycius Myronis discipulus fuit, qui fecit dignum praeceptore puerum sufflantem languidos 'o ignes et Argonautas, Leochares aquilam sentientem quid rapiat in Ganymede et cui ferat parcentemque unguibu^ etiam per vestem puero, Autolycum pancrati victorem propter quern Xenophon symposium scripsit, lovemque ilium to- nantem in Capitolio ante cuncta laudabilem, item Apollinem '5 diadematum, Lyciscum mangonem, puerum subdolae ac

2. cliduchon] Barbanis ; cliticon Bamb., Detlefsen ; cliticum reliqui. l6. Inciscns langonem reliqui.


I. aede Concordiae : above § 73. § 78. 2. oliduolion : a subject also treated by Pheidias, § 54.

4. admirantem et adorantem = a-no^Kinouaav 'looking up with awe at the image of the divinity,' Furt- wangler, Plinius, p. 46, cf. Dornaus- zieher, p. 87, note 19.

Alexandrum et Philippum : a suitable occasion for these statues would be the battle of Chaironeia, where Al. had distinguished himself by the side of Philip.

5. Eutychides : above §51; dis- tinct from his two later namesakes {a) I.G.B. 143; {b) I.G.B. 244-249, and recently HomoUe in Bull. Corr. Hell. 1894, p. 336 f. To the pupil of Lysippos, Studniczka {Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 2ii) inclines to attribute the superb sarkophagos ' of Alexander ' from Sidon.

BuTOtam : cf. the Orontes that supports the city of Antioch by the same artist; above note on § 51.

6. plurimi ; i. e. the writers of epigrams, Benndorf, Epigr. p. 54 ; cf.


Anth. Pai. ix, 709 (Introd. p. Ixx).

Hegiae : for an older namesake, master of Pheidias, see § 49 ; for a Hegias in the reign of Claudius see /. G. B. 332.

7. Pyrrhusque rex ; for portraits of this king (bom B. C- 319, died 2721, see Six, Pom. Mitth.yi, p. 279; Helbig in Melanges d'Arch. et cTHist. xiii, 1893, pi. i, ii, pp. 377 ff. The addition of rex gives such pre- cision to Pliny's statement that it is unnecessary to suppose that we have in the words Hegiae . . . laudatur a confused repetition of the Pyrrhus Hygiam et Minervam of § 80 (cf. Wolters, Alh. Mitth. Kvi, 1891, p. 155, note 2).

8. lovia tonantis : above § 10 ; below § 79.

Hagesiae : 'Hyrjaias instead of the more familiar diminutive 'H7iar, so Ziv^miros for ZeS^ij Plat. Prat. 318 B (cf. Fick, Gr. Penimennamen,

P- 35)-

Pario colonia: v, 141, founded by the Parians, Milesians, and Ery-


//. BRONZE STATUARY 6$

born Apollo and Artemis in her arms, now in the temple of Concord, and chariots with four and two horses, a KKfihovxos or 78 Key-bearer, of great beauty, a statue of Valour, and one of Hellas, both of colossal size, a woman in wonder praying, and Alexander and Philip in four-horse chariots. Eutychides made an image of the Eurotas of which many have said that the artist's skill is clearer than the stream itself.

The Athena and the king Pyrrhos by Hegias are praised, so are his boys riding on racehorses, the Kastor and Polydeukes which stand in front of the temple of Jupiter the Thunderer, and also the Herakles of Hegesias in the colony of Parion, and the ^ovSirris, or Slayer of the Ox, by Isodotos. Lykios was a pupil of Myron ; in 79 the boy blowing a dying fire he created a work worthy of his master ; he also made statues of the Argonauts. The eagle of Eagle Leochares appears to know how precious a burden it is ravishing ^™^"£ in Ganymede and to what master it bears him, and its talons hold the boy tenderly though his dress protects him. He also made a statue of Autolykos, who was victorious in the pan- kration and in whose honour Xenophon wrote the Banquet ; the celebrated Zeus with the thunderbolt in the Capitol, a work of supreme excellence ; an Apollo wearing the diadem ; the slave- dealer Lykiskos and a boy, on whose face may be read the wily

thraians, Strabo, xiii, p. 588, 14 ; it of this work has been recognized in

was made into a Roman colony by the statuette, Helbig, Class. Ant. 400. Augustus {Calonia Pariana Julia 13. Autolyoum: winner in the

Augusta). Pankration at the greater Panathenaia

§79. 9. Lyoius Myronis : §50. 01.8g, 3 = B.c.422 (the fictitious date

10. puerum sufBantem: same sub- of the 'Banquet,' Athen. v, p. 216 d), ject treated by the painter Antiphilos murdered B. c. 404 by the Thirty XXXV, 138. The work is of course dis- Tyrants. Since Leochares lived into tinctfrom Hat fuersiiffitorhAorfijTccA the reign of Alexander, there can be from the boy, also by Lykios, holding no question of his having made a por- the holy water basin on the Akropolis, trait of Autolykos, but the latter was Paus.l,23,7,bntthekinshipofthesub- sufficiently celebrated to have — like jects shows where the artistic strength Miltiades and other heroes of Athenian of Lykios lay (cf. Wolters, Ath. history — statues raised to him after Mitth. xvi, 189T, p. 153 ff. and Mayer, death (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mittheil. Arch. Jahrb. viii, 1893, p. 2i8f.). vii, 1883, p. 72).

11. Leocliares : § 50. [His works 14. lovemque ilium tonaiLteni : are enumerated in two alphabetical the motive of the statue may be re- groups : from aquilam to lovem, and covered from coins ; Cohen, MMailles after item from Apollinem to puerum. Impiriales, 2nd ed. i, p. 88 ; Roscher, — H. L. U.] ii, 748. Above § 10.

aquilam . . . Ganymede : a copy 16. Lyoisomn mangonem : Ur-


66


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


80 fucatae vernilitatis, Lycius et ipse puerum suffitorem. Me- naechmi vitulus genu premitur replicata cervice. ipse Menaechmus scripsit de sua arte. Naucydes Mercurio et discobolo et immolante arietem censetur, Naucerus lucta- tore anhelante, Niceratus Aesculapium et Hygiam . . . qui 5 sunt in Concordiae templo Romae. Pyromachi quadriga ab Alcibiade regitur. Polycles Hermaphroditum nobilem fecit, Pyrrhus Hygiam et Minervam, Phanis Lysippi

81 discipulus epithyusan. Styppax Cyprius uno celebratur signo, splanchnopte — Periclis Olympii vernula hie fuit exta 10 torrens ignemque oris pleni spiritu accendens — Silanion Apollodorum fudit, fictorem et ipsum, sed inter cunctos diligentissimum artis et iniquom sui iudicem, crebro perfecta

5. Hygiam] Hygiam fecit Detlefsen.


lichs {Chrestom. p. 328) refers the subject to the influence of the Middle Comedy. Avxtaicos, as title of a play by Alexis, is preserved by Athen. xiii, p. 595 d; the /K«?- must have formed a group with the mango ; but Pliny, who is here giving an asyndetic enumeration of single works, seems to have understood them to be sepa- rate statues, cf. Furtwangler, Dorn- auszieher, p. 91, note 44 (against the reading Lyciscus langonem, which has lately again come into favour, see Friedlander's note to Martial, ix, 50).

I. sufatorem: presumably holding a censer suspended by chains; cf. Mayer, op. cit. p. 322.

§ 80. 2. replicata cervice : i. e. in the scheme known from the Nike sacrificing an ox on the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, cf. Cecil Smith \nj. H. S. vii, 1886, pp. 375 fif.

3. scripsit de sua arte : Introd. p. xl.

Waucydes : above § 50. His im- molans arietem has been identified, but on purely fanciful reasons, with the Phrixos burning the thigh of a ram on the Akropolis, Paus. 1, 24, 2 (cf. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 231).

4. luctatore anhelante : epigram-


matic, cf. XXXV, 71, lit ankelare senti- atur ; Reisch, Weihgeschenke, p. 45.

5. STiceratus : Nim/paros EJktiJ- /joyos 'A6r]vaios, Frankel, Jnschr. aus Perg. 132; also /. G. B. 147, 496; works conjointly with Phyromachos, ib. 118 (from Delos).

Aesculapium et H. : Frankel (Joe. cit.) suggests that the group was ori- ginally made for the Asklepieion at Pergamon, in which case it was pre- sumably transferred to Rome when the Romans inherited the Pergamene treasures by the will of Attalos II, 133 B.C.

6. Pyromachi : note on Niceratus above ; for an older namesake cf.

§51-

quadriga: possibly as a pendant to the group by Nikeratos of Alkibiades and his mother sacrificing, § 88 (Frankel, loc. cit.).

7. Polycles : not identical with the artist of | 50, while his identity with the Polykles of § 52 ( = xxxvi, 35) is uncertain. Nothing is known of his Hermaphrodite ; it cannot of course have been the marble recumbent figure, extant in so many replicas ; it should perhaps be sought for among the standing types of the Hermaphrodite


//. BRONZE STATUARY


67


craft of the servile character. Lykios too made a boy burning perfumes.

By Menaichmos we have a calf on which a man is setting so his knee as he bends its neck back; Menaichmos also wrote a book on his art. The fame of Naukydes rests on his Hermes, his Sio-Ko^oXoi or Disk-thrower, and his man sacrificing a ram ; that of \Naukeros on his panting wrestler. Nikeratos (made) the Asklepios and Hygieia now in the temple of Concord at Rome. By Pyromachos we have a four-horse chariot driven by Alkibiades. Polykks made a famous Hermaphrodite, Pyrrhos a Hygieia and an Athena, ■\Phanis, the pupil of Lysippos, an iniBuovaa, or woman sacrificing.

\Styppax of Cyprus is known by one statue only, the air\a-^x"(m- si Tijf, or Roaster of Entrails. This was a slave of Perikles the ff ^ j-

' ' * Roaster of

Olympian ; he is roasting entrails and blowing hard on the fire to Entrails: kindle it till his cheeks swell. Seilanion cast a portrait of ApoUo- doros, who was also a statuary, and among the most painstaking, a severe critic of his own work, who often broke up a finished


(e. g. Berlin Cat. 193 ; see Herrmann ap. Roscher, i, pp. 23245?.). Addenda.

8. Hygiam et Minervam : from the extant inscription ('ASiyroToi Tjj 'ABijvaia rg "tyieia || IIvppos Ittoiijo'ci' 'ASi^iaros /. G. B. 53) it appears that Pliny made one work into two. The statue is mentioned Pans, i, 23, 4 (without name of artist), Plutarch, Per. 13, who says it was dedicated by Perikles to commemorate the miraculous cure of a favourite work- man employed on the Propylaia (see note on vernula below). Wolters, however, has shown on technical evidence {Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, p. 153 £f.) that the statue must have been dedicated at a period subsequent to the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, and that Plutarch's narrative must consequently be a mere invention.

I 81. 9. Styppax Cyprius : I see no reason for the doubts with regard to this name expressed by Loewy Untersuch. p. 30, against which see also Wolters, Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, p. 156, note I.


10. splanchnopte : the motive of the statue and a probable copy are fully discussed by M. Mayer, Jahrb. viii, 1893, p. 224 and pi. iv.

Periolis Ol. vernula : the story is told fully, xxii, 44; in spite of dis- crepancies it is apparently identical with the one narrated by Plutarch of the Athena Hygieia. The cause for the dedication of a statue by so im- portant a personage as Perikles would naturally be eagerly sought for ; the vicinity of the splanchnoptes to that of Athena in her character of ' Healer ' suggested a connexion between the two, and accounts for the legends told by Pliny and Plutarch. Cf. Wol- ters, loc. cit. ; Kuhnerdt, Stat. u. Ort, p. 274.

12. Apollodorum: the date proved for Seilanion (§ 51) makes it impossible to identify the ApoUodoros either with the Sokratic philosopher (fl. b. c. 430- 360) or with the artist of /. G. B. 55 (in Pre-Eukleidan characters). /. G. B. 218 records a third of the name. For the painter A. see xxxv, 60.


F a


68


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


signa frangentem, dum satiari cupiditate artis non quit,

82 ideoque insanum cognominatum ; hoc in eo expressit, nee hominem ex aere fecit, sed iracundiam, et Achillem nobilem, item epistaten exercentem athletas, Strongylion Amazonem quam ab excellentia crurum eucnemon appellant, ob id in 5 comitatu Neronis principis circumlatam. idem fecit puerum quern amando Brutus Philippensis cognomine suo inlustravit.

83 Theodorus, qui labyrinthum fecit Sami, ipse se ex aere fudit, praeter similitudinis mirabilem famam magna sup- tilitate celebratus. dextra limam tenet, laeva tribus digitis lo quadrigulam tenuit translatam Praeneste, tantae parvitatis ut — mirum dictu — earn currumque et aurigam integeret alis simul facta musca. Xenocrates Tisicratis discipulus, ut alii Euthycratis, vicit utrosque copia signorum. et de sua

8. fecit Sami, ipse] editores ante Sillig; fecit, Sami ipse Detlefsen. 12.

mirum dictu] coni. Traube ; miraculo pictam Bamb. ; totam reliqui, DetUfsen.


§ 82. 2. nee hominem . . . sed irao. : O. Jahn {KunsturtheiU, p. 113) detected in these words a latent epigram; the phraseology, however, which was originally confined to col- loquial language and used as a rule in a disparaging sense, had become universal in Pliny's day; of. Quinct. X, I, 112 non iam hominis nomen sed eloquentiae habeatur ; H. S. Jones, Class. Rev. 1893, p. 224, cf. Baehrens, Catullus, p. 608. See Addenda.

4. epistaten . . . athletas : votive statue, put up presumably by the athletes of a gymnasium ; thus the gymnasiarchs Menas and Metodoros at Sestos and Pergamon receive statues for honourable discharge of their duties, likewise the Koo-^T/ri^s Nym- phodotos at Athens receives a statue in the palaistra C. I. A. iii, 1104, see Kuhnerdt, Statue u. Ort, p. 308 [the words exercentem athletas were prob- ably taken from the descriptive epigram on the statue. — H. L. U.]

Strongylion: /. G.B. 52 gives the inscr. belonging to his Sovpios ittttos (Pans, i, 23, 8), which from the allu- sion in Aiisloph.'OpviSis, 1128, must


have been erected shortly before that play was produced in B. c. 414.

Amazonem : we possibly have its copy in the charming equestrian sta- tuette in Naples (Friederichs-Wolters, 1781 ; the opinion first expressed by Hoffman in Overbeck's Flastik, ed. 4, i, p. 506, note 14). By representing the Amazon on horseback, S. could not only display her legs, but likewise find scope for his talent as a sculptor of animals (Pans, ix, 30, t).

6. oiroumlatam : above 1 48 ; we may conclude from this fact that the Amazon was a statuette.

7- cognomine suo : Bruti puer. Martial, ii, 77 ; ix, 50; xiv, 171.

§ 83. 8. Theodoras : his date may be approximately determined by the fact that he worked for Kroisos (B.C. 560-546), Herod, i, 51, and for Polykrates, Herod, iii, 41 (b. c. 532?-52i), cf. xxxvii, 3. That there was only one artist of the name has now been admitted even by Overbeck {Flastik, 4th ed. 1893, p. 78).

labyrinthum . . . Sami : i. c. the Heraion, of which his father Rhoikos (Herod, iii, 60) was the first archi-


//. BRONZE STATUARY


6g


statue, being unable to reach the ideal he aimed at; from this ,' he was called 'the madman.' This characteristic Seilanion ren- 82 dered, and made his bronze not a portrait of an individual, but a figure of "Vexation itself. He also made a famous Achilles, and a trainer exercising his athletes. Strongylion made the Ama- zon surnamed the evKi/rjfins from the beauty of her legs ; it was because of this special feature that the Emperor Nero carried the statue about in his train. He also made the boy which Brutus of Philippi loved, and made illustrious by his name. Theodoras, the maker of the labyrinth at Samos, also cast a portrait 83 of himself in bronze, famed as a wondrous likeness, and also celebrated for the extreme delicacy of the workmanship. The right hand holds a file, while three fingers of the left hand support a tiny team of four horses, which is now at Praeneste, Tiny

so small that the team, marvellous to relate, with chariot sxiA '^""-"^ ""^

team by charioteer could be covered by the wings of a fly which the artist Theodoras.

made to accompany it. Xenokrates was a pupil of Teisikrates, or,

according to some authorities, of Euthykrates ; he outdid both in


tect ; cf. xxxvi, 90, where the purely mythical labyrinthus Lemnius is a mist.ake of Pliny for lab. Samius (Urlichs, Anfange, 1871, p. 3, cf. Klein in Arch. Ep. Mitth. ix, 1885, p. 184) ; of Rhoikos and Theodores at least we know that they were itp- digenae not of Lemros bat of Samos i^aiiiot. Pans, viii, 14, 8 ; 'Por«os fmx<iipios, sc. of Samos, Herod, loc. cit.

ipse se : cf. the portrait of the Kretan Cheirisophos, presumably by himself, ne.xt to his gilt statue of Apollo at Tegea, Paus. viii, 53, 7.

10. laeva . . . quadrigulam : it is generally supposed that the little chariot was engraved on the base of a scarab (see e. g. the scarab, Brit. Mus. Cat. of Gems, pi. D, 254); Benndorf, Zts.fUr Oesterr. Gymnasien, 1873, p. 406. Theodores was a famous gem-graver; yet the extant marvels of iuicpoTfx>'ia. accomplished in the goldsmith's art show that the exe- cution in the round of a microscopic chariot was no technical impossibility ; see note on Mymercides, xxxvi, 43.


11. Praeneste : where the cele- brated temple oiForiuna Primigenia, like so many of the temples in Rome (cf. Friedlander, Darstellmtgen, ii, pp. 154 ff.), must have contained all sorts of curiosities (see R. Peter ap. Roscher, i, 1545).

12. mirum dlotu: xviii, 160, so facile diciu, xxviii, 20 ; rarum

didu, xiv, 132 ; incredibile diciu, XXXV, 88.

earn : i. e. the team proper as dis- tinct from the currus and the auriga, likewise in xxxvi, 36 quadriga cur- rusque.

13. Xenocrates : his identity with the Xenokrates of Athens, son of Ergophilos of /. G. B. 135 a and b (from Oropos), of /. G. ^. 135 c (from Elateia), and oi 'E(j>i]fi. &px<ii-oK. 1892, 52 (from Oropos), though usually accepted, is nothing less than proven. See Introd. p. xx, note 3.

Tisioratis : /. G. B. 120, from Oropos.

14. Euthyoratis : above § 67 [from the fact that this and the two


70 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV

84 arte composuit volumina. plures artifices fecere Attali et Eumenis adversus Gallos proelia, Isigonus, Pyromachus, Stratonicus, Antigonus qui volumina condidit de sua arte. Boethi, quamquam argento melioris, infans amplexando anserem strangulat. atque ex omnibus quae rettuli clarissima 5 quaeque iam sunt dicata a Vespasiano principe in templo Pacis aliisque eius operibus, violentia Neronis in urbem con-

85 vecta et in sellariis domus aureae disposita. praeterea sunt aequalitate celebrati artifices, sed nullis operum suorum praecipui, Ariston qui et argentum caelare solitus est, Cal- 10 lides, Ctesias, Cantharus Sicyonius, Dionysodorus Critiae discipulus, Deliades, Euphorion, Eunicus et Hecataeus argenti caelatores, Lesbocles, Prodorus, Pythodicus, Poly- gnotus idem pictor e nobilissimis, item e caelatoribus

86 Stratonicus, Scymnus Critiae discipulus. nunc percensebo 15

4. amplexando] Trauhe; sex anno Bamh. (sex annis e «?■?-.) ; eximiae Voss. ; eximie Rice, Detlefsen ; annosum coni. Bvecheler in Herondas, p. 35 ; vi annosnm coni. R. Meister in Mimiamben des Herondas, p. 708. 1 1 . Diony- sius, Diodorus Detlefsen ; Diodorus Bamb. ; dionysiodorus Rice, Voss.

preceding names contain the common Pyromaclius : above § 80.

element -KpaTrjs it would appear that 3. volumina ; Introd. p. xxxvi.

the bearers all belonged to the same 4. Boethi ; of Chalkedon (Paus.

family, cf. Fick, Griech. Personen- v, 17, 4, where Schnbart, however,

namen, p. xi. — H. L. U.]. reads Kapx';^'"") ; identical with the

1. volumina : Introd. p. xvi. silver-chaser of xxxiii, 155. In the I 84. Attali : i. e. Attalos I, B. C. Heraion of Olympia Pausanias saw

241-197. the gilt statue of a boy by him.

2. Eumenis:!. e. II, B.C. 197-159. quamquam elliptical, i. e. 'although Gallos : Atialus cos rex saepefiAdit more renowned as a silver chaser, yet

fugavitque, Liv. xxxviii, 17, 15, the I may mention . . .' The artist of

dates however are obscure (see Loewy the portrait of Antiochos Epiphanes

on /. G. B. 154, pp. 117 f.); the (/. G. B. 210) belongs to a later

other victories commemorated in the period, while a third Boethos, belong-

Pergamene inscriptions are those of ing to the first quarter of the first

Attalos I over Antiochos Hierax in century B.C., is known from Bull. d.

228 B. c. Corr. Hell, xi, p. 263.

Isigonus : neither his name nor infans : preserved in a number of

those of Stratonikos (below § 90) or replicas, Munich, Glypt. 140 ; Capi-

Antigonos, have turned up among tol, Helbig, Class. Ant. 518. The

the Fergamene inscriptions ; Michaelis same subject (without the artist's

(yiiAri.viii, 1893, p. 131) accordingly name) is mentioned Herond. iv, 31

proposes to alter the Isigonus of Pliny t\v xrpiaXiivtKo. ws to vatSiov irviyet |

to Efigonus, but on grounds which rpd -rSiv troZSiv fovv tt ri nij XiSos

are insufficient. roipyoy | epus AoX^ffec (ed. O. Cru-


//. BRONZE STATUARY ^^

the number of statues that he produced, and he also wrote books on his art.

The battles of Attalos and Eumenes against the Gauls were 84 represented by several artists, ^Isimnos, Pyromachos, Stratonikos "^ and Antigonos who also wrote books on his art. rating the

Bo'ethos, though greater as a worker in silver, made a child '"Iff,*" "^j hugging a goose till he throttles it. Eumenes.

The best of all the works I have mentioned have now been ■*'"■^^■ dedicated at Rome by the emperor Vespasian in the temple of Peace and in his other galleries, Nero having first brought them by the strong hand to Rome, and placed them in the apartments of the Golden House.

I add a list of artists whose works are of equal excellence, 85 though no single one is of supreme merit. Such are Ariston, who !^^"j "■' also worked in silver, ^Kallides, \Ktesias, Kantharos of Sikyon, rank. Dionysodoros the pupil of Kritios, \Deliades, ■\Euphorion, Eunikos and Hekataios, the silver chasers ; \Lesbokles, iFrodoros, ^Pytho- dikos, and Polygnotos, who was also among the most famous painters. Others who were also silver chasers were Stratonikos and \Skymnos the pupil of Kritios.

sins, who suggests the basis alone to 7. violentia Iferonis ; for hatred

have been of marble — cf. Anth.Pal. of Nero, ef. above § 45, xxxv, 51,

ix, 719 — and accordingly assumes 120. Introd. p. xcii.

identity with the Plinian group, cf. §85. 9. aequalitate : i.e. of merit,

Untersuchungen zur Mimiamhen des Fnrtwangler, Plinius, p. 11.

Herondas 1892, p. 82). Identity 10. Ariston: xxxiii, 156; a painter

likewise assumed by Buecheler and of the name, xxxv, iio-lii; cf. on

Meister (above text notes). The /. G. B. 275 a.

action of the child, who is really Callides : a painter of the name

squeezing the goose in his embrace, in Lucian, Dial. Meretr. viii, 3, cf.

is exactly described by the word am- Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 311.

flexando, as now restored from the 11. Cantharus : son of Alexis,

reading of Cod. Bamb. Addenda. pupil of Eutychides (above § 78),

5. ex omnibus . . . clarissima : Pans, vi, 3, 6; 17, 7.

rhetorical ilattery intended to please Dionysodoros : an artist of the

Pliny's patron Vespasian, cf. xxxvi^ name, /. G. B. 243 (from Delos, B. C.

102 ; so too Josephus, Bell.Jud. vii, no) ; a painter, xxxv, 146.

5, 7 (Niese, vol. vi, p. 591) says: Critiae: perhaps identical with the

■ulana . . . €is iKiivav rbv viib (sc. Kritios in § 49.

Tempi. Pac) avv/ixBl "al KartriB-q, Si' 12. Eunious et Heo. : xxxiii, 156.

Siv rtjv 6iav dvOpanrot Trp6Tepoi/ irepl 13. Polygnotus: xxxv, 58; known

iraaav tir\avSivTo rtjv oiicov^ivriv. The as a sculptor only from Pliny.

templum Pads was ded. A. D. 75, after 15. Stratonicus : presumably iden-

the conquest of Judaea; fall literature tical with the Str. of § 84 and of

Gilbert, Pom. iii, p. 135, note 3. § 90.


72


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


eos qui eiusdem generis opera fecerunt, ut Apollodorus, Androbulus, Asclepiodorus, Aleuas philosophos, Apellas et adornantes se feminas, Antignotus et luctatores, perixyo- menum tyrannicidasque supra dictos, Antimachus, Athe- nodorus feminas nobiles, Aristodemus et luctatores bigasque 5 cum auriga, philosophos, anus, Seleucum regem. habet 87 gratiam suam huius quoque doryphorus. Cephisodoti duo fuere : prioris est Mercurius Liberum patrem in infantia nutriens, fecit et contionantem manu elata, persona in incerto est. sequens philosophos fecit. Colotes qui cum 10 Phidia lovem Olympium fecerat philosophos, item Cleon et Cenchramis et Callicles et Cepis, Chalcosthenes et comoedos et athletas, Daippus perixyomenon, Daiphron et Damo-


§ 86. I. qui eiusdem generis : for the practice of classifying works of art according to the artistic mo- tive cf. Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, pp. 20 f.

Apollodorus: above § 81.

2. Asclepiodorus : a painter of the name, xxxv, 107.

philosophos : Furtwangler, /?«?-»- auszieher, pp. 24 f., has pointed ont that under this rubric must be under- stood not only philosophers in a re- stricted sense, but in general portraits of distinguished personages.

Apellas : son of Kallikles, makes for Olympia the chariot of Kyniska (/. G. B. 99 = Pans, vi, i, 6), sister of Agesilaos (died B. c. j6o) of Sparta. Cf. note on Callicles in § 87. Add.

3. adornantes se ; cf. the pseli- umene in § 70.

Antignotus : an artist of the name, /. G. B. 314-316 (Augustan).

4. supra dictos : descriptive of the actual personages portrayed ; un- necessary difficulty has been caused (cf. Loewy on /. G. B. 314) by as- suming that they referred to the group mentioned in § 70.

Athenodorus : xxxvi, 37.

5. Aristodemus : according to Ta- tian, p. 36, 9 (ed. Schwartz), makes a statue of Aisop, i.e. a work which


would fall under the heading of philosopki.

6. anus : votive portraits of priest- esses, such as that of Lysimache, above § 76. Yxat-m'ixi^tt, Dornauszieher, p.26.

Seleucum regem: above § 73.

7. quoque : [i. e. as well as the more celebrated Doryphoros of Poly- kleitos in § 55. — H. L. U.].

I 87. Cephisodoti duo: (a) the artist of the Eirene, Pans, ix, 16, 1, possibly father or brother of the great Praxiteles (cf. note on § 50) ; ifi) a son of Praxiteles, xxxvi, 24.

8. Mercurius . . . nutriens : the motive is identical with that of the Praxitelean Hermes. Addenda.

9. manu elata : the raised hand not being an action of Greek oratory (where even to allow the hand to protrude much from the cloak was thought unseemly, Aischines c. Tim. 25), it is probable that the statue be- longed to the class adorantes, and that its gesture was misinterpreted by a Roman writer as being the familiar manus elata of the Roman orators (Milchhbffer, Arch. Studien H. Brunn dargeb. 1892, p. 39). A recent con- jecture manu velata as the equivalent of the ivTbs TTjv x^V*^ ex^^ of Aisch. loc. cit. has met with little favour, c£ S. Reinach in Chron. d' Orient, 1893,


//. BRONZE STATUARY


73


I will now enumerate those who made statues of the same 86 class, as ApoUodoros, \Androboulos, Askkpiodoros and t^/i?«fl^, who u"'^^. made philosophers ; Apellas, who also made women adorning statues of themselves, Anttgnotos, who also made wrestlers, a nepi^vonevos or " ™'"^ athlete scraping himself, and statues of the tyrant-slayers whom I have mentioned, and ■\Antimachos and Atkenodoros, who made statues of renowned women. Aristodemos also made wrestlers, two- horse chariots with charioteer, and figures of philosophers, of old women, and of king Seleukos ; his Spear-bearer too has a charm of its own. There were two artists of the name of Kephisodotos ; 87 by the first we have a Hermes nursing the infant Dionysos. He also made a statue of a man haranguing with uplifted hand; the person represented is not known. The younger Kephisodotos made statues of philosophers, and so did Kolotes, who had worked with Pheidias on his Olympian Zeus, Kkon, Kenchramos, Kallikles, and '\ Kepis ; Chalkosthenes also made statues of comic actors and athletes. Daippos made a iref)t^v6fievos or athlete scraping himself, \ Daiphron, Damokritos, and -[Daimon philosophers W. Gurlitt in Berl. Phil. Woch. of the lovely bronze head of the boy-


p-9;

1895, p. 1230.

persona in ineerto : \\. e. the in- scription was effaced, or no longer extant. — H. L. U.] So Pausanias, vi, 15, 7, speaks of the statue of an un- known individual as av^p otrris 5^.

10. Colotes: xxxv, 54.

11. Cleon : of Sikyon, pupil of Antiphanes, himself pupil of Poly- kleitos, Pans, v, 1 7, 4, where a bronze Aphrodite by him is mentioned ; ib. 21,3 (two bronze Zanes, /. G. B. 95, 96) ; the remaining four statues by him (vi, 1,5; 3, 10 ; 8, 5 ; 9, 2 ; 10, 9) all belong to the class athletae. For his school cf. Furtwangler, Master- pieces, p. 278.

12. Cenohramis: /. G. B. 70, 71 (both from Athens), where he is named with Pdlymnestos (/. G.B. 72). Add.

Callioles : son of Theokosmos of Megara, Paus. vi, 7, I (where his statue of the illustrious TTepioSovixTjs Diagoras of Rhodes is mentioned) ; father of Apellas (above § 86). F. Hauser {Horn. Mittheil. x, 1895, pp. 97-119) would see in him the artist


pugilist, Munich, Glypt. 302, and of the original of the basalt statue of an- other pugilist in the Terme Mus. {ib. pi. I).

Chalcostlienes : apparently an error for Chaecosthenes (Ka'iKoffdivrjs), brother of Dies and son of ApoUonides, /. G.B. 113-117, 220, see note on xxxv, 155. In connexion with the votive-statues of comoedi mentioned here, it is interesting to note that /. G. B. 220 is from the theatre of Dionysos at Athens ; cf. A^Kriov, 1891, p. 84, 1. Like Epigonos (| 88) he is known only from Pliny and the inscriptions.

13. Daippus : above § 51 ; for athlete statues by him cf. Paus. vi, 12, 6; 16, 5.

Damoeritus : From Paus. vi, 3, 5 we learn that he was a Sikyonian, a pupil of Pison of Kalaureia (Paus. X, 9, 8), and fifth in school descent from the Attic artist Kritios. His identity with the ArjiiSicpiTos oil. G.B. 484 and Diogenes Laertios, ix, 49 is doubtful.


74


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


88 critus et Daemon philosophos. Epigonus omnia fere prae- dicta imitatus praecessit in tubicine et matri interfectae infante miserabiliter blandiente. Eubuli mulier admirans laudatur, Eubulidis digitis computans. Micon athletis specta- tur, Menogenes quadrigis. nee minus Niceratus omnia quae 5 ceteri adgressus repraesentavit Alcibiaden lampadumque

89 accensu matrem eius Demaraten sacrificantem. Tisicratis bigae Piston mulierem inposuit, idem fecit Martem et Mer- curium qui sunt in Concordiae templo Romae. Perillum nemo laudet saeviorem Phalaride tyranno, cui taurum fecit lo mugitus hominis poUicitus igni subdito, et primus expertus cruciatum eum iustiore saevitia. hue a simulaeris deorum

II. et] Bamb. ; ex reliqui ; exprimere Deilefsen.


§ 88. I. Epigonus : known from a series of Pergamene inscriptions. Frankel, Inschriften aus Pergamon, 12; 21-28; 29; 31 ( = /. G.B. 157); 32 (= /. G. B. 157 a). The great bathron to which 21-28 belongs com- memorates the close of the war in B. c. 228, against Antiochos and the Galatai.

omnia fere : rhetorical; cf. cla- rissima quaeque in § 84 ; omnibus fere quae fecit, xxxvi, 13.

2. tubicine : since Epigonos worked for the Pergamene kings, it has been suggested that his tubicen represented a Gaul with his war trumpet such as the famous 'dying Gaul ' of the Capitol (Helbig, Class. Ant. p. 398, where see literature). [The statue, however, may, as Winckel- mann suggested, have been simply the votive-portrait of the winner in the contest of heralds, such as that of Archias of Hybla at Delphoi, cf. Pol- lux, iv, 92, Preger, Inscr. 143, or that of Phorystas at Olympia, /. G. B. J 19. For it tubicen by the painter Antidotes see xxxv, 130.— H. L. U.] Add.

matri interfectae : for the mo- tive cf. xxxv, 98; S. Reinach {Rev. des £tudes Grecques, 1894, p. 41 ff.) suggests that the group was of a


Gaulish mother and her child, and belonged to the same series as the ' Dying Gaul ' and the so-called 'Arrius and Pacta' of the Villa Ludo- visi, Helbig, Class. Ant. 884. Add.

3. Hubuli : his name has been suggested in /. G. B. 235. For his mulier admirans cf. above § 78.

4. Eubulidis : his name alter- nates with that of Eucheiros (below § 91) on a series of inscriptions (/. G. B. 223-229, 544) belonging apparently to one family of artists; dates uncertain.

digitija computans : [the gesture which is expressive of pondering or meditation might be given to any number of portraits oi fhilosophi ; cf. Lucian, Timon, 122, avveaTrafcibs robs SaKTv\ovs irpos rb eOos rwv \oyifffjL&y ; Plin. £:p. ii, 20, 3 : composuit vultum, intendit oculos, movet labra, agitat digitos, computat. This observation, coupled with the fact that, had the digitis computans been the portrait of a celebrated man, the name would not have been forgotten, disposes of Milchhoffer's theory {Arch. Studien H. Brunn dargebr. pp. 37 ff.) that the personage represented was Chrys- ippos. — H. L. U.]

Micon : identical with the painter,


//. BRONZE STATUARY


75


Epigonos produced examples of almost all the subjects I have 88 mentioned, and surpassed them in his trumpeter and his infant J^'^^ ^„^ piteously caressing its dead mother. ■\Euboulos is praised for child by his woman in amazement, and Euboulides for his man reckoning ^P^S""^'- on his fingers. Mikon's athletes are admired, and the four-horse chariots of Menogenes. Nikeratos too attempted the same sub- jects as these artists, and also made statues of Alkibiades and his mother Demarate sacrificing by torchlight. Piston made a 89 woman, to be placed in a two-horse chariot by Teisikrates, also the statues of Ares and of Hermes which stand in the temple of Concord at Rome. Perillos it is impossible to praise : he showed Bull of a cruelty greater than that of the tyrant Phalaris, for whom he ■ made a bull, promising that if a fire were lighted under it the cries of the man inside would sound like the animal's bellowing, a torture which cruelty for once righteous made him the first to suffer. From representations of gods' and men he had dragged


Phalaris.


XXXV, 59. The fact that he made statues of athletes has beau confirmed by /. G. B. 41, from the statue of the TreptoSoviitris Kallias (Ol. 77 = B. c. 472) ; and /. G. B. 42.

5. Uioeratus : above § 80, where see note on his Alkibiades.

6. lampadum acoensu : i. e. she held a torch, possibly in each hand ; the word accensu, however, makes me suspect a latent epigram, Introd. p. xliv, note 2.

7. Demaraten ; her name was however AeivoiiixV' Plat. ^Ic. 105, d, &c. [The name Demarate may have crept into Pliny's authority through an error in transcribing the inscription on the group. — H. L. U.]

§ 89. Tisioratis : above § 83 ; malierem inposuit, cf. § 71 on Xalamis and the Elder Praxiteles ; the mulier vifas possibly a Nike.

9. Perilliim : the Latin form. He also appears as Perilaos in Lucian, according to whom {Phal. i, 11) he was a native of Akragas ; for the late notion that he was an Athenian, see Freeman, Bist. of Sicily, ii, p. 75, note 2.

10. FhaJaride : vli, 200; B.C. 570-


564 is now generally accepted as the date of his Tupavm, Bentley, Diss, on the Epistles of Phalaris (ed. 1699), pp. 2 7 ff. ; Freeman, Sicily, ii, pp. 458 f.

taurum fecit : the earliest men- tion of the brazen bull is by Pindar, Pyth. i, 184 ; its mechanism is fully described by Polybios, xii, 25. The bull was reputed to have been taken to Carthage on the sack of Akra- gas by the Carthaginians, B. c. 403 ; it was brought back and restored to the Carthaginians by the Younger Scipio, Cic. Verr. II, iv, 34, § 73. See Freeman, op. cit. Appendix, vii, where the story of the bull is fully discussed. It early became a locus communis of rhetoric (cf. Kalkmann in Rhein. Mus. xlii, 1887, pp. 513 ff.), which accounts for the high colonring of Pliny's language. Introd. p. xciii.

II. mugitus hominis : Mugiet, et veri vox erit ilia boms, Ovid, Trist. iii, II, 48.

primus expertus : cf. Diodoros, ix, 19; Ovid, loc. cit.; and Ars Amat. i, 653 ; Lucian, Phalaris, i, 12.


76


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


hominumque devocaverat humanissimam artem. ideo tot conditores eius laboraverant ut ex ea tormenta fierent! itaque una de causa servantur opera eius, ut quisquis ilia

90 videat oderit manus. Sthennis Cererem, lovem, Minervam fecit, qui sunt Romae in Concordiae templo, idem flentes 5 matronas et adorantes sacrificantesque. Simon canem et sagittarium fecit, Stratonicus caelator ille philosophos,

91 Scopas *uterque*, athletas 3.utem et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque Baton, Euchir, Glaucides, Heliodorus, Hicanus, *Iophon* Lyson, Leon, Menodorus,Myagrus,Poly- 10 crates, Polyidus, Pythocritus, Protogenes idem pictor e clarissimis, ut dicemus, Patrocles, Pollis, Posidonius qui et argentum caelavit nobiliter, natione Ephesius, Pericly- menus, Philon, Symenus, Timotheus, Theomnestus, Ti- marchides, Timon, Tisias, Thrason. ex omnibus autem 15


8. scopas] codd. ; copas Gerhard, Detlefsen. Chresi. p. 91 ; olophon Bamb. ; lophon reliqui.


10. lophon] Urlichs in


§ 90. 4. Sthennis : above §51.

5. flentes matronas : grave por- trait statues, cf. above on § 70.

6. adorantes sacrificantesque : <^f' §§ 73> 78. On these rubrics see the remarks of Furtwangler, Dom- auszieher, pp. 22 ff.

Simon : his identity with the Aigi- netan artist of the name (Paus. v, 27, 2), employed with Dionysios of Argos on the Olympic votive-offer- ings of Phormis of Mainalos, is uncertain.

canem et sagittarium : i. e. a votive-portrait of a Kretan or Scythian bowman with his dog ; cf Furtwangler, op. cit., p. 93.

7. Stratonicus: xxxiii, 156; above §§ 84, 85.

8. Scopas uterque : although the MSS. are unanimous, no satisfactory sense can be got out of the reading. Skopas, as the name of the artist, is q^te in place in the alphabetical enumeration, but we cannot follow Klein {Arch. Ep. Mitth. iv, p. 22 ff.) in assuming a lacuna after uterque, or in seeing in the uterque a confirma-


tion of his double Skopas (above note on§49, 1. 13). My own view is that the uterque is a very ancient corruption, and conceals the name of the work of art made by Skopas. It has also been suggested that scopas is the ace. pi. either of <r/nu^ (Satyric dancers, see Urlichs's note in Chrest. p. 331) or ff/tcJiras (Satyr on the • look-out), in which case the uterque would refer back to Simon and Stratonikos. SKOrA* is inscribed above a Satyr on a vase with the Apotheosis of Herakles (Munich, Jahn Cat. 384 = Mon.d. Inst, iv, pi. 41, Ann. xi, Tav. d'Agg. O); but the fact that the next Satyr is inscribed TBPI2 shows that we have here no generic term, but merely an epithet applied to one particular Satyr (cf. the diroaKowevax' of Antiphilos in xxxv, 138). Finally besides the copas ( = castanet dancers), of Gerhard, Urlichs in Pergamen. Inschriften, p. 23, has suggested scyphos. See Addenda.

§ 91. athletas : for this and the following rubrics cf. adorantes sacri- ficantesque above.


//. BRONZE STATUARY


77


down the most humanizing of arts to this level, and the early masters had only laboured to the end that instruments of torture should be created by its means. The works of Perillos, in con- sequence, are preserved only that whoever sees them may loathe the hand that made them. Sthennis made statues of Demeter, 90 Zeus and Athena, which are at Rome in the temple of Concord ; also matrons weeping, praying, or sacrificing. Simon made a dog and an archer, Stratonikos, known also as a silver chaser, made statues of philosophers, and Skopas . . .

We have statues of athletes, armed men, hunters, and men 91 sacrificing, by Baton, Eucheir, iGlaukides, Heliodoros, \Hikanos, ^^'"^^j ■\Iophon, Lyson, Leon, Menodoros, Myagros, Polykrates, ^Polyeidos, statues of Pythokritos, Protogenes, who was also, as will be said later on, "■tfi-l^*"- a painter of the highest renown, Patrokks, •\Pollis, Poseidonios, an Ephesian by nationality, who is also famous for his silver chasing, Periklymenos, Phi/on, Symenos, Timotheos, Ttieomnestos, Timar- chides, Timon, iTeisias, and Thrason.


Baton : above § 73. EuoUr : note on Eubulidis above § 88. Heliodorus : xxxvi, 35.

10. lophon: Vatolophonal Bamh. points to it longer name. Loewy, Untersuch. p. 39, note 31 suggests Herophon (/. G. B. 380, from a basis found at Olympial.

Iiyson : he made a statue of De- mos whicli stood in the Bouleuterion at Athens, Pans, i, 3, 5.

Iieou: perhaps =/. G. B. 148,

Menodoros : an artist of the name made a copy of the Eros of Praxiteles at Thespiai, Paus. ix, 27, 4.

Myagrus : of Phokaia, Vitrav. iii, Praef. 2.

Polycrates : for a doubtful in- scription with this name cf. /. G. B* 482.

1 1. Pythooritus : son of Timo- charis of Rhodes, /. G. B. 174-176, Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, pp. 120 f. = Jahrb. ix, 1 894, p. 41 . It is interesting to note that /. G. B. 1 74 belonged to the statue of a priest, i. e. to the class sacrificantes (Brunn, K. G. i, p. 461);


while /. G. B. 176, from the statue ol an Olympic winner, belongs to the class athletae.

1 2. Patrooles : above § 50. Posidonius ; xxxiii, 156.

13. Periolymenus : Tatian, p. 35, 28 (ed. Schvrartz), ti /ioi Sid toj/ XitfuicKvfiivov -jivawv (Eutychis Plin. vii, 34), Q-rnp kfcvrjffe rpidKovra irdida?, cbs 0aVftaffT&v ^etaOe t5 Karavoeiy TToiijfia ; Brunn, JC G. i, p. 473.

14. Philon : Tatian, p. 36, 17 (ed. Schwartz), mentions a statue of Hephaistion (cf. above § 64) by him ; he vfould thus belong to the age of Alexander.

Symenus : /. G. B. 84 (latter half of sixth century).

Timotheus : xxxvi, 35.

Theomnestus : a painter of the name, xxxv, 107.

Tiraarchides : xxxvi, 35.

15. Timon: probably = /. G. B. 234 (from Athens).

Thrason : a figure of Hekate and a fountain, a Penelope and Eurykleia (in a group ?) are mentioned, Strabo, xiv, p. 641 ; cf. Brunn, Jv. G.i, p. 421.


78


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV


92 maxime cognomine insignis est Callimachus semper calum- niator sui, nee finem habentis diligentiae,ob id catatexitechnus appellatus, memorabili exemplo adhibendi et curae modum. huius sunt saltantes Lacaenae, emendatum opus sed in quo gratiam omnem diligentia abstulerit. hunc quidem et s pictorem fuisse tradunt. non aere captus, nee arte, unam

A.tT.c. 698. tantum Zenonis statuam Cypria expeditione non vendidit Cato, sed quia philosophi erat, ut obiter hoc quoque noscatur

93 tarn inane exemplum. in mentione statuarum est et una non praetereunda, quamquam auctoris incerti, iuxta 10 rostra, Herculis tunicati, sola eo habitu Romae, torva facie, sentiensque suprema tunicae. in hac tres sunt tituli : L.

A.u.c. 691. LucuUi imperatoris de manubiis, alter: pupillum Luculli filium ex S. C. dedicasse, tertius : T. Septimium Sabinum aed. cur. ex privato in publicum restituisse. tot certaminum 15 tantaeque dignationis simulacrum id fuit.

12. sentientique re/«y«8. tnnica r«/8^««.


§ 92. I. CaUimachus : his date can be approximately fixed at the close of the fifth century, from the fact that he is credited (Vitr. iv, i, 10) with the ' invention,' i. e. introduction into Greece, of the Corinthian capital, which Skopas (Paus. viii, 45, 5) em- ployed in the temple at Tegea (Ol. 96 = 3.0.396). Addenda.

calumniator sui : cf. Quinct. x, I, 115 : invent qui Calvum prae- ferrent omnibus, inveni qui Ciceroni crederent, eum nimia contra se ca- lumnia verutn sanguinem perdidisse.

2. catatexitechnus : Fans, i, 26, 7 ; Vitmv. ioc. cit. ; Call, qui propter elegantiam ac subtilitatem artis tnarfnoreae ab Atheniensibus catatexi- technus fuerat nominatus ; Brunn, K. G. i, p. 254 aptly compares the use of KaTaT-fjiceLV in Dionys. JI. de vi Dem. 51 : Ou 7a/> 5^ rot, irXao-rat y^v KoX ypatp€ts iv iKr^ <p6apT^ xeipwv fit- GTOvias ivZcitcvv p.ivot roaovTov^ elff- <[)€povTai iTovoiis, uffre koX (p\4l3ta Kal iTTiKa mt x^'ous tcai rd tovtois Sftoia els anpov t^epya^eaSai «al HaraTrjKHv cis ravra ras tcxvols.


4. saltantes Xiacaenae : Furt- wangler {Afasterpieces, p. 438 ; id. fig. 179) inclines to recognize the type in the dancing girls wearing the Kala- thiskos so common on later reliefs and gems.

5. gratiam . . . abstulerit : this judgement flatly contradicts the words ofVitruviusquotedabove(cf. also Paus. loc.cit.) ; aninterestingevidenceofdiver- gence of opinion among ancient critics.

et pictorem fuisse : cf. of Pytha- goras, § 60 ; of Fheidias, xxxv, 54.

7. Zenonis : he was boin at Kition. His features are known from the bust at Naples, Schuster, Ueier die erhal- tenen Porirdts der Gr. Philosophen, pi. iv, I, I a.

Cypria expeditione : vii, 113, when Cato went to Cyprus as Quaestor cum iure practorio to confiscate the property of Ptolemy, which was put up to auction.

§93. 10. auctoris incerti : this suffices to discredit the proposed identification of this statue with the Herakles of Polykles, mentioned Cic. ad Alt. vi, I, 17.


//. BRONZE STATUARY 79

Of all artists, however, Kallimachos has received the most dis- 02 tinctive name. He was always too severe a critic of himself, and -^a^'^^*- incessantly laborious; from this he received the surname oi'^mggkr' KaTa-nj^iTexvos, Or the Niggler — a noteworthy warning that even diligence has its limits. By him we have a group of Spartan girls dancing, a work of faultless technique, which has, however, lost all charm through over elaboration. Some authorities say that Kallimachos was also a painter.

The statue of Zeno was the only one which Cato did not sell 56 b. c. when commissioner in Cyprus ; this, however, was not because he valued the bronze or the workmanship, but because the statue was that of a philosopher, a trivial incident, yet not unworthy of passing notice.

In speaking of statues there is one which ought not to be 93 omitted, although the artist is unknown. It stands close to the -^'"'«*«^

. wearing

K.ostra, and represents Herakles wearmg the tunic ; it is the only the tunic. one of him in Rome in that dress: the wild expression of the >,^; face shows that he is feeling the last agonies of the tunic. There J^' are three inscriptions upon it : one states that it is part of the plunder taken by Lucius Lucullus, the second that the son of 63 b. c. LucuUus, while still a minor, dedicated it in pursuance of a de- cree of the Senate, the third that Titus Septimius Sabinus when curule aedile made it once more a public monument. These inscriptions show the rivalry occasioned by the statue, and the value set on it.


II. torva facie: the description 12. tres sunt tituli : showing that

shows clearly to what school the the statue had changed place three

Herakles belonged ; the hero trjdng times ; where it stood on its first

to extricate himself from the burning dedication is unknown. The son of

robe irresistibly recalls the Laokoon Lucullus re-dedicated it near the (old)

tearing away the snakes. That the Rostra. Then, owing to the numerous

tunica was the fatal robe sent by changes which took place in the Fornm

Deianeira is a suggestion first made it was removed and fell into private

by Tumebus, Advers. lib. xvi, 487. hands; the restoration by T. Sep-

Though the reading sentiensque timius Sab. was in virtue of his office

supremo, tuniccie is not absolutely as aedile, by which he had charge of

beyond suspicion, I see no reason for public buildings and statues. following Peter [ap. Roscher, i, 2941) 13. de manubiis : on the occasion

in denying (cf. Urlichs in Chrest. of his triumph B. c. 63. p. 333) the allusion to the poisoned pupiUum : he was the ward of

tunic. The subject seems to have been Cato {Cic.deFin. iii, 2) and Cicero

represented in painting by Aristeides {Att. xiii, 6). (Polybios, ap. Strabo, viii, p. 381).


8o C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV

14,0 Aristonidas artifex cum exprimere vellet Athamantis furorem Learcho filio praecipitato residentem paenitentia, aes ferrumque miscuit ut robigine eius per nitorem aeris relucente exprimeretur verecundiae rubor, hoc signum

141 exstat hodie Rhodi. est in eadem urbe et ferreus Hercules, 5 quern fecit Alcon laborum dei patientia inductus. vide- mus et Romae scyphos e ferro dicatos in templo Martis Ultoris.

I. Aristonidas : xxxv, 146, where Athamantis furorem : recalls snch

his son Mnasitimos is mentioned subjects as Herakles grieving for his

among the painters KOK j]j»z»3z7«j / cf. madness, xxxv, 141. The Athamas

/. G. B. 197 (inscr. more completely was perhaps inspired by the Ino of

given by Hiller von Gaertringen, Euripides, where the murder of Lear-

/. G. Ins. i, 855), which shows that M. chos occurred,

was also a sculptor like his father. 4. verecundiae rubor : cf. Plu-


II. BRONZE STATUARY 8i

The artist Aristonidas in a statue representing Athamas after 14,0 the murder of his son sought to depict fury giving place to Yronin repentance, and mixed copper and iron, that the rust might show statms. through the metallic lustre of the copper and express the blush of shame ; this statue exists to this day at Rhodes, where also is 141 a Herakles which Alkon bethought himself to cast in iron, in allusion to the fortitude of the god under his labours. We can also see cups of iron at Rome, dedicated in the temple of Mars the Avenger.

tarch's description of the lokasta of perhaps identical with the chaser

Seilanion, Su/iTT. V, I, 2, cf. ttSj ScitSi/ Alkon, Athen. xi, p. 469 A, the

viovuoirj/i. a«. iii, 30 . Pseudo - Virgil, Culex, 66 ; Ovid,

6. Alcon : according to Brunn, Metam. xiii, 683 ff. K. G. ii, p. 402 (cf i, p. 466) he is 7. Martis ultoris : above § 48.


C. PLINII SECUNDI NATURALIS HISTORIAE

LIBER XXXV, §§ 15-29; 50-149; 151-158 (PICTURA ET PLASTICS)


G 3


Lib. XXXV,


/. PICTURA.


15 De picturae initiis incerta nee instituti operis quaestio est. Aegyptii sex milibus annorum apud ipsos inventam prius- quam in Graeciam transiret adfirmant vana praedicatione, ut palam est, Graeci autem alii Sicyone alii apud Corinthios repertam, omnes umbra hominis lineis circumducta, itaque S primam talem, secundam singulis coloribus et monochro- maton dictam postquam operosior inventa erat, duratque

16 talis etiam nunc, inventam liniarem a Philocle Aegyptio vel Cleanthe Corinthio primi exercuere Aridices Corinthius et Telephanes Sicyonius, sine uUo etiamnum hi colore, iam '° tamen spargentes linias intus. ideo et quos pingerent ad-


§ 15. 1. incerta: invii, 205 Pliny had already given two different versions.

2. Aegjrptii ; their contention was obviously a true one ; the vana prae- dicatione is drawn from a Greek writer anxious to claim the invention of painting for Greece.

4. Sioyone : for its claims to artistic preeminence cf. below, 5 75, xxxvi, 9, and note on xxxiv, 55 ; it is probable that Corinth was the earlier artistic centre, and that priority was claimed for Sikyon, when, in the latter half of the fifth century, it began to assume the leadership of the Pelo- ponnesian schools. The allusion to Sikyon, and the theoretical character of the following genesis of painting


(Introd. p. xxviii f.) point to Xeno- krates as authority.

5. umbra . . . circumducta: this theory is purely arbitrary ; it rests on the conventional supposition that the simpler method necessarily precedes the more complex — that pictures in outline precede pictures where the contours are filled in, and mono- chrome painting polychrome. The historical study of the monuments, 1. e. of early painted fictile wares, has shown, however, that the operation was rever^ed in both cases ; cf. Robert, Arch. Marchen, p. 121 ff. Studniczka {Jahrb. ii, 1887, p. 148 ff.) has made a vigorous attempt to reconcile fact with the Plinian tra-


I. PAINTING.

Book XXXV.

The origin of painting is obscure, and hardly falls within the scope of this work. The claim of the Egyptians to have discovered the art six thousand years before it reached Greece is obviously an idle boast, while among the Greeks some say that it was first discovered at Sikyon, others at Corinth. All, however, agree that painting began with the outlining of a man’s shadow; this was the first stage, in the second a single colour was employed, and after the discovery of more elaborate methods this style, which is still in vogue, received the name of monochrome.

The invention of linear drawing is attributed to t Philokles of 16

Egypt, or to Kleanthes of Corinth. The first to practise it were gf^iyll

t Arideikes of Corinth, and t Telephanes of Sikyon, who still used Kleanthes

no colour, though they had begun to give the inner markings, and %rideikes'

from this went on to add the names of the personages ih&y of Corinth.

Telephanes of Sikyon.

dition ; see also Hollwerda in Jahrb. Philoole Aegyptio : harks back

V, 1890, p. 256 f. and C. Smith, art. to the Egyptian tradition ; Miinzer,

PlCTUEAinSmith'sZ'zV/.^«^.p.40of., Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 512, note i.

■who gives a lucid analysis of the 9. Cleanthe : known from Strabo,

question. viii, p. 343, as the painter of (3)

§ 16. 8. inventam liniarem : the an Ilionpersis, iV) a Birth of Athena

use of invenio like that ol primus (cf. (cf. Athen. viii, 346 C) ; for the

note on xxxiv, 54) must not be probable style of these paintings cf.

pressed; it arises from the determina- Studniczka, op. cit. p. 153.

tion, already noted in the case of the 1 1 . adsoribere institutum ; the

bronze statuaries, to connect each names of the personages portrayed

stage of a progress virith one definite were used ornamentally to fill up

name. space, as often on black-figured vases.


86 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

scribere institutum. primus invenit eas colore testae, ut ferunt, tritae, Ecphantus Corinthius. hunc eodem nomine alium fuisse quam quem tradit Cornelius Nepos secutum in Italiam Damaratum Tarquinii Prisci regis Romani patrem fugientem a Corintho tyranni iniurias Cypseli mox docebi- 5 mus.

17 lam enim absoluta erat pictura etiam in Italia, exstant certe hodieque antiquiores urbe picturae Ardeae in aedibus sacris, quibus ego quidem nullas aeque miror, tarn longo aevo durantis in orbitate tecti veluti recentis. similiter 10 Lanivi, ubi Atalante et Helena comminus pictae sunt nudae ab eodem artifice, utraque excellentissima forma, sed altera

18 ut virgo, ne ruinis quidem templi concussae. Gains princeps tollere eas conatus est libidine accensus, si tectori natura permisisset. durant et Caere antiquiores et ipsae. fate- 15 biturque quisquis eas diligenter aestimaverit nullam artium celerius consummatam, cum Iliacis temporibus non fuisse eam appareat.

I. invenit] codd. ; inlevit Haupt, Detlefsen.

I. invenit: the manuscript read- 4. Damaratus: below § 152 ; Tac.

ing is defended by Holwerda [pp. cit. Ann. xi, 14; Dionysios H. iii, 46 ff.,

p. 259, note 64) who pouits ont that Strabo v, p. 219, viii, p. 378, &c.

invenire eam colore testae tritae can^- 5. mox dooebimus ; Furtwangler

spends to picturam invenire singulis {Plinius, p. 25 f. ; of. Robert, /4?-cA.

coloribus above. '? at primus invenit Mdrchen, p. 123) has shown that the

cf. below, §§ 151, 152. proof follows immediately: iam

testae tritae : the process, which enim . . .

is known only from this passage, § 17. 8. Ardeae : iii, 56 ; for the

probably died out early, Bliimner, paintings by M. Plautius in its temple

Technol. iv, p. 478 f. of Juno, below, § 115 ; for paintings

•z. Eephantus : the name is that in temple of Castor and Pollux see

of a painter inscribed on the columna Servius on Aen. i, 44 (Thilo i, p. 31) ;

Naniana [I. G. B. 5) ; the identity nam Ardeae in templo Castoris et

suggested by Studniczka {pp. cit. p. Pollucis in laeva intrantibus (cf.

151) is quite uncertain. below, § ic,^ post forem Capaneos

3. alium fuisse quam : attempts pictus estfulmen per utraque tempora

to reconcile two variant traditions — traiectus.

namely the attribution of the invention 11. Lanivi: iii, 64; viii, 221.

of painting proper to Ekphantos, and 12. altera ut virgo: for the

thf Italian tradition that painting was ellipse of the first altera cf. below, '

perfect in Italy long before the arrival § 71 hoplites in certamine ita

of the Greeks. Cf. § 152, where the decurrens ut sudare videatur, alter

fictores who followed Damaratos into arma deponens ut . . . and see note on

Italy are mentioned. xxxiv, 54, 1. 7.


/. PAINTING 87

painted. The invention of painting with colour made, it is said, from powdered potsherds, is due to \Ekphantos of Corinth. Ekphantos I shall show presently that this Ekphantos is distinct from that "f^""""'" namesake of his who, according to Cornelius Nepos, followed Damaratos, the father of Tarquin the Ancient, in his flight to Italy from Corinth to escape the insults of the tyrant Kypselos, for by that time painting in Italy also had already reached high 17 perfection. To this day we may see in the temples of Ardea ^J'Jaintin" paintings older than the city of Rome, which I admire beyond in Italy. any others, for though unprotected by a roof they remain fresh at^Ardfa after all these years. At Lanuvium again are two nude figures by jn^lanta the same artist, of Atalanta and Helen, painted side by side, and Helen Both are of great beauty, and the one is painted as a virgin ; they '^'- ■^'^""" have sustained no injury though the temple is in ruins. The 18 Emperor Caligula, who was fired by a passion for these figures, would undoubtedly have removed them if the composition of the stucco had allowed of it. Caere possesses some still more ancient Paintings paintings. No one can examine these carefully without confess- '^^ ^'^"■ ing that painting reached its full development more rapidly than Rafid de- any other art, since it seems clear that it was not yet in existence ^f/%T^t in Trojan times.

13. ne ruinis ctuidem oonoussae : baturque rursum pugna, ni Mara- one may conjecture that the Atalanta boduus castra subduxisset. and Helena had once formed part of 15. Caere, iii, 51 ; an interesting a larger composition which was series of paintings from Caere partially destroyed in Pliny's time. (Cervetri) now in the Brit. Mus. has Engelmann {ap. Roscher, i, p. 1964) been published by A. S. Murray, conjectures that the painting had origi- J-H. S. x, 1889, pi. vii, pp. 243-252, nally represented a mortal counter- who justly points out their dependence part of the ' Judgement of Paris ' — on Greek models. In asserting the on the analogy of a bronze Etruscan independent development of painting cista at Berlin (Friederichs, Bronzen, in Italy, Pliny has evidently been 542, cf Arch. Am. 1889, p. 42), where misled by his patriotism. A similar, Paris appears in conversation with but somewhat later, series of paint- three nude women Felena (Helen), ings from Caere in the Louvre, Mon. Ateleta (Atalanta) and Alsir (?). Inst, vi, vii, pi. 30. Helen was a favourite subject of the 17. Iliaois temporibus : the state- Etruscan artists ; cf. Gerhard, Etr. ment is based on the Homeric poems, Spiegel, iv, 373-382. where, with the exception of the p^ej

§ 18. 14. libidine aeeensus : for luKToiraprioi, and the 'lirnov irapfiiov

similar stories cf below, § 70 ; xxxiv, (//. iv, 141) which 'a woman of

62. Paionia or Maionia dyes with purple,'

teotori natura : below, § 173. there are no allusions to painting;

For the elliptical construction of si see O. MUUer, Handbuch, p. 5 r . permisissetci.Tsic.Ann.n, 46 ; spera-


88 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

19 Apud Romanes quoque honos mature huic arti contigit, siquidem cognomina ex ea Pictorum traxerunt Fabii claris- simae gentis, princepsque eius cognominis ipse aedem Salutis pinxit anno urbis conditae CCCCL, quae pictura duravit ad nostram memoriam aede ea Claudi principatu exusta. 5 proxime celebrata est in foro boario aede Herculis Pacuvi poetae pictura; Enni sorore genitus hie fuit, clarioremque

20 artem earn Romae fecit gloria scaenae. postea non est spectata honestis manibus, nisi forte quis Turpilium equitem Romanum e Venetia nostrae aetatis velit referre pulchris 10 eius operibus hodieque Veronae exstantibus. laeva is manu pinxit, quod de nuUo ante memoratur. parvis gloriabatur tabellis extinctus nuper in longa senecta Titedius Labeo praetorius, etiam p roconsulatu provinciae Narbonensis functus,

21 sed ea re in risu etiam contumeliae erat fuit et principum 15 virorum non omittendum de pictura celebre consilium.

A.u.c. 709. cum Q. Pedius nepos Q. Pedii consularis triumphalisque et a Caesare dictatore coheredis Augusto dati natura mutus asset, in eo Messala orator, ex cuius familia pueri avia fuerat, picturam docendum censuit, idque etiam divus 20 Augustus comprobavit, puer magni profectus in ea arte

22 obiit. dignatio autem praecipua Romae increvit, ut existimo,

§ 19. 2. Fabii clariss. gentis : An of these wall-paintings. (Against the

censemus, siFabio, nohilissimo homini, proposed identification of a wall paint-

laudi datum esset quod pingeret, non ing from the Esquiline, Bull. Comm.

multos afud nos futuros Polyclitos et 1889, pi. xi, xii, as ' riproduzione in

Parrhasios fuisse ? Cic. Tusc. Disput. piccol6 ' of the pictures in the temple

i, 2, 4. The first Pictor is of course of Salus, see Hiilsen, Rom. Mitth.

distinct from the historian (b. about 1891, p. ill.)

B.C. 254; Teuffel, 116). 6. foro boario aeda Herculis:

3. aedem Salutis : since the this temple, which was called aedes

temple was dedicated by C. Junius Aemiliana (according to Scaliger's

Bubulcus, a hero of the second emendation of Festus, p. 243) was

Samnite war, B.C. 311, and consecra- either founded or restored with great

ted by him as Dictator, B.C. 302 splendour by Aemilius PauUus the

(Liv. ix, 43, 25), the pictures probably conqueror of Pydna ; of. H. Peter, ap.

related to his exploits in Apulia Roscher, i, p. 2909 f. It was natural,

(Urlichs, Malerei in Rom, p. 7). From as Uilichs (Malerei, p. 1 7) points out,

Valerius Max. viii, 14, 6 it appears that he should employ to decorate it

that they were extensive compositions, Pacuvius, who had written in his

covering perhaps the two long walls of hono\iit)i&PraetextaPaulus{Kibhsck,

thecella. Dionysios, xvi, 6, praises the Rom. Trag. 326), and whose inti-

fine drawing, and sharp clean contours macy with Laelius, the bosom friend


/. PAINTING 89

Among the Romans too this art was early had in honour, see- 19 ing indeed that so distinguished a family as the Fabii drew from ;^^^^"f it the name of Pictor [Painter] ; and the first of the name actually Fabius painted the temple of Safety, in the year of Rome 450 [304 b.c.]. "^ '^' These paintings lasted until my day, when the temple was burned down in the reign of Claudius. Soon afterwards the poet Facu- Pacuvius. vius won great renown through his paintings in the temple of Hercules in the Cattle Market. The mother of Pacuvius was a sister of Ennius, whence it came about that the drama lent a new lustre to the art of painting at Rome. Since that time. 20 however, the profession of painter has received no honour at the hands of men of good birth, unless we except in our own time Turpilius, a Roman knight from Venetia, whose excellent pictures Turpilius. are still to be seen at Verona. He painted with his left hand, a peculiarity noted of no artist before him. Titedius Labeo, who Titedius died not long ago in extreme old age, was proud of the little pictures that he painted : he was of praetorian rank and had even been governor of Narbonensis, yet his art only brought upon him ridicule and even scorn. Nor must I omit the famous decision 21 with regard to painting arrived at by eminent statesmen. Quintus Qumtus Pedius (grandson of that Quintus Pedius who had been consul, had enjoyed a triumph and was named by the dictator Caesar as 45 ^.c. co-heir with Augustus) having been dumb from his birth, it so befell that Messala, the orator, to whose family the boy's grand- mother belonged, advised that he should be taught to paint. The god Augustus approved of the idea, and the boy had made great progress in the art when he died. The esteem which the Romans 22

of Aemilius' son Scipio, is known to was the grandson of Caesar's elder

us from Cicero {Laelius, 7, 24). sister; he triumphed Dec. 13,8.0.45,

§ 20. 9. honestis manibus : of. after his Spanish campaign (Appian,

Cic. Tusc. Disf. loc. cit., and the Bell. Civ. iii, 22, 23, 94-96), was

ironical words applied to Fabius consul with Augustus in B.C. 43, in

Pictor by Val. Max. viii, 14, 6. which year he died.

Turpilium ; possibly a descen- 18. coheredis dati : Suet. Julius,

dant of the Turpilius who wrote come- 83.

dies, and was a contemporary of 19. Messala orator : B.C.64-A.D.

Terence CRibbeck, Com. 2nd ed. 85). 8 (Teuffel, 222), quoted in the indices

II. Veronae : probably Pliny's to Blis. ix, xxxiii, xxxv ; restores the

birthplace, since in Praef. i he speaks ancient Sibyls, xxxiv, 22. Cf. also

of Catullus as his conterraneus. vii, 90, and above, § 8.

13. Titedius Iiabeo : Tac. Ann. avia: i.e. the wife of Q. Pedius,

ii, 85. the legatee of Caesar.

§ 21. 17. Q. Pedii oonsularis ; he § 22. 22. dignatio . . . inorevit :


go C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

a M'. Valerio Maximo Messala, qui princeps tabulatn pictam proelii quo Carthaginienses et Hieronem in Sicilia vicerat, proposuit in latere curiae Hostiliae anno ab urbe condita CCCCLXXXX. fecit hoc idem et L. Scipio, tabulamque A.u.c. 565. victoriae suae Asiaticae in Capitolio posuit, idque aegre 5 tulisse fratrem Africanum tradunt haut inmerito, quando

23 filius eius illo proelio captus fuerat. non dissimilem ofFensionem et Aemiliani subiit L. Hostilius Mancinus qui primus Carthaginem inruperat situm eius oppugnationesque depictas proponendo in foro et ipse adsistens populo spectanti 10 singula enarrando, qua comitate proximis comitiis con-

A.u.c. 609. sulatum adeptus est. habuit et scaena ludis Claudii Pulchri magnam admirationem picturae, cum ad tegularum simili- tudinem corvi decepti imaginem advolarent.

24 Tabulis autem externis auctoritatem Romae publice fecit 15 primus omnium L. Mummius cui cognomen Achaici victoria

A.u.c. 608. dedit. namque cum in praeda vendenda rex Attains XrVI] emisset tabulam Aristidis, Liberum patrem, pretium miratus suspicatusque aliquid in ea virtutis quod ipse

onRoman triumphal picturesgenerally which of the two occasions he exhi-

see the excellent remarks of Raoul- bited the picture of his exploits (cf.

Rochette, Peint. Ant. p. 303 f., and Urlichs, op. cit. p. 14). recently Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, 5. aegre tulisse : the injury felt

p. 30 f. was far-fetched ; from Val. Max. ii, 10

I. M'. Valerio Maximo Messala: 2, we learn that Antiochos treated

COS. B.C. 263; cf vii, 214. the sou with marked courtesy, and

3. in latere curiae Host. : see- sent him back celeriter. ing the numerous changes undergone § 23. 8. Aemiliani : the offence

by the Curia between the date of presumably consisted in the omission

Messala and that of Cicero, the iden- from the picture of any allusion to

tity of the picture with the tabula the timely help of Scipio, Appian,

Valeria {Cicero mVat.<j, 21; ad Fam. AiP. 113 ff.; cf. iiiii. 134, where a

xiv, 2, 2) is improbable (it seems ac- graphic account is given of the en-

cepted by Becker, J?Sm. Top. p. 326, thnsiasm with which the Romans

note 99, and recently by Gilbert, Ce- received the news of the fall of

schichte u. Top. iii, p. 165, note 2 ; Carthage.

Urlichs, Malerei, p. 9, suggests that 12. scaena : i. e. 'she. scaenae frons

the exhibition was only temporary). or wall of the stage-buildings, upon

The date usually assigned to Messala's which the scenic decorations were

victory is A. u. c. 491 =B.c. 263. hung, cf § 65.

%. Ii. Scipio : he triumphed on Claudii Pulchri : aedlle B. c. 99 ;

the last day of the intercalary month on his games see viii, 19 ; Val.

of B.C. 188, but his splendid games Max. ii, 4, 6 C. Pulcher scenam va-

were not celebrated till B.C. 186 (cf rieiate colorum adumbravitvacuis ante

xxxiii, 138). It is not known on pictura tabulis extentam.


I. PAINTING 91

gave to painting was greatly increased (so it seems to me) by the action of Manius Valerius Maximus Messala. He first caused M\ Val. his victory over the Carthaginians and Hiero in Sicily to be ^f- ^"'

J Till ^"■^ '"'"■'

pamted on wood, and exhibited the picture at the side of the memorates Curia Hostilia in the year of Rome 490 [264 b c.]. Following ^" '""^."y his example Lucius Scipio exhibited in the Capitol a picture repre- tun. senting his Asiatic victory, a step which not unnaturally displeased ^ f"?'" his brother ' the African,' whose son had been taken prisoner in 189 b.c. the battle. In the same way Lucius Hostilius Mancinus, who 23 had been the first to enter Carthage, incurred the anger of Scipio ^: ^°i'^' Aemilianus by exhibiting in the forum pictures of the site oi dnus. Carthage and the various attempts to storm it, while he himself stood by, telling the whole story to the crowd of spectators with a geniality which at the next elections won him the consulship. 145 e.g. At the games given by Claudius Pulcher, the painting of the 99 ^■^' scenery excited great wonder, the very crows being deceived by the painted tiles and iiying down to settle on them.

Foreign pictures, however, were first publicly brought into 24 vogue at Rome by Lucius Mummius, surnamed the Achaean from 'Mummius his victories. At the auction of the spoils. King Attalos had bid ^fj^^f'^"^ for a picture of Dionysos by Aristeides the sum of 600,000 denarii /«V/««j. [_;^2 1,000 circ], whereupon Mummius, surprised at the price ^"^ ' offered, and suspecting some merit in the picture which escaped

14. corvi deoepti; cf. below, §§ 65, rex Attains: see vii, 126. As

66, and 155. a fact Attalos himself was not present

§ 24. 16. Ii. Mummius: in xxxiii, at Corinth (Pans, vii, 16, i); he had

i49,however,theintroductionofforeign only sent an auxiliary force to the

pictures into Rome is attributed to Romans, under the command of Philo-

Scipio's Asiatic victories ; while Liv. poimen. There is a further inaccuracy

XXV, 40, states that the first enthusiasm in the account of the purchase : ac-

for Greek pictures at Rome was a cording to Polybios (a/«(/Strabo, viii,

result of the capture of Syracuse by p. 381), who was an eye-witness, the

Marcellus : ceterum inde frimum Roman soldiers were already using the

initium mirandi Graecarum artium ; pictures as dice-boards, when Philo-

cf. also Cato's speech as given Liv. poimen offered a hundred talents to

xxxiv, 4 (below note on § 157)1 and Mummius in case he should feel dis-

Plut. Marcell. xxi. posed to assign the picture to Attalos'

17. in praeda vendenda : the share of the booty. For the paintings

notion of an auction is inaccurate : collected by Attalos, see Frankel,

according to Paus. vii, 16, S, Mum- _ya,4>-i.vi (i89i),pp. 49-60,'Gemalde-

mius had taken to Rome the most Sammlungen u. Gemalde-Forschung

valuable works of art, and handed in Pergamon.'

over to Philopoimen (see next note) 18. Aristidis : below, §§ 98-100.

the less important objects. Liberum patrem ; below, § 99.


93 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

nesciret, revocavit tabulam Attalo multum querente et in Cereris delubro posuit, quam primam arbitror picturam

25 externam Romae publicatam. deinde video et in foro positas volgo. hinc enim ille Crassi oratoris lepos agentis sub Veteribus, cum testis compellatus instarct : die ergo, 5 Crasse, qualem me noris ? talem, inquit, ostendens in tabula pictum inficetissime Galium exerentem linguam. in foro fuit et ilia pastoris senis cum baculo, de qua Teutonorum legatus respondit interrogatus, quantine eum aestimaret, donari sibi nolle talem vivom verumque. 10

26 Sed praecipuam auctoritatem publice tabulis fecit Caesar dictator Aiace et Media ante Veneris Genetricis aedem dicatis, post eum M. Agrippa vir rusticitati propior quam deliciis. exstat certe eius oratio magnifica et maximo civium digna de tabulis omnibus signisque publicandis, 15 quod fieri satius fuisset quam in villarum exilia pelli. verum eadem ilia torvitas tabulas duas Aiacis et Veneris mercata est a Cyzicenis HS. [XII]. in thermarum quoque cali- dissima parte marmoribus incluserat parvas tabellas paulo ante, cum reficerentur, sublatas. 20

I. in Cereris delubro : xxxiv, Mariano scuto Cimbrico. The pro-

15; below, §§ 99, 154. Strabo, loc. trading tongue was probably apotro-

cit. rdv di Aiivvaov [sc. 'ApiffxeiSou] paic (cf.Urlichsin CA^rfoOT., p. 343) ;

avaKilufvov hv Ta) A7]iJ.rjTpeiij} rS ev being misunderstood it gave occasion

'PiifiTi KaKKiarov epyow iaipSifiiv kpi- to the witticisms recorded by Pliny,

irprjffdevTQS h^ tov veOj ffvvrjcpaviaOTj ical Cicero and others with Quinctilian,

^ ipaip^i veaffTi. perhaps also to the remark in Liv.

§ 25. 4. Crassi oratoris : Cicero vii, 10, 5 : (Galium) linguam eiiam

{de Orat. ii, 66, 266 ; cf. Quinct. vi, 3, ab irrisu exserentem.

38, where see Spalding's note) attri- § 26. 12. Aiace et Media: vii,

butes the witticism to the orator, C. i26=App. I; below, §§ 136, 145.

JuliusCaesarStrabo (Teuffel,i53, 3). ante V. G. aedem: whereas

5. sub veteribus : sc. tabernis, in § 136 the same pictures are said to cf. § 113; these shops, with a colon- be in V. G. aede ; the latter seems nade in front of them, stood facing the the likeliest ; the first variant is prob- Sacra Via, on the site afterwards oc- ably due to Pliny's carelessness ; cf. cupied by the Basilica Julia. The Miinzer, 'oJ>. cii. p. 542. The temple tribunal, where the scene is imagined, was vowed by Caesar at Pharsalos may, have stood close to the Hegia ; (b.c. 48), ded. with the Forum, Sept. cf. Jordan, Tofi. 1, -i, p. 382, note 92. 24 or 25, B.C. 46 (but see Mon. Ancyr. Cicero, loc. cit. , has sub novis, i. <;. on iv, 1 2 ; Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 84 f.) . N. side of the Forum. 13. M.Agrippa: B.C. 63-A.D. 12 ;

6. in tabula : Cic. loc. cit. in Teuffel, 220, jo-14.


/. PAINTING 93

his own eyes, withdrew it, in spite of the protests of Attalos, and afterwards dedicated it in the temple of Ceres. This was, I believe, the first foreign picture publicly dedicated at Rome. Later on I see that they were constantly put up even in the 25 Forum, a custom which gave the orator Crassus an opening for a witticism. He was pleading a case close to the Old Shops, when a witness under examination said to him, 'Pray what do you take me for, Crassus ? ' ' Just such a man as that,' answered Crassus, pointing to a coarse picture of a Gaul with his tongue out. In the Forum too was the picture of an old shepherd with his staff, of which the envoy of the Teutons said, when asked what he thought it was worth, that he would not take such a man at a gift, even if he were alive and real.

But the highest public tribute to painting was paid by the 26 dictator Caesar when he dedicated the Aias and the Medeia in patrona<re front of the temple of Venus the Mother, and after him by Marcus Aias and Agrippa, whose natural tastes inclined to rustic simplicity rather , ^ "^ than to the refinements of luxury ; a magnificent speech of his at least is extant, fully worthy of the first citizen in the state, urging that all pictures and statues should be made public pro- perty — certainly a wiser plan than to consign them to exile in our country houses. Yet the rude Agrippa bought two pictures — an Aias and Aias and an Aphrodite — from the people of Kyzikos for 1,200,000 f^^^'jA,! sesterces [;^i 0,500 circ.J, and further, in the hottest chamber oi ^ikos. his baths were some small pictures, let into the marble, which were removed not long ago in the course of a restoration.

17. Aiacis et Veneris: nothing inE.c. 33, or to adorn the buildings

fnrther is known of either picture ; the which several years later were carried

grounds for identifying either or both out under his direction (the Septa

with the Ajax and Medea purchased Julia in B. c. 26 ; the Thermae and

by Caesar (Welcker, Helbig, Urlichs, the Porticus Neptunia in the follow-

&c.) are purely fanciful. From the ing year ; cf. Brandstatter, loc. cit^.

pDsteum-we may assume that Agrip- 18. thermarum : immediately be-

pa's purchases were later than Caesar's, hind the Pantheon: the calidissima

and the price paid for the pictures pars must be identical with the cal-

was not the same (cf. § 136 where darium.

the price paid by Caesar is given). 19. incluserat : according to a The question is fully discussed by custom general in Roman times ; cf. F. Brandslatter, Timomachos, p. 16 if. below the pictures in the Curia Julia The occasion for Agrippa's. pur- (§ 27). The six celebrated mono- chases, and the spot where he exhi- chrome pictures in red on white bited them, are unknown. He may marble slabs (Naples) had been let have bought the pictures as aedile into the wall in a similar manner ; cf.


94 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

27 Super omnis divus Augustus in foro suo celeberrima in parte posuit tabulas duas quae Belli faciem pictam habent et Triumphum, item Castores ac Victoriam. posuit et quas dicemus sub artificum mentione in templo Caesaris patris.

A.u.c. 725. idem in curia quoque quam in comitio consecrabat duas 5 tabulas inpressit parieti. Nemean sedentem supra leonem palmigeram ipsam adstante cum baculo sene cuius supra caput tabella bigae dependet, Nicias scripsit se inussisse,

28 tali enim usus est verbo. alterius tabulae admiratio est puberem filium seni patri similem esse aetatis salva differentia 10 supervolante aquila draconem complexa. Philochares hoc suum opus esse testatus est. inmensam, vel unam si tantum banc tabulam aliquis aestimet, potentiam artis, cum propter Philocharen ignobilissimos alioqui Glaucionem filiumque eius Aristippum senatus populi Romani tot saeculis spectet. 15 posuit et Tiberius Caesar minime comis imperator in templo ipsius Augusti quas mox indicabimus.

29 Hactenus dictum sit de dignitate artis morientis. quibus coloribus singulis primi pinxissent diximus, cum de his pig- mentis traderemus in metallis : monochromata ea genera 20 picturae vocantur. qui deinde et quae invenerint et quibus temporibus, dicemus in mentione artificum, quoniam indicare naturas colorum prior causa operis instituti est. tandem

6. impressit parieti, Nemean usque ad bigae (bige Voss., bigere Bamb., palmigere Bamb. e corr.) dependet. Nicias Detlefsen; interpunctionem corr. Traube. 20. metallis: monochromata . . . vocantur] Littri; metallis. qui

monochromata — ea genera picturae vocantur — Detlefsen, vid. errata, vol. v peg. 25°-

Robert, Hall. Winckelm. frogr. xix, Augustus B.C. 29: it had been be-

1895, P- 6 f. ; Raoul-Rochette, Pein- gun by Caesar to replace the Curia

tures, p. 162 ; Wickhoff, Wiener Gene- of Sulla.

sis, p. 70. 6. inpressit parieti : cf. note on

§ 27. I. in foro . . . parte : below, incluserat in § 26.

\ ^■^,mfori sui celeherrimis fariihus. Nemean . . . Uicias : 5§ 130,

2. Bellifaoiem . . . et Triumphum 131. The Nemea was the personifi- = below, § 93 Belli imaginem re- cation of the festal city; the senex strictis ad terga manibus, Alexandra with the staff one of the judges in the in curru triumphante ; ib. Castorem games ; the tablet with the chariot et Pollucem cum Victoria. indicated the particular contest of

3. quas dicemus : i. e. the Anadyo- which the picture was the memorial mene of Apelles in § 91. (Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 194) ; cf. in Pans.

5. in curia : sc. Julia, ded. by i, 22, 7 the picture commemorating


I. PAINTING 95

Above all the god Augustus placed in the most frequented part 27 of the Forum which bears his name, two pictures, the one containing ^i^^l"l^ figures of War and of Triumph, the other Kastor and his twin, Ms forum. with Victory. He also dedicated in the temple of his father Caesar /« temple certain pictures which I shall mention when I enumerate the artists. °f (^"'""■ Furthermore he let into the wall of the Council Chamber which in Curia. he consecrated in the Comitium two pictures. On the one, which ^9 ^f-

^ I. Nemea

represents the nymph Nemea holding a palm and seated on a by Nikias.

lion, while an old man with a staff stands by, above whose head

is suspended a tablet with a two-horse chariot, Nikias has written

that he burned in the painting, using that very word \ivUaiv\. In 28

the other picture we admire the marked resemblance between ?• ^'J^'"^ '^ by Philo-

a young man and his aged father, although the difference of age chares of

is not lost : an eagle with a snake in its talons is flying over their Glaukwn ' o JO ^„^ Arts-

heads. Philochares lays claim to the painting as his work, tippos. Marvellous is the power of art, judged by this work alone, since Philochares could turn the eyes of the Senate of the Roman people for so many years upon Glaukion and his son Aristippos, persons otherwise quite obscure. Tiberius Caesar too, rude Tiberius. prince though he was, dedicated in the temple of Augustus pictures which I shall name later on.

I have said enough concerning the dignity of a decaying art. 29 When treating of pigments in my account of metals I named the colours used singly by the early painters ; paintings in that style are called monochromes. Subsequent innovators, together with the character and date of their inventions, I shall treat of in my account of the artists, since the scheme of my work obliges me first to describe the composition of the pigments employed.

the victory of Alkibiades in the Ne- to the picture of Philochares, Wun-

mean games : 'iiritav de ot vixrjs Ti7s tv derer {Manubiae Alex:andrinae,y. 23)

Nef^ea karl arj/ieTa kv ttj ypatpy ; also suggests that it belonged to Augus-

the pinax wtih biga on the ' Ikaorios ' tus's Egyptian spoils.

relief (Br. MuB. = Friederichs-Wolters, 11. PMloeliares : perhaps identi-

1844). cal with the vase-painter, brother of

8. inussisse i.e. eveieaev : cf. 132. the orator Aischines, mentioned

§ 28. 9. alterius tabulae : since derisively {d.\a0aaTo6fiKas ypi<pm>) by

placed in the open air, presumably Demosthenes, J^a/s. Leg. p. 415, 237

likewise in encaustic. The eagle and (01.109,2 = 8.0.343).

snake, like the tabella bigae, must 17. luox indicabimus : in § 131.

have referred to the event com- § 29. 19. diximus : in xxxiii,

memorated by the picture. How the 117.

work of Nikias came into the hands 20. monochroinata : ibid. ; cf.

of Augustus is unknown (§ 131); as above, § 15; below, § 56.


96


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


sears ipsa distinxit et invenit lumen atque umbras, differentia colorum alterna vice sese excitante. postea deinde adiectus est splendor, alius hie quam lumen, quod inter haec et umbras esset appellarunt tonon, commissuras vero colorum et transitus harmogen. 5


50


Quattuor coloribus solis immortalia ilia opera fecere — ex albis Melino, e silaciis Attico, ex rubris Sinopide Pontica, ex nigris atramento — Apelles, Action, Melanthius, Nico- machus, clarissimi pictores, cum tabulae eorum singulae oppidorum venirent opibus. nunc et purpuris in parietes lo migrantibus et India conferente fluminum suorum limum, draconum elephantorumque saniem nulla nobilis pictura est. omnia ergo meliora tunc fuere, cum minor copia. ita est, quoniam, ut supra diximus, rerum, non animi pretiis ex- cubatur. 15

51 Et nostrae aetatis insaniam in pictura non omittam. Nero princeps iusserat colosseum se pingi CXX pedum linteo, incognitum ad hoc tempus. ea pictura cum peracta esset


1. lumen atque umbras : cf. xxxiii, 160; below, § 131.

2. alterna vice sese excitante : this passage should be studied in connexion with Aristotle's doctrine, in the third book of the Meteorologica, of the juxtaposition of colours ; cf. with relation to the Plinian words : fieXav irapci fxiXav Trout rh Tipijia \€vK&v iravreT^ws ^aiviaOoL XivKov Meteor, p. 375 a, 20. .See on the whole subject, Bertrand, £iudes, pp. 150-160.

3. splendor : the meaning sug- gested for this word by Bliimner, Technol. iv, p. 438 is 'reflexion ' (for reflected lights cf. § 138). But re- flexion comes simply under the same heading as treatment of light, whereas the words of Pliny, alius hie quam lumtn, expressly show that splendor was a totally different factor to light. In truth it was neither more nor less than the ' glow ' which — as distinct from any treatment of light and shade


— is so marked a quality of certain Renascence and modem artists (e.g. Titian, Turner). Kiilb rightly trans- lates ' Glanz.' Introd. p. xxxiv.

4. tonon : what the modern French would call ' values,' i. e. the passages from the more lit up parts in a picture to the less, the ' value ' being the quantity of light in a given colour.

commissuras . . . colorum : the arrangement of colours, resulting in apfio'fT), or what the modems would call the general ' tone ' of a picture.

§ 50. 6. ftuattuor coloribus : cf Cic. Brutus 18, 70 similis in pictura ratio est, in qua Zeuxin et Polygnotum et Timanthem et eorum qui non sunt usi plus quam quatttior coloribus, formas et lineamenta lau^ damus ; at in Aetione, Nicomacho, Protogene, Apelle iam perfecta sunt omnia. These words do not necessarily contradict the statement of Pliny or prove that the later painters used more


/. PAINTING 97

Art at last differentiated itself and discovered light and shade, the several hues being so employed as to enhance one another by contrast. Later on glow— a different thing to light — was introduced. The transition between light and shade they called Tovos, but the arrangement of hues and the transition from one colour to another harmonization or apiioyfj.

Four colours only— white from Melos, Attic yellow, red from 50 Sinope on the Black Sea, and the black called 'atramentum'— ^,'"'

, colours

were used by Apelles, Action, Melanthios and Nikomachos in used by

their immortal works : illustrious artists, a single one of whose ^'^^

pictures, the wealth of a city could hardly suffice to buy, while

now that even purple clothes our walls, and India contributes

the ooze of her rivers and the blood of dragons and of elephants,

no famous picture is painted. We must believe that when the

painter's equipment was less complete, the results were in every

respect better, for as I have already said, we are alive only to the

worth of the material and not to the genius of the artist.

In our own days too painting has known an extravagance which 51

must not be forgotten : the Emperor Nero ordered a colossal por- £*,J^^^-^

trait of himself, 120 feet in length, to be painted on canvas, a thing of Nero

on canvas.

than four colours. The perfecta omnia 8. Apelles: below, § 92 legentes need mean no more than that they metninerint omnia ea (sc. openi) had learnt endless combinations of the quattuor coloribus facta. four colours, whereas the older painters 1 1 . India . . . limmn ; i. e. indigo, used them pure or knew but of few cf. xxxiii, 163 ; above, §§ 46, 49. combinations. The colour effects 12. draconum elephantorumque produced by Apelles and his con- saniem : also called cinnabaris^ temporaries being far more elaborate ' dragon's blood ' ; in viii, 34, Pliny than anything attempted in the period gives a wonderful account of its pro- of Polygnotos, it is natural that the duction; cf xxxiii, 116. employment of only four colours 14. ut supra diximus : xxxv, 4 : should, in their case, be dwelt upon honoremnon nisi in pretio ducentes ; with special admiration. As an ex- cf. the similar rhetorical complaint ample of what can be accomplished in xxxiv, 5.

with only four colours, the student § 51. 17. oolosseum: a counter- will remember the ' Christ crowned part to the colossal statue by Zeno- with thorns ' by Titian in the Munich doros in xxxiv, 45. Pinakothek ( 1 1 14) ; cf Morelli, Gal- 1 8. incognitum : if still unknovm leries of Munich and Dresden, p. 58 in Pliny's day, the practice of painting (Transl. C. J. Ffoulkes). The ' four on canvas soon became general, as is colours ' are elaborately discussed by witnessed by the portraits from the Bertrand,.£^«^dJ, pp. 132-144. [The Fayoum ; cf. Cecil Smith, Pictura, names Apelles — Nicomachus are in p. 329; Berger, Beitrdge, ii, p. 52 f. alphabetical order. H. L. U.]

H


98 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

in Maianis hortis, accensa fulmine cum optima hortorum

52 parte conflagravit. libertus eius cum daret Anti munus gladiatorum, publicas porticus occupavit pictura, ut constat, gladiatorum ministrorumque omnium veris imaginibus red- ditis. hie multis iam saecuHs summus animus in pictura, 5 pingi autem gladiatoria munera atque in publico exponi coepta a C. Terentio Lucano. is avo suo a quo adoptatus fuerat triginta paria in foro per triduum dedit tabulamque pictam in nemore Dianae posuit.

53 Nunc celebres in ea arte quam maxima brevitate per- 10 curram, neque enim instituti operis est talis executio, itaque quosdam vel in transcursu et in aliorum mentione obiter nominasse satis erit, exceptis operum claritatibus quae et

54 ipsa conveniet attingi sive exstant sive intercidere. non constat sibi in hac parte Graecorum diligentia multas post '5 olympiadas celebrando pictores quam statuaries ac toreutas, primumque olympiade LXXXX, cum et Phidian ipsum initio pictorem fuisse tradatur clipeumque Athenis ab eo pictum, praeterea in confesso sit LXXX tertia fuisse fratrem eius Panaenum, qui clipeum intus pinxit Elide Minervae 20

I. Maianis hortis: C. I. L. vi, grove of Nemi; cf. xvi, 242 and

6152, 8668, where they are mentioned Strabo, v, p. 239. along with the horti Lainiuni, § 53. 10. Nunc celebres . . . per-

which as we learn from Phil. Jud. eurram : cf xxxiv, 53. ir€pj dpfT. Koi irpiaP, 2, p. 597, ed. 13. claritatibus: fxxviii, 87 in

Mangey (cf. Becker, .A*ow. 7(J^. p. 542, ceteris claritates ani7nalium aut

note 1 142), were close to the gardens operum seqtiemur = iox the rest, I

of Maecenas on the Esqniline. shall note remarkable animals . . .

§ 52. 2. Anti : iii, 57 ; it was the H. L. U.] birthplace of Nero (Suet. Nero 6). § 54. 14. non constat sibi . . .

4. gladiatorum . . . imaginibus : adiutor : the supposed proofs of

numberless representations of gladia- Greek inaccuracy are skilfully cumu-

tors have come dovm to us in \2i\.t&, {a) non constat sibi ...{!>)% c^ft

mosaics ; such as the mosaic from quid quod in confesso • • ■ (^) § 57

Treves (Baumeister, Denkm. pi. xci) ; quod si recipi necesse est ... , the

cf. the great mosaic with portraits of argriment culminating in § 58 in the

athletes in the Lateran (Helbig, words chronicorum errore non dubio.

Class. Ant. 704'). after which the case of Polygnotos is

7. C. Terentio Lucano : possibly thrown in as a kind of postscript,

identical, according to Mommsen, The complaint was, however, unjust

with the Terentius Lucamis on the and originally based on a misunder-

coin Rom. Miinziv. p. 554, 164 (and standing, see Introd. p. xxx. note 278). 17. olympiade LXXXX : below,

9. in nemore Dianae : i. e. the § 60.


/. PAINTING 99

previously unheard of. When the picture was finished, it was struck by lightning in the gardens of Maius, and burned together with the greater part of the gardens. A freedman of this emperor 52 gave a gladiatorial show at Antium, at which the public colonnades were adorned by a picture of all the gladiators and attendants, Portraits of portrayed from the life. Realistic portraiture indeed has fQ^Sl'^^^'^t'"- many generations been the highest ambition of art ; Gaius Teren- tius Lucanus, however, was the first to have a picture of a gladia- torial show painted and to exhibit it in public. He showed thirty pairs of gladiators in the Forum for three days, in honour of his grandfather, who had adopted him : moreover he dedicated a picture of them in the grove of Diana.

I now propose to mention the most famous painters as briefly 53

as may be, for a detailed account would be inconsistent with the ^"'"P "^ ■' ' painters.

scheme of my work. It will therefore be enough if I give some artists only a passing notice, or name them in connexion with others ; though I must still make a separate mention of the most renowned paintings, whether they be still in existence or whether they have perished. On this point the Greeks have 54 made a mistake in placing the painters many years later than the chronology bronze workers and metal chasers, and in giving the ninetieth of the Olympiad [420-417 B.C.] as the date of the earliest painter, over- " ^' looking the tradition that Pheidias himself was originally a painter, Pheidias. and painted a shield at Athens. It is further acknowledged that Panainos brother of Pheidias, who lived in the eighty-third Panainos.

iS. initio pietorem : cf. xxxiv, 60 opposed to in confesso sit, i. c. hearsay

Pythagoras Samius initio fictor and to ascertained fact.

Introd. p. li. 19. LXXX tertia : the date is

olipeum : the shield introduced loosely assumed for Panainos, as

without any further definition has being that of his brother Pheidias,

an apocryphal air (cf. Miinzer, op. xxxiv, 49 ; Robert, op. cit. p. 25 ;

cit. p. 563, and Introd. loc. cit.). It Furtwanglex, op. cit. p. 40 f.

cannot of course be that of the Athena 20. Panaenum : Panainos is again

Parthenos as Urlichs {Chrest. p. 346), mentioned below, in his proper order

RoheTt{Jrch.March.ip.2^),andFmt- in the history of the development

wangler (Masterpieces, p. 45), would of painting, without any reference to

have it, for so important a fact would this first notice, which is from a

have been noted ; besides, we have the different source, cf. Introd. p. xxviii f.

express statement in xxxvi, 18 that and p. 11 f. Pratrem, so also Pa.us. v,

the inner side of the shield of the 11, 6: dScA(^i5oBs Strabo viii, p. 354.

Parthenos was carved in relief, H. L. intus piuxit : with the device

Urlichs, Woch. f. klass. Phil. 1895, of a cock (Paus. vi, 26, 3, where

p. 548. the Athena is simply attributed to

tradatur : H. L. Urlichs (foe. cit^ Pheidias). Introd. p. liv, note i .

points out that the expression is Elide: from xxxvi, 1^7 ( = App.

H 3


loo C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

quam fecerat Colotes discipulus Phidiae et ei in faciendo

55 love Olympio adiutor. quid quod in confesso perinde est Bularchi pictoris tabulam, in qua erat Magnetum proelium, a Candaule rege Lydiae Heraclidarum novissimo, qui et Myrsilus vocitatus est, repensam auro ? tanta iam dignatio 5 picturae erat. circa Romuli id aetatem accident necesse est, etenim duodevicensima olympiade interiit Candaules

A.u.c. 37. aut, ut quidam tradunt, eodem anno quo Romulus, nisi fallor, manifesta iam tunc claritate artis, adeo absolutione.

56 quod si recipi necesse est, simul apparet multo vetustiora 10 principia eosque qui monochromatis pinxerint, quorum aetas non traditur, aliquanto ante fuisse, Hygiaenontem, Dinian, Charmadan et qui primus in pictura marem

a femina discreverit Eumarum Atheniensem figuras omnis imitari ausum, quique inventa eius excoluerit Cimonem 15 Cleonaeum. hie catagrapha invenit, hoc est obliquas imagines, et varie formare voltus, respicientes suspicientesve vel despicientes. articulis membra distinxit, venas protulit.


VIII) it appears that Panainos also decorated with paintings the walls of the temple of Athena.

I. Colotes : xxxiv, 87. love Olym- fio : xxxiv, 54; xxxvi, 18.

§ 55. 3. Magnetum proelium : according to vii, 126, a defeat [excidiuni), but the precise event is unknown. S. Reinach {Rev. des £t. Grecques, 1895, p. 175 ff.), justly comments on the strangeness of the tradition that a Greek painter im- mortalized a Greek defeat, and tries to prove the excidiujn to have crept into Pliny's account by confusion with the celebrated defeat— or rather exter- mination — of the Magnetes by the Treres in B. c. 651 (Strabo xiv, p. 647), which gave rise to the pro- verbial TO ^orpi-qTSiv KaKa. R. wishes to refer the picture to some one of the Magnete victories alluded to by Strabo (Joe. cit.) on the testimony of Kallinos (cf also Wilamowitz in Hermes, xxx (1895), p. 177 ff.). But where so much is uncertain, we shall


hesitate before throwing overboard our only piece of positive information — the excidium of vii, 126 ( = App. I).

6. circa Homuli aetatem: the synchronism is based on Herod, i, 12, who gives the death year of Kan- daules = accession of Gyges =Jloruii of Archilochos, and must be con- nected with Cicero {Tusc. Disp. i, 13), who places Archilochos regnante Romulo ; cf. Miinzer, op. cit. p. 542 ; cf. Introd. p. Ixxxiv.

§ 56. II. mouoohromatis : above, §§ 15. 29-

14. discreverit : as in black-figured vases, by painting the flesh parts of the women white (Introd. p. xxix). Indeed a conventional difference be- tween the colouring of the sexes seems to have been observed dov/n to the latest time. Thus albeit Alexander was remarkable for his fair skin, Apelles in his portrait of the king ovk e/u- [i'f](7aT0 7^v XP^<^^, aWoi (pcuSrepov Kai imnvaJiiivov etrolTjffev Plut. .At. iv, 120.

Eumarum : the name is still known


/. PAINTING loi

Olympiad [448-445 B.C.], painted at Elis the inner surface of the shield belonging to an Athena by Kolotes, a pupil of Pheidias and his assistant in executing the Olympian Zeus. Again, is it not an undisputed fact that a picture of the defeat of the Magnetes by the painter Boularchos was bought by Kandaules, also called Soular- Myrsilos, the last Lydian king of the line of the Heraklids, for its '^^•'■ weight in gold, a proof of the honour already paid to painting ? This must have taken place in the days of Romulus, for Kandaules died in the eighteenth Olympiad [708-705 b.c], or, according to some authorities, in the same year as Romulus, and already then, b.c 717. unless I am mistaken, the art had attained to greatness, even to perfection. And if we must accept this, it follows that its first origin 58 is much older, and that the early painters in monochrome, whose Painters dates have not been handed down to us, lived some time before, ^^^^f' Such, for example, were i Hygiatnon, \Deimas, ^ Charmadas, ■\Eumaros of Athens, who was the first to mark the difference Eumaros between man and woman in painting, and who ventured to "/■^t""- imitate every sort of figure, and Kimon of Kleonai, who developed Kimon of the inventions of Eumaros. He devised Kariypa^a, or profile ^"'>"'^'- drawings, and represented the features in different postures, look- ing backwards or upwards or downwards. He marked the attachments of the limbs, gave prominence to the veins, and also

only from Pliny, for the reading 16. catagrapha ; the word is sus- Eu/^apo9 on the basis from the Akro- ceptible of meaning ' foreshortening ' polis, bearing the signature of An tenor (Tilo\vierA.a, Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 258; {Jahrb. ii, 1887, p. 135 f.) is quite Hartwig, Meisterschakn, p. 156 f., uncertain (cf. Hartwig, Meisterschakn, Lange, Fremstilling, pp. 429,464), and p. 154). Further, the conjecture of this was possibly the meaning intended ViiichSjSumari {Holz. Pferd, p. J 4 n. by the Greek author, for profile figures, i2),for the corrupt^«'ff2«ff«in Varro, which had existed from the earliest Ling. Lat. ix, 6, 12, is impossible; times, could on no theory, however con- see Spengel's critical apparatus, p. 198. ventional, be interpreted as audacious

figviras = 'position' by a slight inventions. It is clear however that

extension of one meaning given to the Pliny or his Latin author understood

wordby Cicero,f«r?-«jII,i, 21, 57,?;«» catagrapha as simply = profile, since

solum numerum signorum, sed etiam this is the meaning he gives to the

uniuscuiusque magnitudinem, figu- Greek equivalent obliqua imago in

ram, statum litteris definiri vidcs, § 90, where see note, upon which see Pseudo-Asconius, 17. [respieientes suspioientesve

p. 1 74, 7 (ed. Orelli) figura est circa vel despicientes : sudden change

gestum situmque membrorum (Blum- from asyndeton to disjunctive particle,

ner, Rhein. Mus. 26, p. 353). cf. xxviii, 63 contra renum aut lum-

15. Cimon: cf. the improvements borum, vesicae cruciatus, J. Miiller,

attributed to him by Ailian, iroi«. lar. Stil, p. 69. H. L. U.] viii, 8.


18. membra . . . protulit: cfL on


I02 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST XXXV

57 praeterque in vestibus rugas et sinus invenit, Panaenus quidem frater Phidiae etiam proelium Atheniensium ad-

A.u.c. 264. versus Persas apud Marathona factum pinxit. adeo iam colorum usus increbruerat, adeoque ars perfecta erat ut in eo proelio iconicos duces pinxisse tradatur, Atheniensium s Miltiaden, Callimachum, Cynaegirum, barbarorum Datim, Artaphernen.

58 Quin immo certamen etiam picturae florente eo in- A.u.c. 306. stitutum est Corinthi ac Delphis, primusque omnium certavit

cum Timagora Chalcidense, superatus ab eo Pythiis, quod 10 et ipsius Timagorae carmine vetusto apparet chronicorum errore non dubio. alii quoque post hos clari fuere ante LXXXX olympiadem, sicut Polygnotus Thasius qui primus mulieres tralucida veste pinxit, capita earum mitris versi- coloribus operuit plurimumque picturae primus contulit, 15 siquidem instituit os adaperire, dentes ostendere, voltum

59 ab antiquo rigore variare. huius est tabula in portion Pompei, quae ante curiam eius fuerat, in qua dubitatur an ascendentem cum clupeo pinxerit an descendentem. hie

1 . vestibus rugas] Trauie ; veste brugas Bamb. ; verrugas reliqui ; veste rugas Detlefsen.

xxxiv, 59, the improvements attributed tradition of the names attaching to

to Pythagoras of Rhegion. Introd. each figure would be carefully pre-

p. xxvii. served ; perhaps too there was an

57. 3- apud Marathona: on a wall attempt at characterization, so that

ofthe(r7-od7roiKiA?;(§ 59). The picture in a history of the development of

was ascribed by other writers to Mikon painting Fanainos might pass as the

(Arrian, Anai. vii, 1 3, 5 ; Ailian, ittfi first to have essayed portraiture (In-

fomj' vii, 38 ; Sopatros, Sioip. f^ri;/*. i, trod. p. xxviii f.). 8), and may have been the work of both 6. Miltiaden: his name was not

painters, Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen ii, inscribed, but he was characterized

p. 503. Others again (see Ailian, loc. by his gesture of exhortation, Ais-

cit^ gave it to Polygnotos. Pausanias Chinese. Ktesifh. 186, &c., see Wachs-

in his description of the paintings of muth's fine criticism of the passage,

the Poikile, i, 15, names no artists. op. cit. p. 506, note 2. For the

For the latest reconstruction of the motive see the warrior on the gold

picture see Robert, Hall. Winckel- sheath in the Hermitage, Benndorf,

mannspr. xviii, 1895. Addenda. Gjolbaschi p. 157 fig. i/^z = ComJ)te

5. ioonioos duces: the year of .ff«»rf» 1864, pi. v, i. tte battle being B. c. 490, and the Callimachum, Cynaegirum : Ail.

Stoa dating presumably from Kimon's loc. cit. roiis a/ifl rbv Kvyiycpov

recall in B.C. 457 (Furtwangler, ml -Emitjf^v re ical KaXXiixaxov,

Masterpieces, p. 41), there can be no cf. Wachsmuth, op. cit. p. 5iof. The

question of real portraiture ; but the omission of Epizelos in Pliny is


/. PAINTING 103

discovered the wrinkles and the windings of drapery. Further- 57

more Panainos the brother of Pheidias painted the battle between P^nainos.

J^tctufc of the Athenians and Persians at Marathon. So extensively were battle of

colours now used, so perfect had technique now become, that he ^'^^'^^'^o"-

is actually said to have given the real portraits of the commander

on both sides, of Miltiades, Kallimachos and Kynaigeiros among

the Athenians, of Datis and Artaphernes among the barbarians.

Nay more, competitions for painters were instituted at Corinth 58

and Delphoi in the time of Panainos, when in the first contest he ^'^^'^'^"S '^ ' competi-

tried for the prize against Timagoras of Chalkis, who conquered tions.

him, as we know from an old epigram by Timagoras himself, at ^? ^^^■

the Pythian games ; an evident proof that the chroniclers are of Chalkis.

wrong in their dates. Yet other painters became famous before

the ninetieth Olympiad [420-417 B.C. J, as for example Polygnotos Polygmtos

of Thasos, who first painted women with transparent garments "^ Thaws.

and gave them headdresses of various colours. This artist made

a first serious contribution to the development of painting by

opening the mouth, showing the teeth, and varying the stiff

archaic set of the features. He painted the picture now in the 59

gallery of Pompeius and formerly in front of his Council Chamber, -^^ . ,

,11 warrior.

representmg a warrior armed with a shield, about whom people

argue as to whether he is ascending or descending. He also

curious. The heroes are mentioned 18. curiam : Gilbert, Rom. iii,

as an indivisible triad by Plutarch, p. 325 ; numerous works of art

Glor. Ath. 3, Diogenes Laert. i, 56. were collected by Pompeius in the

§ 58. 9. Corinthi ao Delphis : i.e. complex of buildings about his

at the Isthmian and Pythian festivals Theatre.

(JPythiis below) ; for contests be- in qua dubitatur: the warrior

tween painters cf. §§ 65, 72 and (perhaps Kapaneus, cf Benndorf, op.

Introd. p. Ixiv. cit. p. 190; pi. xxiv, A. 4 : Anth. Plan.

13. Polygnotus : son of the first iv, 106) was presumably on a ladder, Aglaophon, and brother of Aristophon and it was difficult to tell whether he (§§ 60, 138). was climbing up orcoming down again.

qui primus : introduces as usual, Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr.

the artist's special contribution to the xviii, 1895, p. 67, suggests that

progress of his art, Introd. p. xxviii f. the tabula was the votive picture of

14. tralucida veste : Ailian, tioik. an apobates, of whom it was uncertain iffT. iv, 3 i/iOTiW XeTTTc^TiyTas; Lucian, whether he was stepping up to, or fXxlyvfi 7 « ^ii X(TTT6TaTov k^fipyaa- down from, his chariot; for the subject fi4vr]v (of the drapery of Kassandra in see the beautiful monochrome picture the Nekuia). on white marble slab (Naples, Helbig,

§ 59. 17. portiou Pompei: in Wandgemalde 1405), published by the immediate vicinity of Pompeius's Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr. theatre. xix, 1895.


I04


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


Delphis aedem pinxit, hie et Athenis porticum quae Poecile vocatur gratuito, cum partem eius Micon mercede pingeret. vel maior huic auctoritas, siquidem Amphictyones, quod est publicum Graeciae concilium, hospitia ei gratuita de- crevere. fuit et alius Micon qui minoris cognomine distin- 5 guitur, cuius filia Timarete et ipsa pinxit. 60 LXXXX autem olympiade fuere Aglaophon, Cephiso- dorus, Erillus, Evenor pater Parrhasi et praeceptor maximi pictoris de quo suis annis dicemus, omnes iam inlustres, non tamen in quibus haerere expositio debeat festinans ad lumina 10 artis in quibus primus refulsit Apollodorus Atheniensis LXXXXIII olympiade. hie primus species exprimere instituit primusque gloriam penicillo iure contulit. eius est sacerdos adorans et Aiax fulmine incensus, quae Pergami


1. Delphis aedem : i. e. the A.eaxv or covered portico where people met to converse. The pictures, which included an llioupersis and a Nekuia are described in Paus. x, 25- 31. For modern reconstructions see Robert, ffall. Wincltelmannspr. xvi, 1892 and xvii, 1893.

Poeoile : where next to Mikon's Amazonomachia (below) Polygnotos painted an llioupersis. Next to this again came the Marathon by Mikon and Panainos (above). For the distribution of the pictures see Benndorf, op. cit. p. 156, and the new arrangement proposed by Robert in Hall. Winckelmannspr. xviii, 1895, p. 44. The pictures, as appears from Synnesios, Ep. 135 (= Overb. Schriftquell. 1057), were not mural paintings in the ordinary sense, but were painted on wooden boards or panels ; cf. Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, ii, p. 504.

2. gratuito : cf. Melanthios (cf. Wilamowitz, Arist. u. Athen. p. 287, n. 37) ap. Plutarch, Kimon, iv, p. 431 :

auTou 7(i/) Za.Tikvo.icri Bvtiv vaov"*

KexpoTriav Kdfffj.tjff' fj^Bioiv aperais.


(The vaoi here referred to are those of Theseus and the Anakes, Harpokra- tion s. v. VloKv'^vono^^

partem eius Mieon: he painted the battle of Theseus and the Ama- zons, Paus. i, 15, 2 ; Arrian vii, 13, 5, where few will agree with Graef {ap. Pauly s. V. Amazonen p. 1778) in defending the old reading Kifiaii' ; cf. Robert, loc. cit. p. 47, note 2. Mikon was also a sculptor, xxxiv, 88, where see note.

3. Amphictyones : the reward they gave was more probably for the decoration of the l^iaxt ; while for his work at Athens he received the Attic citizenship, Harpokration, /. c.

6. Timarete : below, § 147.

5 60. 7. LXXXX autem Olymp. : as in the case of the sculptors (xxxiv, 49), the first painter in each Olym- piad is dated from a work brought into connexion with an important historical event; about this central date his contemporaries, whether older or younger, are roughly grouped, cf. Robert, ArcA. March, p. 66 f.

Aglaophon : son of Aristophon (below, § 138), andaccordinglynephew of Polygnotos (Plato, Gorg. p. 448 B) and grandson of the first Aglaophon.


I. PAINTING


los


decorated the temple at Delphoi and at Athens the Painted Portico [o-Toa TToiKi'Xr)], as it is Called. For this he took, no money, while Mikon, to whom part of the work was entrusted, accepted pay- ment. The position he thus won for himself was all the greater, so much so that the Amphyktionic council, or national assembly of Hellas, decreed that he should be a public guest. There was another Mikon, distinguished as ' the younger,' whose daughter Timarete was also an artist.

In the ninetieth Olympiad [420-417 B.C.] lived Aglaophon, \Kephisodoros, -^Erillos and Evenor, the father and master of the great artist Parrhasios, whom I shall mention in due time. They were all painters of note, yet they need not prevent my hastening on to the true luminaries of art, among whom the first to shine was Apollodoros of Athens in the ninety-third Olympiad [408-405 b.c.J. He was the first to give his figures the appearance of reality, and he first bestowed true glory on the brush. He painted a priest in prayer, and an Aias struck by lightning, which is still to be seen at Pergamon. No picture


He paints the Lesche at Delphoi, and at Athens the Stoa Poikile. Mikon, Mikon the Younger.


60

Great ■masters of the ninetieth Olympiad.

Apollo- doros of Athens.


His works

1. Priest,

2. Aias.


His date (Robert, loc. cit.') seems determined by his picture of Olympias and Pythias crowning Allcibiades (Satyros ap. Athen. xii, p. 534 D), painted to commemorate the chariot victories of Ol. 90 (Grote, Greece, v, p. 456 f.) or 01. 91 (Rutgers) ; see G. H. Forster, Die Olympischen Sieger, i, p. 20 f. The companion picture of Alkibiades in the lap of Nemea was by Aristophon, Hut. Alkib. xvi, Pans, i, 22, 6 (artist imnamed). Satyros, loc. cit., attributes it however to the son.

8. Evenor, pater Parrhasi : Paus. i, 28, i. suis annis below, § 67.

11. ApollodoTUS : Overb. Schrift- quell. 1641-1646.

12. primus species . . . primus- que gloriam : belongs to the series of Xenokratic art judgements begun in §§ 15-16; 56-58: cf Introd. p. xxix.

species : evidently the vague trans- lation of some Greek technical term ; cf. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, p. 138. The discovery attributed to Apollo- doros by Plutarch [Glor. Ath. ii) was


the <p0opd. Kcd a.Tr6xpoj(TL9 afcias — (an advance also attributed to Zeuxis, Quinct. xii, Jo, 4 prior luminum umbrarumque invenit rationem) i. e. he showed how to render — not the shadow cast, but the graduated passage from light to shadow on curved surfaces (Lange, Fremstilling, p. 465 ; cf. above, tonon and harmogen in § 29). In this connexion may be noted the attempt at expressing by shadow the curving of surfaces, on two interesting polychrome lekythoi of the Berlin Museum {Cat. 26S4, 2685 — the latter published in facsimile by Winter, Winckelmannsprogr. 1895, cf id. p. 9).

14. saoerdos adorans : votive portrait ; cf. the sacerdos adstante puero of Parrhasius (§ 70) the sup- plicans paene cum voce of Aristeides

(§ 99)-

Aiax fulmine incensus : Verg. Aen. i, 43 ff. ipsa (sc. Minerva^ lovis rapidum iaculata e nubibus ignem \ disiecitque rates, evertitque aequora ventis \ ilium expirantem


io6


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


spectatur hodie. neque ante eum tabula ullius ostenditur

61 quae teneat oculos. ab hoc artis fores apertas Zeuxis Heracleotes intravit olympiadis LXXXXV anno quarto, audentemque iam aliquid penicillum — de hoc enim adhuc loquamur — ad magnam gloriam perduxit, a quibusdam falso in LXXXVIIII olympiade positus. confuisse necesse est Demophilum Himeraeum et Nesea Thasium, quoniam

62 utrius eorum discipulus fuerit ambigitur. in eum Apollo- dorus supra scriptus versum fecit, artem ipsis ablatam Zeuxim ferre secum. opes quoque tantas adquisivit ut in ostentationem earum Olympiae aureis litteris in palliorum tesseris intextum nomen suum ostentaret. postea donare


6. positus. confuisse] Traube ; positus cum fuisse (faisset omnes f racier Bamb.) codd. \ positus, cum quo fuisse Ritschl, Detlefsen.


transfixo pectore Jlammas \ turbine corripuit scopuloque infixii acuto ; cf. Odyss. iv, 499 ff. [The fulmine in- census of the subject not (as Furt- wangler, Plinius, p. 53 suggests) of the picture, in which case Pliny would use tabula, cf. below, § 69. — H. L. U.]

Pergami : Introd. p. xc.

§ 61. 2. fores apertas ; [ii, 31 rerum fores aperuisse Anaximander . . . traditur ; the metaphor is common to Silver Latin, cf. Plin. Epist. i, 1 8, 4 ilia {actio) iamiam famae {mihi) patefecit. Because a similar expression occurs, Babrios, Proem. 1. 29, there is no need to follow Schneidewin, Rhein. Mus. vii (1850), p. 479, in thinking that Pliny's words go back to a Greek metrical epigram, cf. also Miiller, Stil, p. 126 ff. H. L. U.] At the same time, the words exactly express the position which the Greek writers (Introd. p. xxix) assigned to Apollo- doros at the opening of a series of painters who, masters of their art, each brought towards the final per- fection to be attained by Apelles (§ 79) a definite contribution : ApoUodoros among the painters is the counterpart of Pheidias among the statuaries, Robert, Arch. March, p. 67 f. (Introd.


p. xxvii) . Therefore the words must represent some closely similar Greek expression ; for an analogous para- phrase cf. Add. to note on xxxiv, 81.

3. Heracleotes : Plato, Protag. 318 B 6 veaviaKos vvv viwoTL i-ntb-qnitiv Z6u£i7r7roso'Hpa«\€ctiT);s(on the identity of Zeuxis and Zeuxippos see Fick, Griech. Personennamen, pp. 35, 132). The dialogue being imagined as taking place in B. c. 424, it is impossible to reconcile this mention of Zeuxis with the tradition that he was bom at Herakleia (founded B.C. 432), except by either holding Plato guilty of an anachronism (and likewise Xenophon, who alludes to Z. in the 'Banquet,' of which the scene is laid in B. c. 422), or supposing with Robert (Hall. Winckelmannsprogr. xix, 1895, p. 18), that the parents of Zeuxis removed as colonists to Herakleia when he was already a boy of nine or ten. The artist was evidently at home in Lower Italy (he paints for Agrigentum, Kroton, &c.) ; it is out of the question to assume that he was bom at the older Pontic Herakleia. Addenda.

01. 95, anno quarto : the occa- sion for the date assigned to him here is unknown. Since the ' Alkmena,'


/. PAINTING


107


by any of his predecessors really rivets the gaze. It was he who opened the gates of art through which Zeuxis of Herakleia passed in the fourth year of the ninety-fifth Olympiad [397 B.C.], giving to the painter's brush (for of the brush alone I speak as yet) the full glory to which it already aspired. Zeuxis is erro- neously placed by some in the eighty-ninth Olympiad [424- 421 B.C.] ; it is evident that \ Demophilos of Himera and \Neseus of Thasos were among his contemporaries, seeing that there is a controversy as to which of the two was his master. In an epigram written against him by the Apollodoros whom I mentioned above, it is said that ' Zeuxis bore away with him the art he had stolen from his masters.' He amassed great wealth, and in order to make a parade of it at Olympia he showed his name woven in golden letters into the embroideries of his garments. Later on


ai

Zeuxis of Herakleia,


taught by Demophilos or Neseus. 62


His wealth, luxury, and pride.


which belongs to his later period (see below Urlichs' note on posiea), was yet painted previous to B.C. 406, in which year Agrigentum was destroyed by the Carthaginians, Zeuxis must have been an artist of note long before B. C. 398 ; cf. also the passage from Plato quoted above. On the other hand the ascription to Z. of the 'Epws ... yeypafjLfjievos eX^^ <XTe(pavov dvB^fioJv, Ar. Acharn. 991 (play produced B. C. 425), rests only on the doubtful authority of the scholia.

4. adhiuo : i. c. in opposition to encaustic painting in | 149.

5. falso : Quinct. xii, 10, 4, dates Zeuxis, and Parrhasios circa Pelopon- nesia ambo tempera, from the fact that Xenophon {Memorab. iii, 10, i) records a conversation between Par- rhasios and Sokrates. The earlier date was the correct one.

7. DemopMlum : distinct from the Damophilos (below, § 154, where see note) who decorated the temple of Ceres.

Himeraeum : 'I/iepo on the N. coast of Sicily.

Thasium ; the ethnic suggests that Neseus belonged to the circle of Polygnotos (§ 58) of Thasos. Robert, loc. cii., points out that the young


Zeuxis very possibly placed himself under this master, on his arrival in Athens.

§ 62. 9. ipsis ; sc. Demophilo et Nesea (Traube). Benndorf, Epigr. p. 30, and Jahn, Kleine Beitrdge, p. 284, explain it as sibi sociisque, which is impossible.

10. in ostentationem : the story of the gorgeous robes worn by Zeuxis has its counterpart in the gorgeous robes of his rival Parrhasios (Athen. xii, 643 C — D), Introd. p. Ivii.

12. tesseris intextum : the best explanation seems that of Urlichs, Chrest. p. 345 ; he takes the tesserae to have been small squares (of stuff) upon which the name was embroidered, and quotes Vopiscus, Carinus 30 inscriptum est adhuc in choraulae pallio Tyrianthino Messalae nomen uxoris (ed. H. Peter) ; see in Casau- bon's edition, vol. ii, p. 851 ", Sau- maise's note, who in reference to the Plinian passage explains tesserae = KV0OI, and quotes Hesychius {s.v. Kv^os) ol ^a\aiMVLOL Kiyovffi kv^ov TO Tov t/jLaTtov ffrjfietov,

postea : [i. e. in his latter period; the Alkmena and the Pan must there- fore be reckoned among the artist's later works.— H. L. U.]


io8


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


opera sua instituit, quod nullo pretio satis digno permutari posse diceret, sicuti Alcmenam Agragentinis, Pana Archelao.

63 fecit et Penelopen in qua pinxisse mores videtur, et athletam, adeoque in illo sibi placuit ut versum subscriberet celebrem ex CO, invisurum aliquem facilius quam imitaturum. magni- 5 ficus est et luppiter eius in throno adstantibus diis et Hercules infans dracones strangulans Alcmena matre coram

64 pavente et Amphitryone. reprehenditur tamen ceu grandior in capitibus articulisque, alioqui tantus diligentia ut Agra- gentinis facturus tabulam quam in templo lunonis Laciniae 10 publice dicarent inspexerit virgines eorum nudas et quinque elegerit, ut quod in quaque laudatissimum esset pictura redderet. pinxit et monochromata ex albo. aequales eius et aemuli fuere Timanthes, Androcydes, Eupompus, Parrha-

65 sius. descendisse hie in certamen cum Zeuxide traditur, et 15 cum ille detulisset uvas pictas tanto successu ut in scaenam


2. Alcmenam : probably iden- tical with the picture in § 63.

Archelao : for whom Zeuxis de- corated the palace at Pella, Ailian TTOin. ItTT. xiv, 17.

3. mores : in the sense given to it by Horace, £p. i, i, 57 est animus tibi, sunt mores. Some commentators however (chief among them Winckel- mann), have understood mores to be a translation of the Greek ^^os, where- by endless difficulties have arisen, seeing that ^flos was precisely the quality in which , according to Aristotle, Poet. 6, II, Zeuxis was deficient. But ^flos in its strictly philosophical sense had no precise Latin equivalent, as we learn from Quinct. vi, 2, 8, and from Pliny himself (below, § 98, where see note) ; cf. Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 86 i. ; Jahn, Kunsturtheile, p. 105 f.

5. invisurum ; /Min^ireTai tis lioXKov i) fju/jiiiffeTai ; the proverb is attnbuted by Plntarch {Glor. Ath. 2), and Hesychios to Apollodoros. The saying recurs from early times in a variety of forms ; Bergk, Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 318, Benndorf, Efigr. p. 27, n. 3;


cf. Preger, Inscript. Gr. Metr. 193. Introd. p. Ivii.

6. luppiter . . . Amphitryone : the whole subject is preserved on a vase-painting in the Brit. Mus. ; A. S . Murray, Class. Rev. 1888, p. 327; id. Handb. of Greek Arch. p. 376. Add.

§64. 8. reprehenditur tameu: the toz««» presupposes a sentence of praise, which has fallen out. Quinctilian (xii, 10, 5) says of Zeuxis plus membris corporis dedit . . . but praises him on the same grounds that Pliny blames him, another instance of conflicting criticisms in antiquity; cf. note on Kallimachos in xxxiv, 92.

9. articulisque : literally the joints (knuckles, wrists, ankles, &c.) and so by extension the extremities ; see Robert, Arch. March, p. 76, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr. xix, 1895, p. 25. An almost identical criticism is passed upon Euphranor in § 128. Zeuxis is represented in the same relation to Apollodoros as Polykleitos xxxiv, 56 to Pheidias (ib. 54). On the Xeno- kratic authorship see Introd. p. xxvii.

Agragentinis : from Cic. {Invent. ii, I, i) it appears that this picture


/. PAINTING


109


he began to make presents of his pictures, saying that they were beyond all price. In this way he gave his Alkmena to the city of Agrigentum and his Pan to Archelaos. He also painted a Pene- lope, in whom he embodied virtue's self, and an athlete with whom he was so well pleased that he wrote beneath it the line thence- forward famous : 'Another may carp more easily than he may copy.' He also painted a superb Zeus enthroned amid the assembled gods, with the infant Herakles strangling the snakes in presence of his trembling mother Alkmena and of Amphitryon. Zeuxis is criti- cized however as having exaggerated the heads and extremities of his figures ; for the rest he bestowed such minute pains upon his work that before painting for the people of Agrigentum a picture to be dedicated in the temple of Hera on the Lakinian pro- montory, he inspected the maidens of the city naked, and chose out five, whose peculiar beauties he proposed to reproduce in his picture. He also painted monochromes in white. Ttmanthes, Androkydes, \Eupompos and Parrhasios were contemporaries and rivals of Zeuxis. The story runs that Parrhasios and Zeuxis


is identical with the famous Helena (below, § 66).

10. luuonis Laciniae : Cicero, loc. cit., says the Helena was painted for the Krotoniates ; so too Dionysios H. (^de veter. script, cens. i), and this is doubtless correct, for as Freeman remarks {Sicily, vol. ii, p. 402, note 3) ' the Lakinian Hera, at home at Kroton, would have no place at Akragas ' (cf. Roscher, i, p. 2086).

11. inspexerit virgines : Lange {J^remstilling, p. 354 n.) points out that the anecdote gives concrete ex- pression to the saying that the best parts must be taken ' out of divers Faces, to make one Excellent,' cf. Xenoph. Mem. iii, 10, 2 ; Cicero and Dionysios (//. cc.') incorporate the axiom with the anecdote which illustrates it. See Introd. p. Ixi f.

13. ex albo : i. e. on a dark ground, perhaps in imitation of marble reliefs (cf Bliimner, Technol. iv, p. 420, note 4), whereas monochrome paintings were usually carried out in red {cinna- bar, minium, rubrica, sinopis, Plin. xxxiii, 117), presumably on a white


ground. Of the latter technique we have imitations in the pictures painted in red colour on the white marble slabs in Naples. Semper's theory {Stil, i, p. 470, ed. i) that these had once been polychrome pictures in encaustic, whose colours were destroyed by the heat of the lava, has been dis- proved by Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 170; ci.'RohtTt,Hall.Winckelmanns- progr. xix, 1895, p. 9 ; on the contrary, the slabs admirably prove the practice of painting in monochrome.

14. Timanthes : below, | 73.

Androoydes : of Kyzikos ; ac- cording to Plutarch {Pel. xxv) he painted at the time of the liberation of the Kadmeia (B.C. 379) the picture of a battle in which both Epameinondas and Pelopidas had been engaged ; i. e. probably the battle mentioned Pel. iv (Brunn, X. G. ii, p. 1 24). From Athen. viii, p. 341 A, we learn that he was cele- brated for his accurate painting offish.

Eupompus : below, § 75.

§ 65. 16. uvas pictas : cf. below, §§66, 15s; above, § 23.

ut in scaenam : i. e. the pictures


His gifts

of the

' Alkmena'

and the

'Pan:

63


64

For the temple of Hera Lakinia he paints a picture takenfrom the five most beauteous maidens of the city.

65

His con- tempora- ries.


no C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

aves advolarent, ipse detuHsse linteum pictum ita veritate repraesentata ut Zeuxis alitum iudicio tumens flagitaret tandem remoto linteo ostendi picturam atque intellecto errore concederet palmam ingenuo pudore, quoniam ipse

66 volucres fefellisset, Parrhasius autem se artificem. fertur et 5 postea Zeuxis pinxisse puerum uvas ferentem, ad quas cum advolassent aves, eadem ingenuitate processit iratus operi et dixit : uvas melius pinxi quam puerum, nam si et hoc consummassem, aves timere debuerant. fecit et figlina opera, quae sola in Ambracia relicta sunt, cum inde Musas Fulvius lo Nobilior Romam transferret. Zeuxidis manu Romae Helena est in Philippi porticibus, et in Concordiae delubro Marsyas

67 religatus. Parrhasius Ephesi natus et ipse multa contulit. primus symmetrian picturae dedit, primus argutias voltus, elegantiam capilli, venustatem oris, confessione artificum in 15 lineis extremis palmam adeptus. haec est picturae summa


were exhibited in the theatre, and hung on the scaenae frons, or front wall of the stage-buildings.

§ 66. 7. pinxisse puerum: a mere douhlette of the preceding anec- dote; the story is also told Senec. Rhet. Controv. li, 5 (34), 27.

9. flglina opera: Pyrrhus had probably inherited these works as king of Macedonia. Zeuxis, it will be re- membered, had worked for King Archelaos, above, § 62.

10. sola . . . reliota sunt : doubt- less because these painted terra-cottas were architectural decorations, and could not be removed without injury to the buildings; Liv. xxxviii, 9, 13 signa aenea marmoreaque et tabulae pictae, guibus omatior Ambracia quia regia ibi Pyrrhi fiierat . . . sublaia omnia avectaque ; nihil praeterea tac- tum molatumve, cf. Raoul-Rochette, Peiniures, p. 51.

^mbraoia: the capital of King Pyrrhus : for its art treasures cf. Polyb. xxii, 13, 9; Liv. loc. cit.

Musas : these statues, which pro- bably dated from the reign of Pyrrhus,


were dedicated by Fulvius in the Temple of Hercules Musarum, with a statue of Herakles as Hlovaa- yeTTjs (see in this connexion Eumenius of Autun pro reslaurandis scholis, vii, in Paneg. Lai. ed. Baehrens, p. 121; cf also Ovid, Fasti, vi, 804). The Muses are figured on the reverse of the coins of Q. Pom- ponius Musa (reproduced and fully discussed by O. Bie, Die Musen in d. antiken Kunst, pp. 24-44). The tragic Muse is preserved in a statuette of the Vatican (Clarac, 507, 1013), while a head from Frascati in the Brit. Mus.(Friederichs-Wolters, 1445) seems to reproduce the head of another ; cf. Amelung, Basis des Praxiteles, p. 44. For the one extant basis, see Bull. d. Inst. 1869, p. 3 ff. — The temple was surrounded by t\i.eporticus Philippi, and was close to the ^orii- cus Octaviae on the W. side of the Circus Flaminius.

II. Helena: the mention of the Muses which Fulvius brought to Rome, suggests to Pliny two more works by Zeuxis, noted by him as


'. cur-


I. PAINTING III

entered into competition,' Zeuxis exhibiting a picture of some Comfeii-

grapes, so true to nature that the birds flew up to the wall of the '^^^^'

stage. Parrhasios then displayed a picture of a linen curtain, Zeuxis and

realistic to such a degree that Zeuxis, elated by the verdict of the P"'^^"--

birds, cried out that now at last his rival must draw the curtain The i

and show his picture. On discovering his mistake he surrendered f?*" """i '■ ° the grapes.

the prize to Parrhasios, admitting candidly that he had deceived the birds, while Parrhasios had deluded^ himself, a painter. After 66 this we learn that Zeuxis painted a boy carrying grapes, and when Boy with the birds flew down to settle on them, he was vexed with his own S>^f'^- work, and came forward saying, with like frankness, ' I have painted the grapes better than the boy, for had I been perfectly successful with the latter, the birds must have been afraid.' He also modelled certain terra-cottas which were the only works of art left in Ambrakia when Fulvius Nobilior brought the statues of the Muses to Rome. The paintings in Rome by the hand of Zeuxis Helen. are : the Helen in the gallery of Philip and the bound Marsyas ^^"^^"^ in the temple of Concord. Parrhasios, a native of Ephesos, also 67 made great contributions to the progress of art. He first gave P^^'^'^<^- painting symmetry, and added vivacity to the features, daintiness to the hair and comeliness to the mouth, while by the verdict of artists he is unrivalled in the rendering of outline. This is the

being also in Rome. In making relief of a marble vase at Naples,

this addition he forgets that he A. Z. 1869, taf. 18.

had already mentioned the Helena, §67. 13. Ephesi natus: Strabo

when quoting from his main authority. xiv, p. 642 ; Anth. App. lix, 2.

His oversight is, however, the easier 14. primus symmetrian pict.

to explain as in the previous passage dedit : his achievement as a painter

the name of the picture had not been marks a similar advance upon that of

given. Zeuxis (§ 64) to Myron's (xxxiv, 57)

12. Philippi portioibns ; built by upon that of Polykleitos among the

L. Marcius Philippus, the step-father statuaries, Introd. p. xxvii.

of Augustus, round the T. Hercules argutias : note on xxxiv, 65.

Musarum (above); Suet. Aug. 29; 15. oonfessione artifioum : refers

Ovid, i^ffirfi, vi, 801 ; cf. Gilbert, iJtfm. to the artists and art-historians Anti-

iii, p. 248. gonos and Xenokrates (below, § 68) ;

Concordiae delubro: note on cf. artifices qui condidere haec in

xxxvi, 73. xxxiv, 68, where the same two writers

Marsyas religatus : the repre- are meant, Introd. p. xxxvii.

sentations of Marsyas bound are in lineis ; cf. Quinct. xii, 10, 4

all cited by Jessen ap. Roscher, ii, examinasse {Parrh.) subtilius lineas

2450 ff. None, however, can be traced traditur.

back vrith any certainty to Zeuxis's 16. haeo est pioturae . . . ooou.1-

picture. A reminiscence of the whole tat : the passage is of unique aesthetic

composition perchance survives in the interest (Introd. p. xxxiv), it expresses


112 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

suptilitas. corpora enim pingere et media rerum est quidem magni operis sed in quo multi gloriam tulerint, extrema cor- porum facere et desinentis picturae modum includere rarum

68 in successu artis invenitur. ambire enim se ipsa debet ex- tremitas et sic desinere ut promittat alia post se ostendatque 5 etiam quae occultat. hanc ei gloriam concessere Antigonus et Xenocrates qui de pictura scripsere, praedicantes quoque, non solum confitentes. et alia multa graphidis vestigia exstant in tabulis ac membranis eius, ex quibus proficere dicuntur artifices, minor tamen videtur sibi comparatus in 10

69 mediis corporibus exprimendis. pinxit demon Atheniensium argumento quoque ingenioso. ostendebat namque varium, iracundum iniustum inconstantem, eundem exorabilem clementem misericordem, gloriosum, excelsum humilem, ferocem fugacemque et omnia pariter. idem pinxit et 15 Thesea, quae Romae in Capitolio fuit, et navarchum thora- catum, et in una tabula, quae est Rhodi, Meleagrum, Hercu- lem, Persea, haec ibi ter fulmine ambusta neque obliterata

70 hoc ipso miraculum auget. pinxit et archigallum, quam

5. alia sponse (sponte e correction^ Bamb. {serif turn erat alias pos se ; an alias post se ? Traube).

the dominant effort of painting to trand {loc. cii.) translates ' il faut en represent objects not only as relieved effet que les contours senvelopfent from the flat, but as occupying space. eux-mSmes' In other words, the con- It is suggestively discussed by Ber- tours must be so drawn as to appear trand, Etudes, p. 65 ff. to clasp what is behind them.

1. media rerum : i. e. the model- § 68. 5. ut promittat alia post ling of the particular face chosen for se : the meaning is so clear, the presentation, as it lies between its aesthetic lesson so true, that I have bounding lines, without any necessary decided on keeping Detlefsen's read- suggestion of the parts which are ing. but not without hesitation, for the concealed from view. MSS.are in favour of a/zaj(sc.«.«//-fmj-

2. extrema . . . modum inclu- tales) post se—a. reading recommended dere: the subtle meaning conveyed by Dr. Traube. The meaning of by these words is more easily felt this alternative reading would be : in than translated. The idea is that the any object, the face which the artist supreme difficulty and consequently chooses for presentation forms, where the supreme achievement of painting it leaves off, a line against the back- cojjsists in bringing the painted out- ground. But another view of the line {modus desinentis picturae) into same object would have afforded a agreement with the contour of the different system of bounding lines, of f^gare. extremitates, and as any object may

4. ambire . . . extremitas : Ber- be viewed from an endless number


/. PAINTING


"3


highest subtlety attainable in painting. Merely to paint a figure in relief is no doubt a great achievement, yet many have succeeded thus far. But where an artist is rarely successful is in finding an outline which shall express the contours of the figure. For the 68 contour should appear to fold back, and so enclose the object as to give assurance of the parts behind, thus clearly suggesting even what it conceals. Preeminence in this respect is con- ceded to Parrhasios by Antigonos and Xenokrates, writers on Judgement painting, who indeed not only concede but insist upon it. Many "f ^"'^o- other traces of his draughtmanship remain, both in pictures and Xeno- on parchments, which are said to be instructive to artists. Still, '^™'*^- if tried by his own standard, he fails in modelling. He painted 69 an ingenious personification of the Athenian 'Demos,' discovering His works. it as fickle, passionate, unjust, changeable, yet exorable, com- passionate and pitiful, boastful, proud and humble, bold and cowardly, in a word, everything at once. He also painted the Theseus formerly in the Capitol at Rome, an admiral in armour, and Meleager, Herakles and Perseus in a picture at Rhodes, where it has thrice been set on fire by lightning without being destroyed, a miracle which increases our wonder.


of points, there is no limit to its bound- ing lines. It therefore becomes the business of the great artist, to give assurance, although working on the flat, of these hidden lines. This notion of fugitive, pursuant outlines, though somewhat rhetorical and over-subti- lized, would also convey its peculiar truth.

9. tabulls : either small tablets, containing the artist's sketches for his large pictures, or, if in the usual sense of easel pictures, we must understand these tabulae to have been left un- finished, with the design merely sketched in.

J 69. II. demon Atheniensium: cf. the same subject by Euphranor, Pans, i, 3, 3 ; below note on § 129.

16. Thesea : the picture was ori- ginally in Athens (Plut. Thes. iv), whence it may have beea brought by Sulla.

fait : i. e. it was destroyed by the fire of B.C. 70; cf. xxxiii, 154; xxxiv, 38.


17. quae est Bhodi : Mucianus is therefore presumably the authority here followed by Pliny, Introd. p. Ixxxvi f,

Meleagrum, Heroulem, Persea ; grouped in a 'Santa conversazione,' such as were becoming popular in the period of Parrhasios ; they had little mythological significance, save as presenting, pleasantly grouped to- gether, two or more of the popular national gods or heroes ; cf. the ' Aineias, Kastor and Polydeukes ' in § 71. (Robert, Bild u. Lied,

P- -IS-)

18. ter fulmine ambusta : the stress laid on the miraculous circum- stance confirms the authorship of Mucianus, Introd. loc. cit.

§70. 19. arohigallnm: literally the word would apply to the chief of the priests of Kybele. But the follow- ing anecdote shows that the picture more probably represented the figure of a nude boy, surnamed the archi-


114


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


picturam amavit Tiberius princeps atque, ut auctor est Deculo, HS. [LX] aestimatam cubiculo suo inclusit. pinxit et Thressam nutricem infantemque in manibus eius et Philis- cum et Liberum patrem adstante Virtute, et pueros duos in quibus spectatur securitas et aetatis simplicitas, item sacer- 5

71 dotem adstante puero cum acerra et corona, sunt et duae picturae eius nobilissimae, hoplites in certamine ita decurrens ut sudare videatur, alter arma deponens ut anhelare sentia- tur. laudantur et Aeneas Castorque ac Pollux in eadem tabula, item Telephus, Achilles, Agamemnon, Ulixes. fecun- 10 dus artifex, sed quo nemo insolentius usus sit gloria artis, namque et cognomina usurpavit habrodiaetum se appellando aliisque versibus principem artis et earn ab se consummatam, super omnia Apollinis se radice ortum et Herculem, qui est Lindi, talem a se pictum qualem saepe in quiete vidisset. 15

72 ergo magnis suffragiis superatus a Timanthe Sami in Aiace armorumque iudicio herois nomine se moleste ferre dicebat quod iterum ab indigno victus esset. pinxit et minoribus tabellis libidines, eo genere petulantis ioci se reficiens.


gallus, owing to some physical pecu- liarity (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitth. xii, 1888, p. 123); perhaps therefore the picture should be reckoned among the libidines mentioned below in § 72.

I. amavit Tiberius : cf. the similar story told of the Apoxyomenos of Lysippos, xxxiv, § 62.

3. Thressam nutrioem : a votive portrait put up in gratitude for the services of a favourite nurse ; cf. Furt- wangler, Darnauszieher, p. 95, or a grave picture; cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 663:

'O fuxKbs t6S' 6TCi/^c Ta 0petffaq. MijSeios TO livdfi' eirl to oBS, k^ttc- 'YpaJpe KKiiras.

e^€t rav \apiv d yvvci avr exeivojv Siv Tov Koipov t6pi\p^. trvp.' Sjv It:

XPH2IMA 7-fXEuT?. From pinxit et Thr. nuir. down to et corona we seem to have part of the old account of Parrhasios by Xeno- krates; Miinzer, op. cit. p. 515; cf. Introd. p. xxvii.


Philiscum ; a poet of the Middle Comedy ; Kock, Fragm. Com. Graec. vol. ii, p. 443.

5. saoerdotem adstante puero : cf. above, note on | 60.

§ 71. 6. duae pioturae : apparently composed as pehdants; the descrip- tion is epigrammatic, Benndorf, Epi- gramm. p. 55, Introd. p. Ixxi.

9. Aeneas Castorque ao Pollux: for this group of heroes, who have no mythological connexion with one another, cf. above, note on § 69.

10. Telephus, Achilles, Aga- memnon, Ulixes : i. c. a picture re- presenting the healing of Telephos by the rust from the sword of Achilles (xxxiv, 152), in presence of Agamem- non and of Odysseus. Robert {_Bild. u. Lied. p. 35) conjectures the picture to have been inspired by the lost play of Euripides ; but Vogel {Scenen Euripid. Trag. in gr. Vasengemdlden, p. 18) rightly points out that Euripi- des had assigned too marked a part


I. PAINTING 115

He also painted a priest of Kybele : a picture of which the 70 Emperor Tiberius was enamoured, and which, according to Deculo, although valued at 6,000,000 sesterces (;!^S 2,500 circ), he placed in his private apartments. Furthermore he painted a Thrakian nurse with an infant in her arms ; a portrait of Philiskos, Dionysos by the side of Virtue, two boys whose features express the confidence and the simplicity of their age, and a priest with a boy at his side holding a censer and a wreath. Two other 71 picture(s by him are most famous, a hoplite in a race who seems to sweat as he runs, and a hoplite laying aside his arms, whose labouring breath we seem to hear. His picture of Aineias, Kastor and Polydeukes is praised, so is his Telephos with Achilles, Aga- memnon and Odysseus. He was a prolific artist, but carried his His luxury success with an arrogance that none have equalled ; he called ^^^ himself djipoUaiTos [the luxurious] and said in another epigram \ / that he was the prince of painting, that he had brought it to the -\\ highest point of perfection, and more than all that he was of the / seed of Apollo, and had painted the Herakles at Lindos precisely Herakhsat as he had often seen him in sleep. Hence it was that when he ,^3 was defeated by a large majority of votes in a competition with Competi- Timanthes at Samos, the subject of his picture being Aias and ^^-^^^^^^ the award of the arms, he said in the name of the hero that he was grieved at being worsted a second time by an unworthy rival. He also painted small pictures of licentious subjects, seeking

in the action to Klytaimnestra, for naios.

her to have been left out in a picture 15. talem . . . pictum : Athen. xii,

taken straight from his drama. Vogel 543F = ^«/,4. y^//. 61 =Bergk,p. 321,

therefore points to the Telephos of 636, 3 ; these verses were probably in-

Aischylos as the source of Parrhasios' scribed on the picture ; cf. the epigram

inspiration. wliich Parrhasios composed for his

12. habrodiaetum : from the epi- picture of Hermes, Themistios Orat. gram preserved Ath. xii, p. 543 D, ii, p. 34 (Dindorf).

-.Anthol. App. 69 = Bergk. L. G. ii, § 72. 16. a Timanthe : the name of

pp. 320, 635, i; cf. O. Jahn, Kleine Parrhasios' rival is given only by Pliny ;

Beitrage, p. 286 ff. ; Introd. p. Iv. the story of the competition also

13. consummatam : from the epi- Athen. xii, 543 E, Ailian, noiidkri lar. gram Athen. xii, p. c,^z'K = Anthol. ix, 11. Introd. p. liv f.

App. 6o = Bergk, ii, p. 321, 636, 2 ; cf. in Aiaoe armorumque iudicio :

the epigram composed by Zeuxis upon it is unnecessary to suppose from

himself, Aristeides, Or. 49, ii, p. 521 these words that 'The award of the

= Bergk, ii, pp. 318, 634. Arms' was also the subject of the

14. super omnia . . . ortum : ac- picture by Timanthes.

cording to Jahn {loc. cit.) these words 19. libidines: one instance on re-

are from a lost epigram of similar cord is his ' Meleager and Atalanta,' character to those preserved in Athe- Suet. Tib. 44; Polemon (a/. Athen.

I 2


Ii6


C. PLINIl SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


73 nam Timanthi vel plurimum adfuit ingenii. eius enim est Iphigenia oratorum laudibus celebrata, qua stante ad aras peritura cum maestos pinxisset omnes praecipueque patru- um, et tristitiae omnem imaginem consumpsisset, patris ipsius voltum velavit quern digne non poterat ostendere. 5

74 sunt et alia ingenii eius exempla, veluti Cyclops dormiens in parvola tabella, cuius et sic magnitudinem exprimere cupiens pinxit iuxta Satyros thyrso pollicem eius metientes. atque in unius huius operibus intellegitur plus semper quam pingitur et, cum sit ars summa, ingenium tamen ultra artem 10 est. pinxit et heroa absolutissimi operis artem ipsam com- plexus viros pingendi, quod opus nunc Romae in templo

75 Pacis est. Euxinidas hac aetate docuit Aristiden praecla- rum artificem, Eupompus Pamphilum Apellis praeceptorem. est Eupompi victor certamine gymnico palmam tenens. ig


xiii, p. 567 b) makes the same charge of nopvoypcupia against Aristeides, Fansias and Nikophanes; cf. also Euripides, Hippol. 1005.

§ 73. I. Nam : resumes the snbject from victus esset.

Timanthi : a native of Kythnos, Quinct. ii, 13, 13. Eustathios (on //. p. 1343, 60), whose authorities are rarely trustworthy, calls him 'StKvimios. It must be by confusion with a later Timanthes, who painted the battle of Aratos against the Aitolians at Pellene in Arkadia, in B. c. 240 (Plut. Arat. 32), and who was therefore presumably a Sikyonian.

2. oratorum: cf. Cic. Orator, 22, 74 fictor (name not mentioned) ille vidit, cum immolanda Iphigenia iristis Calchas esset, tristior Vlixes, mae- reret Menelaus, obvolvendum caput Agamemnonis esse, quoniam sum- mum ilium luctum penicillo non posset imitari. That the Iphigeneia was a stock rhetorical subject is proved by Quinct. {loc. cit.) and Val. Max. viii, II, ext. 6. A famous Pompeian wall- painting, representing the sacrifice (Helbig, Wandgemalde, 1 304 = phot. Alinari 12027), shows Agamemnon


with head completely veiled, but since Iph. is being carried, and not stand- ing, we must see in it only a later adaptation of the picture by Timan- thes (cf also Helbig, op. cit. 1305, and the mosaic in A. Z. 1869, taf. xiv). The ancients entertained two distinct views as to the veiling of Agamem- non ; Pliny and Quinctilian arguing that the painter did not show the features of the father, in order to save dignitas, while Cicero and Valerius Maximus argued that he had recourse to this means because the highest pain cannot be expressed in art. Both ancient and modem criticisms are discussed by Bliimner, Comm. to Lessing's Laokoon, p. 506 f. As Bliimner points out, the veiling motive in sorrow is common both in painting and poetry ; c. g. Euripides veils the head of Agamemnon in the description of the identical scene, i^A. Aul. 1550 ; cf. also Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 124. According to Quinctilian, this picture gained for Timanthes the prize over Kolotes of Teos.

4. constunpsisset : cf. the simi- lar story of Euphranor, Val. Max. viii, II, ext. 5. According to Ensta-


/. PAINTING 117

relaxation in this wanton humour. To return — Timanthes was a 73 painter above all curious in invention, for by him is that Iphigeneia Iphigeneia praised by the orators, whom he depicted standing by the altar ready "t ^'""'"' for death. Having represented all the onlookers and especially her father's brother as plunged in sorrow and having thus exhausted every presentment of grief, he has veiled the face of her father for which he had reserved no adequate expression. There are other 74 examples of his inventiveness; for instance, being' desirous to emphasize, even in a small picture, the huge size of a sleeping sleeping Cyclops, he painted some Satyrs at his side, measuring his thumb Cyclops. with a thyrsos. He is the only artist whose works always suggest more than is In the picture, and great as is his dexterity, his power of invention yet exceeds it. He also painted a hero, a pic- Hero in ture in which he touched perfection, having comprehended in it '^f^'°{ the whole art of painting the male figure. The picture is now at Rome. Rome in the temple of Peace.

In this period ■\Euxeinidas was the master of Aristeides, 75 a famous artist, and \Eupompos of Pamphilos, who in turn was the ^?' '^ master of Apelles. We have by Eupompos a victor in an athletic the schools contest holding a palm. So great was this artist's reputation that ^ff/J^j^„i^ thios (/. ir.),wliose statement, however, 12. in templo Paois : note oa and Si-

savours of concoction, Timanthes was xxxiv, 84. kyoman.

inspired to veil the head of Agamem- 5 75. 13. Aristiden: identical

non, by the similar device employed with the Aristeides of § iii, the master by Homer in describing the grief of of Euphranor, where Pliny however Priam, //. xxiv, 163. confuses him with his grandson

§ 74. 6. Cyclops dormiens : the Aristeides the Theban. According to presentation of this subject in paint- Kroker [Gleichnamige Gr. Kiinstler, ing was doubtless influenced by the p. 33) and Furtwangler {Masterpieces, A/^/i?/J of Euripides, in which the p. 349) he is further probably identical Satyrs were brought on the stage with with the sculptor of xxxiv, 72, pupil of Polyphemos ; Robert, Bild a. Lied, Polykleitos; the dates favour the p. 35 ; Winter,ya/4?-i. vi, 1891, p. 272, supposition.

who rightly refuses to refer the pic- 14. Eupompus : xxxiv, § 61 ;

ture (with Klein) to the younger above, § 64. Timanthes. 15. palmam tenens : a number of

II. artem ipsam oomplexua : examples of a youth with palm in the similarity of expression with the left hand, and raising the crovm xxxiv, 56, solusque hominum autem to his head with the right, are collected ipsam fecisse artis opere iudicatur, by Milchhbfer, Arch. Stud. Brunn suggests that the ^«?-tfj of Timanthes, dargebracht, 1892, p. 62, ff. ;they like the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, probably go back to the type created was a canonical figure intended to by Eupompos, Furtwangler, Master- illustrate the artist's theories of pro- pieces, p. 256 ; cf. also Reisch, Griech. portion ; cf. Kalkmann, Jahrb. x, Weihgeschenke, p. 41. 1895, p. 84, note 147 ; Introd. p. xli.


ii8


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


ipsius auctoritas tanta fuit ut diviserit picturam in genera, quae ante eum duo fuere — Helladicum et Asiaticum appella- bant— propter hunc, qui erat Sicyonius, diviso Helladico

76 tria facta sunt, lonicum, Sicyonium, Atticum. Pamphili cognatio et proelium ad Phliuntem ac victoria Atheniensium, 5 item Ulixes in rate, ipse Macedo natione, sed primus in pictura omnibus litteris eruditus, praecipue arithmetica et geometria, sine quibus negabat artem perfici posse, docuit neminem talento minoris — annuis 5f D — quam mercedem et

77 Apelles et Melanthius dedere ei. huius auctoritate efifectum 10 est Sicyone primum, deinde et in tota Graecia, ut pueri in- genui omnia ante graphicen, hoc est picturam in buxo, docerentur recipereturque ars ea in primum gradum libera- lium. semper quidem honos ei fuit ut ingenui eam exerce- rent, mox ut honesti, perpetuo interdicto ne servitia doce- 15 rentur. ideo neque in hac neque in toreutice ullius qui

78 servierit opera celebrantur. clari et centesima septima olympiade exstitere Action ac Therimachus. Aetionis


4. tria facta sunt : above note on § 72. 'It is difficult to say wherein this great local superiority consisted, which tempted, moreover, wealthy amateurs, like Ptolemy II and Atta- los, to purchase at enormous prices galleries of old Sikyonian masters. Plutarch uses a special term for it, XpTiaToypacjiia, which is usually ex- plained as indicating the reaction in art against the methods of Zeuxis and his contemporaries.' (C. Smith, art. Pictura, Smith's Diet. Ant. p.

413-)

§ 76. 5. cognatio : it may have been a grave picture placed upon a family grave, cf in sculpture a similar family gathering on the Eastern pedi- ment of the tomb known as the ' Nereid monument ' (Brit. Mus.), Michaelis, A. Z. 1845, pi. xxxiv, p. 145. Or it may have been merely a votive commemorative picture. For similar subjects cf. the cognatio nobilium of Timomachos (136), the frequentia of Athenion (134), the


syngenicon of Oinias (143), finally the stemmata of Koinos (139).

proelium ad Phliuntem ac vic- toria := victoria Atheniensium in proelio ad Phliuntem : hendiadys, cf. MUUer, Stil, pp. 109, 15. The picture is generally supposed to have represented the episode narrated by Xenophon, HelUnika, vii, 3, 18-23, when the Fhliasians and Athenians under the command of Chares sur- prised and put to flight the Sikyonian troops (b. c. 367) ; Brunu, K. G. ii, p. 133 f. ; Schaefer, Demosthenes, i, p. 103 ff. ; cf. Grole, Greece, viii, p. 258.

6. Macedo : from Amphipolis (Souidas). His birthplace is of im- portance as giving the probable clue to the subsequent connexion of his pupil Apelles — and possibly to that of Lysippos— with the Makedonian court. (Against his identification, on the insufficient testimony of thescholia, with the Pamphilos of Aristoph. Plut. 385, see Judeich, Fleckeisen's Jakrb. 1890, p. 758.)


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/. PAINTING 119

it occasioned a new division of the schools of painting. Before

his time there had been two schools, known as the Helladic

proper and the Asiatic ; but now the Helladic was subdivided

in his honour, and thus the schools became three, the Ionic, the

Sikyonian and the Attic, Euporapos himself being a Sikyonian.

By Pamphilos we have a family group, the victorious engage- 76

ment of the Athenians at Phlious, and a picture of Odysseus on P<^>"P^'-

' '^ ' los, master

his raft. A Makedonian by birth, Pamphilos was the first painter of A f elks. who was thoroughly trained in every branch of learning, more 3"7 ^■'^• particularly iri arithmetic and geometry; without which, so he held, art could not be perfect. He taught no one for less than a talent \j[^2\o circ] — that is, five hundred denarii [^^17 los. circ] a year — the fee paid him both by Apelles and by Melanthios. It was owing to his influence that first at Sikyon, and after- 77 wards throughout Greece drawing, or rather painting, on tablets jj'j^^l"f of boxwood, was the earliest subject taught to freeborn boys, a.-n6.freeborn that this art was accepted as the preliminary step towards a liberal •■'■ education. It was at any rate had in such honour that at all times the freeborn, and later on persons of distinction practised it, while by a standing prohibition no slaves might ever acquire it, and this is why neither in painting nor in statuary are there any celebrated works by artists who had been slaves.

In the hundred and seventh Olympiad [352-349 B.C.] lived 78 Action and tTherimachos, both painters of note. By Aetion are xherima-

chos.

7. praeeipue arithmetioa . . . with other pupils, assisted him in the

posse : these words are probably votive picture for Aristratos of Sikyon

derived from a Treatise on Painting (Plut. loc. cit.).

by Pamphilos; see Introd. p. xliii. § 77. n. pueri ingenui = fA.61;-

9. quam mercedem . . . Apelles: Oipioi : cf. Aristotle, Polit. v (viii), 3, 'KvBei y&p en S6(a rijs :SiKvavias p. 1338 Sokcl di Kai ff>a<piicii X/"}"" jjLovaris KoX xP^^'^^lP^-^'^'^^i ^ fiovrjs fjLos elvai -nphs rb /cpiveiv to, Tutv rex* ddia(p$opov kx^^^V^ "^^ KaK6Vf liiffTe vnojv epya KiXKiov ovd' aS KaBdirep ^ Kal 'hireWfiv kxetvov ^Si; 6avp.a(6- yv/ivaanur) Trpbs iyleiav xat aXx^v fi€vov d<ptK€ffdai Kal avyyfv^aOai toTs ovScrepov ydp roiTUV Spwfitv yiv6- dvbpdciv kirl raKavTqj, t^s h6^r)s jxaK- iifvov iic rrjs fwvatKQs. XeineTat roivvv \ov fi rrjs rexyv^ SeSjuevov litraKa^fiv. Trpbs t^v iv tJ axo^V Staywy^v, Is Plut. Arat, xiii. o-mp Kal (paivovraL itapAyovTis avTTjv

10. Melanthius : §§ 50, 80; and ■fjv yAp otovrat hiayojy^v etvai twv Ifidex to this book. From Antigonos k\ev6^pa/Vf ev ravTij rarrovaiv. ofKarystos, ap. Diogenes L. iv, 3, 18 §78. 18. Aetionet Therimaohus: (Introd. p. xxxviii), we learn that he cf note on xxxiv, 50. Therimachos is wrote Tiepl (aiypa<j>i«^s ; Melanthios otherwise unknown, Aetion is a fav- was also a master of Apelles (perhaps ourite artist of Lucian, who has given after the death of Pamphilos), who, a famous description of his Alexander


I20 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

sunt nobiles picturae Liber pater, item Tragoedia et Comoedia, Semiramis ex ancilla regnum apiscens, anus lampadas praeferens et nova nupta verecundia notabilis.

79 verum et omnes prius genitos futurosque postea superavit Apelles Cous olympiade centesima duodecima. picturae 5 plura solus prope quam ceteri omnes contulit, voluminibus etiam editis quae doctrinam earn continent, praecipua eius in arte venustas fuit, cum eadem aetate maximi pictores essent. quorum opera cum admiraretur omnibus conlaudatis, deesse illam suam Venerem dicebat, quam Graeci Charita 10 vocant, cetera omnia contigisse, sed hac sola sibi neminem

80 parem. et aliam gloriam usurpavit, cum Protogenis opus inmensi laboris ac curae supra modum anxiae miraretur, dixit enim omnia sibi cum illo paria esse aut illi meliora, sed uno se praestare, quod manum de tabula sciret tollere, 15 memorabili praecepto nocere saepe nimiam diligentiam. fuit autem non minoris simplicitatis quam artis. Melanthio dispositione cedebat, Asclepiodoro de mensuris, hoc est

81 quanto quid a quoque distare deberet. scitum est inter Protogenen et eum quod accidit. ille Rhodi vivebat, quo 20 cum Apelles adnavigasset avidus cognoscendi opera eius

and Roxana ('H/iiiS. ^ 'Afrlaiv, 4) ; where Hephaistion holds a torch, the

cf. ('m6vk, 7, irepl tS/v firl luaB. aw. marriage feast of Peirithoos by Hippys

42 ; cf. Cicero, Brutus, xviii, 70 (Athen. xi, p. 474), which was lit up

(quoted above, note on § 50). by u. hanging candelabrum. The

2. Semiramis : Brunn {K. G. ii, enumeration from Tragoedia to anus

p. 245) points out that the nuptials is asyndetical — et being reserved to

of S. and Ninos may have been con- link Comoedia to Trag. (both in one

ceived as a sort of mythical counter- picture) and nova nupta to anus

part to those of Alexander and Rox- — so that I cannot follow Brunn

ana. (K, G. ii, p. 245) and Furtwangler

anus ... nova nupta : of course (Domauszieher, p. 96, n. 57), in

in one picture. The anus is doubtless understanding the words anus . . .

the mother of the bride, to whom the notabilis to be descriptive of the

S^Soux'"') the carrying of the 5a5ts picture of the Nuptials of Semiramis. vvii<j)ticai, usually fell ( Hermann-Blum- § 79. 5. Apelles Cous : Ovid,

ner, Lehrbuch, p. 275; Furtwangler, ArsAmat. iii, 401, Pont. Epist. iv, i,

S. Sabouroff, i. 58, 59 ; cf. the at- 29 ; but Strabo (xiv, p. 642), Lncian,

ten(iant(?) holding torches on the 5io;SoX. 2,andafterhim Tzetzes (C,4j7.

marriage vases or KouTpo<l>6poi). The viii, 392) call him an Ephesian ; that

torch was doubtless made the occa- this is correct is proved by Herondas,

sion for effects of light; cf. the iv, 72 ('E^cffiou 'AmWia) who cer-

mariiage of Alexander and Roxana, tainly would not have made Apelles


/. PAINTING lai

the well-known pictures of Dionysos, of Tragedy and Comedy, of Semiramis rising from slavery to royal power, and of an old woman carrying lamps and a bride, whose shamefacedness is very apparent.

Apelles of Kos, however, in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad 79 [332-329 B.C.] excelled all painters who came before or after him. '^f^" He of himself perhaps contributed more to painting than all the. ffis written others together ; he also wrote treatises on his theory of art. The ^^'"'""■ grace of his genius remained quite unrivalled, although the very greatest painters were living at the time. He would admire their Bis esti- works, praising every beauty and yet observing that they failed ""'■'" of the

• ^u 1, 1 , ■ ^ , , ■ , •!• ■ • , , ■ worksofhts

m the grace, called xapis in Greek, which was distinctively his contemfor-

own ; everything else they had attained, but in this alone none "7" andof

equalled him. He laid claim to another merit : when admiring so

a work of Protogenes that betrayed immense industry and the

most anxious elaboration, he said that, though Protogenes was

his equal or even his superior in everything, he yet surpassed

that painter in one point — namely in knowing when to take his

hand from a picture ; a memorable saying, showing that too much

care may often be hurtful. His candour was equal to his genius :

he acknowledged the superiority of Melanthios in the distribution

of figures, and that of Asklepiodoros in perspective arrangement,

that is in giving the accurate distances between different objects.

A neat story is told of him in connexion with Protogenes, who 81 was living in Rhodes. Thither Apelles sailed, eager to see the"?"""*""

° i ; D Protogenes.

into an Ephesian, if he could have 9. quorum opera cum adm. :

claimed him for his native Kos. The i. e. in his writings.

tradition that the artist was a Koan § 80. 12. Protogenis : below,

arose because at Kos were some of his §§ 8i, 101-106.

most celebrated works, among them opus miraretur ; presumably the

the Anadyomene. lalysos.

6. voluminibus editis : cf. §111; 15. manum de tabula :=X"P'"° it must be from these writings of rpoMi^-qi ; Petron. j6 postquam coepi Apelles that the judgements he passed plus habere, quam tola men patria upon his contemporaries were origi- ha6et,manum de taSiila; also used of nally derived (Introd. p. xl). school-boys trifling in their master's

7. praeoipua venustas: Quinct. absence, cf. Cic. ad Fain, vii, 25 xii, 10, 6 ingenio et gratia, quam sed heus tu, manu de tabula I (Otto, in se ipso maxime iactat, Ap. est prae- SprichivSrter, p. 210). stantissimus. According to Plutarch 1 7- Melanthio : above, § 76. (fiemetr. xxii), and Ailian (ttoiw. Iot. 18. Asclepiodoro : below, § 107. xii, 41) this judgement on himself was § 81. 19. scitum est: the follow- passed when he saw the lalysos of ing anecdote appears to be elaborated Protogenes (§ 102). out of the admiration which Apelles


122 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

fama tantum sibi cogniti, continuo officinam petiit. aberat ipse, sed tabulam amplae magnitudinis in machina aptatam una custodiebat anus, haec foris esse Protogenen respondit interrogavitque a quo quaesitum diceret. ab hoc, inquit Apelles, adreptoque penicillo lineam ex colore duxit sum- s

82 mae tenuitatis per tabulam, et reverso Protogeni quae gesta erant anus indicavit. ferunt artificem protinus contempla- tum subtilitatem dixisse Apellen venisse, non cadere in alium tarn absolutum opus, ipsumque alio colore tenuiorem lineam in ipsa ilia duxisse abeuntemque praecepisse, si lo redisset ille, ostenderet adiceretque hunc esse quern quae- reret, atque ita evenit. revertit enim Apelles et vinci erubescens tertio colore lineas secuit nullum relinquens

83 amplius subtilitati locum, at Protogenes victum se confessus in portum devolavit hospiteni quaerens, placuitque sic eam 15 tabulam posteris tradi omnium quidem, sed artificum prae-

A.u.c. 757. cipuo miraculo. consumptam eam priore incendio Caesaris domus in Palatio audio, spectatam nobis ante spatiose nihil aliud continentem quam lineas visum effugientes inter egregia multorum opera inani similem et eo ipso allicientem omnique 20

84 opere nobiliorem. Apelli fuit alioqui perpetua consuetudo numquam tam occupatum diem agendi ut non lineam du- cendo exerceret artem, quod ab eo in proverbium venit. idem perfecta opera proponebat in pergula transeuntibus, atque ipse post tabulam latens vitia quae notarentur aus- 25 cultabat vulgum diligentiorem iudicem quam se praeferens,

85 feruntque reprehensum a sutore, quod in crepidis una pauci- ores intus fecisset ansas, eodem poster© die superbo emenda-

3. aptatam una] Bamb. ; aptatam picturae una reliqui, Detlefsen.

had professed for Protogenes in his Laert. vii, 7, 185. The motive is

writings, see Introd. p. xl. Homeric Siavep 6 Aaeprij? . . . ypjjl aiiv

3. una . . . anus : Leo, Plautinische d^^iTroAoi, Teles, p. 25 (ed. Hense). Forschungen (i 895), p. 65, calls atten- 5. lineam . . . duxit : the anecdote

tion to the part played in classical belongs to the same category as

literature by the single ancilla or the Giotto'sO,Vasaried.MilanesiI,p.383. anus. Like the pistrinum she is, so § 83. 17. consumptani ... audio :

to speak, one of the requisites of the oral tradition.

contented life. We get the ancilla § 84. 23. in proverbium : i. e.

in the amusing anecdote, Cic. de Oral. nullus dies sine linea; c{.Otto,SfincA-

ii, 276, while Chrysippos i)p«tiro viorter, p. 194. 7/jai5i'9J, \i.6vm, Demelrios ap. Diog. 24. pergula : cf. Ulpian, Digest.


7. PAINTING 123

works of a man only known to him by reputation, and on his arrival immediately repaired to the studio. Protogenes was not at home, but a solitary old woman was keeping watch over a large panel placed on the easel. In answer to the questions of Apelles, she said thaf "Protogenes was out, and asked the name of the visitor : ' Here it is,' said Apelles, and snatching up a brush he drew a line of extreme delicacy across the board. On the return 82 of Protogenes the old woman told him what had happened. ^ une in When he had considered the delicate precision of the line he at friendly once declared that his visitor had been Apelles, for no one else could have drawn anything so perfect. Then in another colour he drew a second still finer line upon the first, and went away, bidding her show it to Apelles if he came again, and add that this was the man he was seeking. It fell out as he expected ; Apelles did return, and, ashamed to be beaten, drew a third line of another colour cutting the two first down their length and leaving no room for any further refinement. Protogenes owned himself 83 beaten and hurried down to the harbour to find his visitor ; they agreed to hand down the painting just as it was to posterity, a marvel to all, but especially to artists. It perished, I am told, a.d. 4. in the first fire of the house of the Caesars on the Palatine. Formerly we might look upon it; its wide surface disclosed nothing save lines which eluded the sight, and among the numerous works by excellent painters it was like a blank, and it was precisely this that lent it surpassing attraction and renown.

Apelles further made it an unvarying rule never to spend a day, 84 however busy, without drawing a line by way of practice ; hence ^^J^' the proverb. It was also his habit to exhibit his finished works to the passers-by in a balcony, and he would lie concealed behind the picture and listen to the faults that were found with it, regard- ing the public as more accurate critics than himself. There is 85 a story that when found fault with by a cobbler for putting one ^^^^j^j^l!"'^^ loop too few on the inner side of a sandal, he corrected the mistake. Elated by this the cobbler next day proceeded to find fault with the leg, whereupon Apelles thrust out his head in

i'^i 3) 5 > § 12 cum fictor in pergula 6, the old reading pergula pictorum

clipeum vel tabulam exposilam ha- shoald be altered to pergula ficto-

buisset eaque excidisset, et transeunti rum, which is adopted by Buecheler.)

damni quid dedisset. (It has been For pergulae at Pompei, see Mau,

shown by F. Marx in Studia Lucili- Rom. Mitth. ii, 1887, p. 214 ff. ana, 1882, p. 16 f. that in Lucilius xv,


124 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

tione pristinae admonitionis cavillante circa crus, indignatum prospexisse denuntiantem ne supra crepidam sutor iudicaret, quod et ipsum in proverbium abiit. fuit enim et comitas illi, propter quam gratior Alexandro Magno frequenter in officinam ventitanti — nam, ut diximus, ab alio se pingi s vetuerat edicto — sed in officina imperite multa disserenti silentium comiter suadebat rideri eum dicens a pueris qui 83 colores tererent. tantum erat auctoritati iuris in regem alioqui iracundum. quamquam Alexander honorem ei clarissimo perhibuit exemplo, namque cum dilectam sibi lo ex pallacis suis praecipue, nomine Pancaspen, nudam pingi ob admirationem formae ab Apelle iussisset eumque, dum paret, captum amore sensisset, dono dedit ei magnus animo, maior imperio sui, nee minor hoc facto quam victoria aliqua.

87 quippe se vicit, nee torum tantum suum sed etiam adfectum 15 donavit artifici, ne dilectae quidem respectu motus, cum modo regis ea fuisset, modo pictoris esset. sunt qui Venerem anadyomenen ab illo pictam exemplari putent. Apelles et in aemulis benignus Protogeni dignationem primus Rhodi

88 constituit. sordebat suis ut plerumque domestica, percon- 20 tantique quanti liceret opera effecta parvum nescio quid dixerat, at ille quinquagenis talentis poposcit famamque dispersit se emere ut pro suis venderet. ea res concitavit Rhodios ad intellegendum artificem, nee nisi augentibus pretium cessit. imagines adeo similitudinis indiscretae 25 pinxit ut — incredibile dictu — Apio grammaticus scriptum reliquerit quendam ex facie hominum divinantem, quos metoposcopos vocant, ex iis dixisse aut futurae mortis annos

§ 85. 2. ne supra orepidaiu sutor: 7. qui colores tererent: to nai-

cf. Valer. Max. viii, 1 3, ext. 3 ; Otto, Bopia rd toS ZeiJf i8os Tiiv lirjAiSa rpi-

Sprichwdrter, p. 97. Introd. p. lix. ^avra KarcyfAa, Ailian, loc. cit.

3. enim; corroborates idem prae- §86. 11. Pancaspen: ovo/ra ?pi

ferens, ignoring the intervening anec- XlayKaavrj, rb Si yifos Aapiacraia,

dote. Ailian, IlotK. 'lar. xii, 34. Lucian

5. ut diximus: invii, i25 = App.I; {iMvis, 7) calls her naKdrij.

cf. note on xxxiv, 63. j 87. 18. anadyomenen : = exeun-

6, in officina : the following anec- Um e mart, below, § 91.

dote is told by Plutarch (tie Tranquill. exiemplari : according to Athen.

Anim. 12), concerning the megabyzos xiii, p. 590 f, the model was Phryne,

(§ 93). while Ailian, noi«. 'lo-r. ii, j,, while according to Anth. Plan. 179

tells it of Zeuxis and a megabyzos. Apelles, like Praxiteles (xxxvi, 21),


/. PAINTING 125

a passion and bade the cobbler ' stick to his last/ a saying which has also passed into a proverb.

The charm of his manner had won him the regard of Alexander Friendship the Great, who was a frequent visitor to the studio, for, as we have ^^ and"' said, he had issued an edict forbidding any one else to paint his Apelles. portrait. But when the king happened to discourse at length in pankSpe. the studio upon things he knew nothing about, Apelles would pleasantly advise him to be silent, hinting that the assistants who ground the colours were laughing at him ; such power did his 86 personality give him over a king habitually so passionate. Yet j Alexander gave him a signal mark of his regard : he commissioned J Apelles to paint a nude figure of his favourite mistress Pankaspe, 1 so much did he admire her wondrous form, but perceiving that j Apelles had fallen in love with her, with great magnanimity and \ still greater self-control he gave her to him as a present, winning by the action as great a glory as by any of his victories. He 87 conquered himself and sacrificed to the artist not only his mistress but his love, and was not even restrained by consideration for the woman he loved, who, once a king's mistress, was now a painter's. Some believe that she was the model for the Aphrodite rising from the sea.

Friendly even to his rivals, Apelles was the first to establish in 88 Rhodes the reputation of Protogenes, who, as so many in their ^f"A"i\l^ own homes, was neglected by his countrymen. When asked by to Proio- Apelles the prices of his finished works, he mentioned some^"*" trifling sum, upon which Apelles offered fifty talents [^^10,500 circ] for each, and spread a report that he was buying the pictures to sell as his own. This stirred up the Rhodians to a better appreciation of the artist, but not until they offered a still higher price would Apelles give up the pictures.

His portraits were such perfect likenesses that, incredible as it His aston- may sound, Apio the grammarian has left it on record that "'^^^ ^ a physiognomist, or ^cruTroo-Kojros as they are called, was able to portrait

painter.

was privileged to see the goddess waives the responsibility aad imme-

herself : avjav ka ttuvtoio tlBtjvtjt^pos diately niimes his authority, 'AireWrjs | ray Kvirpiv yv/ivcLv tlSe Apio gTammaticus : Praef. 25,

Aox'i"';'^"'. yixn, 18, and oftea in Pliny; flor.

§ 88. 25. similit. indisoretae : reign of Caligula. Miiller, F. H, G.

xxxiv, 60 facie quoque indiscreta iii, 506-516. similis, and note. 28. metoposoopoa : cf. Suet. Ti-

36. incredibile diotu : hence Pliny tus 1,


126


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


89 aut praeteritae vitae. non fuerat ei gratia in comitatu Alexandri cum Ptolemaeo, quo regnante Alexandriam vi tempestatis expulsus subornato fraude aemulorum piano regio invitatus ad cenam venit, indignantique Ptolemaeo at vocatores suos ostendenti, ut diceret a quo eorum invitatus s asset, arrapto carbone axtincto e foculo imaginem in parieta deliniavit, adgnoscante voltum plani rega inchoatum proti-

90 nus. pinxit at Antigoni regis imaginem altero lumine orbam primus axcogitata rationa vitia condendi, obliquam namqua fecit, ut quod deerat corpori picturae deesse potius lo videretur, tantumque eam partem a facie ostendit quam totam poterat ostendera. sunt inter opera eius at axspi- rantium imagines, quae autem nobilissima sint non est

9} facile dictu. Venerem axeuntem e mari divus Augustus dicavit in delubro patris Caesaris, quae anadyomene vocatur, 15 versibus Graecis tali opere, dum laudatur, victo sed inlus-


§ 89. I. nou fuerat ei gratia : the following is a mutilated and some- what different account of the events narrated at length by Lucian (5ia;8oX. 4), for which, according to Lucian, Apelles took vengeance by painting his famous 'Calumny.' Both the versions have an aitiological fla- vour, and probably arose in great measure out of the picture itself (for the historical inaccuracies in Lucian's story see Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 208). For the latest discussion of the Calumny, and especially of the influence of Lucian's description on artists of the Renascence, see R. Forster in Jahrb. d. Preuss. Saniml. 1887, p. 39 ff.

3. aemulorum : from Lucian, loc. cit.,'^& learn that the Egyptian painter Antiphilos (§§ 114, 138) was among them.

5. vocatores : i. e. the slaves in charge of the invitations or vocationes, Seneca, Ira iii, 37, 4; Suet Calig.

39. fee-

§ 90. 8. altero lumine orbam : Ant. was accordingly sumamed )i.ov6- (j>0a\iio5 and KjJ/cAot^, Polyb. v, 67, 6 ; Ailian, Tilout. 'lar. xii, 43.


9. oblic[uam : Brunn, IC. G. ii, p. 10; Quinct. ii, 13, 12 habet in pic- tura sfeciem tola fades ; Apelles tamen imaginem Antigo7ii latere tantum altero ostendit, ut amissi oculi deformi- tas lateret. These words prove beyond the possibility of doubt that tlie obli- qua imago of Antigonos was a simple portrait in profile. Hartwig, however, {Meisterschalen, p. 157) argues that to disguise a defect a simple profile would be unworthy of the inventiveness of so great an artist as Apelles, and, starting from the meaning which he claims for catagrapha (above, § 56, where see note) , tries to show that the portrait was in | and foreshortened. The portrait of the squinting Tommaso Inghirami by Raphael (original in Pal. Inghirami at Volterra ; the picture in the Pitti is only " copy), which Hartwig quotes in support of his theory, seems as a fact to emphasize rather than conceal the physical de- fect.

1 2 . exspirantium imagines : acutely explained by Briickiier {Sitz- ungsber. d. Wiener Akademie, vol. 116, p. 519, note 4) as grave pictures '


/. PAINTING 127

tell from the portraits alone how long the sitter had to live or had A already lived. When in Alexander's train he had been on un- 89 friendly terms with Ptolemy, during whose reign he was once driven into Alexandria by a violent storm. On Apelles appearing ! at a banquet, to which his rivals had maliciously induced the ; king's fool to invite him, Ptolemy flew into a passion, and pointing ' to his chamberlains bade him say from which of them he had j received the invitation, whereupon the painter snatching up : a charred stick from the hearth traced on the wall a likeness, in whose first strokes the king at once recognized the face of the fool.

He also painted a portrait of king Antigonos, who was blind of 9° one eye, being the first to devise a means of concealing the ^y,^ infirmity by presenting his profile, so that the absence of the, eye Antigonos. would be attributed merely to the position of the sitter, not to 1 a natural defect, for he gave only the part of the face which could j be shown uninjured. There are among his works some pictures of dying people, though it were difficult to say which are the best, j His Aphrodite rising from the sea was dedicated by the god 91 Augustus in the temple of his father Caesar : she is known as the ^j-^-„C/)-o»i am^voiJ.€vri, being, like other works of the kind, at once eclipsed i/ie sea.' yet rendered famous by the Greek epigrams written in her praise.

representing death - scenes ; cf. the quellen, 1 847-1866) we learn that

7pairTus TUTTO?, described Anth. vii, the goddess was represented wring-

730; cf. also «^. vii, 170; Weisshaupl, ing her hair, in a type which

Die Grabgedichte der Gr. Anthologie, was likewise adapted to statuary

97ff.; further, Pans, ii, 7, 3 praises the (Helbig, Class. Ant. 254). For the

excellent painting of a grave picture picture itself see Benndorf, Athen.

at Sikjon, of Xenodyke, who died in Mitth. 1876, p. 50.

childbirth; cf. in sculpture the grave 15. in delubro patris Caesaris :

relief of Malthake from the Peiraieus, the picture was previously in the

see Friederichs-Wolters, 1043. Praxi- Koan Asklepieion, whence Augustus

teles(xxxiv,7o),Nikias(below,§ 132), obtained it by remitting 100 talents

Nikomachos (mon. of Telestes, § 109), of the Koan tribute; Strabo xiv,

likewise decorate graves ; cf. the p. 657. Since Ovid (exiled A. D. 8)

iuvenis requiescens of Simos, § 143. mentions the Anadyomene in Trist.

13. quae autem nobilissima ii, 527 £, the picture must have been in

sint t [refers not to of era but to Rome previous to the year of his exile.

imagines ; rapid changes of gender or For further discussion of the dates see

number are common in Pliny, May- Wunderer, Manibiae Alexandrinae,

hoff, Lumhr. Plin. (1865) p. 83 ; cf. p. 8.

J. Miiller, Slil, p. 56. — H. L. U.]. 16. vioto sed inlustrato : ' sur-

§ 91. 14. exeuntem e mari = passed ' inasmuch as the poet can give

anadyomenen, above, § 87. From expression to more things than the

numerous descriptions {OYerh. Schrift- painter who is limited to one moment ;


128


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


trato, cuius inferiorem partem corruptam qui reficeret non potuit reperiri, verum ipsa iniuria cessit in gloriam artificis. consenuit haec tabula carie, aliamque pro ea substituit Nero

92 principatu suo Dorothei manu. Apelles inchoaverat et aliam Venerem Coi superaturus famam illam suam priorem. S invidit mors peracta parte, nee qui succederet operi ad prae- scripta liniamenta inventus est. pinxit et Alexandrum Magnum fulmen tenentem in templo Ephesiae Dianae viginti talentis auri. digiti eminere videntur et fulmen extra tabulam esse — legentes meminerint omnia ea quattuor colo- lo ribus facta — manipretium eius tabulae in nummo aureo

93 mensura accepit, non numero. pinxit et megabyzi sacer- dotis Dianae Ephesiae pompam, Clitum cum equo ad bellum festinantem, galeam poscenti armigerum porrigentem. Alexandrum et Philippum quotiens pinxerit enumerare i5 supervacuum est. mirantur eius Habronem Sami, Menan-

6. famam] etiam omnes f raster Bamb ., Detlefsen.


for the idea conveyed by inlustrato cf. xxxiv, 57, of the heifer of Myron, celebratis versibus laudata, quando alieno plerique ingenio magis quam suo commendantur.

3. substituit : this may be an exaggeration, as the picture of Apelles seems still to have been in exist- ence under Vespasian, when Suetonius (J^esp. 18) speaks of its being again restored : Coae Veneris . . . refectorem insigni congiario magnaque mercede donavit.

§ 92. 4. inclioaverat : Cic Fam. i, 9, 15, and Off. iii, i, 10.

8. fiolmen tenentem = nepavvo- (p6pov, i. e. deified. Plutarch {irepl TJjr 'A\. rixv^t ^h 2) relates that it was said of this picture that there were two Alexanders, the son of Philip who was invincible, and the Alex- ander of Apelles who was inimitable. It is a fascinating conjecture of King {Anc. Gems i, p. xii), followed by Fnrtwangler, Jahrb. iv (1889% p. 69, that an ancient copy of this famous picture is extant in the carnelian in St. Petersburg {Jahrb. iii, pi. xi, 26).


The position of the right arm holding the thimderbolt in the gem is specially significant.

9. eminere videntur : cf. in § 127 quae volunt eminentia videri; § 131 ut eminerent e tahulis picturae.

10. legentes meminerint : harks back to 5 50.

§ 93. 12. megabyzi: Strabo xiv, p. 641 Itpias 5' ci/vovxovs ei^ov o{}s eicaX(»jv MeyaPv^ovs.

13. pompam; from Herondas iv, 66 fif. we learn that the picture was at Kos, in the iratrriSr (Sanctuary) of theAsklepieion, and that itrepresented a sacrifice of oxen. It is amusingly described by the gossips Kokkale and Kynno (ed. Crusins). KOK. i Pais Si x<" ayojv airov, ^ 9' ofiapTtvaa X^ ypvwds ovTos x^ avaffifws

dv$pajTroij oixl iiriv PKeirovaiv ^/J-iprjr

TrdvT€S ; 6( /jt^ eSdteevv Ti p.€^ov fj yw^

nprjffaeiv, dvi]\d\a^' at/, 1171 /i' 6 Povs ri ■mjiaivri.


/. PAINTING


ia9


When the lower portion was damaged no one could be found to restore it, and thus the very injury redounded to the glory of the artist. In course of time the panel of the picture fell into decay, Its resiora- and Nero when Emperor substituted for it another picture by the j^^-otheos. hand of Dorotheos. Apelles had begun another Aphrodite at 92 Kos, intending to surpass even the fame of his earlier achieve- ment, but when only a part was finished envious death interposed, and no one was found to finish the outlines already traced. He 'Alexander also painted in the temple of Artemis at Ephesos a portrait of^^„^^^. Alexander holding a thunderbolt for twenty talents [^4,200 bolt.' circ] : the fingers seem to stand out and the thunderbolt to project from the picture ; — the reader should remember that all this was done with four colours. For this picture he was paid in gold coins, reckoned not by number but by measure. He painted 93 too the train of a jicya^v^oi, or priest of Artemis of Ephesos, Kleitos on horseback going out to battle, and the picture of a squire handing a helmet to one who asks for it. It were vain to enumerate the number of times he painted Alexander and Philip. At Samos we admire his Habron, at Rhodes his Menander, king of Karia, and his Antaios, at Alexandria Gorgo-


ovTcy iinXo^oTf Kvvvtj TJ} erepri KOVfrri. KYN. iXijeivai, <t>i\ri, yAp at 'Efeaiov

Is iravr' 'AireWiio ypaii/uiT' , ou5* epets '* KUyos

&v$paTros fV /tlv ttSev, %v S' dinjpv-fidTj^'

dX\' w kirl vovv yiVOlTOf KaX OeStv Tpavetv

^TTciyfB' . . . The use of the past tense j/irci^exo shows that Apelles was no longer alive at the time Herondas wrote the Mimiamboi (circ. B. c. 280-37:?). For similar subjects cf. on § 126 (Pansias) and § 137 (Aristolaos). A curious but arbitrary explanation of the Koan picture, as representing the Egyptian bull Apis, is given by R. Meister in his ed. of Kerondas, p. 223.

Clitum ; sumamed o iti\as (Plu- tarch, Alex. 16), the bosom friend of Alexander, whose life he saved at the Granikos, and by whom he was


afterwards slain : Arrian. iv, 8, &c.

14. galeam poscenti : [generally taken as descriptive of the portrait of Kleitos. But the change from the accusative to the dative would be bar- barous,whiletheasyndeticenumeration shows that we have here a fresh sub- ject. It was perhaps a grave picture (expir. imago) ; very similar subjects appear on grave reliefs (i ) in Syracuse, rider with horn of plenty, standing by his horse, to 1. attendant leaning on spear, to 1. boy bringing helmet, snake between boy and horse, unpublished ; (2) the relief from Thyrea in Athens, Frlederichs-Wolters, 1812, cf. Dene- ken, ap. Roscher ii, art. ' Heros,' col. 2563. Also on vases, Naples, Heyde- mann 2193, from Canosa. — H. L. U.]

15. quotiens pinzerit: cf. xxxiv, 63, of Alexander's portraits by Lysip- pos.

16. Habronem : probably the painter mentioned below, § 141.

Sami: where the Heraion con-


K


130 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

drum regem Cariae Rhodi, item Antaeum, Alexandreae Gorgosthenen tragoedum, Romae Castorem et Pollucem cum Victoria et Alexandro Magno, item Belli imaginem restrictis ad terga manibus, Alexandro in curru triumphante, 94 quas utrasque tabulas divus Augustus in fori sui celeberrimis s partibus dicaverat simplicitate moderata, divus Claudius pluris existimavit utrique excisa Alexandri facie divi Augusti imagines addere. eiusdem arbitrantur manu esse et in Dianae temple Herculem aversum, ut, quod est diflfi- cillimum, faciem eius ostendat verius pictura quam promittat. lo pinxit et heroa nudum, eaque pictura naturam ipsam provo-

85 cavit. est et equus eius sive fuit pictus in certamine, quo iudicium ad mutas quadripedes provocavit ab hominibus. namque ambitu praevalere aemulos sentiens singulorum picturas inductis equis ostendit, Apellis tantum equo adhin- 15 nivere, idque et postea semper evenit, ut experimentum

86 artis illud ostentaretur. fecit et Neoptolemum ex equo adversus Persas, Archelaum cum uxore et filia, Antigonum thoracatum cum equo incedentem. peritiores artis praefe- runt omnibus eius operibus eundem regem sedentem in equo 20 et Dianam sacrificantium virginum choro mixtam, quibus

tained a collection of pictures (Strabo in § 37 the subject of the picture is

xiv, p. 637 rh 'Upatov . . . veais fie7as, described as Triumph and War.

Ss vvv mvaxoBrjicri (Vti). Servius on ^en. i, 294 (ed. Thiloi, p.

Menandrum : one tSv fTalpay, 109) inforo Augusti introeuntibus ad

Arrian, Anabasis iii, 6, 8 ; iv, 13, 7 ; sinistram fuit helium fictum et furor

vii, 24, 1, Diodoros xviii, 59 ; he sedens super anna devincius eo habitu

was satrap of Lydia, and as no king quo poeta dixit ; it is of course

of Karia of the name of Menander is possible tliat Pliny forgot to mention

known, it may be that we have here the Furor, but, as Jacobi {Museogr.

a confusion on Pliny's part, cf. Brunn, p. 73) has pointed out, it is more likely

K. G. ii, p. 213. that Servius, in order to give a more

1. Antaeum : unknown. striking explanation of the Virgilian Alexandreae : above, § 89. lines {Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor

2. tragoedum : cf. the femulenta itnpius initis \ saeva sedens super tibicina of Lysi|ipos, xxxiv, 63, the arma et centum vitutus aenis {post saltator Alcisthents in § 147, &c. tergum nodis fremet horridus ore

, Castorem. . .Magno : above, § 37. cruento), split the personification of

The type of Alexander between the War into two. We may assume from

Dioskouroi was at a later date adapted Servius, loc. cit., that the first picture

to triumphal pictures of the Emperors, was on the R. of the spectator entering

cf. Mon. d. Inst, iii, 10. the Forum.

4. restrictis ad terga manibus j § 94. 8. arbitrantur : i. e. a judge-


I. PAINTING 131

sthenes the tragic actor, at Rome Kastor and Polydeukes with Allegorical Victory and Alexander the Great, and also a figure of War with ^]'"J'and{r his hands bound behind his back, and Alexander riding in triumph the Great. in a chariot. These two pictures had been placed in the most 94 crowded parts of his forum with the restraint of good taste by the 1 god Augustus, but the god Claudius thought fit to cut out in both 1 the face of Alexander and substitute that of Augustus. The ' Herakles with averted face, in the temple of Diana, is also attributed to Apelles ; by a triumph of art the picture seems not only to suggest, but actually to give the face. He also painted a nude hero, a picture which challenges comparison with Nature herself. A horse also exists, or did exist, painted for a com- 95 petition, in which he appealed from the judgement of men to that ^H^^^f"^ of dumb beasts. When he saw that his rivals were likely to be The horses placed above him through intrigue, he caused some horses to be "Mt^' f brought in and showed them each picture in turn ; they neighed Apelles. only at the horse of Apelles, and this was invariably the case ever afterwards, so that the test was applied purposely to afford a display of his skill. He also painted Neoptolemos on horse- 96 back fighting against the Persians, Archelaos in a group with his wife and daughter, and a portrait of Antigonos in armour advancing with his horse. Skilled judges of painting prefer among all his works his equestrian portrait of Antigonos and his 3"'- Artemis amid a band of maidens offering sacrifice, a painting

ment of connoisseurs not certified by Alexander, son of Arrhabaios, Arrian

the artist's signature. i, 20, 10; ii, 27, 6, Diodoros xviii,

9. Dianas : in the campus Flami- 29.

nius dedicated by Lepidus B.C. 179; exequo : sc. pugnantem.

Liv. xl, 52. The reading Annae (sc. 18. Archelaum : two Archelaoi

Perennae) is defended by Jordan {ap. are known among the soldiers of

Prellcr, J?om. Mythol. 2nd ed. i, Alexander, (i) the son of Androliles,

p. 344, note i), but against his view one tSjv traipoivj he was placed in

see Wissowa ap. Pauly, s. v. Anna command of the garrison left at

Perenna. Aornos (Arr. iii, 29, i) ; (2) the son

§95. 12. est et equus : according of Theodoros, who was placed in

to Ailian,noiK. 'IffT.ii, 3, thestory was command at Susa (Arr. iii, 16, 9).

told of Alexander and the horse in 21. sacriflcantiuin : since the

his equestrian portrait. The est . . . words aie at variance with the

sive fuit show how little im- Homeric description, endless emen-

portance Pliny himself attaches to dations of the passage have been

such anecdotes. suggested (see Overbeck, Schriftquell.

§ 96. 17. Weoptolemum : not the 1870). The best explanation seems

son of Achilles, as Welcker and others that of Dilthey {Rhein. Mus. xxv, p.

have supposed, but the (ratpos of 327), who supposes that in translating

K 3


13a


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


vicisse Homeri versus videtur id ipsum describentis. pinxit et quae pingi non possunt, tonitrua, fulgetra, fulgura, quae

97 Bronten, Astrapen, Ceraunobolian appellant, inventa eius et ceteris profuere in arte, unum imitari nemo potuit, quod absoluta opera atramento inlinebat ita tenui ut id ipsum 5 repercussu claritatis colorem album excitaret custodiretque a pulvere et sordibus, ad manum intuenti demum appareret, sed etiam ratione magna, ne claritas colorum aciem offende- ret veluti per lapidem specularem intuentibus et e longin- quo eadem res nimis floridis coloribus austeritatem occulte 10 daret.

98 Aequalis eius fuit Aristides Thebanus. is omnium primus animum pinxit et sensus hominis expressit, quae vocant Graeci ethe, item perturbationes, durior pauIo in coloribus. huius opera : oppido capto ad matris morientis ex volnere 15

6. album] Traube ; alvum Bamb. ; alium Bamb. e corr., Detlefsen ; cm. reliqui. 8. etiam] Bamb. e corr. ; etium Bamb. ; et cum Voss., Detlefsen.

15. opera] Bamb. ; pictura reliqui, Detlefsen.


some Greek epigram beginning for instance :

'Bvovaavs 8^ x6paifftv 6fjLopp6$os iox^o.ipa e^Apxovffa x°P°^3 ffeveTOi dypoTepij. Pliny or his author mistook 6voi<rais from 6viw for the partic. of Bvoi.

I. Homeri versus : Od. vi, 102 — 0117 6' "Aprepiis flffi uar* ovpea iox^- aipa

T^ Se fl' a/jia Nifj^t, Kovpat Aibs

alyt6xoio, dypovbfioi nai^ovffi.

3. Bronten . . . Ceraunobolian : personifications [^Kfpavvo0o\ta was the personification of xepamSs (Diels, Doxographi Graeci, p. 367 foil, and Aetios Mac. ii, 2, 3, p. 368) ; for Bronte cf. Philostr. the Elder Imag. i, 14 BpoVTT] Iv ciSci fffcXrjpSi Kal 'AffTpavTj ffeKas l/e twi' d<p9a\iiwv Ultra Trvp . . . Possibly the three figures were united ia an allegory of a storm and formed a votive offering to Zeus xepavyo- PSKos; cf. C. I. G. 1513; /3/)oyraii' and Kepavvios, C.I. G. 2641, 3446, 3810, and often. — H. L. U.].

§ 97. 5. atramento : the exact


composition of Apelles's atramentum still remains obscure ; we can only gather that although some black sub- stance formed its basis, this was so diluted and spread out as to become transparent and practically colourless. 6. colorem album excitaret : this passage offers grave difficulties, (i) If we follow the remaining codices in omitting the word album we get pure nonsense, since it is absurd to talk of a glazing that raised the picture's colour as a whole, and yet toned it down. (2) If we follow Detlefsen and adopt the alium which a later hand wrote for the alvum of cod. Bamb. we get worse nonsense, for what is this color alius ? (3) I cannot help suspecting that albus{-a%tA of a dead, opaque white) is a mis- translation of the Greek \fti/c<5j in its sense of ' brilliant ' ; the object of the glazing, then, was to give a brilliant surface to the whole picture ; this brought the colours into unison, and at the same time served the practical purpose of protecting the painting from dust.


/. PAINTING


133


thought to have excelled the lines of Homer that describe the same scene. He also painted the unpaintable, thunder, for example, lightning and thunderbolts, /S/joxtij, do-TpaTrij and Kepavi/ofiuKla as they are called.

All have profited by his innovations, though one of these could 97 never be imitated ; he used to give his pictures when finished a black glazing so thin that by sending back the light it could call forth a whitish colour, while at the same time it afforded protection from dust and dirt, only becoming visible itself on the closest inspection. In using this glazing, one main purpose of his was to prevent the brilliance of the colours from offending the eyes, — the effect was as when they are looked at through talc, — and also that when seen at a distance those which were vivid to excess might be imperceptibly toned down.

Aristeides of Thebes was his contemporary : he was the first 98 among all painters to paint the soul, and gave expression to the 'J'^p^^j,"^ affections of man — I mean to what the Greeks call ijdq — and also the emotions. His colouring is rather harsh. His works are :


9. lapidem specularem: xxxvi, 160 ; it was a transparent highly lami- nated substance, used also for windows {specularid), cf. Plin. Ef. ii, 17, 4; Juv. iv, 21, &c.

§88. 12. Aristides Thebanus : below, § III ; he was the second of the name, son of Nikomachos, § 108, and grandson of the first Aristeides, ib., above, § 75.

omnium primus : note on § 16.

13. sensus . . . perturbationes : as O. Jahn points out {Kunsiuriheile, p. 115), Pliny is here giving a closer definition of animus by dividing it into fi9i\ and 170817, for the first of which, according to Quinct. vi, 2, 8, no precise Latin equivalent existed: horum (sc. affectuum) autem, sicut antiquitus traditum accefimus, duae sunt species: alteram Graeci nddos vacant, quod nos vertentes recte ac proprie affectum dicimus, alteram §floi, cuius nomine, ut ego equidem sentio, caret sermo Romanus: mores appel- lantur, atque inde pars quoque ilia philosophiae ifiiieq moralis est dicta (cf. above, note on mores in § 63).


Pliny, therefore, to avoid misunder- standing, gives the Greek word also for iffli), while for irofl?; he felt himself on safe ground in wsai% perturbationes, the translation introduced by Cicero {Tusc. Disp. iii, 4, 7). Not a few commentators have considered ?i9os, iriBos to be incompatible qualities in one artist, yet Quinct. (vi, 2, 1 2) shows that in a sense iraBos is complementary to ^Sos, while Ailian (IIoi/c, 'lar. iv, 3) especially attributes both qualities to Polygnotos — the dya6is ri6oypd^os. (For a thorough and subtle discussion of the question cf. O. Jahn, op. cit. pp. 105-117.)

1 5. matris morientis ; the motive was employed in sculpture by Epi- gonos (xxxiv, 88). The picture is described AntA. Pal. vii, 623. The Plinian passage doubtless inspired the group of a dead mother with a young child seeking her breast, on the left of the celebrated ' Morbetto ' or ' Pliry- gian Plague ' engraved by Marc. An- tonio (reproduced Delaborde, M. Antoine Raimondi, to face p. 214) according to general supposition from


134


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


mammam adrepens infans, intellegiturque sentire mater et timere ne emortuo lacte sanguinem lambat, quam tabulam Alexander Magnus transtulerat Pellam in patriam suam.

99 idem pinxit proelium cum Persis, centum homines tabula ea conplexus pactusque in singulos minas denas a tyranno 5 Elatensium Mnasone. pinxit et currentes quadrigas et suppHcantem paene cum voce et venatores cum captura et Leontion Epicuri et anapauomenen propter fratris amorem, item Liberum et Ariadnen spectatos Romae in aede Cereris,

100 tragoedum et puerum in Apollinis, cuius tabulae gratia 10 interiit pictoris inscitia cui tergendam earn mandaverat M. Junius praetor sub die ludorum Apollinarium. spectata est


a drawing of Raphael. But the draw- ing in sepia wash and white in the Uffizi (comice 265, no. 525) is only, Mr. B. Berenson informs me, a copy after an original, now lost, that may have been by Perino del Vaga.

3. transtulerat Fellam : after the sack of Thebes in B.C. 335.

§ 99. 4. proelium cum Fersis : since Aristeides is a contemporary of Apelles and Alexander, the picturemust have represented one of the battles of this king. It is tempting to identify the proelium with the battle of Issos and to recognize its copy in the famous mosaic from Pompei in Naples : the powerfully characterized Alexander, the Dareios with his gesture of de- spairing command are conceptions worthy of the great master of ^floi and irdflos, while motives such as the fallen Persian in the foreground recall the mater moriens. It is possible, how- ever, that the Pompeian mosaic should be rather traced back to Aristeides's fellow-pupil Philoxenos (§ log) (Michaelis, y3;4>-*. vii, 1893, p. 134), whose battle-piece is more closely de- fined as proelium cum Dario. It is, at any rate, time to claim the picture for po\^erful artists such as Aristeides or Philoxenos, and to discard the opinion which attributes it to a lady-painter Helena, reputed indeed to have painted a battle of Issos, but only on


the authority of so notorious a liar as Ptolemaios Chennos. Addenda.

6. Mnasone : a pupil and friend of Aristotle, circ. B.C. 349 (Timaios apud Athenaios, vi, p. 264 D, Ailian, IIoiK. 'IffT. iii, 19). He was made tyrant of Elateia after the battle of Chaironeia in B.C. 338.

currentes quadrigas : votive offer- ings for victories in the chariot course, cf. note on xxxiv, 71.

7. supplicantem : making a ges- ture of entreaty, probably the picture was that of an adorans ; cf. xxxiv, 73, 90, &c. Cum voce epigr. cf. Introd. p. Ixxi.

venatores cum captura : note on xxxiv, 66 ; cf. the hunt of Ptolemaios Soter by Antiphilos in § 138.

8. Xieontion Epicuri : friend and pupil of Epikouros (B. c. 34 1-2 70), and mistress of his favourite pupil Metro- doros; she was a rival of Glykera (Athen. xiii, p. 585 D), who came to Athens with Harpalos, B. c. 326. Aristeides probably painted her not much later than B.C. 320. Although Epikouros did not reside in Athens before B.C. 306, it is natural that her portrait, whenever painted, should be described as that of the famous 'Leon- tion Epicuri^ Kroker, Gleichnamige Gr. Kiinstler, p. 28 ; Uilichs, Rhein. Mus. XXV, p. 5 u f. Another portrait of her by Theoros below, § 144.


/. PAINTING


135


a picture of a mother lying wounded to death in the sack of Wounded a city ; she appears conscious that her babe is creeping towards f "^ryv"'^ her breast, and afraid lest, now that her milk is dried up, he should suck blood. This picture Alexander the Great carried off to his native Pella. He also painted a battle with the Persians ; 99 the picture contains a hundred figures, for each of which Mnason the tyrant of Elateia had agreed to pay him ten minae [;^3S] ; and furthermore a chariot race, and a suppliant whose very accents we seem to hear, huntsmen with their game, Leontion the pupil of Epikouros, a girl dying for love of her brother, the Dionysos and Ariadne now to be seen at Rome in the temple of Ceres, and a tragic actor and a boy in the temple of Apollo. This picture 100 was ruined through the ignorance of the painter to whom Marcus Junius as praetor entrusted it to be cleaned before the games of Apollo. In the temple of Faith on the Capitol was to be seen


anapauomenen . . . amorem : [the subject, which has given rise to much controversy (see especially Dil- they and L. Urlichs in Rhein. Mus. XXV and xxvi) is sufficiently easy to explain by reference to Anth. Pal. vii, 517—

Zvoyikvov BatriXw /cdrBave -nafiOfvfK^ avTox^pi' C^ctv yap dSeXifte^v kv tnpl 8daa,

ovK ir\ri. SiSvfjiov S^ot/cos IffcfSe KaK^v Ttarphs ^ApiffTiiTiroio' Kari]^aiv 5i Ku-

Pn<'V Tidaa, rhv iVTitcvov xnpov tSoGo'a

d6pL0V.

Evidently the anapauomene was a girl who had died in grief at her brother's death. The picture was a grave pic- ture, an expirantis imago (§ 90), and the name anapauomene was doubtless derived from the epigram inscribed upon it : ava-naifaBai, here of rest in death.— H. L. U.] Introd. p. Ixxi.

9. spectatos : before the fire which took place in the reign of Augustus, Strabo, viii, p. 381 ; see note above on § 24, where the Dionysos alone is mentioned.

aede Cereris : note on xxxiv, 1 5.

10. tiagoedum et puerum: has


sometimes been explained of a tragic actor playing his part with a boy (e. g. Maas, Ann. d. Inst, 1881, p. 142, 155, suggests Priam and Troilos), but it more probably simply represented an older actor teaching a boy his part ; for the subject cf. Schreiber, Hell. Rel. pi. 47, 48 ; Helbig, VVandgemiilde, 1455 (actor with poet), and the cylixby Douris in Berlin (Furtwangler, Vasen, ii, 2285), also a similar subject below; an old man with a lyre teaching a boy.

Apollinis : in the temple on the Campus Flaminius, near the porti- cus Octaviae, xxxvi, 34; dedicated B.C. 430, for the removal of a plague (Liv. iv, 25), it remained down to the age of Augustus the only temple to the god in Rome (Asconius on Cic. In toga Candida, p. 91). In B.C. 32, C. Sosius dedicated in it a cedar-wood statue of the god which he brought from Seleukia (xiii, 53) ; hence the temple is sometimes called templum Apollinis Sosiani.

§100. II. M. Junius: probably Silanus, cos. B.C. 25.

12. ludorum Apollinarium : held on July 13 ; instituted B.C. 212.


136


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


et in aede Fidei in Capitolio senis cum lyra puenim docentis. pinxit et aegrum sine fine laudatum, tantumque arte valuit ut Attalus rex unam tabulam eius centum talentis emisse

101 tradatur. simul, ut dictum est, et Protogenes floruit, patria ei Caunus, gentis Rhodiis subiectae. summa paupertas 5 initio artisque summa intentio et ideo minor fertilitas. quis eum docuerit non putant constare, quidam et naves pinxisse usque ad quinquagensimum annum, argumentum esse, quod cum Athenis celeberrimo loco Minervae delubri propylon pingeretj ubi fecit nobilem Paralum et Hammoni- 10 ada, quam quidam Nausicaan vocant, adiecerit parvolas naves longas in iis quae pictores parergia appellant, ut appa- reret a quibus initiis ad arcem ostentationis opera sua

102 pervenissent. palmam habet tabularum eius lalysus, qui est Romae dicatus in templo Pacis. cum pingeret eum, 15


I. asde Fidei: Livy (i, 21), attri- butes its foundation to Numa ; restored B. c. 115 by M. Aemilins Scaunis ; it was on the Capitol, see Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 399, note 2.

i. aegrum: votive picture for a recovery ; for the subject Furtwangler (Jahrb. iii, p. 218) compares an excel- lent bronze statuette of a sick man (in the Cook coll. at Richmond).

3. Attalus rex : vii, 126. = App. I.

§ 101. 4. ut dictum est : in § 81.

patria Caunus : so also Paus. i, 3, 5, Plut. Demelr. 22, while Souidas names Xanthos in Lykia as his birth- place.

7. quis eum docuerit : cf. Seila- nion xxxiy, 51 ; Lysippos, ibid. 61 ; see Introd. p. xlvi ff.

naves pinxisse : i. e. he would paint the napaaijfia and eiriarjiia of


9. Athenis : he was probably twice at Athens ; Curtins conjectures that his picture of the ' Thesmothetai ' (Pans, i, 3, 5), in the Boukiiterion, was connected with the re-organization of the vonofvXoKis by Demetrios of Fhaleron, but that in the days of Pausanias, the origin of the picture


being forgotten, it was called after the old republican SifffioSirat {Stadt- Geschickte von Athen, p. 2 29). Add. — The second visit was under his special patron Demetrios Poliorketes, on the occasion alluded to here.

10. propylon: cf. xxxvi, 32 Cha- rlies in propylo Atheniensium quas Socrates fecit; the unusual form propylon for the more familiar propy- laeum or propylaea justifies us in attributing both passages to the same authority; Vi Achsm-ath, Stadt Athen, i, 36, 2 ; Introd. p. 1.

Faralum et Hammoniada : i.e. the patron-heroes of the two holy triremes. The Ammonias — ^ toO Afifjtwvos Upd Tpi-fjp^s — (see Kenyon's note on Aristotle, 'Afliji/. no\. p. 152) replaced the old Salaminia. The choice of the name is characteristic of the Antigonids and their strenuous efforts to keep alive the memory of the deified Alexander (Curtius, op. cii. P- 233); for the holy triremes cf. Boeckh - Frankel, Siaatsalterthiimer, P- 3°S ff- ; Boeckh, Seeurkunden, p. 76 ff.

11. Ifausicaan: both figures were, it seems, united in one picture which


/. PAINTING


137


a picture of an old man with a lyre teaching a boy. Aristeides also painted a sick man, a picture never sufficiently praised, and so great was his name that king Attalos, we are told, paid a hundred talents [;^2 1,000 circ] for a single picture by his hand.

Protogenes, as I have already said, was a painter of the same date. He was a native of Kaunos, a city subject to Rhodes. The great poverty of his early days and his scrupulous devotion to his art were the causes that he produced but few pictures. The name of his master is supposed to be unknown, while some say that he painted ships until his fiftieth year, and adduce in proof thereof that when he was at Athens decorating, in the most celebrated of spots, the gateway to the temple of Athene, for which he painted his famous Paralos and Hammonias, — a figure sometimes called Nausikaa, — he introduced some tiny warships in the part of the picture called the napepyia, purposing to show the humble origin of the painter whose works had risen to such a height of glory. Among his pictures the lalysos, dedicated in the Temple of Peace at Rome, bears off the palm. The story


101

Protogenes of Kaunos, Obscurity of his early life.


102

The 'lalysos!


lent itself to interpretation as Odysseus and Nausikaa ; but see C. Torr, Class, Rev. iv, 1890, p. 331.

parvolas naves : perhaps along the edge of the picture ; they were merely ornamental, or, at the most, served to indicate that the hero and heroine depicted were connected with ships. C. Torr {loc. at.) suggests that the little warships were repre- sented in the background out at sea, the figures themselves being in the foreground upon the shore. In this case the ' smallness ' was due simply to the necessities of perspective. The explanation given by Pliny is evidently aitiological, nor is it neces- sary to follow Curtius {loc. cit.) in bracketing the et, and taking these small triremes to indicate ' to what a height of glory — from what small beginnings — ship-building had attained. '

12. parergia: diminutive of irap- fpyov. No specific part of the picture is intended, but only a subordinate or incidental detail. The word is best


explained by reference to Strabo xiv, p. 652, where it is related that Proto- genes was vexed because in his picture of the Satyr (below, § 105) the admira- tion roused by the partridge had caused the work itself — -rii ipyov — to become a ir&pepyov,

§ 102. 14. lalysus : a Rhodian hero, after whom the city of 'laAvaos was named ; son of Kerkaphos and Kydippe, whose other sons were the eponymous heroes Lindos and Kameiros (Pindar, 01. vii, 74). The dog shows that lalysos was represented as a huntsman. Possibly the picture was one of a cycle of Rhodian heroes, likewise including the Kydippe and Tlepolemos (below, § 106). When Strabo wrote {loc. cil.'), the picture was still at Rhodes; it was prob- ably brought away by Vespasian and placed at once in his Temple of Peace. Plutarch {Dem. 22) says it was already burnt in his day.

15. templo Paoia : note on xxxiv, 84.


138 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

traditur madidis lupinis vixisse, quo simul et famem susti- neret et sitim nee sensus nimia dulcedine obstrueret. huic picturae quater colorem induxit contra obsidia iniuriae et vetustatis, ut decedente superiore inferior succederet. est in ea canis mire factus ut quern pariter et casus pinxerit. 5 non iudicabat se in eo exprimere spumam anhelantis, cum in reliqua parte omni, quod difficillimum erat, sibi ipse

103 satisfecisset. displicebat autem ars ipsa nee minui poterat, et videbatur nimia ac longius a veritate diseedere, spumaque ilia pingi, non ex ore nasci ; anxio animi cruciatu, cum in 10 pietura verum esse, non verisimile vellet, absterserat saepius mutaveratque penieillum, nullo modo sibi adprobans. post- remo iratus arti, quod intellegeretur, spongeam inpegit inviso loco tabulae, et ilia reposuit ablatos eolores qualiter

104 eura optaverat, fecitque in pietura fortuna naturam. hoc 15 exemplo eius similis et Nealcen successus spumae equi similiter spongea inpacta secutus dum celetem pingit ac poppyzonta retinentem eum. ita Protogenes monstravit et fortunam. propter hunc lalysum, ne cremaret tabulam, Demetrius rex, cum ab ea parte sola posset Rhodum capere, 20 non incendit, parcentemque picturae fugit occasio victoriae.

105 erat tunc Protogenes in suburbano suo hortulo, hoc est Demetrii eastris, neque interpellatus proeliis inchoata opera

1. quo] Traube; qnoniam, codd., Detlefsen. sDStineret] codd.; sustinerent Detlefsm. 2. obstrueret] ^cot*. ; ohsXiweTenX religui, Dellefsen. 17. dum celetem pingit acj Traube ; disceret cum pingitnr Bamb. ; dicitur, cum pingeret, Detlefsen.

3. obsidia iniuriae ao vetus- is told also by Plut. TrepJ Hvxi^t P-

tatis : hendiadys, to avoid the 99 B. ( = Bemardakis I, p. 240) and

awkward co-ordination of genitives; by Val. Max. viii, 11, ext. 7 (without

cf. Patron. 84 nondum vetustatis in- naming the artist). Dio Chrysostom

iuria victus. In spite of the ingenious and Sextus Empiricus (see .5". Q. 1889)

remarks of Berger {Beitrdge, ii, p. 19), tell the story of Apelles. I think the story of the four coats 17. celetem . . . poppyzonta:

of colour may still be considered for the subject in sculpture cf. (a)

apocryphal. Winter ya;4?-*. viii, 1893, p. 142 ; (*)

§ 103. 15. fortuna: the whole anec- Parthenon W. frieze, viii, 15, 22 {Cat. dote is an amusing illustration of the p. 180) &c. ; (c) a gem in the Coll. saying of Agathon (a/. Arist. Nic. Tyskiewiez (Furtwangler Ani. Gem- Ethics, vi, 4), Tf x"); rvxqv earep^e men, pi. ix, J4). Kal Tvxt Tex"'!"- Introd. p. xli f. 20. ab ea parte sola : cf. vii, 126.

§ 104. 16. Nealoen : below, The picture was in the temple of

§§ 14a, 145. The following anecdote Dionysos just outside the city (Strabo,


/. PAINTING 139

runs that while he was painting it he lived on lupins steeped in water, that he might thus satisfy at once his hunger and his thirst without blunting his faculties by over-indulgence. He gave this picture four coats of colour to preserve it from the approach of injury and age, so that if the first coat peeled off the one below might take its place. The dog in this picture is the outcome as The foam it were of miracle, since chance, and not art alone, went to the %'^ainted painting of it. The artist felt that he had not perfectly rendered by miracle. the foam of the panting animal, although he had satisfied himself — a difficult task — in the rest of the painting. It was the very 103 skill which displeased him and which could not be concealed, but obtruded itself too much, thus making the effect unnatural ; it was foam painted with the brush, not frothing from the mouth. Chafing with anxiety, for he aimed at absolute truth in his paint- ing and not at a makeshift, he had wiped it out again and again, and changed his brush without finding any satisfaction. At last, enraged with the art which was too evident, he threw his sponge at the hateful spot, and the sponge left on the picture the colours it had wiped off, giving the exact effect he had intended, and chance thus became the mirror of nature. Nealkes likewise 104 once succeeded in rendering the foam of a horse in the same jialtem^o way, by throwing his sponge at the picture he was painting of a horse in a groom coaxing a race-horse. Thus Protogenes even taught the 1y^"alkes uses of fortune. It was to preserve this lalysos that king Demetrios refrained from setting fire to the city, which was open to attack on that side only, and by sparing the picture he forfeited his chance of victory. At the time of the siege Protogenes was living 105 in his little garden beyond the walls, within the lines of Demetrios. He did not allow the war to interrupt his work, but went on with Generosity the pictures he was painting, except when summoned to the "f P^"'^'

presence of the king, and when asked what gave him courage to towards

Protogenes.

loc. cit.) ; for a fuller accotmt of the story, which recurs in a variety of

the episode see in especial Plutarch, forms, is suspicious : thus Archimedes

Dem. 22 ; the story has little historical was found quietly drawing geometric

credibility, but, as Helbig {Unters. figures when the Romans stormed

p. 181) points out, serves to emphasize Syracuse (Liv. xxv, 31, 9) ; in modem

the love of art which characterized times the painter Parmegianino was

' the most genial of the Diadochoi.' found calmly painting a Madonna

Khodum : i. e. the new city when the Spanish and Dutch troops,

founded in B. c. 408 j for the siege cf. under Constable of Bourbon, stormed

xxxiv, 41. Rome in 1527, &c.

§ lOS. 22. erat tunc Fiotogenes :


I40 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

intermisit omnino nisi accitus a rege, interrogatusque qua fiducia extra muros ageret respondit scire se cum Rhodiis illi bellum esse, non cum artibus. disposuit rex in tutelam eius stationes, gaudens quod posset manus servare quibus pepercerat, et ne saepius avocaret, ultro ad eum venit hostis 5 relictisque victoriae suae votis inter arma et murorum ictus spectavit artificem, sequiturque tabulam illius temporis haec

106 fama, quod eam Protogenes sub gladio pinxerit. Satyrus hie est quern anapauomenon vocant, ne quid desit temporis eius securitati, tenentem tibias. fecit et Cydippen, Tlepo- 10 lemum, Piiiliscum tragoediarum scriptorem meditantem et athletam et Antigonum regem, matrem Aristotelis philo- sophi, qui ei suadebat ut Alexandri Magni opera pingeret propter aeternitatem rerum. impetus animi et quaedam artis libido in haec potius eum tulere. novissime pinxit 15 Alexandrum ac Pana. fecit et signa ex aere, ut diximus.

107 eadem aetate fuit Asclepiodorus, quem in symmetria mira- batur Apelles. huic Mnaso tyrannus pro duodecim diis dedit in singulos mnas tricenas, idemque Theomnesto in

108 singulos heroas vicenas. his adnumerari debet et Nico- 20 machus Aristidi filius ac discipulus. pinxit raptum Proserpinae, quae tabula fuit in Capitolio in Minervae delubro supra aediculam luventatis, et in eodem Capitolio,

21. Aristidi] Urlichs in Chrestom.; aristiaci Bamb, Detlefsen; aristicheimi Riccard; ariste //// Voss.\ ariateclieimi Z?^f.

§ 106. 9. ne . . . securitati : (Benndorf-Schone,245 = Helbig,C&ri.

Strabo describes the Satyr as leaning Ant. 663) is a copy of Protogenes'

on a column, apparently somewhat in picture is quite uncertain, the scheme of the celebrated 'Resting 12. Antigonum regem: painted

Satyr 'by Praxiteles,Helbig,C/ojj./i»/. by Apelles, above, §§ 90, 96. 525. Furtwangler,Afer/«?7tjV«j,p. 329. matrem Aristotelis: her name

10. Cydippen, Tlepolemum : was Phaestis. Cf. Introd. p. Ixi. above, note on lalystis in § 102. 16. Alexandrum ao Pana : prob- Tlepolemos led the Rhodian contin- ably Alexander was represented as gent to Troy (//. ii, 653). Dionysos, to whom, according to the

11. Philisoum trag. script.: he legend, Pan acted as shieldbearer was a native of Kerkyra. According during his progress through India, to»Athen. V, 198 c hetookpart in the Lucian, Z'zVjk/j. 2; Helbig, Unter- great iro/iTri} of Ptolemy Philadelphos, suchungen, p. 50.

B. C. 284, in virtue of his office of ut diximus : xxxiv, % 91.

priest of Dionysos. The theory that § 107. 17. Asclepiodorus : above,

the beautiful relief in the Lateran § 80 ; he may be identical with the


/. PAINTING i4t

remain outside the walls, he replied that he knew the king was making war against Rhodes, not against art. Demetrios placed sentinels to guard him, and took a pride in protecting the artist he had spared. Unwilling to call him from his work, Demetrios, enemy though he was, visited him in person, and in the midst of arms and of assaults neglected his hopes of victory to watch the painter. Hence comes the saying about the picture which Protogenes was engaged on at the time, that he had painted it under the sword. This is the Satyr called the avanavotievos [resting], 106 and he is holding the pipes, to emphasize the painter's sense of security at the moment. He also painted a Kydippe, and a Tle- polemos, Philiskos the tragedian in meditation, an athlete, a portrait of king Antigonos, and the mother of Aristotle the philo- sopher, who had tried to persuade him to paint the exploits of Alexander the Great, on the ground that they deserved immor- tality, but the natural turn of his genius, and his artist's caprice drew the painter rather to these other themes. Alexander and Pan were the last subjects he ever painted ; as already noted, he also made bronze statues.

The Asklepiodoros whose knowledge of symmetry was praised 107 by Apelles, belonged to the same epoch ; the tyrant Mnason jly^f" gave him thirty minae [loo guineas circ] for each of his twelve gods, and to \Ttieomnestos twenty minae [^70 circ] for each of his heroes.

We must rank with these artists Nikomachos, the son and pupil 108 of Aristeides. He painted the rape of Persephone, which was in ■^^o""'- the temple of Minerva on the Capitol, above the little chapel of Aristeides.

sculptor xxxiv, 86. He must have held 21. Aristidi: i.e. the Elder, cf.

a high position, since Plutarch, Glor. above, 5 7.5 ; Urlichs' reading is con-

Athen. 2, mentions him along with firmed by the fact that whereas in § no

Apollodoros (above, § 60), Enphranor Ariston appears as brotherand pupil of

(below, 5 1281; Nikias (§ 132), and Nilcomachos, he appears in § ni as

Panainos(§ 59), as one of the masters a son and pupil of Aristeides, hence

who made Athens glorious through Nikomachos too must have been the

their paintings. son of an Aristeides, Kroker, Gleich-

18. Mnaso : above, note on § 99. namige Gr. Kilnstler, p. 26.

§ 108. 20. Wioomaohua : the raptum Proserpinae : for the

mention in Cic. Brutus, 1 8, 70, is subject cf. note on xxxiv, 69.

alone sufficient to prove his high 22. fuit: before the fire of 69 A. D.;

reputation, yet his works are known above, note on xxxiv, 38.

from Pliny only; to the list given 23. aediculam luventatis : in the

here must be added the unfinished actual cella of Minerva, near the statue

Tyndaridai, in § 145. of the goddess; the cult of luventas,


14a


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


quam Plancus imperator posuerat, Victoria quadrigam in sublime rapiens. Ulixi primus addidit pilleum. pinxit et

109 Apollinem ac Dianam, deumque matrem in leone sedentem, item nobiles Bacchas obreptantibus Satyris, Scyllamque quae nunc est Romae in templo Pacis. nee fuit alius in ea 5 arte velocior. tradunt namque conduxisse pingendum ab Aristrato Sicyoniorum tyranno quod is faciebat Telesti poetae monimentum praefinito die intra quern perageretur, nee multo ante venisse tyranno in poenam accenso paucisque

110 diebus absolvisse et celeritate et arte mira. discipulos 10 habuit Aristonem fratrem et Aristiden filium et Philo- xenum Eretrium, cuius tabula nullis postferenda Cassandro regi picta continuit Alexandri proelium cum Dario. idem pinxit et lasciviam, in qua tres Sileni comissantur. hie celeritatem praeceptoris secutus breviores etiamnum quas- 15

111 dam picturae conpendiarias invenit. adnumeratur his et Nicophanes elegans ac concinnus ita ut venustate ei pauci conparentur. cothurnus ei et gravitas artis multum a


like that of Terminus (in the same temple) was one of the oldest in Rome ; Liv. i, 55, 4 ; v, 54, 7 ; for full literature cf Wissowa, ap. Roscher, ii, pp. 666, 708, s. V. Jupiter ; ib. p. 764, s.v. Juventas.

I. Flancus imperator : sc. L. Munatius, triumphed B. c. 43 (for his assumption of the title oiimperatorci. Cic. Phil, iii, 38, and the letters of Flancus, ap. Cic. ad Fam. li, 8 ; 24). His brother L. Plautius Plancus (adopted by L. Plautius) struck in B.C. 45 a coinage with a type of Nike and horses, wliich is apparently a copy of the picture by Nikomachos (see next note and cf. Helbig, Untersuchungen, p. 154). Furtwangler {Jahrb. iv, 1889, p. 62) hence suspects an error on the part of Pliny in naming the more famous Flancus Imp. as dedicator of the statue.

Victoria ctuadrigam in Bub- lime rapiens : Furtwangler {loc. cit.) emphasizes the opinion already ex- pressed by Panofka (13th Winckel- mannsprogramm) and Schuchardt


{Nikomachos, p. 20 ff.) that the com- position survives on a beautiful gem signed Fov<j>os {Jahrb. iii, 1888, pi. xi, 10), in St. Petersburg, representing Nike with outspread wings, bearing away a team of four horses. This theory is confirmed by the fact that the composition is repeated on the coins of the gens Flautia (Babelon, Monnaies de la Rip. Rom. ii, p. 325). The painting of Nikomachos was of course a votive offering for a victory in the chariot race. ' Instead of the usual traditional type, in which the winner appears in his chariot crowned by victory, or else Nike standing in the chariot guides the horses, Niko- machos ventured on a daring inven- tion ; ignoring the chariot and the earthly chariot course, he painted tlie triumphant horses as they are borne aloft to victory by Nike herself.'

(F-)

2. rriixi primus : Servins on .^e«ezcf ii, 44 (Thilo i, p. 2221 huic Ulixi primus Nicomackus pictor pilleo caput texisse fertur, but the Schol.


7. PAINTING 143

Youth, and a Victory snatching up to Heaven a team of horses ; this was also to be seen in the Capitol, where Plancus had dedi- cated it when general. He was the first to give a cap to Ulysses. He also painted an Apollo and Artemis, a Mother of the Gods 109 seated on her lion, a celebrated picture of Mainades with Satyrs stealing upon them, and a Scylla now at Rome in the temple of Peace. No artist surpassed him in rapidity of execution. It His is said, for instance, that Aristratos, tyrant of Sikyon, com- '■'??'^"«0'- missioned him to paint before a fixed day the monument which he was raising to the poet Telestes ; Nikomachos arrived only a little before the appointed time, and the tyrant in his annoyance wished to punish him, but the painter finished the work in a few days with a promptitude as marvellous as his success. His pupils 110 were his brother iAriston, his son Aristeides and iPhiloxenos of Eretria, who painted for king Kassander the battle between Alexander and Dareios, a picture second to none ; he also painted a scene of revelry in which three Seilenoi are making merry. He imitated the swiftness of his master, and himself invented some shortened methods of technique. We must include in this list 111 Nikophanes, a painter at once graceful and precise, whose delicacy V? few can equal, though he lacks the grandeur and dignity found in

on Iliad x, 265 attributes the in- of Selinos, who had apparently mi- novation to ApoUodoros. grated to Sikyon (Athen. xiv, p. 616,

3. Apollinem ao Dianam : agroup. 625). In B.C. 401 he won the first

deumque matrem : i. c. Kybele prize at Athens.

sitting on her lion, as for instance §110. 11. Aristidemfllium : i.e.

on the Pergamene frieze, and on the Aristides Thebanus, above, § 98, cf.

frieze from the temple at Priene (frag- below, §111.

ment in Br. Mus.). 12. Cassandro regi : B.C. 306-

§ 109. 4. nobiles Baoohas ob- 296.

rept. Sat. : for the subject, cf. Wand- 13. proelium cum Dario : at Issos

gemcilde, 542-556 ; Schreiber, Hell. in B.C. 43.^, or Gaugamela in B.C.

Reliefs , xxiv. None of these com- 431. See note above oa proelium cum

positions can, however, be referred Persis, in § 99.

with certainty to Nikomachos. :6. oompendiarias : what this

Soyllamque: Schuchardt {Niko- 'shortened method' may have been

machos, p. 40 ff.) proposes to recog- it is impossible to tell ; cf. Patron. 2

nize a copy of the picture of Niko- pictura quoque non alium exitum

machos in the Scylla., Man. d. Inst, fecit, postquam Aegyptiorum audacia

iii pi. liii, 3 = Helbig, Wandgemdlde, tarn magnae artis compendiariam in-

1063 ; the same composition recurs venit. See Addenda,

on coins struck by S. Pompeius. § 111. 17. Wioophanea : below,

7. Aristrato: tyrant of Sikyon, 01. § 137 ; adnumeratur his, because he

105 = B.C. 360-357. belongs to approximately the same

Telesti : a dithyrambic poet, native date.


144 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

Zeuxide et Apelle abest. Apellis discipulus Perseus, ad quern de hac arte scripsit, huius fuerat aetatis. Aristidis Thebani discipuli fuerunt et filii Niceros et Ariston, cuius est Satyrus cum scypho coronatus, discipuli Antorides et Euphranor, de quo mox dicemus. 5

112 Namque subtexi par est minoris picturae celebres in penicillo, e quibus fuit Piraeicus. arte paucis postferendus proposito nescio an destruxerit se, quoniam humilia quidem secutus humilitatis tamen summam adeptus est gloriam. tonstrinas sutrinasque pinxit et asellos et obsonia ac similia, lo ob haec cognominatus rhyparographos, in iis consummatae voluptatis, quippe eae pluris veniere quam maximae multo-

118 rum. e diverse Maeniana, inquit Varro, omnia operiebat Serapionis tabula sub Veteribus. hie scaenas optime pinxit, sed hominem pingere non potuit. contra Dionysius nihil 15 aliud quam homines pinxit, ob id anthropographos cogno-

114 minatus. parva et Callicles fecit, item Calates comicis tabellis, utraque Antiphilus. namque et Hesionam nobilem pinxit et Alexandrum ac Philippum cum Minerva, qui sunt in schola in Octaviae porticibus, et in Philippi Liberum ao

a. de . . . arte scripsit: above, § 113. 13. e diverso : in contra-

§ 79, Introd. p. xl. diction to the small pictures by Peirai-

Aristidis Thebani: above, §§ 98- kos.

100, no; he appears here as master Maeniana: maeniana appellata

of Nikeros-Enphranor, by confusion sunt a Maenio censore qui primus in

with his grandfather Aristeides I, foro ultra columnas tigna proiecit, quo

above, note on % 108. ampliarentur superiora spectacula,

5. Euphranor: he is erroneously Festus, 134. This derivation is prob-

made into a pupil of Aristeides of ably correct, though the word soon

Thebes, whereas he was the pupil of became a common appellative, cf.

the older Aristeides, above, § 75. mox Vitruvius, v, i, i. Jordan (7i/. (/«>-

dicemus, in § 128. Stadt Rom, vol. i, part 2, p. 383,

§ 112. 7. Piraeicus = ntipoi'mis fr. note 94) believes that Pliny alludes to neipaietjs, Helbig, Untersuch. 366 ff. a temporary exhibition of a picture by This artist is still known only from Serapion, and not to painted decora- Pliny, the Pireicus of Propert. iii, 9, tions of the maeniana. The date of 12, which rested on mere interpola- Serapion is unknown, except that it tion, having been abandoned for Par- must have been previous to Varro, rhasius by recent editors : Parrhasius from whom the information as to his parva vindicat arte locum. pictures is derived.

10. tonstrinas sutrinasque: cf. inquit Varro: from whom §§ i la- the lanificium by Antiphilos in § 138, 114 appear to be almost wholly de- the workshops by Philiskos and Simos rived, Miinzer, op. cit. p. 540 f. in § 143. 14. sub Veteribus : note on § 25.


I. PAINTING


145


Zeuxis and Apelles. Perseus, the pupil to whom Apelles dedicated his book on art, also belongs to this period. The pupils of Aristeides of Thebes were his sons \Nikeros and i Arts ton (by the Pufils of second of whom we have a crowned Satyr holding a cup) and also ■^"^'^i'^"- ■\Antorides and Euphranor, of whom I shall speak presently.

It is well to add an account of the artists who won fame with 112 the brush in painting smaller pictures. Amongst them was S^'^^^j ■\Peirdikos. In mastery of his art but few take rank above him, Peiraikos. yet by his choice of a path he has perhaps marred his own success, for he followed a humble line, winning however the highest glory that it had to bring. He painted barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses, eatables and similar subjects, earning for himself the name of pvirapoypdipos [painter of odds and ends]. In these subjects he could give consummate pleasure, selling them for more than other artists received for their large pictures. As a contrast, Varro 113 mentions a picture by iSerapi'on which covered the whole of the Serapion. balconies by the Old Shops. This Serapion was an excellent scene-painter, but could not paint the figure. Dionysios on the Dionysios, contrary painted figures only, and was called dvdpanroypcKpos [painter iAe 'painter of men]. «^'»^»-'

Kallikks also painted small pictures, and so did '^Kalates, who 114 chose comic subjects ; while Antiphilos painted in both styles, his ^y^^^'- being a famous Hesione, and the picture of Alexander and Philip Antiphilos. with Athene now to be seen in the ' schools ' of the gallery of Octavia. In the gallery of Philip are his Dionysos, his young


15. Dionysius : probably identical with the portrait painter named § 148, but not to be confused with the painter Dionysios of Kolophon, a contempo- rary of Polygnotos (Arist. Poet. 2).

§ 114. 17. parva et Callioles: known besides only from the following passage of Varro, neque ille Callicles quaterniim digitum tabellis nobilis cum esset /actus, tamen in pingendo adscendere potuit ad Euphranoris altitudinem, Varro, de Vita P. R. i, ap. Charisius, p. 126, 25.

comicis: i.e. in subjects borrowed from comedy, cf. § 140.

18. utraque: i.e. both small and large pictures ; Urlichs, Chrest. p. 367.

Antiphilua : appears again in


§ 1 38 as n painter in encaustic. He was an Alexandrian and a rival of Apelles (above, note on §89). Quinc- tilian (xii, 10, 6) praises him for his facility {facilitate Antiphilus) ; he is probably one of those who introduced that ars compendiaria (above, § no, cf. on Pausias, in § 124), with the invention of which Petronius charged the Egyptians.

Hesionam : probably her deliver- ance by Herakles. For the subject cf. the large picture, Helbig, Wandge- mdlde, 11 29.

19. Alex, ac Phil, cum Minerva: probably on a chariot, with Athena acting as charioteer, Furtwangler, Jahrb, iv, 1889, P- 8^> °°'^ 42-


146 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

patrem, Alexandrum puerum, Hippolytum tauro emisso expavescentem, in Pompeia vero Cadmum et Europen. idem iocosis nomine Gryllum deridiculi habitus pinxit, unde id genus picturae grylli vocantur. ipse in Aegypto natus 115 didicit a Ctesidemo. decet non sileri et Ardeatis templi s pictorem, praesertim civitate donatum ibi et carmine quod est in ipsa pictura his versibus :

Dignis digna. Loco picturis condecoravit reginae lunonis supremi coniugis templum Plautius Marcus, cluet Asia lata esse oriundus, lo

quem nunc et post semper ob artem hanc Ardea laudat, lie eaque sunt scripta antiquis litteris Latinis ; non fraudando et Studio divi Augusti aetate qui primus instituit amoenissi- mam parietum picturam, villas et portus ac topiaria opera, lucos, nemora, coUes, piscinas, euripos, amnes, litora, qualia 15 quis optaret, varias ibi obambulantium species aut navigan- tium terraque villas adeuntium asellis aut vehiculis, iam piscantes aucupantesque aut venantes aut etiam vindemi- 117 antes, sunt in eius exemplaribus nobiles palustri accessu villae, succollatis sponsione mulieribus labantes trepidis quae 20 feruntur, plurimae praeterea tales argutiae facetissimi salis.

12. Latinis, non Detlefsen.

1. Hippolytum tauro emisso; i, p. 1414, are probably influenced under the influence of the Euripidean more or less remotely by the composi- play, Kalkmann, A. Z. 1883 (41), tion of Antiphilos.

p. 43 ff. 3. Gryllum: the name, which was

2. in Pompeia; note on § 59. that of the father and of one of the Cf. again Varro, de Re Rust, iii, a, 5, sonsofXenophon.wascommonenough. and Miinzer, loc. cit. ; Introd. p. Ixxxiv. The deridiculus habitus must have

Cadmum et Europen : its great been in allusion to jpvKXos = a dancer reputation is apparent from Martial of the y[mXiaii6s, in which the per- il. 14> 3j who uses the name of the formers were originally masked as picture as synonymous for the por- pigs, though in time the term seems ticus Pompeia {currit ad Europen). to have come to include every kind of The picture, which was doubtless ori- wanton dancing (see Phrynichos, ed. ginally in Alexandria, may, as Helbig Lobeck, p. loi). Such performances ( Untersucli. p. 2 24 f ) points out, have were especially in favour at Alex- inspired Moschos during his stay in andria, so that it is natural to find that city to write the famous descrip- such a subject influencing an Alex- tion in Idyll i, 125 ff. A number of andrian artist (cf. Urlichs, ZJaj ,4ii72«?-««  extant later representations of the Pferd, p. 20 f).

mylh — the most celebrated of which § 115. 5. Ctesidemo ; below,

is the mosaic from Palestrina, Roscher, § 140.


/. PAINTING 147

Alexander, and Hippolytos terrified at the bull sent up from the

sea, and in the gallery of Pompeius his Kadmos and Europa.

Among his comic pictures is one of a man called Gryllos in a

ridiculous costume, from which all such pictures are called ypiWoi.

Antiphilos was born in Egypt, and studied under iKtesidemos. x'tesid^mZ.

I ought not to pass over in silence the painter of the temple at 115 ^y^Ol"

Ardea, especially as he was honoured by receiving the citizenship ( ^J-^ V

of the town and the following verses written on the picture : ' To ^f^

the deserving be due honour paid. The temple of queenly Juno, (

wife of the almighty, did Lykon adorn with paintings, even Plautius Piautius

Marcus, born in wide Asia, whom for this his art Ardea praises ^"■"^'"^ ' ^ Lykon.

now and for ever more.' The lines are in old-fashioned Latin

characters.

Nor must I neglect \Studius, a painter of the days of Augustus, 116

who introduced a delightful style of decorating walls with repre- •^'^'"^""•

sentations of villas, harbours, landscape gardens, sacred groves,

woods, hills, fishponds, straits, streams and shores, any scene in

short that took the fancy. In these he introduced figures of people

on foot, or in boats, and on land of people coming up to the

country-houses either on donkeys or in carriages, besides figures

of fishers and fowlers, or of hunters or even of vintagers. Among 117

his works we know well the men approaching a villa through

a swamp, and staggering beneath the weight upon their shoulders

of the terrified women whom they have bargained to carry over,

with many other scenes of like vivacity and infinite humour. He

Ardeatis templi : Verg. Aen. vii, ff.) it appears that the painting of

41 1 ff. ; cf. above, §17. topiaria of era was older than the age

8. Loco = AvKoiv; in addition to of Augustus. Studius gave it a new

his Greek name he would, on recelv- impulse or perhaps made it for the

ing the citizenship of Ardea, assume first time really fashionable at Rome,

the name of Plautius Marcus. M. 15. topiaria opera: in Livia's

HeiiT^'m Index Lect.Vratislav.{\^6'j), Villa at Prima Porta the walls of one

suggests that he may hare been both room were decorated with the plan of

painter and poet, as was Pacuvius a garden (see Antike Denkmdler, i, pi.

(above, § 19), and that he is identical 11,24), and afford an excellent example

with/'/o«rt'aj, a writer whose comedies of the style of Studius (Brunn, Bull.

passed under the name of Plautus, 1863, p. 81 ff.) ; cf. also, Helbig,

Varro, a/. A. Gellius, iii, 3, 3. The in- Untersuchungen, p. 62. Pliny the

scription on his picture being in hexa- younger (^Ep. v, 6, 22) describes

meter, he cannot be dated earlier than a bedroom in his villa as follows :

Ennius (B.C. 239-169); cf. Mommsen, nee cedit gratiae marmoris ramos in-

Rbm. Gesch ed. 7, i, p. 941 note. cidentesque ramis aves imitata pictura.

§116. 13. qui primus : note on §117- 19. exemplaribus : sc. in-

§16: as a fact from Vitruvius vii, 5, genii ; cf. § 74 ingenii . . . exempla.

(cf. Rhein. Miis. xxv, 1870, p. 394 21. argutiae: §67; xxxiv, 65.

L %


148 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

idem subdialibus maritimas urbes pingere instituit, blandis-

118 simo aspectu minimoque inpendio. sed nulla gloria artifi- cum est nisi qui tabulas pinxere, eo venerabilior antiquitatis prudentia apparet. non enim parietes excolebant dominis tantum, nee domos uno in loco mansuras quae ex incendiis 5 rapi non possent. casa Protogenes contentus erat in hortulo suo, nulla in Apellis tectoriis pictura erat. nondum libebat parietes totos tinguere, omnium eorum ars urbibus excuba-

119 bat pictorque res communis terrarum erat. fuit et Arellius Romae celeber paulo ante divum Augustum, ni flagitio 10 insigni corrupisset artem, semper ei lenocinans cuius feminae amore flagraret, ob id deas pingens, sed dilectarum imagine.

120 itaque in pictura eius scorta numerabantur. fuit et nuper gravis ac severus idemque floridus et vividus pictor Famu- lus, huius erat Minerva spectantem spectans quacumque 15 aspiceretur. paucis diei horis pingebat, id quoque cum gravitate, quod semper togatus, quamquam in machinis. career eius artis domus aurea fuit, et ideo non extant exempla alia magnopere. post eum fuere in auctoritate Cornelius Pinus et Attius Priscus, qui Honoris et Virtutis 20 aedes Imp. Vespasiano Aug. restituenti pinxerunt, Priscus antiquis similior.

121 Non est omittenda in picturae mentione Celebris circa A.u.c. 711- Lepidum fabula, siquidem in triumviratu quodam loco

deductus a magistratibus in nemorosum hospitium minaciter 25 cum iis postero die expostulavit somnum ademptum sibi volucrum concentu, at illi draconem in longissima membrana

14. floridls (floridus e corr.) umidns Bamb., corr. Traube ; floridissimus Urlichs in Chrest., Detlefsen.

I. subdialibus: cf. xxxvi, 186. in his person (cf. below, «<ot ^aOTto«,

§ 118. 4. excolebant dominis : togatus), whereas his painting was

private patrons, cf. in § 30 (colores) floridus and mviius ; the adjectives

quos dominus pingenti praestat ; in are transferred from the colour to the

§ 44 « reliquis coloribus quos a do- painter, cf. § 134 austerior colore,

minis dari diximus . . . though austerus like floridus was

  • 6. casa in hortulo : above, § 105. a technical qualification of certain

The ' cottage ' doubtless belonged to colours, sunt autem colores austeri

the same class of loci communes as the autfloridi, § 30.

a»Ki (note on § 81). 17. quod semper togatus: so

§ 120. 14. gravis ao severus : i.e. Vandyck painted in full dress.


718.


/. PAINTING 149

also brought in the fashion of painting seaside towns on the walls of open galleries, producing a delightful effect at a very small cost. No artists, however, enjoy a real glory unless they have painted 118 easel pictures, and herein the wisdom of past generations claims our greater respect. They did not decorate walls to be seen only by their owners, nor houses that must always remain in one place and could not be carried away in case of fire. Protogenes was content with a cottage in his little garden, and no fresco was to be seen in the house of Apelles. It was not yet men's pleasure to dye whole surfaces of wall ; all the masters laboured for the cities, and the artist was the possession of the whole world.

Not long before the time of the god Augustus, Arellius had 119 earned distinction at Rome, save for the sacrilege by which he ^""^■ notoriously degraded his art. Always desirous of flattering some woman or other with whom he chanced to be in love, he painted goddesses in the person of his mistresses, of whom his paintings are a mere catalogue. The painter •^Famulus also lived not 12'p long ago ; he was grave and severe in his persoUj while his ^'^'""""■ painting was rich and vivid. He painted an Athena whose eyes are turned to the spectator from whatever side he may be looking. Famulus painted for a few hours only in the day, and treated his art seriously, always wearing the toga, even when mounted on scaffolding. The Golden House was the prison of his art, and hence not many examples of it are known. After him \ Cornelius Cornelius Pinus and -[AUius Priscus were painters of repute, who painted 2uius the twin temples of Honour and Virtue when they were restored Prisms. by the emperor Vespasian Augustus. Priscus approached more nearly to the old masters.

While on the subject of painting I must not omit the well- 121 known story of Lepidus. Once during his triumvirate he had fscare^'^ been escorted by the magistrates of a certain town to a lodging in crow,' the middle of a wood, and on the next morning complained with ■^^■J„j threats that the singing of the birds prevented him from sleeping. They painted a snake on an immense strip of parchment and stretched it all round the grove. We are told that by this means

macliinis 1 here of scaffolding, 20. Honoris et Virtutis aedes :

Bliimner, Technol. iv, 430 ; for bnilt or rather restored by Marcellus,

machma = e&se\, above, § 81. in B. C. 212, to contain part of the art

18. career eius artis : for Pliny's treasures brought from Syracuse, Liv.

hatred of Nero cf. above, § 51 ; xxxiv, xxv, 40, cf. xxvii, 25 ; Cic. Verr. II, iv,

4g, 84. 54, 120 ; Gilbert, Kom, iii. p. 97 f.


ISO C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

depictum circumdedere luco eoque terrore aves tunc siluisse narratur et postea potuisse compesci.

122 Ceris pingere ac picturam inurere quis primus excogita- verit non constat, quidam Aristidis inventum putant postea consummatum a Praxitele, sed aliquanto vetustiores encau- 5 stae picturae exstitere, ut Polygnoti et Nicanoris ac Mnasilai Pariorum. Elasippus quoque Aeginae picturae suae in- scripsit iviKaev, quod profecto non fecisset nisi encaustica inventa.

123 Pamphilus quoque Apellis praeceptor non pinxisse solum 10 encausta sed etiam docuisse traditur Pausian Sicyonium primum in hoc genere nobilem. Bryetis filius hie fuit eius- demque primo discipulus. pinxit et ipse penicillo parietes Thespis, cum reficerentur quondam a Polygnoto picti, multumque conparatione superatus existimabatur, quoniam 15

124 non suo genere certasset. idem et lacunaria primus pingere instituit, nee camaras ante eum taliter adornari mos fuit. parvas pingebat tabellas maximeque pueros. hoc aemuli interpretabantur facere eum, quoniam tarda picturae ratio asset ilia, quamobrem daturus et celeritatis famam absolvit 20 uno die tabellam quae vocata est hemeresios puero picto.

125 amavit in iuventa Glyceram municipem suam, inventricem coronarum, certandoque imitatione eius ad numerosissimam florum varietatem perduxit artem illam. postremo pinxit

§ 122. 3. ceris pingere . . is awkwardly dragged in a second

inurere : i. c. encaustic ; note on time, in order to introduce his pupil

§ 149. Pausias, who in the original Greek

4. quidam . . . inventum : for this account, where no arbitrary division variant tradition, Introd. p. xxxiii. seems to have been drawn between

Aristidis : presumably the first of the painters in encaustic and others,

the name, above, § 75. would certainly be discussed in con-

5. oonsumm. a Praxitele : who nexiou with his master and his con- would use encaustic for the czV^iw/zWo temporaries of §§ 75-76, Introd. of his statues (below, § 133). p. xxxiv.

6. Polygnoti: above, 5§ 58-59. 13. pinxit . . . certasset: this 8. Iv^KMv : cf. above, § 27. mention of wall-paintings shows that § 123. 10. Pamphilus : §§ 75-76. encaustic was not treated separately

We now come agam upon distinct by the Greek authors, traces of Xenokrates. Stress is laid 14. Thespis : the wall paintings

uponthepre-emmenceofSikyon,and by Polygnotos had probably been

the pamters are connected with defi- injured at the destruction of Thespiai

nite stages of progress. Pamphilos by the Thebans in B. c. 374. The


/. PAINTING 151

they terrified the birds into silence and that this has ever since been a recognized device for quieting them.

We do not know with certainty who first invented the art of 122 painting with wax colours and burning in the painting. Some ^f'^"^' believe that it was invented by Aristeides and afterwards brought to perfection by Praxiteles, but encaustic paintings of a somewhat earlier date exist, for example, by Polygnotos, and by tNikanor and tMnasilaos of Pares. fElasippos of Aigina also wrote on one of his paintings ivUacv [burnt it in], which he certainly would not have done before the invention of encaustic painting.

Tradition further says that Pamphilos the master of Apelles 123 not only painted in encaustic but also taught Pausias of Sikyon, fJf'"l'l ■ the first well-known master in this style. Pausias was the son of to, and by ■\Bryetes, under whom he first studied. He also painted with the ^f"""' brush certain walls at Thespiai, which had originally been painted by Polygnotos and needed restoration. His work was held to suffer very greatly by the comparison, as he had competed in a style that was not his own. He was the first to paint panelled 124 ceilings, nor was it the practice to decorate vaulted roofs in this way before his day. He habitually painted small pictures, boys being his favourite subject. His rivals declared that this was because his method of encaustic painting was slow, whereupon he determined to acquire a reputation for rapid execution, and painted in a single day a picture of a boy called the rjiiepfia-ios [day's work]. As a youth he loved his townswoman Glykera, 125 who first invented flower wreaths. By copying and rivalling her ^b^"', he enabled encaustic painting to represent a great variety oi girlfieloved flowers. Finally he painted a portrait of Glykera herself seated °f^<^""^-

restoration of the paintings would praise for swiftness bestowed upon

take place on the restoration of the Nilcomachos, § top, and his pupil

city, after the capture of Thebes by Philoxenos, § no; upon Iaia,in§ 148,

Alexander in 335 B. c. and Quinctilian's estimate of Anti-

§124. 16. idem et laounaria philos (note on § 114).

primus: 'Funvi'i.ngltr {Fleck. Jahrb. § 125. 22. Glyceram ; xxi, 4,

xxii, 1876, p. 507) has pointed out whence we obtain post Olympiada C

that these words correspond to qui ( = B.c. 380) as a further guide to the

primus lacunaria pinxit in the table artist's date. Append. V.

of contents, while the following nee iuventrioem ; the passage in xxi

camaras ante eum corresponds to shows that she was really thought of

quando primum camarae pictae {ib.). as the inventor of the art of plaiting

The statements accordingly are quite garlands ; thus the old conjecture

distinct. ■venditricem (Gesner) becomes im-

20. absolvit uno die : cf. the possible.


152 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

et ipsam sedentem cum corona, quae e nobilissimis tabula est appellata stephaneplocos, ab aliis stephanopolis, quoniam Glycera venditando coronas sustentaverat paupertatem. huius tabulae exemplar, quod apographon vocant, L. Lucul-

126 lus duobus talentis emit Dionysiis Athenis. Pausias autem s fecit et grandis tabulas, sicut spectatam in Pompei porticu boum immolationem. earn primus invenit picturam, quam postea imitati sunt multi, aequavit nemo, ante omnia, cum longitudinem bovis ostendi vellet, adversum eum pinxit, non

127 traversum, et abunde intellegitur amplitudo. dein, cum lo omnes quae volunt eminentia videri candicanti faciant co- lore, quae condunt nigro, hie totum bovem atri coloris fecit umbraeque corpus ex ipsa dedit magna prorsus arte in aequo extantia ostendente et in confracto solida omnia. Sicyone et hie vitam egit, diuque ilia fuit patria picturae. tabulas 15

A.u.c. 698. inde e publico omnis propter aes alienum civitatis addictas

128 Scauri aedilitas Romam transtulit. post eum eminuit longe ante omnis Euphranor Isthmius olympiade CIIII, idem qui inter fictores dictus est nobis, fecit et colossos et marmorea et typos scalpsit, docilis ac laboriosus ante omnis et in quo- 20 cumque genere excellens ac sibi aequalis. hie primus vide-

4. apographou : there were at the duced by modelling, without the help time many artists who were solely of any extraneous colour, precisely as occupied in the business of copying ; the Kentaurs of the white marble at Athens Lucian, Zeux. 3, sees a slab at Naples (Helbig, Wandgem. copy of the ' Kentaurs ' of Zenxis ; cf. 1 241 ) appear in strong relief through also Dionysios inpX Atvipxov vii, the skilful though slight modelling, p. 644 ; Quinct. x, 2, 6 ; x, 2, 2 ; Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, p. 47. above, § qi (Helbig, Untersuchungen, in aequo omnia ; in modern p. 63). From the exorbitant price parlance Pausias excelled at giving paid, however, it is possible that the the 'impression of artistic reality with apographon was a replica by the only two dimensions' (cf. Berenson, artist himself. The Florentine painters of the Renais-

5. Athenis: LucuUus visited m««, p. 4), i.e. at representing depth, Athens in B.C. 88-87 as Sulla's the third 'dimension, on a flat surface. Quaestor ; cf below, on § 156. 15. patria picturae : cf. xxxvi, 9.

§ 126. 7. boum immolationem : 16. propter ass alienum : since

for the subject cf § 93 (note on pom- Sulla's Mithridatic war the Sikyonians

paii). had fallen into debt and distress

5 127. II. eminentia; §§ 92 {di- (see especially Cic. ad Ait. i, 19, 9;

giti eminere videntur) ; 1^1 . ib. 20, 4; Ttisc. Disp. iii, 22,

13. umbrae corpus ex ipsa § 53) and were consequently forced

dedit : the effect was simply pro- to sell their art treasures.


/. PAINTING J 153

with a wreath, one of the famous pictures of tjisr' world, called the oTf^acijTrXoKos [wreath-binder], or by othe/s the o-Tf^ai/oTrMXif [wreath-seller], because Glykera had support<ed herself by selling wreaths. A copy of the picture, an anoypaipv.v as it is called, was bought by Lucius Lucullus for two talents f -^420 circ.J at the festival of Dionysos at Athens. Pausias, however, also painted 12a large pictures, as for example the famous sacr'fice of oxen in the Gallery of Pompeius. He devised an innpva\ion which has often ffe devises been imitated but never equalled. ■ The most, striking instance is '^application that wishing to display an ox's length of body,«je painted a front of light and not a side view of the animal, and yet contrived to show its size. Again, while all others put in the high\ lights in white 127 and paint the less salient parts in dark colour, i^e painted the whole ox black, and gave substance to the shadqw out of the shadow itself, showing great art in giving all his figjUres full relief upon the flat surface, and in indicating their form when fore- shortened. He spent his life at Sikyon, for many years the home of painting. Later on, in the aedileship of Scaurus, all the 56 b.c. pictures of Sikyon were sold to liquidate the public debt, and were brought to Rorne.

After Pausias in the hundred and fourth Olympiad [364-361 128 B. C.J, Euphranor of the Isthmos, whom I have already mentioned Ettpki-a- among the statuaries, far excelled all rivals. He furthermore ' produced colossal statues, works in marble and reliefs. Receptive and of indefatigable industry, he attained in every branch a high level, below which he never fell. He first, it is believed, gave to

17. Soauri aedilitas: viii, 64, and into the present anachronism,

often. 18. qvii inter flotores : xxxiv, 77,

I 128. post eum : of time et colossos ib. § 78, Euphranor's marble

(Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 15); but works are only mentioned here.

a date posterior to Pausias is irrecon- 20. typos : in which he would be

cilable with Ol. 104 below and able to bring out his double skill as

xxxiv, 50. The mistake arises, as painter and artist ; the Greek relief,

Robert, Arch. Marchen, p. 89, points as we know it from the Sidonian Sar-

out, from Pliny's confusion between kophagi, being in reality a sort of

the Elder Aristeides (§ 75) and raised picture (Wickhoff, Wiener

Aristeides of Thebes. In his original Genesis, p. 46 ff.; cf. Winter, Arch.

scl(eme he doubtless intended to keep Anzeiger, 1894, p. 8£f.); a. ypavTis

E. in his right chronology immediately twttos, Anth. Pal. vii, 730.

after Euxeinidas and his pupil Aris- in quooumque genere exoel-

teides; but as in that case the ac- lens; Quinct. xii, 10, 12 Euphra-

count of the supposed pupil would norem circa flurium artium species

have preceded that of the supposed praestantem.

master (§§ 98, III), Pliny was misled 21. Mo primus: introduces his


nor.


154


C\PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


tur expressisSe-dignitatis heroum et usurpasse symmetrian, sed fuit in universitate corporum exilior et capitibus articu-

129 lisque grandior. viblumina quoque composuit de symmetria et coloribus. opej'a eius sunt equestre proelium, XII dei, Theseus, in quo dixit eundem apud Parrhasium rosa pastum 5 esse, suum vero caU-ne. nobilis eius tabula Ephesi est, Ulixes simulata insania qovem cum equo iungens et palliati cogi-

130 tantes, dux gladimi. L.jadens. eodem tempore fuere Cydias et . . . , cuius tabjilam Argonautas HS. CXXXXIIII Hor- tensius orator -nercatus est eique aedem fecit in Tuscu- lo lano suo, Eugfnranoris autem discipulus Antidotus. huius est clipeo di/^icans Athenis et luctator tubicenque inter pauca laudajus. ipse diligentior quam numerosior et in coloribus severus maxime inclaruit discipulo Nicia Atheni-

131 ense qui diligentissime mulieres pinxit. lumen et umbras 15 custodiit atque ut eminerent e tabulis picturae maxime

8. cydi et cydias codd. ; Cydias Detlefsen.


special contribution to his art, cf. Introd. p. xxvii f.

I. dignitatis heroum : so Varro, Vita Pop. Rom., ap. Char. p. 126, praises E. for his altitudo or loftiness.

symmetrian : note on xxxiv, 65.

i. exilior : see Addenda.

capitibus articulisque : the judgement is identical with that passed on Zeuxis in § 64, where see note.

§ 129. 3. volumina . . . com- posuit : lilce Apelles, § 79, Pam- philos (note on § 76),Melanthios, &c. Introd. p. xl f.

4. equestre proelium : in the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios at Athens, Paus. i, 3, 4 ; the picture represented the cavalry engagement which preceded the battle of Mantineia (b. c. 362, of. Plut. Glor. Ath. ii, p. 346) ; according to Paus. viii, 9, 8, a copy of it was to be seen in the gymnasion at Mantineia.

XII dei : in the same Stoa, Pafls. i, 3, 3; for the Zeus in this picture see Val. Max. viii, ext. 5 ; for the Hera, Luc. ^iKdvis 7.

5. Theseus : likewise in the Stoa Eleutherios ; the hero was represented


with Demokratia and Demos, Paus. loc. cit. Both Theseus and Demos were subjects that had been treated by Parrhasios (above § 69). Demos was also painted by Aristolaos, § 137. For the distribution of Euphranor's pictures in the Stoa Eleutherios see Hitzig and Bliimn er, Pausanias, p. 1 4 1 .

in quo dixit eundem : Plut. Glor. Athen. ii, p. 346 Ei(j>pavoip rbv ©Tjaea rov kavTOv to) Uappafflov 7rapej3aA.€ ^^eyajv, rbv pi.'kv hiaivov poha peppojicivaij t6v 5e kavrov Kpia ^oeta. Miinzer {oJ>. cit. p. 527) aptly compares the Aristophanic verse (Fr. 180) upon Euripides, recorded by Antigonos of Karystos, ap. Diogenes iv, 3, 18 -napr)- TT] fjt^vos (sc. IIoAe/xaiy) a (prjaiv 'AptffTO- (pdvTjs trepl EvpLtriSov " d^ana koI tftX- 0ia)Ta," awepj ujs 6 avris (prjffi, " fcara- •nvyoavvTj TavT^ effxi irpds Kpias fisya.^' Introd. p. Ixiii f.

7. simulata insania : ore avarpa- Tcvct Tots 'ArpeiSats fii^ QiXaiv, Lucian, vfpi oixov 30, where the whole picture is described in detail. The same subject was painted by Parrhasios (Plut. aud. poet. 3), we are not told for what city.


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155


heroes their full dignity, and mastered the theory of fymmetry ; he made the body, however, too slim and the head and limbs too large. He also wrote on symmetry and colour. His works are : a cavalry engagement, the Twelve Gods and a 1,'heseus, of which he said that the Theseus of Parrhasios had fed pn roses, but his on flesh. At Ephesos is his famous picture of ' Odysseus feigning madness and yoking an ox with a horse, \^th cloaked figures in meditation, and their leader sheathing his sword. Kydias and . . . lived at the same time; his picture of the Argonauts was purchased for 144,000 sesterces [;^i25o circ] by the Orator Hortensius, who built a shrine for it on his estate at Tusculum. iAnttdotos was a pupil of Euphranor. He painted a warrior fighting with a shield, to be seen at Athens, a wrestler and a trumpeter^ a picture praised as are but few. He was a laborious rather than a prolific artist, and severe in his scheme of colouring ; his chief claim to renown is that he was the master of Nikias of Athens, who painted women with minute care. Nikias was pains- taking in his treatment of light and. shade, and took special care


129

He com- pares his ' Theseus ' to that of Parrhasios.

130


Antidotos.


Nikias of

Athens.

131


palliati oogitantes : these must be identical with the nfka^us in Lucian's description.

8. gladium condens : UaKa/v/ibris . . . TTponajTrov ex^'^ ^^ ^^^o^t i- e. the sword was half out of the sheath, and it was uncertain whether Palamedes was drawing or replacing it. So too in § 59, Pliny says of a picture by Polyguotos that it was uncertain whether the man represented was ' ascending ' or ' descending.'

§ 130. fuere Cydias et . . . : the fuere combined with the evidence of the MSS. compels one to assume the loss of an artist's name. Whether Cydias should appear in the first place or the second is uncertain. Over- beck's explanation Schriftquell. 1969° (which I presume is also Detlefsen's), that fuere refers to both Cydias and Antidotus, is quite unwarranted.

9. Hortensius orator : xxxiv, 48.

12. luotator tubioenque: votive pictures ; for the latter, probably of a winner in a. herald's competition, see note on xxxiv, 88.


13. numerosior: see on xxxiv, 58. in coloribus severus : for similar

judgements ; § 98 durior faulo in coloribus; % 134 austerior colore Athenian; § 137 e severissimis pic- toribus (Aristolaus) ; ib. durus in coloribus (Nikophanes).

14. disoipulo IVioia : Euphranor and Praxiteles being contemporaries (xxxiv, 50), a chronological difficulty arises from the statement that Nikias, who assisted Praxiteles to paint his statues, was the pupil of a pupil of Euphranor. Pliny himself felt the difficulty; in § 133 he hints at the solution in the words non satis discer- nitur . . . ; there were evidently two artists named Nikias ; to the Elder, the assistant of Praxiteles (fl. ab. B. c. 370-330), and probably the painter of Alexander (r. B.C. 336-323), belongs the date Ol. cxii, while the Younger, who was the pupil of Antidotos, flourished about the time of Athenion (on whom see note).

§ 131. 15. lumen et umbras: §§ 29, 127. Cf. Introd. p. xxxiv. 16. ut eminerent : §§ 92, 127.


156


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


A.u.c. 679. curavit. opera eius : Nemea advecta ex Asia Romam a Silano qu^m in curia diximus positam, item Liber pater in

A.u.c. 724. aede Concordiae, HyacinthuSj quern Caesar Augustus delec- tatus eo secum deportavit Alexandrea capta — et ob id Tiberius Caesar in templo eius dicavit hanc tabulam et 5

132 Danaen — , Eph 'si vero est megabyzi sacerdotis Ephesiae Dianae sepulchrum, Athenis necyomantea Homeri. hanc vendere Attalo regi noluit talentis LX, potiusque patriae suae donavit abundans opibus. fecit et grandes picturas, in quibus sunt Calypso et lo et Andromeda, Alexander 10 quoque in Pompei porticibus praecellens et Calypso sedens.

133 huic eidem adscribuntur quadripedes, prosperrime canes expressit. hie est Nicias de quo dicebat Praxiteles inter- rogatus quae maxime opera sua probaret in marmoribus : quibus Nicias manum admovisset, tantum circumlitioni eius 15

5. tabulam et Danaen] Bamb. ; tabulam — et Danae Detlefsen.


2. Silauo : ii, loo; governor of Bithynia, B. c. 76-75. The picture had possibly belonged to Pergamon.

diximus : § 27, where see note.

3. Hyaointhus : from Paus. iii, 19, 4, it appears he was represented in the bloom of youth, in special allusion to Apollo's love for him.

4. Alexandria capta : on the works of art brought by Augustus from Alexandria, and dedicated by him at Rome, see Wunderer's mono- graph, Manibiae Alexandrinae,y^\ixz- burg, 1894.

5. in templo eius : i. c. in the temple built to the memory of Augustus by Livia and Tiberius in 14 A. D., Dio Cassius Ivi, 46 ; cf. Plin. xii, 94. To it belonged both a portions and a library (xxxiv, 43).

et Danaen: the Danae ig awk- wardly coordinated with the Hyacin- thus. That it did not come from Egypt, as Urlichs {Chrest. p. 372) supposes, is shown by the fact that Pliny would in that case have made the relative sentence refer to both pictures (Wunderer, op. cit. p. 9).


§ 132. 6. megabyzi : note on

§93-

7. sepulchrum : for another grave picture, by Nikias, at Triteia in Achaia, see Paus. vii, 22, 6 ; cf the expirantium imagines of Apelles, in § 90 ; the anapauomene of Aristeides, in § 99.

necyom. Homeri : Odyssey xi. The picture, described Anth. Pal. ix, 792, was the artist's most cele- brated work. While he was engaged upon it, according to an entertaining tale told by Plutarch, An sen. sit ger. rep. v, 4, Nikias used to ask those of his household whether he had washed or breakfasted.

8. Attalo regi : familiarity with the high prices paid by Attalos (vii, 126; XXXV, 24) induced Pliny into error. The date of Attalos is irre- concilable with that of Nikias, so that Plutarch is probably right in telling the story of Ptolemaios (Soter, B. C. 306-284), UToXiimiou Se Tov $affi\e(as e^T/KOVTa roKavra ttjs ypa<pT]s ffvvTeKeaOeia'tjs irefjajjavTos ai/T^ fiij \aPeiv fiijS' diro56(T6at t6 epyov.


/. PAINTING


IS7


that his figures should be relieved against the background. His His treat- works are : the picture of Nemea brought to Rome from Asia by ^^I^f ^^^ Silanus, and placed, as I have said, in the Council Chamber ; shade. a Dionysos in the temple of Concord ; the Hyakinthos carried ^^ ^' ^' away on the fall of Alexandria by Caesar Augustus, who took such 30 b. c. great delight in the picture that as a consequence Tiberius Caesar dedicated it in the temple of Augustus together with the Danae ; at Ephesos a painting for the grave of a fieya^v^os or priest of 132 Artemis of Ephesos, and at Athens the veKvofiavreia [questioning of the dead] of Homer. This picture the artist refused to sell to King Attalos for sixty talents [;i^i 2,600 circ] but preferred, as he was a rich man, to present it to his own country. He also painted large pictures, amongst them Kalypso, lo, Andromeda, the excel- J p

lent portrait of Alexander which is in the Gallery of Pompeius, and \ . 'J a Kalypso seated. Pictures of animals are also ascribed to him, :b3 and he was very successful in painting dogs. It is of this Nikias He colours that Praxiteles, when asked which of his marble statues pleased '^"plf^l' him most, said, ' Those which the hand of Nikias has touched,' teles. such was his tribute to this artist's colouring of the accessories. It is not clear whether this or another Nikias is the one placed


Non posse suav. vivere sec. Ep. xi, 2. The court of Alexandria had been more fortunate in purchasing the Hyakinthos (§ 131).

patriae suae donavit : of. in § 62 the similar statement concerning Zeuxis.

9. grandes picturas : in opposi- tion to the smaller pictures painted in encaustic.

10. Calypso : a standing figure from the fact that the second Kalypso is expressly described as sedens.

lo : Helbig {Untersuchungen, pp. 113, 140), inclines to see in the lo of the House of Livia on the Palatine, a copy of the lo of Nikias, a composi- tion which seems to have inspired Prop, i, 3, 20.

Andromeda : the composition seems preserved in the well-known relief of the Capitol, Helbig, Class. Ant.^di =Schieibei, Hell. Reliefs, xii; of. the Pompeian paintings, Helbig, Wandgemalde, 1186-1189. Add.


1 1 . Pompei porticibus : note on

5 59-

§ 133. 12. prosperrime canes: KHTai 8^ kvravOa . . , NiKias re o Nftfo- liTiSovs (cf. Kohler, AiA. Mitth. 1885, p. 234, 2), f^a dpiffTOS ypalpaL tSjv i<^ avTovj Pans, i, 29, 15. The descrip- tion appears to be from the inscription on the grave.

15. ciTCumlitioni : the process must be kept distinct from the ydvaats or toning down of the whole statue (Vitr. vii, g, 4) ; circuml. was admirably explained by Welcker (in Miiller, Handhuch, p. 431), to consist in a painting of hair and accessories, intended to give relief Ui the statue — to be in a word identical with circum- litio as understood in painting, Qninct. viii, 5, 26 nee pictura, in qua nihil circumlitum est eminet (cf. id. xii, 9, 8). Since then, the discovery of the Sidonian sarkophagoi has revealed precisely such a use of colour for hair, dress, &c., as was divined by Welcker,


158


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


tribuebat. non satis discernitur alium eodem nomine an

134 hunc eundem quidam faciant olympiade CXII. Niciae conparatur et aliquando praefertur Athenion Maronites Glaucionis Corinthii discipulus, austerior colore et in auste- ritate iucundior, ut in ipsa pictura eruditio eluceat. pinxit 6 in templo Eleusine Phylarchum et Athenis frequentiam quam vocavere syngenicon, item Achillem virginis habitu occultatum Ulixe deprendente, et in una tabula VI signa, quaque maxime inclaruit agasonem cum equo. quod nisi

135 in iuventa obiisset, nemo compararetur. est nomen et lo A.u.c. s86. Heraclidi Macedoni. initio naves pinxit, captoque Perseo

rege Athenas commigravit, ubi eodem tempore erat Metro- dorus pictor idemque philosophus, in utraque scientia magnae auctoritatis. itaque cum L. Paulus devicto Perseo petiisset ab Atheniensibus uti sibi quam probatissimum philosophum 15 mitterent ad erudiendos liberos, item pictorem ad triumphum excolendum, Athenienses Metrodorum elegerunt professi eundem in utroque desiderio praestantissimum, quod ita


■while flesh parts are seen to have been left in the tone of the marble ; cf. the Artemis of Vienna, _/o^?-/'. d. Oesterr. Kunstsamml.y, 1887, pi. i, ii, and R. V. Schneider's remarks, ib. p. 22, on the former colouring of the Hermes of Praxiteles. See also Wickhoff, in Wiener Genesis, p. 48.

I. nou satis discernitur : above, note on discipulo Nicia.

% 134. 4. austerior : i. e. Nicia, cui comfarabatur ; cf. above, note on severus in § 1 30.

5. eruditio : cf § 76 omnibus litteris eruditus of Pamphilos.

pinxit . . . syngenicon : the two pictures mentioned here belonging to the class of votive offerings, and the locality of each being specially noted, B. Keil {Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 229 ; cf. Miinzer, ib. p. 540) considers the wholte sentence to be an addition to the main account from the work of Heliodoros trepl dvady/^Tojv, see Introd. p. Ixxiv f.

6. Phylarchum: Pansanias (i,


26, 3) mentions a cavaliy captain Olympiodoros (presumably identical with the archon of 01. 121, 3 = B.C. 294) in the time of Kassander (d. Ol. i2i=B. c. 296), who distinguished himself in an engagement at Eleusis against the Makedonians, and was accordingly honoured with a portrait there. He may quite well, therefore, be identical with the Olympiodoros painted by Athenion, a contempo- rary of the younger Nikias. For lit. see Hitzig-Bliimner, Pausanias, p. 283.

7- syngenicon : the Greek word introduced because P. is not quite assured of his Latin equivalent ; for the subject see note on cognatio, in §76.

Achillem . . . deprendente : the subject had been treated by Poly- gnotos in the Pinakotheke of the Propylaia (Paus. i, 22, 6) and often. We know it from a series of Pompeian wall paintings, Helbig, Wandgemalde, 1296-J303 (the most famous, 1297, is


/. PAINTING 159

by some authorities in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad

[332-329 B. C.J. ^Athenion of Maroneia, the pupil of Glaukion of 134

Corinth, is compared with Nikias, and preferred to him by some. j,utii^oP'

He used a severer scheme of colouring than Nikias, and pro- Glaukion.

duced a more pleasing effect withal, thus manifesting in his

execution his grasp of the abstract principles of his art. He

painted in the temple of Eleusis a captain of cavalry ; at Athens

an assembly called a avyyiviKov ; also Achilles, in the guise of

a maiden, at the moment of detection by Odysseus ; a picture

containing six figures, and the groom with a horse on which his

fame chiefly rests. Had he not died young, no artist would be

comparable to him.

•\Herakleides of Makedon, who began life as a ship painter, also 135

enjoys a great reputation. After King Perseus was taken prisoner, ^^^^^^^

he repaired to Athens, where was then living Metrodoros, who was 168 b.c.

Metro- doros.


at once painter and philosopher, and had won high distinction ^^*


in either capacity. Accordingly, when Lucius Paulus after his victories over Perseus asked the Athenians to send him their best philosopher to teach his children, and a painter to commemorate his triumph, they chose Metrodoros, declaring that he could best fulfil both requirements, as indeed Paulus found to be the case.

given in Rosclier, i, p. 27), none of forming the basis of the Plinian ac-

which however can be traced baclc count, Introd. p. Ixxx f. with any certainty to Athenion ; cf. 12. Metrodorus : he is most

Helbig, Untersuch.-f.\Cf%. Addenda. liltely identical with the Metrodoros

§ 135. II. Heraolidi: below, in the Index to this book. Further he

§ 146. is possibly the same as the Metrodoros

captoque Perseo rege : Ol. 153, of Stratonikaia, mentioned by Diogenes

I, Robert, Arch. March, p. 135, note, Laertios x, 9, and Cic. De Oraf. i, 1 1,

points out that the last date for a 45, as being a pupil of Karneades (cf.

painter having been Ol. 121 (§ 134), Brann, K. G. il, p. 293; Urlichs,

there was precisely the same gap in the Maler'ei, p. 16; Helbig, Untersuch.

chronology of the painters as in that p. 5).

of the bronze sculptors (xxxiv, 52 16. ad erudiendos liberos : the

cessavit deindears (p\.\2i) ac rursus two yoimger sons who died at the

01. 116 revixii). It is evident that time of the triumph ; cf. the charming

the Greek sources ended for painting passage in Plutarch, Aem. Paul, vi

as for sculpture with approximately Oi -^bf fidvov ypa^iiMTiKol aal ffotpiaral

the same period, and that the ad- teat gropes, ciWd Kal irXdcTai. Kal

ditions concerning Herakleides and J^taypaclioi Kal irdiKaiv Kal ffKvk^Koiv

Metrodoros, both of whom are con- (maTdTatKoiSiSiaKaXoiS'ljpas'EWrivfs

nected with Roman exploits, like the ijaav ircpl Tois viaviaKovs (i. e. the

additions made in xxxiv, 52 to the elder sons, the younger Scipio and

Greek lists of the sculptors, are ex- Fabius Maximus, after their father's

traneous to the original history of art triumph over the Ligurians, B.C. 181).


l6o


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


136 Paulus quoque iudicavit. Timomachus Byzantius Caesaris dictatoris aetata Aiacem et Mediam pinxit ab eo in Veneris Genetricis aede positas, LXXX talentis venundatas. talen- tum Atticum X VI taxat M. Varro. Timomachi aeque laudantur Orestes, Iphigenia in Tauris et Lecythion agili- 5 tatis exercitator, cognatio nobilium, palliati quos dicturos pinxit, alterum stantem, alterum sedentem. praecipue

137 tamen ars ei favisse in Goi-gone visa est. Pausiae filius et discipulus Aristolaus e severissimis pictoribus fuit, cuius sunt Epaminondas, Pericles, Media, Virtus, Theseus, imago 10 Atticae plebis, bourn immolatio. sunt quibus et Nico- phanes eiusdem Pausiae discipulus placeat diligentia quam


§ 136. I. Timomaohus Byz. Caesaris . . . aetate : from what we know of the famous Aias and Medeia (see following note), Plinyseems guilty of an anachronism in placing Timo- machos in this period (so Brunn, Dilthey, Helbig, Urlichs and Furt- wangler ; see Brandstatter, Der Maler Timomachos, where all the evidence concerning the artist's date is col- lected) ; he presumably found no date in his author, and tried to obtain one out of the purchase by Caesar (Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 14), {Cae- saris dictatoris aetate in imitation of Magni Pompei aetate xx, 144 ; xxii, 128; xxvi, 12; xxxiii, 130, 156. — H. L. U.]

2. Veneris G-. aede : above, § 26 where see note.

Aiacem et Mediam: apparently identical with the Aias and Medeia mentioned by Cicero, Verr. II, iv, 60, 135, where he enumerates thirteen works of art, each of which was the pride of the city that owned it : quid arbitramini merere velle Cycicenos, ut Aiacem aut Mediam amittant? Now the Verrine orations date from B. c. 70, and since the pictures had then attained a world- wide celebrity, similar to that enjoyed by the Eros of Praxiteles, the heifer of Myron, &c., we must suppose they


had been some time in existence ; thus the latest date which could well be assigned to the pictures would be about 100-90 B. c, but this cannot be called the ' age of Caesar.' Indeed since all the artists (i. e. Pythagoras, Myron, the two Praxiteles, Protogenes and Apelles) mentioned by Cicero are of the fifth and fourth centuries, it seems reasonable to suppose that Timomachos also lived not later than the fourth century. From the subjects of his pictures he was probably a con- temporary of Apelles (Brandstatter, op. cit."). The two pictures were com- posed as pendants, at least so we gather from the juxtaposition of the subjects in Ovid, Trist. ii, 525 : Utque sedet vultufassus Telamonius

iram^ Inque oculis /acinus barbara mater

habet. The composition has survived on a number of gems (Berlin, Cat. 673,

674. 1357. 4319, 4327. 6491; Br. Mus. Cat. 1426, 1427). Copies of the Medeia have survived in two wall- paintings (i) from Pompei, Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 1262, (2) from Hercu- laneum, Helbig, 1264 (single figure of Medeia, but taken apparently from a large composition similar to the former) : Medeia meditating the murder, while the children


/. PAINTING


i6i


Timomachos of Byzantion in the time of the dictator Caesar 136 painted the Aias and the Medeia, placed by Caesar in the temple f^^""" of Venus the Mother, which cost eighty talents [_;^i6,8oo circ.J. (Marcus Varro values the Attic talent at 6000 denarii.) Other pictures by Timomachos meet with a like praise ; his Orestes and ) Iphigeneia among the Tauroi ; his portrait of Lekythion, a master jl of gymnastics ; an assembly of notable persons, and two men in j cloaks just read^ Jo speak, one standing, the other sitting. Art, \ however, is thought to have granted to him his greatest success in the Gorgon which he painted.

■iAristolaos, the son and pupil of Pausias, was an artist of the 137 severest school ; he painted pictures of Epameinondas, Perikles, son^and"^' Medeia, Valour, Theseus, a personification of the populace oi pupil of Athens, and a sacrifice of oxen. Faustas.

\Nikophanes, another pupil of Pausias, is admired by a small Niko-

phanes. sarkophagos, Robert, Sarkoph. Reliefs


quietly play in charge of the paidagogos — a scheme which corre- sponds to Lucian's description Tttpi oiKov, 31. The picture was very probably inspired by the Medeia of Euripides. From § 145 we learn that it was left unfinished. The Medeia gave occasion for a number of epigrams (see Overbeck's Sckrift- quellen 2136-2139). Anth. Plan. iv, 137, shows that it was painted in encaustic — tv K-qpa. (Against the view advanced here that Timomachos is a painter of the fourth century, see Robert, in Arch. Mdrchen, p. 132, who defends Pliny's Caesaris aetate, and lately Wickhoff, in Wiener Genesis, p. 72). Addenda.

5. Orestes, Iphigenia in Tauris: one picture, the two parts of which are given asyndetically, see J. MiiUer, Stil, p. 39 i. For the subject cf the Pompeian wall-painting, A. Z, 1875, pi. xiii : on the right, above, Iphigenia with her maidens emerging from the temple, on the left, below, Orestes and Pylades brought prisoners to the temple ; as Robert points out {ib. P- 133 f-); there are no grounds for identifying the Pompeian picture as a copy of the original by Timomachos. See also the composition on the


. Ivii. Addenda.

agilitatis exeroitator: he would be a less exalted personage than an tTnarwrr]^ a9\.T)TSiv (xxxiv, 82), but more on a level with the praestigiator Theodores, and the sallator Alki- sthenes in § 147. The picture was presumably a votive portrait.

6. oognatio nobilium : above, note on § 76.

palliati : i. c. wrapped in the pallium ^llifvnov, whence they were presumably portraits ; cf. on the duo palliata in xxxiv, 54.

quos dicturos : [cf. the Elder Philostratos eltcdves ii, 31 opa Kal rdv ®€fit(TTotc\4a T^v pXv rov npoawTTov oraatv irapairA.'iio'tov Tois Xiyovtriv. — H. L. U.] ; also Sittl, Gebdrde, p. 7, note 5.

8. in Gorgone: i.e. a Gorgoneion or mask of Medusa; we may compare in sculpture the 'Medusa Rondanini' (Munich, Glypt. 128).

§137. Pausiae: above, § 123. The account of Aristolaus has been torn asunder from its original context.

9. e severissimis : note on § 130.

1 1, bourn immolatio : note on § 93 ; cf. § 177. ITioophanea : above, § ill.


M


1 63


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


intellegant soli artifices, alias durus in coloribus et sile multus ; nam Socrates iure omnibus placet ; tales sunt eius cum Aesculapio filiae Hygia, Aegle, Panacea, laso et piger qui appellatur Ocnos, spartum torquens quod asellus

138 adrodit. hactenus indicatis proceribus in utroque genere s non silebuntur et primis proximi : Aristoclides qui pinxit aedem Apollinis Delphis. Antiphilus puero ignem conflante laudatur ac pulchra alias domo splendescente ipsiusque pueri ore, item lanificio in quo properant omnium mulierum pensa, Ptolemaeo venante, sed nobilissimo Satyro cum pelle lo pantherina, quern aposcopeuonta appellant. Aristophon Ancaeo vulnerato ab apro cum socia doloris Astypale numerosaque tabula in qua sunt Priamus, Helena, Credulitas,

139 Ulixes, Deiphobus, Dolus. Androbius pinxit Scyllum ancoras praecidentem Persicae classis, Artemon Danaen 15

12. Ancaium (Angaium e corr.) vineratnrao Bamb. ; Ancaeum vulneratum Detlefsen. Astypalaea coni. Brunn K. G. ii, p. 53, Detlefsen.


1. soli artifices ; MUnzer, op, cit. p. 519, points out that this reference to the opinion of artists recalls the passage on Telephanes, xxxiv, 68.

durus in coloribus : § 1 30 in coloribus severus, where see note.

2. nam : [elliptical, i. e. the case of the painter Sokrates is different, for he pleases everybody {omnibus), whereas Nikophanes is only for the few {sunt quibus) ; cf. the use of nam in xxxiv, 7; x, 210; xvii, 58, 151.— H. L. U.]

Sokrates : he appears in such close connexion with Aristolaos and Nikophanes, that he is presumably also a pupil of Pausias. In xxxvi, 32, Pliny mentions a sculptor Sokrates, whom he distinguishes from the painter, though according to some authorities they were identical. Introd. p. 1. f.

3. Aesculapio : i. e. a votive picture for a reco^■ery ; for the subject c£ the reliefs, Friederichs-Wolters, 1 148, 1 1 50.

4. Ocnos ; for the subject, which had already been represented by Polygnotos in the Delphian Lesche


(Paus. X, 29, 2), cf. the pulealia the Vatican (Helbig, 373).

§ 138. 5. utroque genere : i. c. both large and small pictures.

7. aedem Ap. Delphis ; nothing further is known of these paintings.

Antiphilus : above, §§ 89, 114.

puero ign. confl, : for the same sub- ject in statuary cf. the splanchnoptes of Styppax, xxxiv, 81.

8. domo splendescente; for effects of reflected light cf. above, note on 5 78, and Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis,

P- 79-

9. lanificio : cf. the subjects of Peiraikos in § 112, of Philiskos in

§ 143-

10. Ptolemaeo : above, § 89.

11. aposcopeuonta: i.e. raising his hand to shade his eyes in the satyric dance called OKuinivfia (Athen. xiv, p. 629 f.). Variations of the motive have been recovered in a num- ber of statues and statuettes, which can all be traced back to one original type of which the finest instance is a bronze at Berlin ; Furtwangler, Sa/yr aus Pergamon, p. 14 fF.


/. PAINTING 163

circle for an industry which painters alone can really appreciate ; apart from this merit he was too harsh in colouring, and too lavish in his use of yellow ochre. The merit of ■\Sokrates on the other Sokrates. hand is, as it should be, patent to everybody, thanks to his pictures of Asklepios with his daughters Hygieia, Aigle, Panakeia and laso, and of a sluggard, called "Okvos [sloth], twisting a rope which an ass is gnawing.

So far I have spoken only of the leading artists in both styles, 133 but I do not purpose to omit those of the second rank. Painters of

•\Aristokleides painted the temple of Apollo at Delphoi. Anti- arranged

philos is praised for his picture of a boy blowing a fire, and for the '^Ip^abeti-

reflection cast by the fire on the room, which is in itself beautiful, Arista-

and on the boy's face : for his picture of wool-weaving, where all ^^"<^f^-

. . Antiphilos,

the women busily ply their tasks ; for his Ptolemaios hunting, and,

most famous of all, for his Satyr with a panther's skin, called the

a7ro<rico7reuwr, or Gazer.

Aristophon is celebrated for his Ankaios wounded by the boar, Aristo-

grouped with Astypale, the partner of his woe, and a crowded /'^»-

picture containing Priam, Helen, Credulity, Odysseus, Deiphobos

and Guile. \Androbios painted Skyllos cutting the cables of the 139

Persian fleet ; \Artemon a Danae and the pirates marvelling at her ;

Aristophon : brother of Poly- figures, from Quinct. v, 10, 10 ■vulgo-

gnotos, above, note on § 60. que {inter opifices) faullo numero-

12. Anoaeo: not the Arkadian sius opus diciiur argumentosum. Ankaios, but the Argonaut with his Priamus . . Dolus : from the mother Astypale. Kenndorf, Gjolbas- presence of Helen and of Deiphobos chi, p. 114 f., inclines to believe the it appears that the pictnre represented ■wounded hero was supported by his a scene from the siege of Troy subse- mother, a Polygnotan scheme, echoes quent to the death of Paris ; on the of which seem to have survived on both whole composition cf. ]a.ha,^.Z. 1847, the Phigaleian and Gjblbaschi friezes. p. 127. For the personifications of The hero being a Samian, the picture Dolus and Credulilas cf. the Sio^oAij in was probably at Samos. Apelles' picture (above, note on § 891.

Astypale; [shortened for Asty- §139. 14. Soyllum : he dived and

palaia, so Zeuxis commonly for Zeux- cut the cables of the Persian fleet,

ippos; cf. A. Fick, Die Griechischen Paus. x, 19, i ; cf. Herod, viii, 8. Personennamen^ 2nd. ed., p. 35. In 15. D. mirantibus earn prae-

Hyginus, Fab. 167 (ed. Bimte, 122, donibus: according to the legend, it

I, 6), Astyphile is unnecessarily was Dictys, a fisherman, who rescued

restored by Bunte to Astyphalaea. — Danae. There may have been a

H.L. U.] The reading Astypale is variant tradition or the ^toiS</(?««j may

also kept by Benndorf (pp. cit.). come from misinterpretation of the

13. ntunerosa : Bruim, K. C. ii, picture. Helbig, Unlersuchungen, p. 53, explains this adjective applied p. 145, brings Wandgemdlde 119 into to a picture which contained only six connexion with the ' Danae.'

M 3


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C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


mirantibus earn praedonibus, reginam Stratonicen, Herculem et Deianiram, nobilissimas autem, quae sunt in Octaviae operibus, Herculem ab Oeta monte Doridos exusta mortali- tate consensu deorum in caelum euntem, Laomedontis circa Herculem et Neptunum historiam. Alcimachus Dioxip- 5 pum, qui pancratio Olympiae citra pulveris iactum, quod

140 vocant clkoviti, vicit, Coenus stemmata. Ctesilochus Apellis discipulus petulanti pictura innotuit, love Liberum parturi- ente depicto mitrato et muliebriter ingemescente inter opstetricia dearum, Cleon Cadmo, Ctesidemus Oechaliae 10 expugnatione, Laodamia, Ctesicles reginae Stratonices iniuria. nullo enim honore exceptus ab ea pinxit volutan- tem cum piscatore quem reginam amare sermo erat, eamque tabulam in portu Ephesi proposuit ipse velis raptus. regina tolli vetuit utriusque similitudine mire expressa. Cratinus 15

141 comoedos Athenis in Pompeio pinxit, Eutychides bigam, regit Victoria. Eudorus scaena spectatur — idem et ex


I . reginam Stratonicen : there were several queens of this name ; the most celebrated, who may be the one intended here, was daughter of Demetrios Poliorketes (Plut. Dem. liii), married first to Seleukos Nikator, then to his son Antiochos (Val. Max. V, 7, £xt. l) ; Introd. p. Ix.

Herculem et Deianiram ; this and the following picture seem part of a cycle representing the Labours of Herakles. Addenda.

3. Herculem ... in caelum euntem : for the Apotheosis of Herakles in later art see Furtwangler, aj>. Roscher, i, 2250.

5. historiam : probably in a series of pictures. One scene, the freeing of Hesione by Herakles, was also the subject of a picture by Antiphilos (above, § 114).

Dioxippum ; he was in the army of Alexander the Great, and in B.C. 326, during the Median campaign, he overcame in an athletic contest the Makedonian Koragos who had challenged him. By this feat, how- ever, he drew upon himse f the dis-


pleasure of Alexander, and being slandered to the king he finally took his own life. Diod. xvii, loo-ioi ; Ailian, Hoik. 'lar. n, 22 (see G. H. Forster, Sieger in den Olympischen Spielen, i, p. 27, 381), 01. 113, 3 = 326 B.C.

6. Olympiae : instead of the usual construction, Olympia mncere, imi- tated from the Greek.

7. aKoviTi = X'^P^^ Koveois : usually because the appointed antagonist failed to appear; according to Pans, vi, II, 4, Dromeus of Mantineia was the first to gain a victory d/covtri; cf. id. vi, 7, 4 ; /. G. B. 29. See for all possible conditions of such a victory K. E. Heinrichs, Ueber das Pentathlon der Griechen (Wiirzburg, 1892), p. 74. For the expression situ pulvere, which was proverbial, Otto, Sprickworter, p. 290.

stemmata: portraits fitted into some kind of genealogical tree (xxxv, § 6} ; cf. note on cognatio, in § 76.

§ 140. Ctesilochus : if iden- tical, as is generally supposed with the KTr/aioxos of Sonidas (s. v.


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165


a portrait of queen Stratonike ; a Heraldes and Deianeira, and the celebrated pictures in the galleries of Octavia : the one repre- sents Herakles on Mount Oite in Doris, putting off his mortality in the flames, and going up to heaven by consent of all the gods ; the other shows the story of Laomedon, Herakles and Poseidon. \Alkimachos painted a picture of Dioxippos, who won in the pan- kration at Olympia a victory without dust, okowti, as it is called. •\Koinos painted family trees. Ktesilochos, a pupil of Apelles, became famous by a burlesque painting of Zeus giving birth to Dionysos ; the god wears a head-dress and, moaning like a woman, is receiving the good offices of the goddesses. ^Kleon owes his reputation to a picture of Kadmos, ^Ktesidemos to a siege of Oichalia and a Laodameia, while ^Ktesikks is best known by the affront he offered to queen Stratonike, who had received him without any mark of honour. He in consequence painted her lying in the arms of a fisherman, her reputed lover, and had the picture exhibited in the port of Ephesos, after he himself had sped away with all sails set. The queen, however, would not allow the picture to be removed, as both portraits were excellent likenesses. •\Kratinos painted comic actors in the Pompeion at Athens, Eutychides, a two-horsed chariot driven by Nike. ■\Eudoros, who

brother of Stratonices iuiuria : cf. on §

139-


Alkima- chos paints a portrait of the Fan- kratiast Dioxippos. 140 Ktesilo- chos paints a grotesque picture of the birth oj Dionysos.

Ktesikles : his venge- ance tipon Queen Stratonike.


141


Apelles), he was the Apelles.

8. petulanti piotura : the picture was probably intended as a parody. Heydemann, Hall. Winckelmannspr. X (1885), p. 6ff.

love . . . mitrato : an absurdity because, among Greeks at any rate, the yxTpa was only a feminine adorn- ment ; above, § 58 capita earum (sc. mulierum') mitris versicoloribus operuit ; but vi, -idi Arabes mitrati.

9. inter opstet. dearum : i. e. the Eileithyiai.

10. Ctesidemus : the master of Antiphilos, above, § 114.

Oeolialiae expugn. : by Herakles, Strabo, ix, p. 438.

11. Laodamia : the subject is of frequent occurrence (gem Br. Mus. Cat. p. 67, no. 327 ; numerous sarko- phagi, cp. especially Baumeister, Denkm., p. 1422, fig. 1574), but there is no ascertained copy of Ktesidemos's picture.


15. Cratiuus eomoedus ; I see no need for doubting his identity with the writer of comedies (fl. middle of fifth cent.). This first meation of Kratinos was detached from its con- text with Eirene, daughter of Kra- tinos (§ 147), in order to be intro- duced into the alphabetical list (see Miinzer, op. cit. p. 535 ; Introd. p. Ixv.).

16. in Pompeio : at the entrance to the Kerameikos, Pans, i, ^,4.

§ 141. Butyohidea : in xxxiv, 78, he is mentioned as a sculptor in bronze.

bigam, regit Victoria ; for the subject cf. Helbig, Wandgemdlde,

938. 939-

1 7. scaena : i. e. a scenic decoration intended to be fastened to the scaenae frons ; cf. § 23.

et ex aere signa fecit : he is how- ever not mentioned in xxxiv.


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C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


acre signa fecit — Hippys Neptuno et Victoria. Habron amicam et Concordiam pinxit et deorum simulacra, Leon- tiscus Aratum victorem cum tropaeo, psaltriam, Leon Sappho, Nearchus Venerem inter Gratias et Cupidines,

142 Herculem tristem insaniae poenitentia, Nealces Venerem — 5 ingeniosus et sellers iste, siquidem, cum proeliuin navale Persarum et Aegyptiorum pinxisset, quod in Nilo, cuius est aqua maris similis, factum volebat intellegi, argumento declaravit quod arte non poterat ; asellum enim bibentem

143 in litore pinxit et crocodilum insidiantem ei — Oenias 10 syngenicon, Philiscus officinam pictoris ignem conflante puero, Phalerion Scyllam, Simonides Agatharchum et Mnemosynen, Simus iuvenem requiescentem, officinam fullonis quinquatrus celebrantem, idemque Nemesim egreg-

144 iam, Theorus se inunguentem, idem ab Oreste matrem 15

15. se inunguentem] Sillig; emungentem Bamb.; et inungentem Rice; erumpentem Detlefsen (coni. Benndorf).


1. Hippys : the name has been conjecturally restored from Polemon, ap. Athen. xi, p. 474 d ; cf. above, note on anus in § 78.

2. amicam : simply the portrait of a hetaira (cf. Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 94, n. 53). Some commentators, however, assume a misunderstanding on Pliny's part of the Greek i^iA.ia, and suggest the reading Amicitiam, by analogy with Concordia = dfwvoia.

3 Aratum . . . tropaeo : accord- ing to Hardouin {ad loc), to com- memorate the victory over Aristippos, Plut. Aratus, xxix ; the identification with the Sikyonian Aratos (frees Sikyon B.C. 251), however, seems doubtful, since none of the known painters in the list belong to so late a period ; below, note on Nealces ; cf. Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 292.

psaltriam : cf. xxxiv, 63 and note.

J 142. 5. Herculem tristem : i.e. after the murder of his children ; cf. in sculpture the kindred subject of Athamas, xxxiv, 140. A gem, which Stephani {Ausruh. Her. p. 145)


thought he could trace back to the picture of Nearchos, has been shown by Furtwangler (a/. Roscher, i, 2175) to be merely an adaptation by an artist of the Renascence of a type created for Aias (above, note on § 1 36).

Ifealoes; MUnzer, op. cit. p. 532, note 2, rightly disputes his identity with the painter Nealkes, the friend of Aratos (Plut. loc. cit. xiii), since in that case Pasias, the pupil of Neal- kes's own pupil Erigonos (§ 145), would belong to the late second century, outside the lower limit of the lists ; to this consideration may be added that the story recounted of Erigonos {loc. cit.) is closely connected with a number of other stories, which cannot have arisen later than the commencement of the third century. Miinzer's discovery, however, with regard to the picture by Nealkes (note OD proelium) at once settles the question in favour of an earlier painter of the name.

6. ingeniosus : cf. the praise bestowed upon Timanthes in § 73.

proelium . . . asellum. Miinzer


I. PAINTING


167


Nealkes.


also made statues in bronze, is known by a scene painted for a theatre, Hippys by a Poseidon and a Nike, -Mlabron by a portrait of his mistress, a picture of Concord and figures of the Gods. iZeontiskos painted Aratos as victor with a trophy, and a woman playing on the cithara, ■\Leon a Sappho, \Nearchos an Aphrodite attended by the Graces and Loves, and a Herakles in grief repenting of his madness, ^Nealkes, an Aphrodite. This 142 Nealkes was a man of ingenious devices ; he had painted a naval ' battle between the Egyptians and Persians, and wishing to show that it was fought on the Nile (the waters of which are like those of the sea) he indicated by a symbol that which art alone could not express, painting an ass drinking on the river's brim and a crocodile lying in wait for it. -^Oinias painted a family gather- 143 ing; iPhiliskos an artist's studio with a boy blowing the iire; ^Phakrion a Sky 11a ; iSimonides an Agatharchos and Mnemo- syne; Simos a youth resting, the workshop of a fuller who is keeping the festival of Minerva, and a Nemesis of great beauty, '^^^^^j . \Theoros painted an athlete anointing himself, an Orestes slaying his picture


(Joe. cit.^ has had the signal merit of fixing the occasion for the picture and thereby the date of the artist. It must have referred to one of the battles by which Artaxerxes III Ochos, (b. c. 358-337), successively reduced Egypt in B. c. 350. ' Popular conceptions of tlie wicked enemy, of the ass-shaped Seth Typhon, had won for the hated king the nickname of the " Ass" amongthe Egyptians, while , among the Greeks who fought in thousands on either side, the pun Sixos — oi/os had quickly spread (cf. Deinon, ap. Plut. de Iside, 31 Sid koX Toiv TiipaiKoiv $aai\iaiv IxBpaivovTfs liAKiara riv 'nx"" ^^ ivayfi xal /itapov, ovov knaivdfjiaffav : Ailian, Uotu. 'IffT. iv, 8). The allusion which Neal- kes introduced into his picture was clear to his contemporaries and to the point ; later its meaning was forgotten, and people had recourse to the silly explanation recorded by Pliny.'

§143. II. syngenicon : above, § 136; cf. note on § 76.

ignem oonflante puero. The studio must have been that of a


painter in encaustic ; cf the picture by Antiphilos, in § 138- Introd. p. Ixxi.

12. Soyllam: uncertain whether the sea monster or the daughter of Nisos ; cf. Brunn, A'. G. 300 ; a Scylla by Nikomachos in § 109.

13. Mnemosynen : cf the relief of Archelaos of Priene in Br. Mus.

Simus : possibly identical with the sculptor Simos of Salamis (in Kypros), known from two inscriptions (/. G. B. 163, 164), which from the character of the epigraphy may be dated about the third century B. c, Brunn, K. G. i, p. 467 ; H. v. Gaer- Xraigea,Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 39.

iuvenem requiesoentem : [per- haps a grave picture, in which the dead youth was represented lying down, i. e. an avaTTav6fj.tvos (§ 99 and note), an expirantis imago (§ 90). — H. L. U.]

14. quinquatrus ; the feast, which was of two kinds, the Greater and the Lesser, was kept by all those whose trades were under the special protec- tion of Minerva. Addenda.

§ 144. 15. Theorus : the name belongs to the class of those given,


i68


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


et Aegisthum interfici, bellumque Iliacum pluribus tabulis, quod est Romae in Philippi porticibus, et Cassandram, quae est in Concordiae delubro, Leontium Epicuri cogitantem, Demetrium regem, Theon Orestis insaniam, Thamyram citharoedum, Tauriscus discobolum, Clytaemestram, Pani- 5

145 scon, Polynicen regnum repetentem et Capanea. non omit- tetur inter hos insigne exemplum. namque Erigonus tritor colorum Nealcae pictoris intantum ipse profecit ut celebrem etiam discipulum reliquerit Pasian, fratrem Aeginetae pictoris. illud vero perquam rarum ac memoria dignum 10 est suprema opera artificum inperfectasque tabulas, sicut Irim Aristidis, Tyndaridas Nicomachi, Mediam Timomachi et quam diximus Venerem Apellis, in maiore admiratione esse quam perfecta, quippe in is liniamenta reliqua ipsaeque cogitationes artificum spectantur, atque in lenocinio com- 15 mendationis dolor est manus, cum id ageret, exstinctae.

146 sunt etiamnum non ignobiles quidem, in transcursu tamen


according to Fick ( Gr.Personcnnamen, p. 360), in allusion to the bearer's profession (see, however, H.L.Urlichs' note on Euchira, in § 152). That there is not the slightest evidence for following Brunn {K. G. ii, p. 255), in charging Pliny with the fabrication of Theorus out of a misunderstanding of Theon, has been shown by Urlichs in Hdlz. Pferd, p. 18, u.. 17.

se inungeutem : votive portrait of an athlete, represented in the act of anointing himself, a subject familiar in statuary, Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 257 ff. ; against the Benndorf Detlefsen reading erumpen- tem see H. L. Urlichs, in Woch. f. Klass. Phil. 1895, P- 548-

ab Oreste matrem et Aegis- thum interfici ; cf the construction in xxxiv, 59 {fecit) Apollinem ser- pentemque eius sagittis configi. For the subject cf. the Pompeian picture, A. ^. xli, 1883, pi. ix, I (Robert, ib. p. 259), and the Sarkophagos in St Petersburg, Robert, Sark. Pel. pi. liv, p. i6j f. Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, p. 85.


1. beUumciue Iliacum pluribus tabulis : probably one of the oldest instances of a serial representation of scenes from the Trojan war, such as became so fashionable in imperial days (cf. the Troiae halosis, Petron. 87, also the pictures of the Fall of Troy, seen by Aineias in the Palace ofDido,Virg.j4««. 1,456-493). From Pompeii we have a series of pictures, which, even if not close imitations of the pictures by Theoros (see Helbig, Uniersuch. p. 142), serve to illustrate how these cycles were conceived ; see Briining, Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 164 {Ueber die I'ildlichen Vorlagen der Ilischen Tafelii^.

2. Philippi porticibus : note on §66.

Cassandram : it may have been part of the Trojan series (above), and have become separated from it ; more probably it was a picture by itself.

3. Leontium : note on § 99.

4. Dennetrium : i. e. Poliorketes ; cf. note on xxxiv, 42.

Theon : of Samos ; mentioned by Quinct. xii, 10, 6, among the seven


/. PAINTING


169


his mother and Aigisthos, a cycle of pictures of the Trojan war, of 'Orestes now in Rome in the Gallery of Philip, a Kassandra, now in the Mother.' temple of Concord, Leontion, the pupil of Epikouros, in medita- tion, and king Demetrios. Theon painted the madness of Orestes, Theon: his and a portrait of Thamyras, a player on the cithara ; Tauriskos -J^^^ "^ad- painted the portrait of a quoit - thrower, a Klytaimnestra, a ness of Tiafia-Kos or young Pan, a Polyneikes claiming the throne, and "' "' a Kapaneus.

Nor must I forget to mention here the noteworthy case of 145 ^Erigonos, who ground the colours of Nealkes, and eventually jj^^°ll°^' became so good a painter that he could even train a great artist mfrom ob- his pupil ^Fasias, the brother of the painter ■\Aiginetas. Another-i^""'- '" most curious fact and worthy of record is, that the latest works of sin^dar

artists and the pictures left unfinished at their death are valued f"^^*^ ««<^ , ^,.^.,,.. r i,T-i harm of

more than any of their finished paintings, for example the Ins by Unfinished

Aristeides, the children of Tyndaros by Nikomachos, the Medeia "orks.

by Timomachos and the Aphrodite by Apelles, mentioned above. V

The reason is that in these we see traces of the design and the/

original conception of the artists, while sorrow for the hand that\

perished at its work beguiles us into the bestowal of praise. J

There still remain certain painters whom, though artists of 146

repute, I can do no more than name in passing, \Aristokydes, frTv- /

list.


most important painters of the age of Alexander, as praestantissimus . . . concipiendis visionibus, quas ipavjaalas ■vocant ; cf. also Ailian, IIoiK. 'Ictt. ii. 44, where the warrior charging out of a panel is described.

Orestis iusaniam : ^ifl' 'Opiarov fiTjTpoKToviav, Pint, de aud. Poet. 3.

Tlitiinyram. citliaroedum : cf. the Corgosthenes tragoedus, by Apelles, in § 93, the tibicina of Lysippos,xxxiv, 63, the psaltria by Leontiskos, in § 141, &c.

5. Taurisous : his identity with one of the sculptors of the ' Famese Bull ' can neither be proved nor dis- proved. He is perhaps the same as the silver-chaser of xxxiii, 156, whom in xxxvi, 33, Pliny is careful to dis- tinguish from the sculptor.

discobolum : votive picture for an athletic contest.


§ 145. *}. tritor oolorum : cf. above, § 85 qui colores tererent ; for the story of Erigonos's rise from poverty to fame, cf. Lysippos, xxxiv, 61, Protogenes, above, § loi, Introd. p. xlix.

8. BTealoao : above, §§ 104, 142. ut disoipulum rel. ; so likewise

Seilanion, xxxiv, 51, though himself a self-taught artist, leaves a celebrated pupil in Zeuxiades, Introd. loc. cit.

9. Aeginetae : for the ethnic as proper name cf. Fick, Gr. Personen- namen, p. 333.

12. Aristidis : above, §§ 75, 98, 108 ; for Nikomachos, § 108.

Mediam Tlmomaohi : §§ 26, 136.

13. quam diximus: above, §§ 87, 91.

14. quippe . . . extinotae: rheto- rical ; for liniamenta reliqua cf. note on § 68.


I70 C. PUN II SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV

dicendi Aristocydes, Anaxander, Aristobulus Sums, Arcesilas Tisicratis filius, Coroebus Nicomachi discipulus, Charmantides Euphranoris, Dionysodorus Colophonius, Dicaeogenes qui cum Demetrio rege vixit, Euthymides, Heraclides Macedo, Milon Soleus Pyromachi statuari 5 discipuli, Mnasitheus Sicyonius, Mnasitimus Aristonidae filius et discipulus, Nessus Habronis filius, Polemon Alexandrinus, Theodorus Samius et Stadios Nicosthenis

147 discipuli, Xenon Neoclis discipulus Sicyonius. pinxere et mulieres : Timarete Miconis filia Dianam quae in tabula 10 Ephesi est antiquissimae picturae, Irene Cratini pictoris filia et discipula puellam quae est Eleusine, Calypso senem et praestigiatorem Theodorum, Alcisthenen saltatorem, Arist- arete Nearchi filia et discipula Aesculapium. laia Cyzicena perpetua virgo M. Varronis iuventa Romae et penicillo 15 pinxit et cestro in ebore imagines mulierum maxime et Neapoli anum in grandi tabula, suam quoque imaginem ad

148 speculum, nee uUius velocior in pictura manus fuit, artis vero tantum ut multum manipretiis antecederet celeberrimos eadem aetate imaginum pictores Sopolim et Dionysium, 20 quorum tabulae pinacothecas inplent. pinxit et quaedam Olympias, de qua hoc solum memoratur, discipulum eius fuisse Autobulum.

§ 146. 2. Aroesilae : from his 7. Habronis: above, 5§ 93, 141.

date he may be identical with the 8. Theodorus Samius : on the

Arkesilaos, Paus.i, I, 3, whose picture different painters of this name see

of Leosthenes and his sons (a aviytvi- Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 285 ; if the identity

Kov) was in the sanctuary of Athena of his fellow-pupil Stadios with the

and Zeus in the Peiraieus. The ex- sculptor Stadieus of Pans, vi, 4, 5,

ploits of Leosthenes, mentioned by the master of Polykles (note on xxxvi,

Pausanias, took place B.C. 323. 35), were certain, his date would be

Tisicratis: pupil of Euthykrates towards 01. 150 = 8. c. 180.

of Sikyon, xxxiv, 83. § 147. 10. Timarete : the account

Wioomaohi: |§ 108, 145. of the women painters bears strong

3. Euphranoris : § 128. traces of Duris ; cf. Miinzer, op. cit.

5. Heraclides: above, § 135. p. 525; Introd. p. Ixv. The names Pyromachi : note on xxxiv, § 84. are given in inverted alphabetical

6. Mnasitheus ; the identification order. In connexion with the lady wifli the Mnasilheos of Pint. Arat. painters it is interesting to note the vii, suggested by Brunn, K. G. ii, charming Pompeian wall paintings, p. 292, is more than doubtful. Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 1443, 1444 =

Mnasitimos : son of Aristonidas, Bliimner, Techn. iii, p. 226, iv, p. 460, /. G. B. 197, above xxxiv, 140. the first of a woman painting a statue.


/. PAINTING 111

iAnaxander, ^Aristobouhs of Syria, Arkesilas the son of Teisi- krates, \Koroibos the pupil of Nikomachos, •\Charmantides the pupil of Euphranor, ■\Dionysodorus of Kolophon, '\Dikaiogenes who lived at the court of king Demetrios, \Eutkymtdes, iHera- kleides of Makedon and \Milon of Soloi, both pupils of Pyro- machos the statuary, ■^Mnasitheus of Sikyon, Mnasitimos the son and pupil of Aristonidas, iNessos the son of Habron, \Pokmon of Alexandria, Theodoras of Samos and Stadias, pupils of +Niko- sthenes, and •\Xenon of Sikyon, the pupil of Nealkes.

Women too have been painters: \Tmarete the daughter of 147 ~~ Mikon, painted an Artemis at Ephesos in a picture of very archaic ^^^-^^^j.^. style. Eirene, the daughter and pupil of the painter Kratinos, Timarete. painted a maiden at Eleusis, \Kalypso painted portraits of an old j^alypso. man, of the juggler Theodores, and of the dancer Alkisthenes ; •fAristarete, the daughter and pupil of Nearchos, painted an Askle- Aristarete. pios. \Iaia of Kyzikos, who remained single all her life, worked laia of at Rome in the youth of Marcus Varro, both with the brush and -" °^' with the oestrum on ivory. She painted chiefly portraits of women, and also a large picture of an old woman at Naples, and a portrait of herself, executed with the help of a mirror. No artist worked 148 more rapidly than she did, and her pictures had such merit that they sold for higher prices than those of tSopolis and Dionysios, well-known contemporary painters, whose works fill our galleries. \Olympias also was a painter; of her we only know that ^Auto- Olymfias. boulos was her pupil.

the second of a woman seated at her laia Oyzioena : the alphabetical —

easel. order is broken to insert a passage

Miconis filia : § 59 ; Eirene and taken from Varro, Introd. p. Ixxxiii. Aristarete likewise figure both as daugh- 16. oestro in ebore ; i.e. inencau-

ters and pupils ; cf. MUnzer, loc. cit. stic on ivory (below, § 149), as opposed

1 1 . antiquiss. pioturae : the exact to penicillo in the ordinary method of meaning is difficult to comprehend ; tempera.

Brunn suggests that she affected an 1 7. in grandi tabula : on a wood

archaicising style. panel of course, and presumably with

Irene : 'Siprivqv Ti)v Kparivov 61/70- the brush ; cf. BlUmner, Technol. iv,

T^pa, Clemens Alex, (quoting from p. 445, note 1.

Didymos) ^/rffOT. iv, 134, p.620, Pott; §148. 20. Sopolim : the name is

cf. § 140. still known only from Pliny, for in

12. puellam : translation of the Cic. fl(/. ^«. iv, 18, 4, it seems certain Greek Kipa, so first Raoul Rochette, that solidis pecloribus is the reading, Peint. Inidites, p. 222 ; cf. Brunn, and not e Sopolidis pictoribus (see K. G. ii, p. 299. Baiter & Kayzer's critical apparatus).

13. praestigiatoreiu . . . saltato- Dionysium : § 113.

rem: chiastic order. 21. inplent : rhetorical, cf. xxxiv,

14. Uearchi: above, §141. 36, reflevit urbem.


r


172


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


149 encausto pingendi duo fuere antiquitus genera, cera et in ebore cestro, id est vericulo, donee classes pingi coepere. hoc tertium accessit resolutis igni ceris penicillo utendi, quae pictura navibus nee sole nee sale ventisque cor- rumpitur. 5


§ 149. I. Sncausto pingendi : § 122. Owing to Pliny's obscure wording of the following passage the whole subject of ancient encaustic is beset with the gravest difficulties. For the literature up to 1887 see Bliimner, Technol. iv, pp. 442 ff. ; a good ri- sumi, with new suggestions, by Cecil Smith, art. Pictura, in Smith's Diet, cf Ant. ii, pp. 392 ff. ; cf. also A. S. Murray, Handbook, pp. 394 ff. ; a highly important contribution has lately been made by the painter Berger, Bei- trdge zur Entwickelungsgeschickte der Malertechnik, i, ii (1893 and 1895), who has succeeded in proving painting in encaustic to be a totally different process from the xavais of walls painted with an admixture of olive-oil and Punic wax (Plin. xxi, 83), de- scribed by Vitruvius (vii, 9). This


discovery has freed the subject from some of its worst difficulties.

duo genera ; (i) cera et cestro on the usual materials, i.e. wood. (2) cera et cestro, on ivory, a less common material, so that Pliny mentions it specially. Of the first method, the portraits from the Fayoum now afford numerous examples (see Berger, ii, pp. 50 ff. ; Cecil Smith, loc. cit., &c.). The second method remains obscure, but cf. the painted ivory fragments mentioned by Berger, i, p. 41 (in Pal. Conserv. at Rome) and the ivory panel in the British Museum with figure of a nymph, Murray, Handbook, p. 396, fig. 117. It is notewortliy that the lady painter laia (§ 147) is the only artist known to have employed this technique.


/. PAINTING


173


From the earliest times two methods of painting in encaustic 149 existed — one with wax, the other further on ivory — by means of ^^'^^"^ a oestrum or sharp point. When it became the fashion to paint ships of war, a third method was introduced, of melting the wax by fire and using a brush. Paint applied to ships in this way cannot be destroyed either by the action of the sun or of the brine or wind.


2. cestro . . . verioulo : it is Berger's merit {Beiirdge, i, p. 35 ff.) to have identified the cestrum among the instruments found in the grave of St. Medard {ib. figs. 2, 3; Bliimner, Technol. iv, figs. 66, 67), and among the Naples bronzes {Beitr. i, p. 43 ff.). The one end is shaped like a spoon : with it the colours are held to melt over the cauierium or fire-pan (the misnamed hotte h couleurs of the St. Medard grave), and then poured over the panel ; the long handle thickens at the upper end, which is used to level the colours.

donee classes pingl ooepere : Berger, i, p. 38, explains the introduc- tion of the brush for ship painting to


have been necessitated by the impossi- bility of pouring fluid colour from the cestrum on to the vertical sides of a ship. This explanation seems correct, in so far at least as the meaning of the writer of the Plinian passage is concerned. It would be in the manner of certain ancient art-writers to imagine a conventional develop- ment of technique from cestrum to brush, and then to prove the point by appeal to practice.

3. resolutis eeris : i.e. in a separate, preliminary process, whereas in the first two methods the colours were both heated and applied by means of the cestrum.


//. PL AST ICE.


151 De pictura satis superque. contexuisse his et plasticen conveniat. eiusdem opere terrae fingere ex argilla simili- tudines Butades Sicyonius figulus primus invenit Corinthi filiae opera quae capta amore iuvenis, abeunte illo peregre, umbram ex facie eius ad lucernam in pariete lineis circum- 5 scripsit, quibus pater eius inpressa argilla typum fecit et cum ceteris fictilibus induratum igni proposuit, eumque

A.u.c. 608. servatum in Nymphaeo, donee Mummius Corinthum ever-

152 terit, tradunt. sunt qui in Samo primes omnium plasticen invenisse Rhoecum et Theodorum tradant multo ante ro

A.u.c. 97. Bacchiadas Corintho pulsos, Damaratum vero ex eadem urbe profugum, qui in Etruria Tarquinium regem populi Romani genuit, comitates fictores Euchira, Diopum, Eugram- mum, ab iis Italiae traditam plasticen. Butadis inventum


§ 151. 2. eiusdem opere terrae : with these words Pliny harks back to his main theme in § i {Resiant terrae ipsius genera lapidumqtie) of which the History of the Painters has been but an episode ; so again in § 1 66 he begins Verum et ipsius terrae ; see Frbhner, in Rhein. Mus. 47, 1892, p. 294.

2. similitudines primus inve- nit : Boutades ' invents ' (i) faces in relief, (2) faces applied as tile-ends, (3) how to take the cast of the model for a statue, whereas Lysistratos (4) shows, finally, how to take the cast from a living model. The whole de- velopment has a strong Xenokratic tinge ; see Introd. p. xxxiv. f.

3. Butades Sioyonius : the fol- lowing anecdote is told with slight variations by Athenagoras, Hfta^tia,


17 ed. Schwartz, p. 18 (see App. xi).

Corinthi ; cf. § 16 ; Corinth and Sikyon now appear as the cradles of the art of modelling. As Cecil Smith points out {Pictura, p. 401), the legend that the Sikyonian Bou- tades worked at Corinth, suggests an attempt to compromise the rival claims of both cities to artistic priority.

4. abeunte illo peregre: accord- ing to Athenagoras, the youth was not going away, but asleep.

8, donee Mummius Corinthum: the sack of Corinth in B.C. 146 had evidently become a conventional date with which to connect the disappear- ance or destruction of works of art in Greece.

9. sunt qui : introduces paren- thetically a valiant version of the origin of TrKaaTiicii ; from the mention


II. MODELLING.

Of painting I have said enough and more than enough, but it may be well to add some account of clay modelling. It was by the service of the selfsame earth that Boutades, a potter of Sikyon, discovered, with the help of his daughter, how to model portraits in clay. She was in love with a youth, and when he was leaving the country she traced the outline of the shadow which his face cast on the wall by lamplight. Her father filled in the outline with clay and made a model; this he dried and baked with the rest of his pottery, and we hear that it was preserved in the temple of the Nymphs, until Mummius overthrew Corinth. 146 b.c. According to some authorities clay modelling was first introduced 152 in Samos by Rhoikos and Theodoras, long before the expulsion of Rhoikos the Bacchiadai from Corinth, and when Damaratos fled from that ^^^^j, i°' city to Etruria, where his son Tarquinius, afterwards king of Rome, Samos. was born, he was accompanied by three potters, Eucheir, \Diopos, iq-^^{^\ and \Eugrammos, who introduced the art of modelling into Italy. Greek fot- Boutades first added red ochre or modelled in red clay, and j^amaratos

to Etruria. of the followers of Damaratos this (evxeip), and the skilled draughtsman alternative account seems taken from (eiiy/ra/i/jos), while Diopus = Siottos is Cornelius Nepos (above, § 17, Introd. connected with Si<5?rTj;s or SiSirrpa, an p. Ixxxv). The subject of Boutades is instrument for taking levels, the in- resumed belo^v at ^i!«/afl'w «We«?«»«, vention of which (vii, 198) is attri- and again at idem et de signis. buted by Pliny to Theodores, Urlichs,

10. Khoeoum et Theodorum: Cfirestom. p. 373. [A. Fick, Die xxxiv, 83. Griechischen Personennamen, 2nd ed.

11. Damaratum; above, § 16. p. 254, believes these names to be 13. fictores: nXaoTai, fingere like given with regard to the bearer's trade

TtXaaaai being used of the artist who or occupation, and in many cases to

works in soft substances such as earth have supplanted the real name (of.

or wax, also who fashions by the hand note on Theorus, in § 144). They

(cf. the fingitque fremendo of Vergil, seem to me more likely to have

Aen. vi, 80); see on xxxiv, 7, and been favourite names in artist families,

below, on § 153. and to have been given at birth. —

EuoMra . . . Eugrammum : re- H. L. U.] For Eucheiros see Coram,

spectively the skilled handicraftsman on p. 220.


176


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


est rubricam addere aut ex rubra creta fingere. primusque personas tegularum extremis imbricibus inposuit, quae inter initia prostypa vocavit, postea idem ectypa fecit, hinc et fastigia templorum orta. propter hunc plastae appellati.

153 Hominis autem imaginem gypso e facie ipsa primus 5 omnium expressit ceraque in eam formam gypsi infusa emendare instituit Lysistratus Sicyonius, frater Lysippi de quo diximus. hie et similitudines reddere instituit, ante eum quam pulcherrimas facere studebatur. idem et de signis effigies exprimere invenit, crevitque res in tantum ut ^^ nulla signa statuaeve sine argilla fierent. quo apparet anti- quiorem banc fuisse scientiam quam fundendi aeris.

154 Plastae laudatissimi fuere Damophilus et Gorgasus, idem pictores, qui Cereris aedem Romae ad circum maximum


2. personas tegularum: numbers of these tile-faces from Etruria are to be seen in almost every Museum ; cf. also the terra-cotta fragments from the treasuries at Olympia ( Olympia ii, Baudenhmdler, taf. cxx).

4. fastigia : in Pliny used as a rule of the figures of the akroteria, and not of the actual pedimental figures, cf xxxvi, 1 3 ; xxviii, i6 ; xxxvii, 14 ; xxxvi, 6, &c., below § 157 ; this mean- ing is borne out (i) by Vitruv. iii, 3, 5 ornantque signis Jictilibus aut aereis inauratis earum fastigia Tusca- nico more, uti est ad Circum maxiTnum Cereris, et Herculis Pomfeiani, item Capitolii, (2) by Cicero, de Divin. i, 10, 16 cum Summanus in fastigio lovis opt. max., qui turn erat fictiliSj e caelo ictus esset, etc., (3) by Festus, s.v. Ratumena. Further, in Plut. Caesar\)sx\\, d/cpcuTi^pioy corresponds to the fastigium of Suet. Jul. 81 ; see Furtvvangler, A. Z. 1882, p. 346; Fowler in Amer. Journ. of Archaeol. idii, 1893, p. 385.

orta : because the figured akroteria aro|e out of the earlier tile-faces.

§ 153. 5. Hominis . . . studeba- tur : the proper place for the ' inven- tion ' of Lysistratos is after the third invention of Boutades, below (B. dis-


covered how to make models of statues ; Lysistratos, however (autem), found out how to take casts of living people, see note on § 151). The dis- placement arose, doubtless, from con- fusion of notes ; it may be due to Pliny himself, or to his nephew when he pre- pared the last books of the Hist. Nat. for publication ; cf. Brunn, K. G. i, p. 403, Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 59 f., Mlinzer, op. cit. p. 510.

e facie ipsa: i.e. from the living model ; the invention attributed to Lysistratos has nothing whatever to do with the custom of taking masks from the face of the dead.

8. ante eum q. pulcberrimas : the observation is correct ; by the time of Lysippos realistic portraiture had, if not superseded ideal or typical re- presentation, yet asserted its right to co-existence. It was, in a word, the age when an athlete could be idealized as the ' Apoxyomenos,' or portrayed with the brutal realism of the bronze boxer from Olympia (Olympia iv, Bronzen, taf. ii), cf. the note on xxxiv, 16.

9. idem et ; refers back to Bou- tades.

1 1 . sine argilla : Pliny means that to make a bronze statue without a clay model is impossible, though he — or


//. MODELLING


177


placed masks as tile-fronts on the eaves of buildings, originally called TTpi.'o-Tima, or low reliefs ; later on he made eKrvira, or high reliefs, and these led to the ornamentation of the gables of temples. Since the time of Boutades artists who worked in clay have been called modellers. {Lysistratos of Sikyon, brother of the Lysippos 153 whom I have mentioned in an earlier book, was however the first ^V^^.^^"^

. . . ' of Sikyon

who obtamed portraits by making a plaster mould on the actual takes casts

features, and introduced the practice of taking from the plaster /'^"^ *H

a wax cast on which he made the final corrections. He also first

rendered likenesses with exactitude, for previous artists had only

tried to make them as beautiful as possible.) The said Boutades Boutades

discovered how to take casts from statues, a practice which was ^"^"r/fg^

extended to such a degree that no figure or statue was made statues.

without a clay model. Hence it is clear that the art of clay

modelling is older than that of bronze casting.

Most highly praised among modellers were \Damophilos and 154

iGorgasos ; they were also painters, and united both arts in the i^"^nd

decorations of the temple of Ceres at Rome near the Great Gorgasos

decorate the Temple scription {versibus inscriptis Graece) of Ceres.


his author — ^have used an ambiguous expression, which might imply that there had been previous bronze statues, but made without a clay model, cf. furtwangler, Plinius, p. 60. The use of clay models for marble statues seems to have been of altogether later date,

cf. § 155-

antiquiorem : so in xxxiv, 35, prior (sc. plastic^ quatn statuaria fuit.

§154. 13. Damophilus: [although Damophilos is the Doric form of Demophilos, and both represent the same name, it is yet impossible to de- duce from this fact the identity of the Damophilus mentioned here with the Demophilus Himeraeus who appears in§ 61, the master of Zeuxis. Himera was an Ionic city, and it is out of the question that one of its citizens should ever have called himself by a Doric form of his name. Yet we cannot on the other hand doubt the form Damophilus given here by Pliny ; for he evidently had it from an authority who was familiar with the actual in-


Thus if we get rid of the false assump- tion that this Damophilus could be identical with the master of Zeuxis, we get rid of all the far-fetched com- binations necessary to reconcile the date of D. of Himera (whose pupil Zeuxis fl. about B.C. 404) with the date of the temple of Ceres, B. c. 493. — H.L.U.]. The difficulty of re- conciling Demophilus and Damophilus has been perceived by Freeman, Hist, of Sicily, ii, p. 411 : 'It is a little startling to hear that the master of Zeuxis, with his colleague Gorgasos, painted the Roman temple which was vowed by Aulus Postumius, victor at Regillus.' Freeman, however, inclines to a conciliation : ' Chronology may be appeased by the easy conjecture that the painting of the temple, and the Greek letters which recorded the names of the artists, came a generation or two later than the temple itself.'

14. Cereria aedem : note on xxxiv, 15, and the passage from Vitruvius quoted above \mder fasiigia.


N


178


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


utroque genere artis suae excoluerant versibus inscriptis Graece quibus significarent ab dextra opera Damophili esse, ab laeva Gorgasi. ante banc aedem Tuscanica omnia in aedibus fuisse auctor est Varro, et ex hac, cum reficeretur, crustas parietum excisas tabulis marginatis inclusas esse, 5

155 item signa ex fastigiis dispersa. fecit et Chalcosthenes cruda opera Athenis, qui locus ab officina eius Ceramicos appellatur. M. Varro tradit sibi cognitum Romae Possim nomine, a quo facta poma et uvas alitem nescisse aspectu discernere a veris. idem magnificat Arcesilaum, L. Luculli 10 familiarem, cuius proplasmata pluris venire solita artificibus

156 ipsis quam aliorum opera ; ab hoc factam Venerem Gene- tricem in foro Caesaris et prius quam absolveretur festina- tione dedicandi positam, eidem a Lucullo HS. |X| signum Felicitatis locatum, cui mors utriusque inviderit ; Octavio 15

9. alitem nescisse] Traube ; item piscis (pisces, Bamb.) codd. ; item pisces non possis Jan, Detlefsen.


1. utroque genere artis: i.e. the decorations consisted of painted terra- cottas ; fine examples (from T. of Jupiter Capitolinus ?) exist at Rome in Pal. Conserv., Helbig, i, p. 447 f.

2. ab dextra . . . ab laeva : cf. the similar inscription, Anth. Pal. ix, 75S :

HjIXoiv lypaif/e t^v Bipav rilv Se^iiv, T^v 5' €^i6vTa)v Sf^idr Atovvffios.

4. cum reficeretur ; after the fire of B.C. 31; restored by Augustus, B.C. 27, re-dedicated B.C. 17 (Tac. Ann. ii, 49).

5. crustas : for reliefs cf. xxxiii, 157, crustarius.

excisas : cf. Vitruv. ii, 8, 9, a typical instance of the care taken in the first century B. C. to preserve archaic works.

tabulis marginatis : below, §

173-

6. ex fastigiis: above, note on

§ 152-

  • § 155. Chalcosthenes : more

correctly Kaikosthenes ; see on xxxiv, 87. From a basis {Af\Tiov, 1891, p. 35 f. and p. 84) found in the actual Kerameikos, we leam that K. was


of the deme Thria. Lolling (loc. cit.) dates the inscr. towards the close of the third century B.C.

7. cruda opera : these have been identifiedbyMilchh6fer(.4rir/4..S';«i/«e», Jif. Brunn dargebr. 1893, p. 50 £f.) with the arjkKiuxra ia wti\ov, represent- ing Dionysos feasting in the house of Amphiktyon, which adorned a chapel — oiKriim — of the god's ri/ievos, in the Kerameikos (Pans, i, .i, 5) ; the monu- ment was presumably the votive offer- ing of a guild of Dionysiac artists. The Italian work of the Delia Robbias may help us to a notion of what the group or relief looked like.

8. appellatur : the etymological attempt suggests Varroniau author- ship ; cf. note on xxxiv, 1 1, on xxxvi, 14 {Jychniteri).

9. poma et uvas : cf. the excellent carvings of fruit, leaves and flowers on areliefoftheMuseod.Terme.Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, p. 23, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, and the beautiful garlands of fruit and flowers that adorned the Ara Pads of Augustus.

alitem nescisse : cf., in con-


//. MODELLING


179


Circus, placing on it a metrical inscription in Greek to say that on the right hand were the works of Damophilos, on the left the works of Gorgasos. Varro tells us that in all earlier temples decorations in the Etruscan style only were to be found, and that when this temple was restored the ornamentation of the walls was cut out and framed, and the statues that crowned the roof were dispersed.

Chalkosthenes also modelled in unbaked clay in the Potter's 155 Quarter at Athens, so called after his workshop. Marcus Varro ^^^^^ says that at Rome a man named \Possis was known to him who Possis. made clay apples and grapes which the very birds could not distinguish from nature. He also praises \Arkesilaos, the friend Arkedlaos. of Lucius LucuUus, for whose clay models artists would pay more ^/j ^i^J than was given for the finished works of others ; he made the ifiodeh.

156

statue of Venus the Mother in the forum of Caesar, which was set up before it was really finished, so eager were his patrons to dedicate it. He also accepted a commission from Lucullus to make a statue of Good Fortune for 1,000,000 sesterces [^^8750 circ.]. Death, however, cut them both off before the statue was completed. Arkesilaos also made a plaster model for a talent [;£'2io circ.J for a Roman knight named Octavius, who proposed


firmation of Traube's reading, above,

§§ 23, 6.'), 66-

10. idem magnifloat : cf. inxxxvi, 41 Arcesilaum quoque magnificat Varro, hence the identity of authorship for both passages.

Aroesilaum : for his marble works see xxxvi, 33, 41 ; his Venus Genitrix and his Felicitas are mentioned here because they apparently remained at the stage of clay models.

L. LucuUi familiarem: Urlichs {Ariesilaos, p. 4) suggests that Lucullus brought backArkesilaos with him from Athens when he visited that city in B.C. 88-7, cf. above, § 125.

11. proplasmata : see the ex- cellent remarks of Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, p. 25 f. and p. 41, on the extensive use of the clay model in the first century B. c, and its influence on the technique of marble ; cf. above, on

§ 153- § 156. 12. ■VeneremG-enetricem:

from the Roman coins which most


probably reproduce the statue, it ap- pears that the Genetrix of Arkesilaos was adapted from a Greek statuary type which recent criticism has traced back to the 'Aphrodite in the gardens ' of Alkamenes (note on xxxvi, 16) ; cf. Furtwangler, ap. Roscher i, p.

413-

14. signum Felicitatis : the tem- ple of Felicitas had been built by C. Licinins Lucullus, xxxiv, 69 ; xxxvi, 39.

15. mors utriusque: Marcus Lucullus died B. c. 58, and his brother only survived him a. short time (Plut L%u. xliii) ; hence since Arkesilaos was still at work for Caesar in B. c. 46 (below), we must either imagine that he left an order of his patron unattended to for fifteen years, or follow Urlichs {op. cit. p. 5), in supposing that it is the young Lucullus {clarissimus adulescens, Cic. Phil. X, 48), whose death (at Philippi in B. c. 42) is alluded to here. From


Na


i8o


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV


equiti Romano cratera facere volenti exemplar e gypso factum talento. laudat et Pasitelen qui plasticen matrem caelaturae et statuariae scalpturaeque dixit et, cum esset in omnibus his summus, nihil umquam fecit antequam finxit.

157 praeterea elaboratam hanc artem Italiae et maxime Etru- 5 riae, Vulcam Veis accitum cui locaret Tarquinius Priscus lovis effigiem Capitolio dicandam, fictilem eum fuisse et ideo miniari solitum, fictiles in fastigio templi eius quadrigas, de quibus saepe diximus, ab hoc eodem factum Herculem qui hodieque materiae nomen in urbe retinet. hae enim lo turn effigies deorum erant lautissimae, nee poenitet nos illorum qui tales decs cpluere, aurum enim et argentum ne

158 diis quidem conficiebant. durant etiamnum plerisque in locis talia simulacra, fastigia quidem templorum etiam in urbe crebra et municipiis, mira caelatura et arte suique 15 firmitate, sanctiora auro, certe innocentiora.


xxxiv, 93 (where see note) we learn that he rededicated a statue of Herakles originally set up by his father ; it is therefore not surprising to find him commissioning Arkesilaos, an old friend of his family, with a statue for the temple built by his grandfather.

Ootavio eq.uiti : according to Ur- lichs, Arkesilaos, p. 17, perhaps identi- cal with the upstart {per rae films') who pestered Cicero with invitations to dinner, Cic. Fam. vii, 9, 16.

2. Pasitelen: xxxiii, 156; xxxvi, 40.

3. scalpturae : here = sculptura [so also Plin. the Y. Ep. i, 10, has scalftor for sculptor. — H. L. U.] ; the term is generally used of the graver's art, as an equivalent of the Greek

§ 157. 5. maxime Etruriae : the remark is fully confirmed by the splendid remains of large terra-cotta (figures, discovered in Italy; cf. especially the pedimental figures from


the temple at Luni, Milani, Mus. d. Ant. Classica, i, 1884, pp. 89-112; where see further literature.

7. lovis efagiem . . fictilem : cf. Juv. xi, lie, ficHlis et nulh vio- latus lupiter auro. From Servius' (on Edog. X, 27) description of the Roman iriumphatores, who were adorned lovis optimi maximi ornatu we learn that the god was represented standing with the thunderbolt in his right (cf. Ovid Fast, i, 202 inque lovis dextra fictile fulmen erat) and the sceptre in his left. This ancient image was destroyed B.C. 83, in the fire which laid the temple in ashes. It was replaced by a gold-ivory Jupiter — the work of an ApoUonios — after the model of the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias (cf. Chalcidius on Plato's Timaios, 338 C, p. 361, ed. Wrobel, and Loewy on /. G. B. 343, p. 242).

Capitolio : note on xxxiv, 38.

8. miniari solitum : enumerat auctores Verrius quibus credere ne-


//. MODELLING iSt

to have a goblet cast from it. Varro further praises Pasiieks, Pasiteles.

who said that modelling was the mother of chasing, statuary and ^'P"-

sculpture, and who, though he excelled in all these arts, never „pon the

executed any work without first making a clay model. The art ^^7 .

/•in. . o y value of

ot modellmg, agam, accordmg to Varro, was developed in Italy, the day

and more especially in Etruria, and Tarquin the Ancient summoned ™'"^^^-

an artist called tVulca from Veil to make a statue of Jupiter for

the Capitol. This statue was of clay and was therefore painted

red ; the four-horse chariots on the gables of the temple, which

I have mentioned so often, were also of clay. Vulca further

made the Hercules still known at Rome as ' the clay Hercules.'

These were the most magnificent statues known in those days, and

we have no reason to be ashamed of the men who worshipped

deities of clay, and would not, even for their gods, change gold

and silver into images. Effigies of clay still exist in different 158

places, while gable ornaments in clay are still to be seen even at

Rome as well as in provincial towns. The admirable execution Beauiyand

of these figures, their artistic merits and their durability make "r^"^

them more worthy of honour than gold, and they are at any rate andentday

more innocent. images.

cesse .sit lovis ipsius simulacri faciem was richly adorned with painted diehus festis minio inlini solitam . . . decorations ; cf. Q\c.deDiv.\, lo, i6; Plin. xxxiii, iii ; see also Servius on J-iv.per. 14; and see note on § 154 £d. vi, 62 ; X, 27 ; cf. in Greece the for possible remains of these decora- painting with white, at her festival, of tions. the image of Athena Skirrophoria. 9. saepe diximus ; viii, 161; xxviii,

flotiles . . . quadrigas : also the 16.

work of Valentine artists, Plut. Poplic. Herculem : often identified (but

xiii ap\ia Karci Kopvcp^v (sc. vitij on the very slightest grounds) with

Tou KoTT. Ai.) kni(TTT](7ai K€pafL€ovv the Hercules jictilis of Martial xiv,

e^iSaiKe (sc. d TapKovivtos) TvppTjvois 178.

Ttatv If Oiijfwv SrjiuovpyoTs. These 10. hae enim turn efflgies: this

are the chariots whose miraculous rhetorical tribute to the simplicity of

swelling in the potter's furnace was theancientRomanimageswas asoldas

interpreted as an omen of the future — Cato, or as Cato reported by Livy

greatness of Rome (Plin. xxviii, 16 {7iViyi\v,^,^)infesta,mihicredite,signa

cum in fastigium eiusdem delubri ab Syracusis illata sunt huic urbi.

(Jup. Cap.) fraefaratae quadrigae iam nimis midtos audio Corinthi et

fictiles in fornace crevissenf). These Athenarum ornamenta laudaniis

chariots were replaced in B. C. 296 niirantisque et antejixafidilia deorum

by a lovem in culmine cum quadrigis, Romanorum ridentis. ego hos malo

apparently of bronze (Liv. x, 23, 12). fropitios deos et iia spero futuros, si

The roof of the temple of the Tarquins in suis manere sedibus patiemur.


C. PLINII SECUNDI NATURALIS HISTORIAE

LIBER XXXVI, §§ 9-44 {SCULPTURA)


Lib. XXXVI.


10


SCULPTURA.

Marmore scalpendo primi omnium inclaruerunt Dipoenus et ScylHs geniti in Creta insula etiamnum Medis imperan- tibus priusque quam Cyrus in Persis regnare inciperet, hoc est olympiade circiter quinquagensima. hi Sicyonem se contulere, quae diu fuit officinarum omnium talium patria. 5 deorum simulacra publice locaverant iis Sicyoni, quae prius quam absolverentur artifices iniuriam questi abiere in Aetolos. protinus Sicyonem fames invasit ac sterilitas maerorque dirus. remedium petentibus Apollo Pythius respondit: si Dipoenus et Scyllis deorum simulacra per- 10 fecissent, quod magnis mercedibus obsequiisque impetratum


5. talium] metallnm omnes praeter Bamb.


§ 9. 1. Marmore scalpendo: with the exception of the a-yaX/ia of the Lindian Athena €« \i6ov afiapdySov, mentioned on the doubtful authority of George Kedrenos (Overbeck, Schriftqu. 337 ; cf. Brunn, K. G. i, p. 44), Dip. and Skyllis seem only to have made wooden images, Pans, ii, 1 5, 1 ; 22, 5 ; Clement of Alex. TrpoT-pcTrT. X157. Iv, p. 42 ; the gilt bronze images mentioned by Moses of Chorene {Schriftqu. 336) were more probably of gilt wood. It is evident that in the original Greek authority (Xenokrates from the character of the passage and the stress laid on Sikyon ; see Intvod. p. xxv) these artists had been discussed in connexion with the beginnings of bronze statuary; Munzer, Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 523 ; cf. Robert, Arch. March, p. 22.


2. geniti in Creta: contains a trace of the legend preserved in Paus. ii, 15, I, that they were the sons of the Athenian Daidalos and a woman of Gortyn. By representing artists bom in Crete as active in Sikyon, a similar compromise between the rival claims of ancient art centres is effected to that noted in the case of Boutades, xxxv, 151; cf. Miinzer, loc. cit.

Medis imperantibus ; the Ar- menian historian Moses of Chorene recounts that Ardashir ( — Kyros) took away from Kroisos three statues of Artemis, Herakles and Apollo by Dipoinos and Skyllis. The date assigned to the artists seems calcu- lated with reference to this event as follows : Kyros could take away works by D. and S. at the time of his


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE.


Book XXXVI.


As sculptors in marble, the first to win fame were Difoinos 9 and Sky His, born before the fall of the Median empire, and -^^"^ *' , before Cyrus began to reign in Persia, that is about the fiftieth sculpture. Olympiad [580-577 b.c.J, in the island of Crete. They migrated to Sikyon, which was long the home of all such crafts. The state of Sikyon gave them a commission for certain images of the gods, but before these were completed the artists, aggrieved at the treatment they met with, departed into Aitolia. Sikyon soon 10 afterwards was visited by famine, failure of the crops and dire affliction. The inhabitants sought relief from the Pythian Apollo, and received the answer that the evil would cease when Dipoinos and Skyllis should complete their statues of the gods, a concession which was hardly won from them by money and by personal defer-


conqnest of Kroisos (b. c. 546), there- fore the artists must have been of repnte even before the accession of Kyros (b. c. 556), Robert, op. cit. p. 18 f.

4. oirciter : cf. xxxiv, 49 : cir- eiier CCC urbis nostrae annum.

Sicyonem . . . patria : cf. xxxv, 127 diuque (Sikyon) ilia fuit f atria picturae.

6. prius quam absolv. : the following anecdote, whose artificial character is obvions, has been shovm by Petersen, de Cerere Phigalensi, p. 13 ff., to be a mere adaptation of the local myth recorded Pans, ii,

7,7-

7. iniuriam guesti : fivojiivov Zk <T(ptn (Apollo and Artemis) SfifmTos . . . 01 t^ev Is Kp-qTTju . . . dire- TpdirovTO, Faus. loc. cit.


in Aetolos : named by the legend as the artists' place of refuge because there existed in that region works by D. and S., i. c at Ambra- kia (§ 14), which, though not in Aitolia, was towards the close of the third century the most prominent city of the Aitolian league. A Greek writer of that date (Antigonos ? cf. In- trod. p. xxxvii) might say indifferently ih 'AfJ-^paKiav or ds AItqj\ovs ; Miin- zer, op. cit. p. 524.

§ 10. 8. protinua . . . dirus : tous 5^ avdp^-novs . . . vdaos kn4\a^€v, Paus. loc, cit.

9. remedium . . . impetratum est : Koi ff(pas inkKsvov ot p-avreis 'AiT6Wan'a t\aaaaSai «ai 'Apre/uv . . .

(paffLV Is T^V dKp6TT0XlV k\OitV.


i86 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

est. fuere autem simulacra ea Apollinis, Dianae, Herculis, Minervae quod e caelo postea tactum est.

11 Cum hi assent, iam fuerat in Chio insula Melas scalptor, dein filius eius Micciades, ac deinde nepos Archermus, cuius filii Bupalus et Athenis vel clarissimi in ea scientia fuere 5 Hipponactis poetae aetate, quern certum est LX olympiade fuisse. quodsi quis horum familiam ad proavom usque retro agat, inveniat artis eius originem cum olympiadum

12 initio coepisse. Hipponacti notabilis foeditas voltus erat, quamobrem imaginem eius lascivia iocorum hi proposuere lo ridentium circulis, quod Hipponax indignatus destrinxit amaritudinem carminum in tantum ut credatur aliquis ad laqueum eos conpulisse. quod falsum est, conplura enim in iinitimis insulis simulacra postea fecere, sicut in Delo, quibus subiecerunt carmen non vitibus tantum censeri 15 Chion sed et operibus Archermi filiorum. ostendunt et

13 lasii Dianam manibus eorum factam. in ipsa Chio narrata est operis eorum Dianae facies in sublimi posita, cuius voltum intrantes tristem, abeuntes exhilaratum putant. Romae eorum signa sunt in Palatina aede Apollinis in 20

17. lasii] Riccard.; 'Lasii Samb., Detlefsen; lasi Voss.

1. Apollinis . . . Minervae : the Melas (Me[A.]a[i']os iraTpiiiov aa\Tv

list is alptiabetical ; the statues there- ye/ioi'Tes]) of the third line is pre-

fore were no part of a group but single sumably not the father of Mikkiades,

works, H. L. Urlichs in GSrlitz. but, as SchoU and Robert pointed out

Verhandl. p. 330, note 2. {Arch. March, p. 116 f.), a local hero

Dianae : possibly identical with cf Chios, son of Oinopion ; Ion ap.

the ibavov of Artemis Munychia Paus. vii, 4, 8. The account in Pliny

mentionedby Clement, irpoTpeirr. X.6yos, rests upon this or a similar inscription ;

iv, p. 43 : cf. Urlichs loc. cit. ; Robert, the blunder with regard to Melas may

Arch. March, p. 22. have been committed early by a Greek

§ 11. 3. Cum hi essent : to the writer ; cf. note on Demarate in

account of D. and S. is now opposed xxxiv, 88.

(from another source) that of the soalptor = sculptor ; cf note on

Chian school. Introd. p. xxvi. xxxv, 156.

Melas . . . Micciades . . . Archer- 4. Archermus : besides the Delos

mus : the three names appear on inscription, the name occurs on a later

the famous inscription from Delos inscr., m the Ionic alphabet, from the

{/.G.B.i; best restored by Lolling, Athenian Akropolis, C. I. A. iv, 373, 95. 'mp. dpx. 1888, p. 71 ff. ; cf. E. A. 5. Bupalus et Ath. ; the fact

Gardner in Class. Rev. 1893, p. 140), that they were sons of Archermos

where 'Apxepi^os (2nd line) appears was doubtless also taken fi-om an

as son of Mi«/no8i;s (1st line). The inscription; Miinzer, op. cit. p. 524.


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 187

ence. The statues in question were of Apollo, Artemis, Herakles, and Athene : this last was afterwards struck by lightning.

Before their day, however, the sculptor Melas had already lived 11 in the island of Chios, succeeded by his son Mikkiades and his 5^^/^/"' grandson Archermos, whose sons, Boupalos and Athenis, were masters of great renown in their craft in the time of the poet Hipponax, who certainly lived in the sixtieth Olympiad [540-537 B.C.]. Thus counting four generations backwards to their great grandfather, the birth of sculpture is found to coincide with the first Olympiad [776-773 B.C.]. Hipponax was conspicuous for 12 his ill-favoured countenance, which incited the sculptors in wanton jest to display his portrait to the ridicule of their assembled friends. Incensed at this Hipponax lampooned them so bitterly that, as some believe, they were driven to hang themselves. This, however, cannot be true, for they afterwards made in the neigh- bouring islands, as for example, in Delos, a number of images of the gods, under which they carved verses saying that Chios was not honoured for her vines alone but for the works of the sons of Archermos. lasos too can show an Artemis made by their hands, 13 while in Chios itself we hear of a mask of Artemis by them, which is placed at a height in the temple, and presents a gloomy countenance to those who enter the temple, a cheerful one to those who are leaving. At Rome statues by them are to be seen on the summit of the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, and

6. LX olympiade : the Parian March. ■^. w^ i. Chronicle gives his date as 01. 59, 3 = 12. ad laaueum : this portion of

B. C. 54^. the story is the doublette of the story

8. olymp. initio : the calculation of Lycambes and Archilochos. The

is based on the false assumption that a credatur aliquis introduces it as

generation=theaveragefullIifeofsixty apocryphal, while in the following

years ; cf. Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 17. sentence it is proved an invention.

§ 12. 9. notabilia foeditaa : cf. 14. in Delo : like their father

Metrodoros of Skepsis, ap. Athen. xii, Archermos.

552 c. The only ascertained factor 17. laaii: in the neighbourhood

in the whole anecdote is the poet's of Chios. The words ostendunt . . .

attacks {acer koslis Bupalo) upon the ^a/a«; betray mere periegetic curiosity

two artists (Bergk, Lyr. Gr. ed. 4, (Furtwangler,i%»i«f,p.6i); theyare

fr. 10-14; Colligaon, Jlist. Sculpi. i, from a different source to the earlier

p. 141); it is probable that when part of the account, which is based

the real cause for these attacks had upon a. study of inscriptions. Since

been forgotten, a new one was elabo- Mucianus visited lasos (ix, 33) it is

rated out of the statues of Boupalos reasonable to attribute this infonna-

and Athenis, the archaic character of tion to him ; Introd. p. Ixxxix. which struck later generations as § 13. 30. inPalatinaaede : xxxiv,

simply grotesque; cf. Robert, ArcA. 14.


i88 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

fastigio et omnibus fere quae fecit divus Augustus, patris quoque eorum et Deli fuere opera et in Lesbo insula.

14 Dipoeni quidem Ambracia, Argos, Cleonae operibus re- fertae fuere. omnes autem candido tantum marmore usi sunt e Paro insula, quern lapidem coepere lychniten appel- 5 lare, quoniam ad lucernas in cuniculis caederetur, ut auctor est Varro, multis postea candidioribus repertis, nuper vero etiam in Lunensium lapidicinis. sed in Pariorum mirabile proditur glaeba lapidis unius cuneis dividentium soluta

15 imaginem Sileni intus extitisse. non omittendum banc lo artem tanto vetustiorem fuisse quam picturam aut statua- riam, quarum utraque cum Phidia coepit octogensima tertia olympiade, post annos circiter CCCXXXII. et ipsum Phi- dian tradunt scalpsisse marmora, Veneremque eius esse

16 Romae in Octaviae operibus eximiae pulchritudinis. Al- i.^ camenen Atheniensem, quod certum est, docuit in primis nobilem, cuius sunt opera Athenis complura in aedibus sacris praeclarumque Veneris extra muros quae appellatur Aphrodite Iv KriTToii. huic summam manum ipse Phidias

in fastigio : 1. e. the si^na were Cleonae : for which they made

akroterial figures (see note on xxxv, the image of Athena ; Paus. ii,

152), the pedimental and other decora- 15, i.

tions also consisting of archaic sculp- refertae : rhetorical : of. in xxxv,

ture ; of. the archaic Amazon published 1 48 quorum tabulae pinacothecas

by Petersen, Rom. Mitth. iv, 1889, imphnt.

p. 36 f. 4. omnes autem ; i. e. the Chian

I . et omnibus fere : rhetorical sculptors as well,

exaggeration : cf. the ex omnibus 5. lychniten : the etymology is

clarissima quaeque in xxxiv, 84, H. L. thoroughly Varronian, cf. notes on

\3TViA\%, Rhein. Mus. 1889, p. 487. xxxiv, 11; xxxv, 155; according to

I 14. 3. Dipoeni : harks back Lepsius, Griechische Marmorstudien,

to § 10. p. 45, it rests on fact : the marble

Ambracia: see note on Aetolos came from the underground quarries

in §9; the foundation of Am- about five miles N.E. of the ancient

brakia by Gorges son of Kypselos city of Pares ; Lepsius noticed here

(Strab. X, 452) affords us an upper a number of holes cut obliquely into

limit for the activity of D. and S. in the walls of the rock, the purpose of

that city. The Ambrakiot works which he believes was to suspend the

of art were taken away to Rome by workmen's lamps by their hooked

Fulvius Nobilior, B.C. 189. handles.

Argos: for which D. and S. 10. imaginem Sileni : cf the simi-

made of ebony wood a group of the lar story, Cic. Div. i, 13, 23 : fingebat

Dioskouroi and their families ; Paus. Cameades in Chiorum lapicidinis

ii, 22, 5. saxo diffiso caput exstitisse Panisci.


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 189

indeed in almost all the temples built by the god Augustus. Works by their father Archermos existed at Delos and in the island of Lesbos. Ambrakia, Argos, and Kleonai Avere filled full 14 of the works of Dipoinos. All these artists used none but white Parian marble, called lychnites \\vxviTr]s], as Varro says, because Marble of it was quarried by lamplight in underground passages. Since P'^"^- then many marbles of a purer white have been discovered, and again quite recently in the quarries of Luna. A marvellous story tells how in the quarries of Paros a block which was being split with wedges, opened and disclosed a figure of Seilenos.

Nor must I forget to say that the art of sculpture is much 15 older than that of painting or of bronze statuary, both of which ^/^/^"^^^ began with Pheidias in the eighty-third olympiad [448-445 b. c.\ painting some 332 years later. It is said that Pheidias also worked in ^atimrv^" marble, and that an Aphrodite by him of surpassing beauty is at Rome in the gallery of Octavia. It is certain at all events that he taught Alkamenes of Athens, a sculptor of the first rank, 16. many of whose works are in the temples of Athens, while out- ,„^„'^j side the city is his famous statue, known as ' Aphrodite eV (cijTrois-,' or ' in the gardens.' Pheidias himself, according to tradition,

§ 15. hano artem : sc. sculp- Parthenon and the whole tendencies

turam by implication, although the of his school, and from the express

kind of art has not been previously testimony of Aristotle, Eth. Nicom.

mentioned ; cf. notes on xxxiv, 56 vi, 7 • '^^ S^ trotpiav iv tc rais rex^o^s

{hanc scientiam')', xxxv, 153 [Jianc toT^ a.Kptl3eaT&T0is rcis rexvas ciTTodiSo-

scientiaTfC) . /icy, oXov ^eiSiav \iQovy6v aotpbv ital

12. quarum utraqtie : xxxiv, 49 ; HoXvtcXinov dvSpiavroTroLdvj evravOa

xxxv, 64; as regards painting Pliny piiv oZv oiiSiv aWo arjftaipovTes rf/v

forgets that he had himself argued ao(piav, ^ on aperri rixvjjs idTiv.

that its beginnings were still earlier 15. Octaviae operibus: cf. § 35,

than Pheidias. Introd. p. xxx. where another Aphrodite {aliam

14. tradunt : [tradition as opposed VenerenC) by Philiskos is mentioned

to real fact, i. e. whether he was a as being in the same gallery,

sculptor in marble or not, it is certain § 16. Alcamenen : xxxiv, 49 and

{quod certum est) that he taught 72. The only dateable work by Alka-

Alkamenes. So in xxxv, 54, tradatur menes is his group of Athena andHera-

is opposed to in confesso sit ; in xvii, kles, dedicated in the Herakleion at

49, sunt qui . . . adspergant. quod Thebes after the downfall of the Thirty

certum est . . . sol confert, H.L. U.] Tyrants in 403 B. c. (Paus. ix, 11, 6).

scalpsisse marmora : Pliny's Pliny's account of Alkamenes and

Greek authors had laid chief stress on Agorakritos seems borrowed from

the bronze works of Pheidias, xxxiv, Antigonos, Introd. p. xlii.

54 ; that he must have been equally 1 7. Athenis : see note on xxxiv,

celebrated for his works in marble 49, Olymp. Ixxxiii.

is evident from the sculptures of the 19. hi ktittois: on the Ilissos, Paus.


I90 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

17 inposuisse dicitur. eiusdem discipulus fuit Agoracritus Parius et aetate gratus, itaque e suis operibus pleraque nomini eius donasse fertur. certavere autem inter se ambo discipuli Venere facienda, vicitque Alcamenes non opere sed civitatis suffragiis contra peregrinum suo faventis. 5 quare Agoracritus ea lege signum suum vendidisse traditur, ne Athenis esset, et appellasse Nemesin. id positum est Rhamnunte pago Atticae, quod M. Varro omnibus signis praetulit. est et in Matris magnae delubro eadem civitate

18 Agoracriti opus. Phidian clarissimum esse per omnes gentes lo quae lovis Olympii famam intellegunt nemo dubitat, sed ut laudari merito sciant etiam qui opera eius non videre, pro- feremus argumenta parva et ingeni tantum. neque ad hoc lovis Olympii pulchritudine utemur, non Minervae Athenis factae amplitudine, cum sit ea cubitorum XXVI, — ebore haec is et auro constat — sed in scuto eius Amazonum proelium caelavit intumescente ambitu, in parmae eiusdem concava parte deorum et Gigantum dimicationes, in soleis vero Lapitharum et Centaurorum, adeo momenta omnia capacia

i. 19, i. According to a generally Alkamenes recorded by John Tzetzes,

accepted theory of Furtwangler, the -j^yXm^fs, 931.

Alkamenian statue is reproduced in the 7. iCfeinesin : Wilamowitz {Anti-

statues of the ' Venus Genitrix ' type gonos v. Karystos, p. 11) points out

(Louvre, Giraudon, 1176; Florence that the story of the Nemesis having

Alinari, 1331). been intended for an Aphrodite

huio snmiuain manum : the originated in the fact that the

words almost imply that the same Rhamuusian Nemesis differed from

reproach attached to Alkamenes as the type usual at a later date. Cf.

to Agorakritos, namely, that Pheidias Paus. i, 33, 7 : Hrcpd 8' tx"" ""f

allowed his own work to pass off as tovto tA ayaXixa 'Sifiiixeas oiiT€ aWo

his pupil's, cf. Pallat in Jahrb. ix, TreiroirjTai rSiv d,px<>.iaiv ... 01 S\ varepov,

1 894, p. 14. im(paivea9ai yap t7)v 9ebv pAMara lirl

§ 17. 1. Agoracritus: Overbeck, t£ ipav kSeXovaiv, im. Toira 'Sein.iaa

Schriftquellen, 829-843. irTe/ick llia-nep "Eptori iroioSai; cf. Am-

3. nomini . . . donasse: the mianus Marcellinus, xiv, 11, 25-26

scandal recorded here vrithout special (ed. Gardthausen, p. 42), and Kalk-

allusion to any one work was used mann, Pattsanias der Perieget, p. 206.

by Polemon {ap. Zenobios f, 82) 8. Hhanmunte : a fragment of

as an argument wherewith to vin- the colossal head of the Nemesis was

dicate for Pheidias the authorship of discovered here, and is now in the

the Agorakritan Nemesis. lutrod. Brit. Mus. {Cat. Sculpt, i, 460).

p. xxxix. Numerous fragments of the basis (Leda

certavere : cf. the story of the bringing Helen to Nemesis, Paus. loc.

competition between Pheidias and «V.) were recovered in 1890, and are


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 191

put the last touches to this work. He also taught Agorakritos of 17 Paros, whom he so loved for his youthful grace, that he allowed krit^'. several of his own works to pass under his name. The two pupils made statues of Aphrodite for a competition, and Alka- menes received the prize, not from the merit of his work, but because the Athenians voted for their fellow-citizen against a foreigner. The story runs that Agorakritos thereupon sold his statue, imposing the condition that it should not be set up at Athens, and called it Nemesis. It now stands in Rhamnous, a deme of Attica, and Marcus Varro esteems it above all other statues. There is another statue by Agorakritos in the same city, in the shrine of the Great Mother.

The renown of Pheidias among all peoples who realize the 18 glory of his Olympian Zeus cannot be brought in doubt ; yet so ^^isfn^ that even those who have not seen his works may know that his ventive praises are well deserved, I shall cite those minute details in which ^^^i^ " it was only left to him to display the resources of his inventive faculty. For this purpose I shall not appeal to the beauty of his Olympian Zeus, nor to the size of his Athena at Athens, though she is 26 cubits [37 ft. 10 in.] in height, made all of gold and ivory ; but I shall instance her shield, on the convex face of which he represented the battle of the Amazons, and on the concave surface the conflict between the gods and giants, while on the side of her sandals were the Lapithai and the Kentaurs. So true was it that in his eyes every tiny space afforded a field for art. The

published, Jahrb. ix, 1894, pi. 1-7, numerous references in other authors

pp. 1-22 (Pallat). Pausanias, who is coll. by Overb. A'Ary^yae//. 693-754. never curious in the matter of ascrip- 14. Minervae : xxxiv, 54 ; Pans,

tions, simply attributes the work to i, 24, 5 ; Overbeclc, 645-696 ; a rough

Pheidias, as he likewise did the Roman copy in the statuette from the

' Mother of the Gods ' by Agorakritos, Varvakeion (Athens, Central Mus. ;

and the Athena by Kolotes (see cast in Br. Mus., Cat. Sculpt, i, 300 ;

note on xxxv, 54). cf. 301).

9. Matris magnae del, : MjjrpSs 16. scuto : a small late copy is

Biwv Upov, Pans, i, 3, 5, where preserved in the ' Strangford ' shield,

the statue is erroneously ascribed to Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt, i, 303 ; for the

Pheidias himself. For the type of the latest discussion of the style of the

goddess seethe fine relief of undoubted reliefs and of the supposed portraits

Pheidian style, ^. Z. 38, 1880, pi. i; of Pheidias and Perikles, see Furt-

Roscher, ii, p. 1663, fig. 5. Addenda. wangler, Masterpieces, p. 48.

§18. II. lovis Olympii : xxxiv, 18. soleis: cf. inthe Mus. Conserv.

49 ; 54 ; full description of the statue in at Rome the colossal foot wearing

Pans. V, 10, 2 : beneath the feet of a sandal adorned along the edge with

Zeus was the artist's inscription, *ei5ias a train of Tritons (Helbig, Class. Ant.

XapiiiSov vBs 'ABijvcuSs /J,' liroitjixe : the 596).


192 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

19 artis illi fuere. in basi autem quod caelatum est Pandoras genesin appellant : dii adsunt nascenti XX numero. Victoria praecipue mirabili periti mirantur et serpentem ac sub ipsa cuspide aeream sphingem. haec sint obiter dicta de artifice numquam satis laudato, simul ut noscatur illam magnifi- 5

20 centiam aequalem fuisse et in parvis. Praxitelis aetatem inter statuarios diximus, qui marmoris gloria superavit etiam semet. opera eius sunt Athenis in Ceramico, sed ante omnia est non solum Praxitelis verum in toto orbe terrarum Venus quam ut viderent multi navigaverunt lo Cnidum. duas fecerat simulque vendebat, alteram velata specie, quam ob id praetulerunt quorum condicio erat Coi, cum eodem pretio detulisset, severum id ac pudicum arbi- trantes. reiectam Cnidi emerunt inmensa differentia famae.

21 voluit eam a Cnidiis postea mercari rex Nicomedes, totum 15 aes alienum quod erat ingens civitatis dissoluturum se pro- mittens, omnia perpeti maluere, nee inmerito, illo enim signo Praxiteles nobilitavit Cnidum. aedicula eius tota aperitur ut conspici possit undique effigies dea favente ipsa,

I. caelatnin est — Pandoras genesin appellant — dii Gerhard, Detlefsen, 2. adsunt nascenti] Urlichs in Chrest.; sunt nascentis ^?Vot;-i/. ; sunt nascentes reliqui; sunt adstantes Detlefsen. 3. z.z\post verbum aeream /w. Panofka,

Detlefsen. 4. a.a^!L-nx\ Bamb., reliqui; aureum Urlichs, Detlefsen.

§ 19. I . Pandoras genesin : Paus. Pausanias, p. 98) . We have there

i, 24, 7 : from the hesitating manner fore retained the MSS. reading, which

in which the statement is introduced can be construed though the sense is

by appellant, it appears that either not absolutely clear. The confusion,

Pliny or his Latin author had not however, is more likely due to Pliny's

thoroughly grasped the meaning of hurrying over details, than to the

the Greek; cf. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, copyists. Sub ipsa I take to mean

p. 127. 'about on a level vnth'; aeream is

i. dii adsunt: the composition evidently correct, for had the sphinx —

is preserved on the basis of the Perga- according to Pliny— been of gold, like

mene copy of the Athena Parthenos, the rest of the statue, there would

ya/5;-3. V, 1890, p. 114, fig. 9. have been no need to mention its

Victoria : koX Nifcrjv oaov tc material.

reaaapcuv -mixaiv . . . Ix". Paus. lac. § 20. 7. diximus : xxxiv, 69-70.

"^' 8. in Ceramico : refers to grave

3. ac sub ipsa . . : sphingem : statues by Praxiteles in the Athenian

tjie reading adopted by Detlefsen cemetery. Pausanias (i, 2, 3) mentions

brings Pliny into agreement with a grave kmerjim ex'"" a-rpaTiimjV

Pausanias («ai TrX-qaiov toC Soparos iiriT(ii vapearr]x6Ta- ovTtva filv ovk olSa,

Spaxuv iaTiv), but does intolerable Upa^neKris Si xai tov 'iirirov koX tov

violence to the MSS. (cf. Gurlilt, aTpnTtarriv kiroiriaev (notes on xxxiv,


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 193

relief on the base is known as the yeVcrit of Pandora; the 19 gods present at the birth are twenty in number. The Victory is most wondrous, but connoisseurs admire also the serpent and further the bronze sphinx beneath the spear of the goddess. Let these passing remarks on a sculptor whose praises can never end, serve at the same time to show that even in the smallest details the opulence of his genius never fell short.

Praxiteles, whose date I gave among the bronze workers, outdid 20 even himself by the fame of his works in marble. Statues by his P"'^^'^^"- hand exist at Athens in the Kerameikos, while famous not only among the works of Praxiteles, but throughout the whole world, is the Aphrodite which multitudes have sailed to Knidos to look Aphrodite upon. He had offered two statues of Aphrodite for sale at the ^-'^ '^ ""'"■'• same time, the second being a draped figure, which for that reason was preferred by the people of Kos with whom lay the first choice ; the price of the two figures was the same, but they flattered themselves they were giving proof of a severe modesty. The rejected statue, which was bought by the people of Knidos, enjoys an immeasurably greater reputation. King Nikomedes 21 subsequently wished to buy it from them, offering to discharge the whole of their public debt, which was enormous. They, how- ever, preferred to suffer the worst that could befall, and they showed their wisdom, for by this statue Praxiteles made Knidos illustrious. It stands in a small shrine, open all round so that

70, 71, and on ias ex pir. imagines oi 11. velata specie: this second

Apelles in xxxv, 90). For tlie Plinian Aphrodite is still to seek ; for a pos-

phrase, cf. Cicero, de Leg. ii, 26, 64 : sible echo of the work, see Furt-

amplitudines sepulcrorum, quas in wangler, op. cit. p. 322 f.

Ceramico videmus; Wolters, Aiken. § 21. 15. voluit . . . mercari ; at

Mitth. xviii, 1893, p. 5 f. and note i. the close of the first Mithridatic war,

10. Venus . . . Cnidum: the B. C. 84, when Nikomedes III (King of

statue is represented on coins of Bithynia B. c. 90-74), who had been

Knidos, Gardner, Types, xv, 21; for expelled from his kingdom by Mithri-

a revised list of the marble copies, see dates, was reinstated by the Romans.

Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 322, 16. aes alienmn ; for the heavy

note 3 ; the best known is in the contributions exacted by Sulla from

Vatican, Helbig 316 (good cast with- the Greek states of Asia Minor, cf.

out drapery in South Kensington Applan, Mi9/]i8. 63.

Museum). The notices in ancient 18. aedioula: for a detailed de-

vreiters coll. by Overbeck, Schriftquell. scription of the statue and its shrine,

1227-1248. The information as to cf. Lucian, 'Epwrcs, 13.

the Knidian Aphrodite is from Muci- 19. deafavente ipsa: in allusion

anus. Introd. p. Ixxxvii. to the legend that the goddess herself

O


194


C. PLINII SECVNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI


ut creditur, facta, nee minor ex quacumque parte admi- ratio est. ferunt amore captum quendam, cum delituisset noctu, simulacro cohaesisse, eiusque cupiditatis esse indicem

22 maculam. sunt in Cnido et alia signa marmorea inlustrium artificum, Liber pater Bryaxidis et alter Scopae et Minerva, 5 nee mains aliud Veneris Praxiteliae specimen quam quod inter haec sola memoratur. eiusdem est et Cupido obiectus a Cicerone Verri, ille propter quem Thespiae visebantur, nunc in Octaviae scholis positus, eiusdem et alter nudus in Pario colonia Propontidis, par Veneri Cnidiae nobilitate et i° iniuria, adamavit enim Alcetas Rhodius atque in eo quoque

23 simile amoris vestigium reliquit. Romae Praxitelis opera sunt Flora, Triptolemus, Ceres in hortis Servilianis, Boni Eventus et Bonae Fortunae simulacra in Capitolio, item Maenades et quas Thyiadas vocant et Caryatidas, et Sileni ^S in PoUionis Asini monumentis, et Apollo et Neptunus.

24 Praxitelis filius Cephisodotus et artis heres fuit. cuius laudatum est Pergami symplegma nobile digitis corpori


served the artist as model. Clement of Alexandria, ■npoTpfirT. \6yos 53, names the courtesan Kratina as model.

2. amore captum : cf. below, § 22, § 39. Similar stories were told also of a Hebe by Ktesikles, Adaios, ap. Athen. xiii, p. 606 a, of an 'AyaOi) Tvxrj near th Prytaneion in Athens, Ailian, noi/c. lar. ix, 39.

§ 22. 5. Bryaxidis: below, § 30; xxxiv, 42, 73.

Soopae : below, §§ 25, 28, 30, 31 ; xxxiv, 49.

7. Cupido : given as a present to Phryne, Pans, i, 20, i ; cf. Athen. xiii, p. 591 b. The Eros was brought from Thespiai to Rome by Gains Caligula, restored to Thespiai by Claudius, and finally brought back to Rome by Nero ; it was destroyed in u, fire, in the reign of Titus (Pans, ix, 27, 3). Furtwangler (Masterp. p. 314 ff.) follows Visconti in recognizing copies of the statue in the ' Eros of Cento- celle ' (Helbig, 185) and its numerous replicas.


obieotus : Verreshad robbed Heius of Messana of another Eros by Praxiteles ; Cicero's allusion to the Thespian statue was to impress upon the judges mirum quendam dolorem accipere eos^ ex quorum urbibus haec auferantur.

8. propter . . . visebantur : Cic. Verr. II, iv, 2, 4: Cupidinem fecit (Praxiteles) ilium qui est Thespiis, propter quem Thespiae visuniur; nam alia visendi causa nulla est; cf. ib.

60, 135-

9. Octaviae scholis : part of the complex of buildings known as the Opera Octaviae ; these were probably rooms opening on to the gallery or porticus itself

alter nudus : the type was first identified by Furtwangler on coins of Parion {ap. Roscher, i, 13? 8); later Benndorf {Bull, delta Comm. Arch. 1886, p. 74) recognized a mar- ble copy in the ' Genius Borghese ' of the Louvre (phot. Giraudon, 1201).


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE


195


the statue, which was made, as is believed, under the direct inspiration of the goddess, can be seen from every side, nor is there any point of view from which it is less admirable than from another.

There are in Knidos other marble statues by great sculptors, 22 a Dionysos by Bryaxis, another Dionysos, and also an Athena by Skopas, and there is no more forcible panegyric of the Aphrodite of Praxiteles than the fact that among all these it alone is remembered. Praxiteles also made the Eros with which Cicero Eros of taunted Verres, that Eros for whose sake men travelled to ^ Thespiai. It is now in the ' schools ' of Octavia. He made a second nude Eros in the colony of Parion, on the Propontis, a figure as celebrated as the Aphrodite of Knidos.

At Rome the works of Praxiteles are : Flora, Triptolemos and 23 Demeter in the gardens of Servilius, the images of Good Luck and Good Fortune in the Capitol, further the Mainads, the figures known as Thyiades and Karyatides, the Seilenoi in the gallery of Asinius PoUio, and an Apollo and Poseidon.

Kephisodotos, the son of Praxiteles, was also the heir to his 24 gepius. Greatly admired is his celebrated group at Pergamon of ^^f^""'


in Pario oolonia : v, 141 ; xxxiv, 78 ; it was the seat of a very ancient cult of Eros, Paus. ix, 27, i (Furt- wangler, ap. Roscher, i, 1342).

§ 23. 12. Eomae : at this point begins a description of works of art in Rome, which is continued with only a few interruptions to the close of the history of the marble sculptors in § 43.

13. Flora, Tript., Ceres: pre- sumably in a group ; Flora must be the Greek K(i/>a, and owes her Latin name to the wreath she was holding as on the relief. Overbeck, Kunst. Myth. pi. xiv, 3, 4 ; 'E(f7;/i. dpx- 1893, P- 35-

hortis Servilianis : from Suet. Nero, 47, this must have been on the Via Ostiensis ; cf. Tacitus, Ann. XV, .^$ ; Bist. iii, 38 ; C. I. L. vi, 8673, 8674.

Boni Ev. et Bonae I'ort.= 'A7aflis laifuiiv and 'A7a9^ Ttixi/ ; for the received Attic type of these divi- nities see the votive relief in the Brit. Mus. {Mus. Marbles, xi, pi. 47).


15. Maenades: for Attic fourth- century types of the maenads see Rapp ap. Roscher, ii. 2270.

Thyiadas : •pivatKis iiiv elaai

  • ATT(«ai, ^oirSiaai 5^ Is riv THapvachv

napa €Tos . . . dyovffLv opyia Aiovvirqi, Paus. X, 4, 3. KapvaTidcs, maidens of Karyai, who danced at the festival of Artemis, Pans, iv, 16, 9.

16. PoUionis Asini mon. : in the Museum connected with the famous library, Plin. vii, 115 ; both apparently adjomed the Atrium Libertatis, which was restored by Asinius PoUio, cf. Suet. Aug. 29; Ovid, Tristia, iii, i, 72 ; Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 338, note 2.

§ 24. 17. Cephisodotus : xxxiv,

51. 87-

18. Pergami: the information is from Mucianus, Introd. p. Ixxxix. [From Tac. Ann. xvi, 23, it appears that a number of works of art were still at Pergamon in the reign of Nero. — H.L.U.]

symplegma : [probably here of


O 3


Ig6


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI


verius quam marmori inpressis. Romae eius opera sunt Latona in Palati delubro, Venus in Pollionis Asini monu- mentis et intra Octaviae porticus in lunonis aede Aescula-

25 pius ac Diana. Scopae laus cum his certat. is fecit Venerem et Pothon, qui Samothrace sanctissimis caerimonis 5 coluntur, item Apollinem Palatinum, Vestam sedentem laudatam in Servilianis hortis duosque campteras circa eam, quorum pares in Asini monimentis sunt, ubi et canephoros

26 eiusdem. sed in maxima dignatione delubro Cn. Domitii in circo Flaminio Neptunus ipse et Thetis atque Achilles, 10 Nereides supra delphinos et cete aut hippocampos sedentes, item Tritones chorusque Phorci et pistrices ac multa alia marina, omnia eiusdem manu, praeclarum opus, etiam si totius vitae fuisset. nunc vero praeter supra dicta quaeque nescimus Mars etiamnum est sedens colossiaeus eiusdem 15 manu in templo Bruti Callaeci apud circum eundem, prae-

7. campteras] Bamb.; camiteras reliqui; lampterasya«, Detlefsen.


an erotic couple, cf. Martial, xii, 43 ; Amobius, vii, 33 (ed. Reiffer- scheid, p. 267), and for this use of aviiirXfyna, Soph. Fr. 556, Plato, Symp. iQi, Aeta.— H. L. U.] That this symplegma had an erotic signi- ficance is proved by the comparison with the group of Pan and Olympos (I 36) quod est alterum in terris sym- plegma nobile. i

digitis . . . inpressis ; cf. HSrondas, iy, 59 f. (ed. Crusius) :

rhv irarSa 6^ (^■hv') yvfivdv ijv Kviaoj

TOVTOV

2. Iiatona: Crusius (German transl. of Herondas, p. xiv, note) suggests possible identity with the Leto which had stood in Kos, Herondas, ii, 98.

Falati delubro ; below, § 32.

3. luuonis aede: below, §35;

§42-

Aesculapius : according to Cru- sius (loc. cit.), possibly identical with the Asklepios by 'the sons of Praxiteles' (01 Tlpri^nikfoi imrSes) in the temple of Kos ; Herond. iv, 20 ff.


§ 25. 4. Scopae laus : § 22 ; § 30.

5. Venerem et Pothon : the Samo- thrakian cult seems to have developed out of that of Demeter and Hermes Kadmos ; cf. Crusius, Fleckeiseti s Jahrb. 128, p. 298; Beitrdge z.

Griech. Myth. p. 15. For the temple of Aphrodite at Megara, Skopas had made statues of Eros, Himeros, and Pothos ; Pans, i, 43, 6.

Samothrace : Mucianns, who had visited Samothrake, is again Pliny's authority here, Introd. p. xc.

6. ApoU. Palatinum ; for the temple, cf. xxxiv, 14 ; above, § 24 ; below, § 32. Propertius, ii, 31, 15, describes the statue as follows : —

deinde inter matrem deus ipse in-

terque sororem Pythius in longa carmina neste

sonat. (The Apollo referred to in 1. 5 f. of the same elegy has been shown by Hiilsen, Rom. Mitth. ix, 1894, p. 240 f, to refer to a quite distinct statue which stood in the courtyard of the temple.) The Skopasian Apollo, the


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 197

figures interlaced [o-ij/ijrXe-yfia], in which the fingers seem to press on flesh rather than on marble. At Rome his works are: the Leto in the temple on the Palatine, an Aphrodite in the gallery of Asinius Pollio, and the Asklepios and Artemis in the temple of Juno within the portico of Octavia.

The praise of Skopas vies with theirs. He made the Aphrodite 25 and rioSor, or Desire, which are worshipped in Samothrake with ^™P'^^- the holiest ritual, also the Apollo on the Palatine and, in the gardens of Servilius, a seated Hestia which is praised, and beside her two pillars whose pendants are in the galleries of Asinius, where also is his Kavrjcjiopos [basket-bearer]. But most highly 26 esteemed of all his works is the group in the temple built by Gnaeus Domitius in the Circus of Flaminius : it comprises Posei- don himself with Thetis and Achilles, Nereids riding on dolphins and sea monsters or on sea horses, and Tritons and the train of Phorkos, with sea beasts and a tumult of creatures of the deep, the whole by the same hand, a wondrous work, even were it that of a life-time. Yet in addition to the works I have named and those which are unknown to us, we have by the same artist an Ares, a colossal seated figure, now in the temple built by Brutus Callaecus close to the Circus of Flaminius, besides a nude

Kitharoidos, is represented on coins Poseidon at Astakos-Olbia (Uriichs,

of Nero (Overb. J^olL Munztaf. v, Skopas, p. 130).

47,48, 50, 51). 10. oiroo Plaminio: cf. Gilbert,

7. campteras : i. e. goals or Rom, iii, p. 89.

columns marking in the stadium the ipse : i.e. the temple-statue; Becker,

turning-point for runners or chariots Top. p. 619, note 13; cf. simulacrum.

(Kaii-uTuv) ; cf. the metae on the sar- ipsum in xxxiv, 66.

kophagos, Helbig, Class. Ant. 339 ; Thetis . . . marina : the group

these columns might be profusely represented the passing of Achilles to

adorned with sculpture. the Isles of the Blest; Uriichs, Skopas,

§26. 9. delubro; i. e. of Neptune. p. 133 ff. ; cf. Fleischer ap. Roscher,

It is imcertain which of the Domitii i, p. 53. Pliny's description is tinged

built it ; Uriichs ( Griechische Statuen by reminiscences of Virgil, Aen. v,

im Rep. Rom, p. 19) inclines to attri- 240.

bute the original building to the consul 15. Mars . . . sedens : the Ares

of B. c. 121, who celebrated with great Ludovisi (Helbig, 883) — a statue dis-

splendour his triumph over the Ar- tinctly Skopasian in style— is probably

verni, and its restoration to his great- a reduced copy of this work ; see

grandson, the consul of B.C. 32 ; this Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 304.

later Domitius now placed in the 16. Bruti Callaeoi : (D. Junius)

temple the great SI<opasian group, cos. B.C. 138; celebrated his triumph

presumbly brought from Bithynia, over the Callaici B. c. 1 32 ; the archi-

of which he was governor B. C. 40-35, tect of the temple was Hermodoros of

and where was a famous temple of Salamis, Nepos ap. Priscian, Fragm.


igS


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST XXXVI


terea Venus in eodem loco nuda Praxiteliam illam ante-

27 cedens et quemcumque alium locum nobilitatura. Romae quidem multitudo operum, etiam obliteratio ac magis offi- ciorum negotiorumque acervi omnis a contemplatione tamen abducunt, quoniam otiosorum et in magno loci silentio talis 5 admiratio est. qua de causa ignoratur artifex eius quoque Veneris quam Vespasianus imperator in operibus Pacis suae

28 dicavit antiquorum dignam fama. par haesitatio est in templo Apollinis Sosiani, Niobae liberos morientes Scopas an Praxiteles fecerit, item lanus pater in suo templo dicatus 10 ab Augusto ex Aegypto advectus utrius manu sit, iam quidem et auro occultatus. similiter in curia Octaviae quaeritur de Cupidine fulmen tenente. id demum adfirma-

29 tur, Alcibiaden esse principem forma in ea aetate. multa in eadem schola sine auctoribus placent : Satyri quattuor, 15 ex quibus unus Liberum patrem palla velatum umeris praefert, alter Liberam similiter, tertius ploratum infantis


Hist. Rom. 13, p. 227; cf. Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 88.

§ 27. 2. Bomae quidem : for the sentiment of the whole passage, cf. Hor. Ep. i, 10. [It became a common- place of silver Latinity to contrast the noise of the city with the quiet of the villas, see also Pliny's Introd. to Bk. xiv ; Pliny, Ep. iii, 1 8, 4 nunquamporro aut valde vacat Romae, aut com- modum est audire recitantem ; Ep. iii, 5, 13 haec inter medios labor es urbisque fremitum ; and Ep. i, 9 ; cf C. F. Herrmann iiber d. Kunstsinn der Romer, p. 46.^ — H. L. U.]

7. operibus Paois : connected with the Temple and Forum of Peace, xxxiv, 84.

§ 28. 9. ApoUinis Sosiani: xiii,53, the surname from C. Sosius (the legate of Antony), who brought the sacred cedar-wood image of the god from Seleukia, and restored the temple ; note on xxxv, 99.

liiobae : if the group was identical with the original of the Florence statues, the style — especially of the heads — can leave no doubt that it


was by Skopas (cf Amelung, Basis des Praxiteles, p. 67). The ancient critics evidently confused Skopas and Praxiteles, precisely as do the moderns.

10. lanus pater: a bearded double terminal bust, rechristened at Rome as Janus. [What divinity it originally represented is impossible to tell, for the Romans were absolutely with- out scruple in renaming statues; cf. Pseud. Dio Chrys. xxxvii, 42 Kopiv0. for a Poseidon rededicated as Jupiter. — H. L. U.] According to Wernicke, Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 148, this 'Janus' may be identical with the Skopasian herm {not Hermes), Anth. Plan. 192.

in suo templo : the shrine in the Forum (xxxiv, 33) can scarcely have been spacious enough to hold a second statue: it is slill doubtful which temple is meant ; Roscher, {Lex. ii, 26 f.) suggests a temple of Janus belonging to the Forum Augustum, while Jordan {Hermes, iv, p. 239) thought of the temple in the Forum Holitorium; cf. Peter, Ovid's Fasti, ii, p. II.


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 199

Aphrodite now in the same place, which surpasses even the Praxitelean goddess, and would suffice to make famous any other spot. At Rome indeed the works of art are legion ; besides, one 27 effaces another from the memory, and above all, beautiful as they ^^^^^^" /„ are, people are distracted by the overpowering claims of duty and Jiome ob- business, for to admire art we need leisure and profound stillness, ^i^^^ ' '"^ For this same reason we are ignorant of the sculptor of the Aphrodite dedicated by the emperor Vespasian in the galleries of his temple of Peace, a work worthy of the old masters. It is likewise 28 uncertain whether Skopas or Praxiteles made the dying children of Niobe in the temple of the Apollo of Sosius, and again which of them made the Father Janus brought by Augustus from Egypt and dedicated in his own temple ; the Janus, moreover, is now disguised by gilding. The same difficulty arises in the case of the Eros holding a thunderbolt, in the Council Chamber of Octavia ; this only is certain, that it is the portrait of Alkibiades, the handsomest man of his day. Many groups by unknown 29 artists attract us in this gallery ; such as the four Satyrs, one of whom is carrying on his shoulders a cloaked Dionysos, the second carries Ariadne in the same way, the third is soothing a crying

11. ex Aegypto : cf. xxxv, 131, portrait — andaportrait of Alkibiades; 28, and notes. I take no responsibility in the matter,

iam quidem : in exculpation. but thus far is certain, that Alkibiades

12. aurooocultatus : the gilding is was the most beautiful man in the specially mentioned, as unusual in the period to which the statue belongs, case of a marble statue ; cf. Wunderer, 14. Alcibiaden : the statue had Manibiae, p. 10 ; note on xxxiv, 63. most probably nothing to do with

similiter . . . quaeritur : from Alkibiades, but the connexion in the

works as to which it was doubtful popular mind arose from the well-

whether they were by Skopas or known liriffij/ioy on his shield (Plut.

Praxiteles Pliny passes on to general Alkib. 16).

doubts, and thence to statues by § 29. 15. eadem sehola : Gilbert,

unknown masters {sine auctoribus) ; loc. cit. Wernicke, op. cit. p. 150. 16. Liberum . . . palla velatum ;

in curia: certain rooms of the the description of the fully draped figure

opera Octaviae served occasionally for suggests the Dionysos supported (not

meetings of the Senate ; Dio Cassius, carried) by a Satyr in the ' Ikarios'

Iv, 8 ; Josephus, Bell. Jud. vii, 5, 4 ; relief (Schreiber, Hell. Reliefs, xxxvii).

Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 249, note i. palla = iiiTi\os, usually understood of

13. fulmentenentei'EpousKcpawo- the cloak worn by women, though rf,(Spos. practically identical with the lix&nov.

id . . . adfirmatur: Wernicke {loc. 17. Liberara similiter : a Maenad

cit.) explains Pliny's meaning to be as carried by a Satyr, misunderstood as

follows : the individuality of the fea- an Ariadne ; cf. Furtwangler, Flinius,

tures leads people to suppose this is a p. 10.


C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXVI


cohibet, quartus cratere alterius sitim sedat, duaeque Aurae velificantes sua veste. nee minor quaestio est in saeptis Olympum et Pana, Chironem cum Achille qui fecerint, praesertim cum capitali satisdatione fama iudicet dignos. 30 Scopas habuit aemulos eadem aetata Bryaxim et Timo- 5 theum et Leocharen, de quibus simul dicendum est, quoniam pariter caelavere Mausoleum, sepulchrum hoc est ab uxore Artemisia factum Mausolo Cariae regulo, qui obiit olympia- dis CVII anno secundo. opus id ut esset inter septem miracula hi maxime fecere artifices, patet ab austro et 10 septentrione centenos sexagenos ternos pedes, brevius a

II. centenos] Urlichs in Chrest., Detlefsen ; om. Bamb., reliqui.


ploratum iufautis cohibet : re- calls the well-known group in the Louvre (phot. Giraudon, 1182) and its numerous replicas (Rome, Helbig, 11; phot. Alinari, 6673) of Seilenos nursing the babe Dionysos.

1 . duaeque Aurae : cf. the so- called ' Nereids ' of the Xanthian tomb (Brit. Mus.), which have been shown by Six,y. H. S. xiii, p. 131, to represent the ABpoi ; Pindar, 01. ii, 70, ftaxapav vdffos wKeaviSc^ trept-nv^oiaiv ; see also Max. Mayer ap. Roscher, ii, 2147 ff.

2. neo minor quaestio : above, note in § 28 on similiter . . . quaeritur.

in saeptis : i. e. in the galleries which surrounded the voting-place of the Comitia, after the luxurious alterations planned by Caesar (Cic. Att. iv, 16, 14) and completed by Augustus ; cf. Dio Cassins, liii, 23.

3. Olympum et Pana : the group in Naples of the bearded Pan teaching a young boy the syrinx (Friederichs, Bausieine, 654; Helbig, Untersuch. p. 156) is commonly thought to reproduce this work.

Chironem oum Aohille : the subject is preserved in wall-paintings (Helbig, Wandgem. 1291-1295), of which the best preserved and most famous is Helbig 1291. A head from a. marble copy is in the Pal. Conservat. ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 572.


4. capitali satisdatione : xxxiv, 38.

§ 30. 5. Scopas : the dates for his activity are comprised between his work for the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea (after the fire B. c. 394, Pans, viii, 45, 4) and his work for the Mausoleion (about B. c. 353) and for the Artemisiou of Ephesos (after the fire of B. c. 356, below § 95).

aemulos : cf. xxxiv, 49, aemuli ; XXXV, 64.

Bryaxim: xxxiv, 73; for his signa- ture Bp^a^is k-noTjaiv on the basis adorned with reliefs of horsemen see AeXriov, 1891, p. ^e,; Bull. Corr. Hell., XV, 1891, p. 369, plate vii ; 'Etpr/ix. apx. 1893, plates 6, 7. The inscription is of about the date of the Mausoleion (cf. plates 4, 5, for a torso of Nike foimd not far from the basis, and which Kavvadias, ii. p. 46, supposes to have crowned the monument).

Timotheum : xxxiv, 91 ; he may have been already advanced in years when he worked upon the Mausoleion ; the inscription (Kav- vadias, Fouilles cVEpidaure, no. 241, 1. 36 f.) recording his contract for fur- nishing models and sculptures for the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, Paus. ii, 32, 4, is dated by Kavvadias (p. 85) at the commencement of the fourth century, while Foucart, Bull.


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE


child, and the fourth quenches the thirst of another child out of

a goblet ; further, the two wind goddesses spreading their robes as

sails. It is equally uncertain who made the groups in the voting

enclosures of Olympos and Pan, and of Achilles and Cheiron, and

yet such is their renown that the custodians are obliged to pledge

their lives for their safety.

Bryaxis, Timotheos, and Leochares were rivals and contempor- 30

aries of Skopas, and must be mentioned with him, as they TheMauso-

Ictoti worked together on the Mausoleion. This is the tomb erected

by Artemisia in honour of her husband Mausolos, prince of

Karia, who died in the second year of the hundred and seventh

Olympiad [351 B.C.], and its place among the seven wonders of

the world is largely due to these great sculptors. The length of

the south and north sides is 163 feet ; the two fagades are


Corr. Hell, xiv, 1890, p. 589 ff., places it at about B. c. 375.

6. tieocharen : for his date see on xxxiv, 50.

7. Mausoleum: a history of its discovery, a discussion of the restora- tions proposed, and the chief literature up to 1891 are given by Newton in Smith's Z)eV/. ^«/. ii, p. I56ff. Students will read with interest the latest restoration, attempted by E. Oldfield, Archaeologia, 1895, pp. 2715-362. But it is as useless and unsatisfactory as others so far as the Plinian text is concerned. Mr. Oldfield starts by rejecting in ioto the variant readings of cod. Bamb., and does this without adequate knowledge of the character of this MS. Especially unsatisfactory is his rejection of circumitum, for the besetting sin of the Bamb. is not the introduction of words or syllables, but their omission (cf. H. L. Uilichs' note on xxxiv, 69 Liberum patrem). Fur- ther, the facts that Mr. Oldfield writes in ignorance of anything more recent than Sillig's second edition, that he is unacquainted either with Detlefsen's edition, or with his article on the PlinianMSS. in th.tPkilologus{i. xxviii), or with the Chrestom. of Urlichs, and that he confuses Ottojahn (p. 2 84 and p. 290) with Ludwigvonjan, show how


little trust can be placed in his criticism of the text. — On architectural grounds alone, Mr. Oldfield's reconstruction may have merits of which the present writer feels incompetent to judge. We have translated faithfully from cod. Bamb., and in the notes I attempt no harmonizing of the Plinian description with monumental evidence, nor can I point out discrepancies, for the simple reason that any impartial student must admit that the real shape of the Mausoleion and distribution of its parts remain as much a riddle now as before. — The whole description of the Mausoleion is taken from Muci- anus, Introd. p. Ixxxviii.

8. Mausolo . . . regulo: he was, as a fact, only a satrap under the king of Persia ; Diodoros, xvi, 36, gives B. c. 353 as the date of his death.

9. inter septem miracula : it figures in the oldest canonical lists. 7 he various lists of the ' Seven Won- ders ' are conveniently printed together by Orelli in the Appendix to his edition of Philo Byzantius, pp. 141- 150. lb. pp. 192-194 will be found all the ancient descriptions of the Mausoleion.

II. centenos: this addition is unavoidable if we are to accept the total 440 feet as correct.


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVl


frontibus, toto circumitu pedes CCCCXXXX, attollitur in altitudinem XXV cubitis, cingitur columnis XXXVL pteron

31 vocavere circumitum. ab oriente caelavit Scopas, a septen- trione Bryaxis, a meridie Timotheus, ab occcisu Leochares, priusque quam peragerent regina obit, non tamen recesse- 5 runt nisi absoluto iam, id gloriae ipsorum artisque moni- mentum iudicantes, hodieque certant manus. accessit et quintus artifex. namque supra pteron pyramis altitudine inferiorem aequat, viginti quattuor gradibus in metae cacumen se contrahens. in summo est quadriga marmorea 10 quam fecit Pythis. haec adiecta CXXXX pedum altitudine

32 totum opus includit. Timothei manu Diana Romae est in Palatio Apollinis delubro, cui signo caput reposuit Avianius Evander. in magna admiratione est Hercules Menestrati et Hecate Ephesi in templo Dianae post aedem in cuius 15

I. CCCCXXXX] ^ffimi5. ; quadringentos undecim ?-«//^«j. 2. XXXV

Detkfsen. 11. aXiitaimt] Bamb., Riccard., Lips. ; altitudinem, Z'«//«/J««.


2. pteron vocavere : cf. in § 19, XlavhCjpas yeveffiv appellant.

§ 31. 3. ab oriente . . . Scopas . . . Leocliares : the endeavours to identify the styles of each sculptor in the extant slabs have up to now been unsatisfactory. The dominant thought and design seem Skopasian. Vitruvius {viupraef. 1 2), in his account of the Mausoleion, names Praxiteles as one of the sculptors (on this point see Amelung, Die Basis des Praxiteles aus Mantinea, p. 55 f.).

9. inferiorem: Newton, loc. cit., rightly points out that, according to ordinary rules, the word to be supplied would he pyramidem, which, however, he considered inadmissible, as he found no evidence for a pyramidal substructure. On the other hand, Detlefsen's altitudine[m] does un- warranted violence to the text.

10. quadrigamarmorea: arestora- tion of the extant fragments may now be seen in the Mausoleion room of the Brit. Mus. That the so-called ' Artemisia ' and ' Mausolos ' can, however, never have been placed in


the chariot has been made clear by P. Gardner, /. .ff: ^. xiii, p. 188 fF.

II. Pjrthis: Vitruvius, fe. «V., gives the name Phyteus (MSS.), but the identity is not certain.

§ 32. 12. Timothei manu : the style of this artist can now be satisfactorily studied in the sculptured decorations of the Asklepieion at Epidauros ; from the inscription (above, note on § 30, 5) we learn that he contracted (fXiro) to construct (Ip'^&aaaBm') and provide (ira/)e;^€i/) models {rv-noi') — presumably for the pedimental sculptures — and for the akroteria or angle figures of one of the gables {wrepov aurSv'). From the relation of the akroterial figures of the west front (Centr. Mus. Catal. '55~I57) to one another and to the figures of the Amazon battle from the corresponding west pediment, there is every ground for regarding them as the work of one artist, i. e. of Timotheos; Amelung, ^a«'.f(/«/Vft;cj- teles, p. 69 f., where the kinship of the group of Leda and the Swan (best- known replica in the Capitol ; Helbig, 469) to the Epidaurian sculptures is


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE


203


shorter, and the whole perimeter is 440 feet; its height is 25 cubits [371^ feet], and it has thirty-six columns. This colon- nade is called a nrfpov. The sculptures of the eastern front are 31 carved by Skopas, those on the north by Bryaxis, on the south by Timotheos, and on the west by Leochares. The queen died before the work was finished, but the artists carried it through to the end, deeming that it would be an abiding monument of their own glory and of the glory of art, and to this day they compete for the prize. A fifth sculptor also worked on the monument. Above the colonnade is a pyramid, of the same height as the lower structure, consisting of twenty-four retreating steps rising into a cone. On the apex stands a chariot and four horses in marble made by Pythis. Including this the height is 140 feet.

In the temple of Apollo on the Palatine at Rome stands an 32 Artemis by Timotheos, the head of which has been restored by Avianius Evander. Greatly admired is a Herakles by \Menestratos, and a Hekate at Ephesos in the temple of Artemis, behind the


pointed out (the likeness noted simultaneously by Winter, Ath. Mitth. xix, 1894, p. 157 ff.). Add.

1 3. Avianius Evander : cf. Hor. Sat. i, 3, 90 :—

Comminxit lectum potus mensave catillum

Evandri manibus tritum deiecit ; where the scholiast Porphyrio remarks that Evander was both chaser and sculptor i^plastes statuaruni), that Alexander brought him from Athens to Alexandria, whence he was taken to Rome inter capiivos, doubtless on the capture of the city by Augustus in 25 B.C. ; cf. further Cic. Fam. xiii, 2 ; 21 ; 2 7, and vii, 2 3, where Avianius figures rather as art- dealer than as artist ; cf. Brann, K. G. i, p. 547.

14. in magna admirations : these words introduce the fifth parenthetical mention of works else- where than in Rome. [The constmc- tion of the passage down to incluta is curious ; we get (i) admirable works (in magna adm.) ; (ii) works equally admirable {non postferuntur) ; (iii) a work of which nothing need be said,


for all the world understands the greatness of the drunken old woman by Myron — this last work being abruptly introduced by a nam, which implies an ellipse of the preceding sentence, according to a usage noted in xxxiv, 7, xxxv, 137. H. L. U.]

Menestrati : possibly identical with the sculptor of a statue of the unknown poetess Learchis ; Tatian, ir/)^j EKK. p. 34, ed. Schwartz.

15. Hecate Ephesi : the informa- tion, like that on the Mausoleion, ap- pears derived from Mucianus {Introd. p. Ixxxviii).

post aedem : interpreted by Sillig {Diet, of Artists, s. v. Menestratos) as 'the back part of the temple,' i.e. the 6nia96So;.ios. But it is doubt- ful whether /oi/ can be susceptible of such a meaning. It therefore seems more reasonable to suppose that the Hekate of M. was contained in a separate shrine, within the precinct {in templo), but behind the great temple (^post aedem). That the Hekate was in a closed locality, and not merely outside the temple in the open air, as


204


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI


contemplatione admonent aeditui parcere oculis, tanta marmoris radiatio est. non postferuntur et Charites in propylo Atheniensium quas Socrates fecit alius ille quam pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. nam Myronis illius qui in aeie laudatur anus ebria est Zmyrnae in primis incluta. 5

33 Pollio Asinius, ut fuit acris vehementiae, sic quoque spectari monumenta sua voluit. in his sunt Centauri Nymphas gerentes Arcesilae, Thespiades Cleomenis, Oceanus et lup- piter Heniochi, Appiades Stephani, Hermerotes Taurisci,

34 non caelatoris illius sed Tralliani, luppiter hospitalis Papyli 10 Praxitelis discipuli, Zethus et Amphion ac Dirce et taurus

9. Heniochi] Jan ; eniochi Bamb. ; enthochi Riccard., Voss, ; Antiochi Urlichs in Chrest, Detlefsen.


some authorities suppose, is evident from the story of the marmoris radiatio ; the mysterious gleam of the marble can only be understood if the statue was seen in the half-light of a shrine, and becomes nonsense if the Hekate was out of doors.

I. aeditui : the fact that the statue was shown by temple attendants is another argument in favour of its being in a closed locality.

i. marmoris radiatio : the face of the statue, like the hands and feet, would be left in the original colour of the marble, or just toned by wax (see in xxxv, 133 note on circumli- tioni) ; the white face would be seen gleaming through the dusk of the shrine — the imagination being doubt- less stimulated by a sense of the mysterious personality of Hekate. — M. S. Reinach kindly points out to me that we seem to detect in the legend traces of the old belief that mortals might not look in the face of the gods without being struck blind ; cf. Teiresias and the mysterious Epizelos of Herodotos.

Charites : the type is known from two reliefs in Rome (most famous in the Vatican, H elbig, 83) and three in Athens, two of which were found on the Akropolis {Ath. Mitth. iii, 1878,


p. 181 ff., Furtwangler). They are all after an original of the period ab. B. c. 470; cf. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 23, note I, Introd. p. 1, note 2.

in propylo Athen. . Pans. 1, 22, 8 : /card 6 6 Ti\v etroSov ai/T^v ijS^ rfjv ey djcp6iro\iv 'EppLTJv, hv XlpovvXuLOV dvopi&^ovffL Kal XapiTas ^oJlcpaTijy TTOiijffat T^v ^OKppoviaKov \eyovat ; cf. note on xxxv, loi for the unusual form propylon, and Introd. p. 1.

3. Socrates fecit : it is curious to note that Pliny knows nothing of the popular identification of the sculptor Sokrates with the philosopher, accepted by Pausanias, loc. cit., and a number of other authorities (Overb. S. Q. 907-914), Introd. loc. cit.

alius . . . idem ; contains the trace of a similar controversy to that noted in the case of Pythagoras, xxxiv, 60 ; Intiod. p. 1.

4. Myronis illius : xxxiv, 49 ;

67-S9-

5. anus ebria : the identification of the work with the well-known statue of an old woman nursing an ivy- crowned wine-jar (Helbig, Class. Ant. 431) p. 318, where see list of replicas and literature) is nothing less than certain. Nor do the grounds for attributing the work, on account of the subject, to a later Myron seem


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205


shrine, in looking at which the temple guardians advise visitors to be cautious, so dazzling is the lustre of the marble. Not inferior are the Charites in the gateway at Athens ; the Sokrates who made them is to be distinguished from the painter, though some believe in their identity. As to Myron, the celebrated Myron. bronze caster, his statue at Smyrna of an intoxicated old woman ranks among the most famous works.

Asinius Pollio with his characteristic enterprise was eager that his 33 galleries should attract attention. They contain Kentaurs with Galkiy of nymphs on their backs by ^Arkesilas, Thespiades by Kleomenes, PolHo. figures of Okeanos and Zeus by '\Heniochos, nymphs of the Appia by Stephanos, terminal busts of Eros by Tauriskos (not the famous chaser, but Tauriskos of Tralles), a Zeus of strangers by iPapylos 34 the pupil of Praxiteles, and Zethos and Amphion, with Dirke, the


reasonable. The figures from the angle of the west pediment of the temple at Olympia show that the presentation of aged women was not alien to the art of the early fifth century. The epithet ebria, like the temulenta applied to the flute-player of Lysippos in xxxiv, 63, rests perhaps on some slight misapprehension of the motive, or mistranslation from the Greek.

§ 33. 7. monvunenta : above, note on § 23.

Centauri liTymph. gerentea : for the subject cf. the wall-painting, Helbig, Wandgem. 499; cf. also the Kentaurs (bearing Erotes) of Aristeas and Papias (Capitol, Helbig, 512,513).

8. Arcesilae:xxxv, 155; below, §41.

Thespiades : same subject by Teisikrales, xxxiv, 66; by Praxiteles, below, § 39.

Cleomenls : his identity with — or relationship to — the sculptor of the so-called ' Germanicus ' in the Louvre (/. G. B. 344), or of the altar with sacrifice of Iphigeneia in Florence (/. G. B. 380), is quite uncertain. (/. G. B. 573, from Medicean Venus, is a modern forgery.)

9. Henioohi : [von Jan's reading may be considered certain, the names Arcesilae . . . Taurisci being in alphabetical order. — H. L. U.].


Appiades : so called doubtless from their resemblance to the statues of the nymphs of the Appian aqueduct which adorned a fountain of the Forum Julinm ; cf. Ovid, Ars Amat. i, 79 ; iii, 45 1 ; cf. Rem. Atnor. 660 ; Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 226, note i.

Stephani : probal)ly identical with the pupil of Pasiteles, whose in- scription is read on the statue of an athlete in the Villa Albani, /. G. B. 574; cf. ib. 375, where he is named as the master of Menelaos, the artist of the famous group in the Museo Boncompagni (Helbig, 887).

Hermerotes : terminal busts of Eros ; for extant instances in statuary see Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 69 (Eros), p. 60 (Athena), p. 234 ff. (Herakles\ The old interpretation that the several divinities were com- bined with Hermes in a double ter- minal bust is without support from the monuments, though it is favoured by Cicero, Att. i, iv. 3 : quod ad me de Hermathena scribis, per mihi gratum est : est ornamentum Academiae pro- prium meae, quod et Hermes commune omnium et Minerva singulare est eius gymnasii. Add.

10. caelatoris : xxxiii, 156. § 34. hospitalis = f cVios.

11. Zethus . . . taurus : a group


ao6


C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI


vinculumque ex eodem lapide, a Rhodo advecta opera Apolloni et Taurisci. parentum hi certamen de se fecere, Menecraten videri professi, sed esse naturalem Artemidorum. eodem loco Liber pater Eutychidis laudatur, ad Octaviae vero porticum Apollo Philisci Rhodi in delubro suo, item 5 Latona et Diana et Musae novem et alter Apollo nudus. 35 eum qui citharam in eodem templo tenet Timarchides fecit, intra Octaviae vero porticus aedem lunonis ipsam deam Dionysius et Polycles, aliam Venerem eodem loco Philiscus, cetera signa Pasiteles. idem Polycles et Dionysius Timar- 10

9. Polycles aliam, Venerem DetUfsen.


('Toro Famese,' Naples, Friederichs- Wolters, 1402), which is generally accepted as the identical one men- tioned by Pliny, was discovered in 1546 in the Thermae of Caracalla. I. ex eodeiu lapide ; cf. below, § 36 ; § 37 ; § 41 ; the ' Bull ' and the 'Laokoon' are however constructed of several pieces, and the same was most likely the case with the 'Lioness' of Arkesilaos, and the chariot-group of Lysias. With regard to the ' Laokoon ' and the ' Lioness ' Robert, Arch. March, p. 143, note, had suggested that ex uno lapide meant a group disposed on one basis, in opposition to groups composed of statues set each upon a separate basis. But the grammatical propriety of this interpre- tation is doubtful, cf. Urlichs, Arkesilaos, p. 16, note 2. FoBster {Gbrlitz. Verhandl. p. 298) believes that Pliny in saying that the Bull and the Laokoon were ex uno lapide had been deceived by the appearance of the groups. As a fact, the expression seems, in all four cases, to imply little beyond the desire to heighten the impression of technical difficulty, by adding one of those details which readily appeal to popular imagina- tion ; cf. Anth. ix, 759 (eis 6ip/ja XiiaiQV) : — EFs Xi'flos, n/>/t', (\aTrip, i-rrwoi, (vyov,


lb. 760 : — E's Si<j>pos, apfi, i\arrjp, 'i-rnroi, ^vyds, •fjviaj vUtj.

Ehodo : much light has recently been thrown on the dates of the Rhodian school by two papers of Maurice Holleaux (J?ez/. de Phil. xvii, 1893, pp. 171-185), and H. von Gaertringen {Jahrb. ix, 1894, pp. 23- 43). According to the latter, the inscriptions fall into two periods : (i) from close of third century to B. c. 163 (Pydna) ; (ii) from B. c. 88, at the close of the Mithridatic war, to the total reduction of the Rhodian state by Cassius Longinus and Cassins of Parma in B. c. 43 (Appian, 'E/i(^. iv, 60-74; V, 2). It was then that many a Rhodian work of art was taken to Rome.

2. ApolloBi et Taurisci : a basis found in the theatre of Magnesia on the Maiander bears the inscription ' AlToXKiiVLOs Tavpifffcov [TpaKXtavbs] iiToiu : it is published by H. v. Gaer- tringen {Aihen. Mitth. xix, 1894, p. 37 ff.), who dates it from early Imperial times, so that the TavpiaKos of the inscription (though of course not the 'AtroKKdjvios) may be one of the sculptors of the Bull, which would be executed previous to B. c. 43 (see pre- vious note). The names were probably recurrent in a family of artists. parentum hi certamen : the


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207


bull and the cord, all carved out of one block. It is the joint work of Apollonios and Tauriskos, and was brought from Rhodes. These two sculptors occasioned a controversy as to their parentage, by declaring that Menekrates was their nominal, Artemidoros their real father. In the same collection is a fine Dionysos by Eutychides. Near the gallery of Octavia in the Other temple of Apollo stands a statue of the god by Philiskos o^ galleries Rhodes, together with Leto, Artemis, and the nine Muses and another nude Apollo. Timarchides made the Apollo with the cithara in the same temple, and Dionysios and Polykles the statue S5 of Juno within her temple in the portico of Octavia. A second Aphrodite in the same place is by Philiskos, and the other statues by Pasiteles. The same Polykles and Dionysios, the sons of


words are rhetorical, or rest on a Roman misunderstanding of the Greek inscription. According to a custom of ■which the Rhodian inscriptions afford numerous instances (cf. inter alia, I. G. B. 174, 181), the artists had added to their signature not only the name of their real father, but that of their father by adoption. H. v. G. suggests the following restoration : 'AtroW^vtos KalTavpiffKOs'ApTffttSupov, «a0' voBeaiay Se MeveKparcos, TpaK- Xiayol ewo'iT](rav.

4. Eutyohidis : probably not the pupil of Lysippos (xxxiv, 78), who was a bronze statuary ; the name was common ; see Loewy in /. G. B. 143.

5. in delubro suo : i. e.the temple of Apollo Sosianius; notes on xxxv, 99, above, § 28.

6. Musae novem : Amelung {Basis des Praxiteles, p. 44 f. and Ap- pend.) shows that this is probably the group which inspired the artists of the Muses on the basis from Halikamassos (Trendelenburg, Der Musen Chor, Winckelmannspr. xxxvi, 1876) and of the Muses on the relief of the Apotheosis of Homer (Brunn- Bruckmann, plate 50), both in the Brit. Mus. It is significant that both works are fiom Southern Asia-Minor, i. e. from the neighbourhood of Rhodes.


§ 35. 7. Timarchides : son of

Polykles of Athens, xxxiv, 52, and brother of Timokles, ib. ; his two sons, Polykles II and Dionysios, are men- tioned below ; together with his brother (oi no\u«A6ovs TrarScy) he made for Olympia the statue of the pugilist Agesarchos of Triteia, and for Elateia statues of Asklepios and of Athena (Pans. vi. 1 2, 9 ; x, 34, 6 ; 8).

8. aedem lunonis : erected to- gether with the adjacent temple {proxima aedes) of Jupiter by Q. Caecilius Metellus after his triumph of B. c. 149; Veil. Paterc. i, n.

ipsam deam: the temple statue; cf. Neptunus ipse, above, § 26 ; simu- lacrum ipsum Trophonii, xxxiv, 66.

9. Dionysius et Polycles : iden- tical with the Polycles et Dionysius TimarcMdis filii, below.

aliam Venerem: Urlichs {Quel- lenreg. p. 8) has shown that these words refer back to § 15, where an Aphrodite by Pheidias, in the. porticus Oct., had already been mentioned.

10. Pasiteles : note on § 39. Dionysius : together with his

nephew Timarchides II, he made the statue of C. Ofellius, found in Delos ; it bears the inscription Aioi/iiffios Ttf.Lapxi^ov leal TipapxiSTjs Tlo\vi{\eovs

  • A8r]vatoi, 1. G. B, 242.


2o8 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

chidis fill lovem qui est in proxima aede fecerunt, Pana et Olympum luctantes eodem loco Heliodoius, quod est alterum in terris symplegma nobile, Venerem lavantem se

36 *sedaedalsas* stantem Polycharmus. ex honore apparet in magna auctoritate habitum Lysiae opus, quod in Palatio 5 super arcum divus Augustus honor! Octavi patris sui dicavit in aedicula columnis adornata, id est quadriga currusque et Apollo ac Diana ex uno lapide. in hortis Servilianis reperio laudatos Calamidis Apollinem illius caelatoris, Dercylidis pyctas, Amphistrati Callisthenen historiarum scriptorem. lo

37 nee deinde multo plurium fama est, quorundam claritati in operibus eximiis obstante numero artificum, quoniam nee unus oceupat gloriam nee plures pariter nuneupari possunt, sicut in Laoeoonte, qui est in Titi imperatoris domo, opus omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum. ex 15 uno lapide eum ac liberos draconumque mirabiles nexus de consili sententia fecere summi artifices Hagesander et Poly-

4. Sesedaedalsas stantem Bamb. ; sesededalsa stantem Rice, Voss. ; se sad et aliam stantem Sillig; sese Daedalus, aliam stantem Detlefsen.

I. lovem; above, note on aedem § 36. 6. super arcum: the arch was

lunonis. part of the Propylaea which formed

Pana et Olympum : the names the entrance to the area of Apollo,

are significant as showing that these Gardthausen Augustus I, p. 962 ; ib.

avfnr\cyfiaTa were mostly erotic //, p. 575.

groups, composed perhaps in the Ootavii patris : Suet. Aug. 3.

scheme familiar from the groups in 8. ex uno lapide : note on § 34.

Dresden. hortis Servilianis : above, § 23.

Heliodorus : xxxiv, 91 ; the sig- 9. illius caelatoris : xxxiii, 155 ;

..^ nature of his son (n\ovTapxos xxxiv, 47 ; he is presumably identical

'KKtoSiipov 'F6S10S iiToirjai) closes the with the bronze statuary, xxxiv, 71. great inscription, discovered in Rhodes 10. Amphistrati : known also

by Hiller v. Gaertringen, which since from Tatian {irphs 'EWriv. p. 34, ed.

it contains the names of L. Murena Schwartz) as sculptor of the portrait

and L. Lucullus has been dated by of an unknown poetess Kleito. Mommsen at B.C. 82-74 (Ja&rb. ix, Callisthenem : of Olynthos, pupil

1894, p. 25 ff. ; cf. also Maurice and nephew of Aristotle ; according

Holleaux, Rev. de Philol. xvii, 1893, to Diodoros, xiv, 117, his 'Hellenika'

p. 173; and/. G. B. 194-196). were a history of the years B.C.

3. alterum: harks back to thesimi- 387-357 (Peace of Antalkidas to the

lar group by Kephisodotos in § 24. Phokaian war). ' Venerem lavantem se : the § 37. 14. in Laoeoonte : the origi-

' Venus Accroupie' in the Louvre nal group was found on Jan. 14, 1506,

(Friederichs-Wolters 1467) is looked near the Baths of Titus, whither it may

upon as a copy of this work, but have been mo-ved from his Palace at

see Add. a date posterior to Pliny (on the cir-


A. THE FAMILY OF POLTKLES.

[Stadiens of Athens] Pays, vi, 4, s.

I POLYKLES I OF ATHENS ( Plin. xxxiv, 52. Jl. about 156 B. c. \ Pans, vi, 4, s.

I [l.G. InsulX 855?

I


I TiMOKLES ( Plin. xxxiv, 52. Jl. ab. \ Pans, vi, 12, 9. 156 B.C. I „ X, 34, 6; 8.


POT-YKLES II {Plin. xxxvi, 35) after 140 B. c.


TiMARCHIDES II {vfi/Tcpos'j

OF Athens (Oopi'mos) : /. G. B. 242 and the inscr. Allien. Mitth. xx, 1895, p. 216.


TiMARCHIDES I Plin. XXXIV, 91 ? fl. after 140 B.C. [ „ xxxvi, 35. Pans, vi, 12, 9. { „ x,34,6;8. l/.G.B. 328? cf. M//(. Af?Vrt. XX, 1891;, p. 219.


I DiONYSIOS OF ATHF.NS 140-90 B. C. {Plin. XXXV, 35, and /. G.B. 242),


B. THE FAMILY OF ATHANODOROS.

Atiia.nouorij'; I ■ Paton iii'.cr.

(

I HAfiK'^'VNDROs T Paton iiisoi'. I.indian decree, &i


HAnEKANDROS IT*


1*117. VIJUBllS*


I


AriTANODOROS II*

(adopted by Dloiiy^ii Lindian inacr.)


  • The sculptors of the Laokoon .


[To face p. 208.]


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 209

Timarchides, made the Zeus in the adjoining temple, where are

also the Pan and Olympos interlaced by Heliodoros, second in

renown among such groups in all the world, an Aphrodite bathing

standing by '^ Poly char mos. The 36

distinction conferred on the work of Lysias shows how highly it

was esteemed, inasmuch as the god Augustus dedicated it in

honour of his father Octaviusj it was placed within a small

building adorned with columns upon the arch on the Palatine.

It consisted of a team of four horses, a chariot, Apollo and

Artemis, all carved out of one block of marble. I find that in

the gardens of Servilius are an Apollo by Kalamis, the well-known

silver chaser, boxers by \Derkylidas, and a portrait of Kallisthenes

the historian by Amphistratos, all of which are mentioned with

praise.

Not many celebrated artists remain to be named ; in the case 37

of certain masterpieces the very number of the collaborators is an Collabo- ration of obstacle to their individual fame, since neither can one man take different

to himself the whole glory, nor have a number so great a claim J"^"^'""-

to honour. This is the case with the Laokoon in the palace of

the Emperor Titus, a work superior to all the pictures and bronzes

of the world. Out of one block of marble did the illustrious

artists Hagesander, Polydoros, and Athanodoros of Rhodes, after

taking counsel together, carve Laokoon, his children, and the

cumstances of the find see Michaelis, 16. de oonsili sententia: that

Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 16); it is now in these words mean neither ' by decree of

the Vatican (Helbig, 153). The full the Emperor's Privy Council' (Lach-

literature from 1755 to 1879 is given mann, A. Z. 1848, p. 2i6 = Kleme

by Bliimner, Comm. to Lessing's Schriften, p. 273), nor ' by decree of

Laokoon, 2nd ed. p. 722 ; cf. also the Council of Rhodes,' nor yet

Friederichs-Wolters, 1422, and the ' after consultation of the artists with

three papers by Ftirster, (l) in Gor- their friends' (Mommsen, /r«?-»««x,xx,

litz. Verhandlungen, pp. 75-94, and 1885, p. 268), but are to be under-

293 to 307 ; (2) Jahrb. vi, 1891, p. stood in the simple sense given to

i?7ff-; (S)/'^'^^^- ix, 1894, p. 43ff. them above, has been brilliantly

in Titi imp. doiuo ; xxxiv, 55. proved by Forster in Gorlitz. Ver-

15. statuariae : note on xxxiv, 54 handl. pp. 75 ff. ; for the usage, cf.

{toreuticen). Cicero Fisr«j, 11, iii, 1 8 ; v,i2,53,54,

ex uno lapide : note above on 114; /ro ^a/^;;, 11, 19, 38, and often;

§34: Michelangelo Buonarotti and Caesar, ^. C.iii, 16 ; Livy, xlv, 26 and

Giovanni Cristofano, ' che sono i primi 29 ; Plin. Ep. v, i, 6 ; 3, 8 ; vi. 31, 12. scultori di Roma, negano ch'ella sia 17. Hag. et Pol. et Ath. Bhodi:

d'un sol marmo, e mostrano circa the name of Athanodoros occurs on

a quattro commettiture ' ; Trivulzio, seven inscriptions published in fac-

quoted by Michaelis, loc. cit. note 49, simile by Forster, Jahrb, vi, 1891, pp.


3IO C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVl

38 dorus et Athenodorus Rhodi. similiter Palatinas domos Caesarum replevere probatissimis signis Craterus cum Py- thodoro, Polydeuces cum Hermolao, Pythodorus alius cum Artemone, et singularis Aphrodisius Trallianus. Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis, in columnis 5 templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa sed propter altitudinem loci minus

39 celebrata. inhonorus est nee in templo ullo Hercules ad quem Poeni omnibus annis humana sacrificaverant victima, humi stans ante aditum porticus ad nationes. sitae fuere 10 et Thespiades ad aedem Felicitatis, quarum unam amavit eques Romanus Junius Pisciculus, ut tradit Varro ; admirator

12. admirator] Bainb.; admiisdui religui, Detlefsen.


1 91-195. Ofthese,theLindian decree in honour of Athanodoros, son of Hagesander, has been lately fully published by H. t. Gaertringen {Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 34), and shown to be not earlier, but possibly somewhat later, than the Ploutarchos-Helio- doros inscription (b. C. 82-74) men- tioned above. With the help of lines 16, 17 of the inscription published by Paton, B. C. H. xiv, p. 278, ['A7^{r]avS/)os * AyTjffdvSpov [toO] 'A9ai'oS[c&]po[u], H. von Gaertringen (0/. cit.) reconstructs the annexed table. The Hagesander who worked on the Laokoon would more probably be the elder brother than the father of the other two sculptors. The present writer can see nothing in the technique or style of the Laokoon to prevent our accepting for it the date suggested by the inscriptions. Helbig however has again quite lately {Class. Ant., loc. cit.) maintained that the Laokoon belongs to the period previous to the Pergamene altar, and that the Athano- doros inscriptions belonged to copies of his works.

§ 38. 2. replevere; rhetorical, cf. refertae in § 14 ; imflent, xxxv, 148, &c.

Craterus . . . Aphrodisius : Pliny's


contention is quaintly confirmed, since not a single one of these artists is known outside his text (see however 7. G. B. 427).

4. Agrippae Fantheum : xxxiv,

13-

5. Diogenes: identity with the Diogenes of the inscription found at Nineveh (Brit. Mus., I. G. B. .,61 ; A. S. Murray iny. H. S. iii, p. 240 ff.) is possible, but doubtful.

in columnis . . . Caryatides : the late discoveries in connexion with the Pantheon have, unfortunately, thrown no light on the architectural function performed by these Carya- tides. Stark, Arch. Zeit. xviii, 1866, p. 249 f., supposes in col. to mean down among the columns as opposed to the statues in fastigio; in this case the Kar. would be not architectonic, but dancing figures like the Karyatides of Praxiteles ; above, § 23. Addenda.

§ 39. 8. inhonorus est : rhe- torical indignation ; cf. in xxxiv, 89, the passage on the Bull of Phalaris.

Hercules : a Phoenician or Tyrian Melkart, presumably brought from Carthage by the yoimger Scipio B. C. 146 (cf. Peter, ap. Roscher, i, 246 ; Urlichs, Griech. Statuen im Rep. Rom, p. 13).


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE


wondrous coils of the snakes. So, too, on the Palatine, \Krateros 38 and his colleague \Pythodoros, \Polydeukes and \Hermolaos, a second iPythodoros and \Ariemon, and ^Apkrodisios of Tralles, who worked alone, have filled the mansions of the Caesars with excellent statues. The sculptures of the Pantheura of Agrippa are Pantheon. by \ Diogenes of Athens ; the Karyatides of the temple columns are in the very first rank, and so are the statues of the pediment, though less well known because of the great height at which they stand. Dishonoured and without a shrine is the Hercules to 39 whom the Carthaginians offered annual human sacrifice; it stands on the ground in front of the entrance to the Gallery of the Nations. By the temple of Felicity stood also the Thespiades, of one of which, according to Varro, a Roman knight, Junius Pisciculus, was enamoured. Varro likewise admires


10. humi stans : i. e. the statue was without pedestal or basis.

port, ad nationes : Serv. on Aen. 8, 721: forticum Augustus fecerat in qua simulacra omnium gentium collocaverat, quae porticus adpellabatur ad nationes ; it must not be confused with Pompeius' porticus of the fourteen nations, below, § 41.

11. Thespiades: Cic. Verr.\l,vf, 4 : atque ille L. Mummius, cum, 7'hes- piadas, quae ad aedem Feliciiatis sunt, ceteraque profana ex illo opfido \Thes- piis~\ signa tolleret,hunc . . . Cupidinem (above, §22)... non attigit. The statues must have been among those which L. LucuUus borrowed from Mummius, to adorn the temple up to the day of his election, and cleverly managed not to return (Strabo, viii, p. 381; cf. Dio Cassius, fr. 75). From Varro {Ling. Lat. vi, 2) we learn that the Thespiades = Musae. It is usually assumed that the Thespiades are iden- tical with the signa quae ante aedem Pel. fuere, by Praxiteles, cf. xxxiv, 69, where see note ; but the fact that the latter were of bronze sufficiently dis- poses of the identification. The pro- venance, however, of the Thespiades, their celebrity, the subject and the story of Pisciculus, show them to have been Praxitelean works. The famous

P


group of the Muses found at Tivoli, now in the Vatican (Helbig, 268-274), may be looked upon as copies ; their Praxitelean character has been search- ingly analysed by Amelung, Basis des Prax. aus Mantinea, 1895, pp.

2.'5-49-

aedem Pelioitatis : xxxiv, 69 ; built by L. Lucullus to commemorate his Spanish campaigns of B.C. 150- 151 (Urlichs, Arkesilaos, p. 7), ded. 142 B. c, Dio Cass. fr. 75. On the temple-statue, see xxxv, 156.

12. ut tradit Varro: V. is evi- dently the authority for the whole passage from sitae fuere . . . auctorest in § 41. His name is brought in at this point because Pliny looks upon the story of Pisciculus as of doubtful authenticity, and therefore lays all responsibility upon his author.

admirator et Pasitelis : the reading is proved by the context Arcesilaum quoque magn. Varro in § 41, where the quoque has no sense unless Varro's admiration of some other artist had been previously re- corded ; Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 41 ; cf. the citations from Varro in xxxv, 155-157 : Varro tradit sibi cognitum Possim , . . idcTn magn. Arcesil . . . laudat et Pasitelen. On Pasiteles, see Introd. p. Ixxvii.


212 C. PLINJI SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

et Pasitelis, qui et quinque volumina scripsit nobilium

40 operum in toto orbe. natus hie in Graeca Italiae ora et civitate Romana donatus cum his oppidis lovem fecit ebo- reum in Metelli aede qua campus petitur. accidit ei, cum in navalibus ubi ferae Africanae erant per caveam intuens 5 leonem caelaret, ut ex alia cavea panthera erumperet non levi periculo diligentissimi artificis. fecisse opera complura

41 dicitur, quae fecerit nominatim non refertur. Arcesilaum quoque magnificat Varro, cuius se marmoream habuisse leaenam aligerosque ludentis cum ea Cupidines, quorum 10 alii religatam tenerent, alii cornu cogerent bibere, alii calci- arent soccis, omnes ex uno lapide. idem et a Coponio quattuordecim nationes quae sunt circa Pompeium factas auctor est. invenio et Canachum laudatum inter statuaries

42 fecisse marmorea. nee Sauram atque Batrachum obliterari 15 convenit qui fecere templa Octaviae porticibus inclusa na- tione ipsi Lacones. quidam et opibus praepotentes fuisse eos putant ac sua inpensa construxisse inscriptionem spe- rantes, qua negata hoc tamen alio modo usurpasse. sunt

I. fraxiteles 5o»z^. ; passitelis re/2y«j ; VasiXAes, Detkfsen.

I. nobilium operum: the Greek 9. se . . . habuisse: xxxiii, 154,

title would be Tufl kvSS^av tpyaiv. where Varro is likewise cited as owner

§ 40. 3. civitate . . . oppidis : and authority. His works of art were

during the social war of B.C. 90-89, scattered in the proscriptions of B. c.

when by the Leges lulia and Plautia 43. Introd. p. Ixxxiv.

Papiria the right of citizenship was marmoream . . . leaenam : the

extended to all the cities of Italy. subject recalls the beautiful relief in

4. in Metelli aede: i.e. the tern- Vienna of a lioness (Schreiber, .ff«//. pie of Jupiter mentioned above, § 35. Rel., pi. i), which, with its com-

qua campus : sc. Martius, there- panion (sheep suckling a lamb), can

fore the temple was on the north side help us to recover the style of sculp-

oi the porticus Octaviae. tnresofanimals executed by Arkesilaos

5. navalibus ; the naval docks and Pasiteles, Wickhoff, Wiener of the Campus Martius, on the Tiber, Genesis, p. 26.

over against Vas. prata Quinctia; cf. 13. quattuordecim nationes: to

Liv. iii, 26, 8, and xlv, 42, sub fin. ; correspond to the number of nations

Gilbert, Rom, pp. 146-150. The event subjugated by Pompeius (Plut. Pomp.

referred to may have happened in B.C. xlv ; cf. Veil, ii, 40 ; Plin. vii, 98

  • 65> ■w'lien wild beasts were brought mentions only thirteen nations; the

from Africa for the games of Pom- fourteenth statue was apparently added

peius ; Plin. viii, 53, 64. to commemorate the triumph over the

8. non refertur: i.e. by Varro. pirates, a mention of which closes

§ 41. Arcesilaum: xxxv, 155, the Act. Triumph, for the year 693 ;

where see notes. Gilbert, Rom, p. 326, note 2). These


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 213

Pasiteles, the author of five books on the celebrated works of art Pasiieles. in all the world. This artist was born on the Greek coast of 40 Italy, and received the Roman citizenship when it was given to the cities of that district. He made the ivory statue of Jupiter in the temple of Metellus on the way to the Field of Mars. It happened that once at the docks where were the wild beasts from Africa, as he was looking into a den to make a study of a lion on a relief, a panther broke out of another cage, to the great peril of the conscientious artist. His works are said to be numerous, but they are nowhere mentioned by name. ^Arkesilaos also is highly 41 esteemed by Varro, who possessed a marble group by his hand ^kesilaos. of a lioness with winged Loves sporting about her ; some are holding her by a cord, others are forcing her to drink out of a horn, and others are putting shoes upon her ; the whole is carved out of one block. Varro is again my authority for saying that ■\Coponius made the fourteen statues of the nations which stand round the theatre of Pompeius. I find too that Kanachos, famous for his bronzes, worked also in marble, nor must I overlook •\Sauras and \Bafrachos, Lakonians by birth, who built the temples 42 enclosed by the galleries of Octavia. Some say that they were •^"^•f "'^

, L ■, , , , ■ , • , Batrachos.

rich men who built the temples at their own cost, hoping that

their names would be inscribed upon them. Foiled in this, they

yet achieved their object in another way, so it is said, and it is

statnes are the earliest instances of for C. Tullius Vilnius (Fabretti, Inscr. those personifications of conquered p. 187). By an extension of this peoples so conspicuous in Roman custom, the architects S. and B. might art. It is noteworthy that the artist carve a frog and a lizard in lieu of was aRoman (Brunn, .ST. G. i, p. 602). signature among the ornaments of These may be the statues concerning a column. The serious objection to the placing of which Atticus advised the story is that Vitruvius (iii, i, 5) Pompeius, Cic. Att. iv, 9. names Hermodoros of Salamis as the circa Pompeium : Suet. Nero, architect of the temples. We must 46. therefore conclude either that the 14. Canaohum ; xxxiv, 50, 75. story is aitiological — the ornaments § 42. 15. Sauram atque Batra- of the columns giving rise to a story chum: names of animals were familiar to which the custom of allusive em- in Greece as proper names (cf. TaSpos, blems noted above lent plausibility — SKVfivoi; TexTif, Mils, and the long or that S. and B. were architects- lists in Fick, Gr. Personennamen, adjoint, or perhaps merely donors of p. 314 ff.). Moreover, it was a usual the said columns, whom at a later Roman custom to introduce — on grave- date legend turned into architects of reliefs — some allusive emblem to the the temples.

name of the deceased : a boar for 1 8. insoriptionem sperantes :

Titus Statilius Aper (C /. L. vi, this portion of the anecdote is, in any

1975 ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 423); a calf case, apocryphal.


214 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI

certe etiamnum in columnarum spiris inscalptae nominum

43 eorum argumento lacerta atque rana. in lovis aede ex iis pictura cultusque reliquus omnis femineis argumentis con- stat, erat enim facta lunoni, sed, cum inferrentur signa, permutasse geruli traduntur, et id religione custoditum s velut ipsis diis sedem ita partitis. ergo et in lunonis aede cultus est qui lovis esse debuit. sunt et in parvolis marmo- reis famam consecuti Myrmecides, cuius quadrigam cum agitatore operuit alis musca, et Callicrates, cuius formicarum pedes atque alia membra pervidere non est. ro

44 Haec sint dicta de marmoris scalptoribus summaque claritate artificum.


2. lacerta atque rana : cf. the lizard and frog carved on the capital of one of the colnmns of San Lorenzo fnori le niura, transferred from some ancient building.

§ 43. in lovis aede : above, § § 35, 40 ; according to Veil. Paterc. i, II, vifho states that the temple of Jupiter was the first in Rome to be built of marble ; the temples being sine inscriptione, legend naturally soon became active on the subject.

7. parvolis marmoreis : a con- fusion of Pliny's, who in vii, 85, Mentions Myrm. and Kail, as virorkers in ivory.

8. Myrmecides : of Athens, ac- cording to Choiroboskos (quoted by Schol. to Dionysios Thrax = Overb.


Schriftquell. 2194), or of Miletos (Ailian, 7roi«. Xar. i, 17). He is gene- rally represented as making the chariot conjointly with K. Another marvel of their /uKpoTCx"'" was a grain of sesame engraved with an elegiac distich (according to Plutarch, adv. Stoicos, xiv, 5, two lines of Homer). There is no clue to the date of either artist.

quadrigam : in vii, 85 it is mentioned as of ivory, while Choiro- boskos (above) says iron ; and the grammarian Theodosios [S. Q. 2201), bronze ; it looks suspiciously as if the quadriga were apocryphal. Yet the execution of a microscopic chariot was quite within the power of the ancient goldsmith, cf. the tiny chariot led by


SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 215

undeniably true that a lizard and a frog, typifying their names, are still to be seen carved on the bases of the columns. Of these 43 two temples the one dedicated to Jupiter contains only paintings and decorations relating to women^ for as a matter of fact it was built for Juno ; but the porters made a mistake, it is said, when they brought in the statues, and superstition consecrated the error, as though this division of their shrines were due to the gods themselves. In the same way the temple of Juno has the orna- ments appropriate to Jupiter.

Miniature works in marble likewise secured renown for Myrme- Miniature hides, whose four-horse chariot and charioteer could be covered '^orks. by the wings of a fly, and for Kallikrates, whose ants have feet and limbs too small to be distinguished by the human eye.

This closes what I have to say of workers in marble and of the 44 most famous sculptors.

a Nike, with Erotes at each side, 9. Callierates : of Lakedaimon

belonging to the ear-pendant, Ant. du (Ailian and Choiroboskos).

Bosphore Cimmirien, ed. Reinach, formioarum ; the fashioning of

pi. xii, 5, 5". Reinach (p. 4) justly ants and bees is attributed by Cicero

sees in it a confirmation of the praises {Acad, prior, ii, 38, 120) to Myrme-

bestowed by the ancients on the tuKfo- kides — rightly, to judge from the

TV)(yia of Theodores, Myrmekides, man's name, which is doubtless a

and Kallikrates. Perhaps, therefore, nickname won for him by his skill,

we should look upon all these artists 10. pervidere non est; cf. Varro

as practising the art of goldsmiths {Ling. Lat. vii, i), who says of the

by the side of the greater art of sta- works of Myrmekides that they could

tuary in bronze or marble (see note only be properly seen when placed on

on xxxiv, 83). black silk. ,


APPENDIX.


I.

Lib. VII.

125 Idem hie imperator edixit ne quis ipsum alius quam

Apelles pingeret, quam Pyrgoteles scalperet, quam Lysip- pus ex acre duceret, quae artes pluribus inclaruere exemplis.

126 Aristidis Thebani pictoris unam tabulam centum talentis rex Attalus licitus est, octoginta emit duas Caesar dictator, 5 Mediam et Aiacem Timomachi, in templo Veneris Gene- tricis dicaturus. Candaules rex Bularchi picturam Magne- tum exiti, baud mediocris spati, pari rependit auro. Rhodum non incendit rex Demetrius expugnator cognominatus, ne tabulam Protogenis cremaret a parte ea muri locatam. lo

127 Praxiteles marmore nobilitatus est Gnidiaque Venere prae- cipue vesano amore cuiusdam iuvenis insigni, sed et Nico- medis aestimatione regis grandi Gnidiorum aere alieno permutare eam conati. Phidiae luppiter Olympius cotidie testimonium perhibet, Mentori Capitolinus et Diana Ephesia, 15 quibus fuere consecrata artis eius vasa.


II.

198 Normam autem et libellam et tornum et clavem Theo- dorus Samius (sc. invenit).

VII, 125. 2. Apelles : xxxv, 85 ; of Corinth this sum was offered by

ci.'H.OT:. Ep.W, i.,21^; Ediciovetuit, Attalos, or rather by Philopoimen

ne quis se praeter Apellen \ Pingeret, on his behalf, for the ' Dionysos and

aut alius Lysippo duceret aera \ Fortis Ariadne ' of Ariiteides ; npon which

Alexandri vultum simulantia . . . Mummins, staggered at the value set

Pyrgoteles : xxxvii, 8. npon the picture, retained it (xxxv, 24

Jjysippus : see note on xxxiv, and note).

63- 6, Mediazn et Aiacem Timom. :

§ 126. 4. Aristidis Thebani : xxxv, 26 ; 136.

xxxv, 98. 7. Bularchi picturam : xxxv, 55

centum talentis : after the sack and note.


I.

„ , Book VII.

The emperor Alexander also issued an edict that none but 125

Apelles might paint his portrait, none but Pyrgoteles engrave it,

and none but Lysippos cast his statue in bronze. Several famous

likenesses of him exist of these three kinds.

King Attalos bought a single picture by Aristeides of Thebes 126

for a hundred talents [^21,000 circ], and the dictator Caesar

gave eighty [;^i6,8oo circ] for two by Timomachos, a Medeia

and an Aias, which he intended to dedicate in the temple of

Venus the Mother. King Kandaules paid its weight in gold for

a picture of no small dimensions by Boularchos, representing the

destruction of the Magnetes. King Demetrios, surnamed the

Destroyer of Cities, refrained from setting fire to Rhodes, for fear

he should burn a painting by Protogenes which was near the

part of the city wall threatened. Praxiteles owes his fame to his 127

marble sculptures and to his Aphrodite at Knidos, which is best

known by the story of the youth who fell madly in love with it,

and also by the value King Nikomedes set on it when he offered

to take it in acquittal of the heavy state debt of the Knidians. Zeus

of Olympia daily bears testimony in honour of Pheidias, as for

Mentor do Jupiter of the Capitol and Artemis of Ephesos, to

whom the cups made by his hand have been consecrated.


I.

The rule and line, the lathe and lever, were invented by 198 Theodoros of Samos.

8. Bhodum non incendit : 49, 54; xxxvi, 18.

XXXV, 104. 15. Oapitolinus . . . Bphesia:

§127. II. marmore nobilitatus: xxxiii, 154 and note,

xxxvi, 20; cf. xxxiv, 69 Prax. % 198. 17. Theodorus Samius :

quoque marmore felicior. xxxiv, 83 and note.

14. luppiter Olympius : xxxiv,


220 APPENDIX

III.

205 Picturam Aegypti et in Graecia Euchir Daedali cognatus ut Aristoteli placet, ut Theophrasto Polygnotus Atheniensis {sc. condere instituerunt).

IV.

Lib. XVI. , ^ , , ,

213 Maxime aeternam putant hebenum et cupressum cedrum-

que, claro de omnibus materiis iudicio in templo Ephesiae 5 Dianae, utpote cum tota Asia exstruente CXX annis per- actum sit. convenit tectum eius esse e cedrinis trabibus. de simulacro ipso deae ambigitur. ceteri ex hebeno esse tradunt, Mucianus ter cos. ex his qui proxime viso scrip- sere vitigineum et numquam mutatum septies restitute 10

214 templo, banc materiam elegisse Endoeon, etiam nomen artificis nuncupans, quod equidem miror, cum antiquiorem Minerva quoque, non modo Libero patre, vetustatem ei tribuat.

V. Lib. XXL

4. Arborum enim ramis coronari in sacris certaminibus 15

mos erat primum. postea variare coeptum mixtura versi- color! florum, quae invicem odores coloresque accenderet, Sicyone ingenio Pausiae pictoris atque Glycerae coronariae dilectae admodum illi, cum opera eius pictura imitaretur, ilia provocans variaret, essetque certamen artis ac naturae, 20 quales etiam nunc exstant artificis illius tabellae atque in primis appellata stephaneplocos qua pinxit ipsam.

II. Endoeon] Sillig; eandem con codices.

§ 205. I. Aegypti: xxxv, 15. 2. Theophrasto: on the mis-

Euchir: in XXXV, 152 he figures as understanding involved here see

one of the Corinthian modellers Vfho Introd. p. xxx.

accompanied Damaratos to Italy; in XVI, 213. 5. templo Ephesiae: Paus. Ti,4,4asthemasterof Klearchos below,xxxvi, 95. of Rhegion, the master of Pythagoras. g. Mucianus: Introd. p. Ixxxv ff. At least it seems probable that it is 11. Endoeon : the name was re- one and the same personage to whom stored by Sillig from Athenag. npe<r/3. different parts are assigned in various 17 (below, App. xi) for the corrupt apocryphal traditions concerning the eandem con of the MSS. Besides beginnings of the several arts, cf. Ephesos, Endoios also worked in "R-ohext Arch. March.'g. 131, note 2. Asia Minor at Eruthrai (Paus. vii. For an artist of the name in late 5, 9) ; further, in one of his two in- historic times see xxxiv, 91. scriptions (/. G. B. 8, stele of


APPENDIX


III.


Painting was first invented by the Egyptians, and introduced 205 into Greece, according to Aristotle, by Eucheir, a kinsman of Daidalos, but according to Theophrastos by Polygnotos of Athens.

IV.

Book XVI. Ebony, cypress, and cedar wood are thought to be the most 213

durable, every wood having been signally tested in the temple of

Artemis at Ephesos, which all Asia joined to build, and which was

completed in a hundred and twenty years. While all agree that

the roof is made of cedar beams, we have varying accounts of the

image of the goddess. All other writers say that it is of ebony,

but among those who have written after close inspection, Mucianus,

who was thrice consul, declares that it is of vine-wood, and has

remained unchanged though the temple has been restored seven

times. The material, he says, was the choice of Endoios, the 214

maker, whose name he gives somewhat to my surprise, since he

holds the image to be not only earlier than the Dionysos, but

also than the Athene.


V.

BookXXI.

Branches of trees were originally used for crowns in the sacred * games. Later on the fashion of intertwining flowers of different hues, to strengthen each other's scent and colour, was invented and introduced at Sikyon by the painter Pausias and Glykera, a wreath-seller whom he loved. He imitated her wares in painting, and she varied them to challenge him, thus making art and nature vie together. Pictures by Pausias in this style are still extant, the most noteworthy being the a-TE^aj/j/jrXoKor, or wreath-binder, a por- trait of Glykera herself.

Lampito) he uses the Ionic dialect, latest discussion of Endoios and his

while in the other ('Apx. AeXr., 188S, date see Lechat in Rev. des Etudes

p. 208) he uses the Ionic alphabet. It Grecques, v, 1892, p. 385 ff. The most

is probable, therefore, that he was an famous work of Endoios was the

Ionian, whom the later art-historians seated Athena (below, App. xi ; Pans,

turned into an Athenian, as they did i, 26, 4) dedicated on the Athenian

Alkamenes and others (see Add. to Akropolis by one Kallias.

Introd. p. 232). From their epi- XXI, 4. 18. Pausiae . . . Gly-

graphy the inscriptions must he dated oerae : xxxv, 125 and note, between B.C. 532 and 508 ; for the


222 APPENDIX

Lib. VI.

XXXVI

90 Lemnius [sc. labyrinthus) similis illi columnis tantum

CL memorabilior fuit, quarum in officina turbines ita librati

pependerunt ut puero circumagente tornarentur. architecti

fecere Zmilis et Rhoecus et Theodorus indigenae.

VII.

95 Graecae magnificentiae vera admiratio exstat templum 5 Ephesiae Dianae CXX annis factum a tota Asia, in solo id palustri fecere, ne terrae motus sentiret aut hiatus timeret, rursus ne in lubrico atque instabili fundamenta tantae molis locarentur, calcatis ea substravere carbonibus, dein velleribus lanae. universe temple longitude est CCCCXXV pedum, 10 latitude CCXXV, columnae CXXVII a singulis regibus factae LX pedum altitudine, ex is XXXVI caelatae, una a Scopa. eperi praefuit Chersiphron architectus.

VIII.

177 Elide aedis est Minervae in qua frater Phidiae Panaenus tectorium induxit lacte et croco subactum, ut ferunt, idee, 15 si teratur hodie in eo saliva pollice, oderem croci sapo- remque reddit.

IX.

184 Pavimenta originem apud Graecos habent elaborata ante picturae ratione donee lithestrota expulere earn, celeberri-

1 2. una a] Bamb. ; una Rice, Voss.

XXXVI, 90. I. Lemnius (lab.) : almost as grave difficulties as that of

by error for the Samian labyrinth, the Mausoleion, but see the interesting

see note on xxxiv, 83. attempt lately made by A. S. Murray,

§ 95. 5. templum Ephesiae Di- Journal of the R. Inst, of Brit.

auae : the description seems borrowed Archit.,\%ijc„ p. 41 ff. The ancient

from Mucianns, Introd. p. Ixxxviii ; literature is fully given and discussed

cf. xvi, 313, but the account is very by Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 345 ff.

confused, referring partly to the first 8. ne in lubrico . . . lanae : this

temple (begun close of seventh century was done by the advice of Theodoros,

B.C.andburnt3S6B.c.byHerostratos, Diogenes Laertios, ii, 8, 103.

Strabo, xiv, p. 640) and partially to 10. universo templo ; i. e. mea-

the second, upon which Skopas would suring the length along the lowermost

be employed. The reconstruction of step of the platform, see A. S. Murray,

the Ephesian Artemision is beset with op. cit. p. 44.


APPENDIX 223

"VI Book

XXXVI. The labyrinth of Lemnos is like that of Krete, but is dis- oo

tinguished by its columns, a hundred and fifty in number. Their

drums were raised from the ground in the stone-yard and balanced

on a pivot, so that a boy could set them spinning round and

smooth their surface. The architects who built it were Smilis,

Rhoikos, and Theodoras, natives of the island.


VII.

Our genuine admiration for the magnificence of the Greek genius 05 is roused by the temple of Artemis at Ephesos, which was built in a hundred and twenty years by the exertions of all Asia. The temple was placed on a marshy site, that it might not suffer from earthquakes, or be in danger from the cracking of the ground, while on the other hand, to prevent any insecurity or shifting in the foundation on which the massive weight of the temple was to rest, a substratum was laid of pounded charcoal covered with fleeces. The full length of the temple is 425 feet, and its breadth 225; there are 127 columns 60 feet high, each made by a different king. Of these 36 are carved, one of them by Skopas. The chief architect was Chersiphron.

VIII.

There is at Elis a temple of Athena in which we are told that 177 Panainos, the brother of Pheidias, mixed the plaster on the walls with saffron and milk; hence to this very day if the finger is wetted in the mouth and rubbed on the wall, it smells and tastes of saffron.

IX.

The Greeks were the first to introduce paved floors, which they i84 decorated with painting until mosaic took its place. The most

12. una a Scopa: this is the read- § 177. 14. Elide: xxxv, 54, both ing of Cod. Bamb. ; it was kindly Panainos and Kolotes had been em- verified for this edition by Mr. Fischer. ployed on the statue of Athena, and Chronologically it is quite possible it is evident from the present passage that Skopas worked for the second that Panainos must have decorated Ephesian temple, see note on xxxvi, 30. the temple with wall-paintings.

1 3. Cliersipliron : the first architect § 184. 19. lithostrota ; the earliest of the first temple, vii, 125. instance of a mosaic floor in Greece


224


APPENDIX


mus fuit in hoc genere Sosus qui Pergami stravit quem vocant asaroton oecon, quoniam purgamenta cenae in pavi- mentis quaeque everri solent velut relicta fecerat parvis e tesselHs tinctisque in varies colores. mirabilis ibi columba bibens et aquam umbra capitis infuscans. apricantur aliae 5 scabentes sese in canthari labro.


Lie. XXXVII. 8


X.

Polycratis gemma quae demonstratur intacta inlibataque est. Ismeniae aetate multos post annos apparet scalpi etiam smaragdos solitos. confirmat banc eandem opinionem edictum Alexandri magni quo vetuit in hac gemma ab alio lo se scalpi quam ab Pyrgotele non dubie clarissimo artis eius. Post eum Apollonides et Cronius in gloria fuere quique divi Augusti imaginem simillime expressit, qua postea principes signant, Dioscurides.


XI.

Athena- At 6 ftKoVes f^expt f^rjTTw irXaoriKT) xai ■ypa(f)iKri Kol avhpiav- 15

llpeaBeia O'toiTiriKri ^(Tav, oiibe evoiiiCovTO' ^avpiov be tov Sajxiov Koi


is that of the Pronaos of the temple of ZensatOlympia, Olympia, Baudenkm. ii, pi. cv (of. ib. i, pi. ix). Mosaic came into general use in the time of the Dia- dochoi ; cf. Athen. xii, 542 d, ih. v, 206 d.

, 2. asaroton oeoon : cf. the mosaic intheLateran(Helbig,C/ajj. .(4K/.694) strewn with fragments of food, and the mosaic (Brit. Mus.) representing strewn leaves. — Statins Silv. i, 3, 56.

4. columba bibens : a similar subject in the famons mosaic of the Capitol, fonnd in the villa of Hadrian ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 4150 ; cf. the mosaics in Naples, Mo. 9992 and 114281. From the words mirabilis ibi it appears that the dove drinking was part of the larger composition representing the imswept floor. Doves on the edge of a vase are a subject of frequent occurrence on


coins, cf. Drexler, Zeitschrift f. Numismatik, vol. xix.

XXXVII, 8. 7. Polycratis gem- ma : according to Pliny in § 4 of this book it was a sardonyx, and was preserved at Rome, in the Temple of Concord, set in a horn, the offering of Augusta (sc. Livia).

intacta inlibataque : on the other hand, Strabo, xiv, p. 638, speaks of its being splendidly graved, and Herodotos (iii, 41) of its being a seal of emerald (i. e. emerald-prase, see Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 468 ; Furtwangler, Jahrb. iii, 1888, p. 194) mounted in a gold ring ff(f>pTj'Yh xp^^riJScTos ; it was reputed the work of Theodores, cf. Pans, viii, 14, 1, and see note above on xxxiv, 83.

8. Ismeniae : Pint. Per. i ; Apuleius, tie Deo Socr. 21 ; Boethius, Inst. Mus.l, I (ed. Friedlein, p. 185,


APPENDIX 225

celebrated worker in mosaic is \Sosos, who laid the floors of a house at Pergamon, known as the aa-aparos oIkos, or Unswept House, because he represented in small bits of many-coloured mosaic the scraps from the table and everything that is usually swept away, as if they had been left lying on the floor. Among these mosaics is a marvellous dove drinking and casting the shadow of its head on the water. Other doves are pluming their feathers in the sun on the lip of a goblet.


X. Book

XXXVII. The gem shown as that of Polykrates is uncut and untouched. 8

We find that at a much later date, in the days of Ismenias, even emeralds were engraved. An edict of Alexander the Great con- firms this : he forbade any one but Pyrgoteles, who was beyond doubt the greatest master of the art, to engrave his likeness on these gems. After Pyrgoteles, \ApoUonides and \Kronios won fame, and Dtoskourides who engraved that perfect likeness of the god Augustus which later emperors have used as their seal. 9


XI.

Images of the gods were not had in honour at all before the arts of modelling, of painting and of statuary were introduced,

20). Dionysodoros is known only by Furtwangler, Jahrb. iii, 1888,

from Pliny. pp. 218-224; ib. pi. iii, i; pi. viii,

9. smaragdos : emerald, how- 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. To these signed

ever, does not appear to have come instances should be added, according

into use till Hellenistic times, and to R. von Schneider {Album der

then only unimportant gems were cut Wiener Sammlungen, p. 16, text to

in this stone. plate 41), the great Vienna cameo

II. ab Pyrgotele : vii, 125 (App. representing the family of Augustus.

I) ; cf. Apuleius, Florida, i, p. 7 (ed. — Three sons of Dioskourides,—

Krueger, 1865) ; he is unknown out- Hierophilos, Hyllos, and Entyches,

side literature. — are known from their signatures on

13. Augusti imaginem: a full gems to have been gem-engravers;

list (needing revision however) of see Furtwangler, op. cit. p. 304 ff.

portraits of Augustus on gems is 15. Al 8' 6iK6ves . . . ; the rhetoric

given by Bernoulli, RSm. Icono- of Athenagoras seems evolved out of

ii. p. 46. None can be the same curious notion appearing in


traced back to Dioskourides. Plin. xxxiv, 9, 16, that art progressed

14. Diosourides : of the numerous from lesser objects to statues of the


extant gems bearing the signature of

D. six only are recognized as genuine 16. SavpCov . . . SajiCou : we again


2a6


APPENDIX


Schwartz, p. 18).


irepi X/)iff- Yipi,r(avos rov SiKVcavlov koJ KXe&^ouy tov KopivdCov koI Koprjs /gj ' ' KopLvOias yevop-ivcav kol (TKiaypacjiCas fjiev evpeOela-qs vtto ^avpiov tTTTFOV (V fiXia irepiypd^avTos, ypa<j)iKfjs be into Kpircovos ev nivaKi X€X.evK(iiixiv(c (TKtas avbpos koI yvvaiKos eva\ei\j/avTOS, cltio be rrjs Kop'qs KOpOTtXaOiKrjs [evpeOrj] (epaiTLK&s yap tlvos exovara -nepi- 5 eypa^l/ei/ avTov KOi}XMp.evov ev roiyj^ Tr\v ctki&v, eW 6 irarijp 7]a-6e\s UTrapaWaKTa ov(7ri rij o/ioiorrjrt (^Kepafiov be eipydfero) avayXv^as TTJv Trepiypacpfiv tttjXu TrpocraveitXripaxreV 6 tvttos en koI vvv ev KopLv6(f o-(oferat), totHtols be e'niyevop.evoi AaCbaXos ©eoScopoy 2/xt\iy avbpiavTOTTOLriTiKriv koI irXacrTLKrjV Ttpocre^evpov. 6 p.ev br] ro Xpovos oXlyos TOiTOVTOs rats eiKoVt Koi rfj irepi to, eXbatXa irpay- ixareia, as e\eLV eliieiv tov l/cacrTOU Te-)(virr]v deov. rb fxev yap ev 'E<l}e(T(f rfjs 'ApTejMbos kol to Trjs 'AOrivas (ptaXXov be 'AdrjXas' aOrikt) yap &)s ot pLva-TiKcaTepov ooto) yap) rd oTro Trjs eXaCas Td TraXaLov /cat ttjv Kadrjixevrjv "Evboios elpyaaaTO iJ,ad7]Tr]s AaibaXov, xs o be Ilv^tos epyov ®eob(ipov /cat TrjXeKX^ovs Koi 6 A'qXios /cat fi "Apre^is TeKTaiov /cat 'AyyeXioivos Teyjjr\, fj be ev Stf/^u "Hpa Kat ev " Apyei 'SijxiXibos xe'tpes koI ^eibiov to. Xoma etScoXa fi A(ppobiTr] (?7) ev Kvibw erepa Yipa^iTiXovs Tex^V; o ev'FiTnbavpco 'A<r/cX7)Trtos epyov ^eibiov. avveXovTa (f>a.vai, ovbev avT&v bia- 20 'rre(pevyev to ju.r/ vt! avdpanrov yeyovivai. el roivvv Qeoi, tl ovk ^crav e£ apxvs ! ^i bi elaiv veioTepoi t&v TreTioiriKOTuiv ; tl be ebei avToXs Trpos to yevea-dai avOpairixiv nai Texyr\s ; yrj Tavra koi XCOoi Kai vX-q /cat -nepiepyos Texyr],


catch here the echo of some art- writer who had contrasted the claims of island and mainland schools ; cf. Introd. pp. xxiii, xxvi.

1 . KXciivGous : Plin. xxxv, 1 5.

Kop-qs KopwSCas : Plin. xxxv, 151.

6. auToi) Kot|i.cop.evov ; while in Pliny the lover is represented as going away.

8. CTi Kai v€v ev KopivOcp ; donee Mummius Corinthum everterit, Plin. xxxv, 151 ; hence it appears that


Athenagoras is quoting — though liot necessarily at first hand — from an author older than B.C. 146.

14. TO diro Tf]S cXaCas ; Pans, i, 26, 6. Athenagoras is the only writer who attributes the statue to Endoios.

15. "EvBoios: above note on xvi, 2i4 = App. IV.

pa6r]TT|s AaiSiXou : Pans, i, 26, 4.

16. 6ScIIij9ios: Diodoros, i, 98.

6 A-qXms : Paus. ii, 32, 5 ; cf. Plut. de Mus. 14 ( = Bemardakis, vi,


APPENDIX 227

but are later than the days of ■\Saurias of Samos, -^Kraton of Sikyon, Kleanthes of Corinth, and a maiden, also of Corinth. Linear drawing was discovered by Saurias, who traced the outline of the shadow cast by a horse in the sun, and painting by Kraton, who painted on a whitened tablet the shadows of a man and woman. The maiden invented the art of modelling iigures in relief. She was in love with a youth, and while he lay asleep she sketched the outline of his shadow on the wall. Delighted with the perfection of the likeness, her father, who was a potter, cut out the shape and filled in the outline with clay ; the iigure is still preserved at Corinth. After these came Daidalos, Theodoras, and Smilis, who introduced the arts of statuary and modelling. In fact so short a time has passed since statues and the making of images were introduced, that we can name the maker of each several god. Endows, the pupil of Daidalos, made the statue of Artemis at Ephesos, the old olive-wood image of Athena (or rather of Athela [the unsuckled], for so those better acquainted with her mysteries call her), and the seated image ; the Pythian Apollo is the work of Theodoros and Telekks ; the Apollo and Artemis at Delos are by Tektaios and Angelion ; the statues of Hera in Samos and in Argos are by the hand of Smilis, and the other statues are by Pheidias ; Praxiteles made the second Aphrodite at Knidos, and Pheidias the Asklepios at Epidauros. In a word, there is not one of them but is the work of man's hands. If, then, these are gods, why were they not from the beginning, and why are they younger than those who made them ? What need had they of men and human art to bring them into being? They are but earth and stones and wood and cunning art.

p. .^oo) ; for the type see P. Gardner above notes on App. VI. and on

and Imhoof-Blumer, JVum. Cotnm, xxxiv, 83.

CC xi-xiv. 18. Iv 'Apysi: this Argive Hera

17. ^ 'ApTejits: known only from by Smilis is known only from Athena-

Athenagoras. goras ; but see Brunn, K. (7. i, p. 27.

\ h\ Iv 2. "Hpa: Pans, vil, 4, 19. ' A(t)po8. ev KvCSm : Plin. xxxvi,

4; for the type cf. P. Gardner, Samos 20.

and Samian Coins, pp. 19, 75ff, pi. v, 20. 'A<rKXi]in.6s : see Introd. p. liv,

1-9. Smilis was himself a Samian, note i.


Q3


ADDENDA


I. INTRODUCTION

Page xliii, note 2. F. Munzer provides me with a final proof of the in- debtedness of Antigonos to Duris for the story of the Nemesis ; he points out (in a private letter) the striking similarity betwreen the story told in Pliny, of the vengeance taken by Agorakritos, and the following fragment from Duris in Plutarch (Lysander i8 = Fr. 65, Miiller) : 'AvTi/ji&xov 5J rov KoXo- (pwvLov Kai Nttcrjp6.Tov tivos ^UpaX^wTov -noiijfiaffi AvadvSpeia Stayoovtaafievayv en* aiiTov (sc. Lysander) tov NiKTjparov k<rTe(pdv(iiff€v, 6 S^ 'Avriftaxos axSeaSels rjcpdviae rb Troirma. TIK&twv Si vios iiv rin ical Sav- /id^oiv rbv 'AvTtfxaxov e-nl ttj iroiijTiKy, 0ap^(tis (p^povra ttjv ^ttov aveKa/iPave koX ■napfiuiBtiTo, rots dyvoovai. . . . ' There were two other poets, Antimachus Colophonian, and Niceratus born at Heraclea, which did both wryte verses to honour him (Lysander), striving whether of them should do best. Lysander judged the crown and mctory unto Niceratus: wherewith Antimachus was so angry that he rased out all that he had written of him. But Plato, who at that time was young, and loved Antimachus because he was an excellent poet, did comforte him, and tolde him that ignoraunce ..." (North, ed. Wyndham, vol. iii, p. 247).

P. li. Still another story of a self-taught artist, preserved this time not in Pliny but in Pausanias, has been pointed out to me by F. Miinzer, whose communication on the subject I translate verbally : ' The account of Pausanias (v, 20, 2) concerning Kolotes may be classed with the stories from Duris noted Hermes^ xxx, p. 532 f. : etvai Se <pa(Xiv l£ '^parckeia? rbv KoKdtTrjv. oi 6e TToKvirpa-yfjioi/'^aavTes anovS^ rd ks tovs rrXdara^ Hdpiov dwo<paivov(nu ovra a{n6v, fioBTjTTjv nafftTeXous, IlafftTtXTjv S^ auTo5i5a;^^^i/at (Buttmann's reading for the aiiTiiv SiSaxB'jai of the MSS., which it is impossible to retain except by assuming a lacuna). Thus the same is recounted here of Pasiteles as of the several men noted loc. cit. Like the Seilanion, Protogenes, Erigonos, and Lysippos of Dnris, Pasiteles is represented as having had no teacher ; like Seilanion, Erigonos and Pythagoras of Rhegion, he had one pupil. Pasiteles is as completely unknown as these three pupils, and as the master of the philosopher Demokritos invented by Duris (fr. 56). I accordingly believe that the view combated by Pausanias must be traced back to Duris. It is uncertain whether Antigonos had already combated it, or whether he com- bined it with the current tradition, inasmuch as he transferred Kolotes from the Parian to the Athenian school. To alter the birthplace of Kolotes from Herakleia to Paros, whereby he was made into the countryman of his fellow- pupil Agorakritos, was a slight matter in the eyes of Duris, for he had turned Kleoboulos of Lindos into a Karian, and proclaimed the foreign origin of other of the seven sages (Miiller, I^. H. G. ii, p. 482, fr. 53-55) ; probably also he had transferred the scene of an anecdote from Kroton to Agrigentum (Plin. xxxiv, 64, cf. Hermes, xxx, p. 537, u. i).' In the light of the preceding


332 ADDENDA

note of Munzer's, it has become plain to me that Duris must be held responsible for the tradition that represented Alkamenes as a native of Lemnos (A^/iwoj," Souidas, s. v. 'AXra/teVijs ; vrjaiiirr]!, Tzetzes, CAil. viii, 340), whereas Antigonos turned him into an Athenian (Plin. xxxvi, t6). It is natural to find Duris— a Samian — repeatedly championing the claims of the Greeks of Asia Minor and the islands to artistic pre-eminence. Nor must we forget that, careless of accuracy though he was, he doubtless had at his command detailed information which was no longer within reach of the later art-historians, who were content to group artists about the chief art-centres. Thus Endoios, who was probably really an Ionian (note on Appendix XI), is represented in Pausanias simply as ^ABrjvatos. One great error of modem archaeologists is to attempt to harmonize the variant traditions instead of tracing them to their different sources, which will generally be discovered in periods vride apart.

P. li, note 6 : TAe masters of Pheidias. I am pleased to find what I wrote six months back concerning the masters of Pheidias confirmed by the comments of Michaelis {Deutsche Lilteraturzeitung, 1896, no. 25, p. 788 ; rev. of E. Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture) on the untrustworthiness of the Hagelaidas tradition : the same scholion on Aristoph. Frogs, 504, which names Hagelaidas as the master of Pheidias, also contains a mistake con- cerning the Herakles Alexikakos of Hagelaidas; this same untrustworthy scholion is the source for the information of Tzetzes and Souidas (above, p. li, note 3). Michaelis accordingly disputes the strange contention of E. Gardner {Handbook, p. 194 ; cf pp. 248, 265) that ' the relation of Pheidias to Ageladas is the best established by literary evidence,' ' ■vielmehr ist Phidias' Schiilerver- hdltniss zu dem Attiker Hegias einmal, aher gut, das zu Hageladas viermal, aber schlecht bezeugt.' To the unsatisfactory character of E. Gardner's proposed emendation of Dio Chrys. Or. Iv. i {Class. Rev.\m, 1894, p. 70) I have drawn attention elsewhere {ib. p. 171, note i).

P. Ixi. The story of the angry artist and the sponge is told by Dio Chrysostom (Or. Ixiii, 4 = Schriftqu. 1 889) of Apelles and his picture of a war horse. I find that Mr. A. S. Murray {Handbook, p. 3S4) has already pointed out, in connexion with Apelles, that the story seemed the anecdotic illustration of the line of Agathon.

P. Ixii. From a remark in note i on p. 537 of his article in the Hermes, it would seem that Miinzer also inclines to attribute the story of Zenxis and the five maidens to Duris. But Miinzer makes Duris responsible for the transference of the scene of the story from Kroton to Agrigentum (cf. above. Add. to p. li). Possibly, therefore, we may some day be able to drive the story home to a source whence Duris himself quoted — or misquoted.

P. Ixxxv. Fabius Vestalis : it is worth noting that, since in each of the three notices his name appears last on the Plinian lists, he was probably only a supplementary author (comm. by Dr. Miinzer).

BOOK XXXIII

p. 6, 2. crustarius : there are superb examples of kjipKimaTa. among the cups of both the treasures of Hildescheim (Berlin) and of Bosco Reade (Louvre) ; cf. Winter, Arch. Anz. 1896, p. 93. For the most part the emblema appears in the shape of a bust in full relief, soldered to a silver plate.


ADDENDA 233


BOOK XXXIV

P. 6, 18. froscriptum ab Antonio: cf. Gardthausen, Augustus, i, p. 136.

P. 8, 19. tricliniorum pedihus fulcrisque : that ihe fulcrum was ' the frame- work on which the pillows of a couch or the cushions of a chair were placed ' has been maintained and fully proved by W. C. F. Anderson, Ciass. ReTi. iii, 1889, p. 322 ff.

P. 14, 7. ubi omnium . . . iconicas vacant ; the latest discussion of this passage is by Dittenberger and Purgold, Olympische Inschriften, col. 236, 295 f, where it is pointed out that in the inscr. recording the Olympic victory of Xenombrotos of Kos (ib. no. 170; Pans, vi, 14, 12) the roTo^ SttoTov dpSs of the fifth line proves that the statue was iconic ; yet the epigram and the silence of Fausanias both show that X. was no TpiaoXvumovinris.

P. 16, 13. elephant! : on triumphal chariots drawn by elephants see, how- ever, Gardthausen, Augustus, ii, p. 257.

P. 23, 13. Statues of Demetrios of Phaleron : the lines from Varro run — ^ic Demetrius aeneas tot aptust Quot luces habet annus absolutus (for the first line, as emended by Scaliger, Bormann, Arch. Ep. Mittk. xvii, 1894, p. 233 f, proposes hie Demetrius est [tot aera nacyus). Wachsmuth (loc. cit.) is probably right in tracing back the legend of the number of statues put up to Demetrios to an epigram — ' as many statues as there are days in the year ' — a playful turn which was afterwards accepted as serious fact, giving rise not only to the statements in Varro and Pliny, but to the improved version in Diogenes that all these statues were erected to Demetrios in a period less than a year; elKoyaiv ^'i^luBtj xaA/cwi' e^rjicovTa irpos rats rpiaicoaiats, Siv at TT\eiovs k(j> iTnrojv ^ijav Kal dpixaTccv teal (Xwoipibaiv, <xvvTC\ia^'eiaai kv ouS^ Tpiauoaiais ^fiipais. — Cornelius Nepos, Miliiades, vi, and Plutarch, Praec. reip. gerend. 11 E (Bemardakis, v, p. 116), mention 300 as the number of the statues, a round sum, more or less representing the truth. The 1,500 statues mentioned by Dio Chrysostom (xxxvii, 41) are mere foolish rhetoric. The distich from Varro was presumably inscribed, in his Imagines (cf. Plin. xxxv, 1 1 ; A. Gellius, Noct. Ait. iii, 10, i ; 11, 7), beneath a portrait of Demetrios; see Bormann, loc. cit.

P. 28, 18. Rhodi eliamnum : the passage from Jerome is referred by Momm- sen {Ueber den Chronographen, S^c, p. 692) to a Roman history ' of the period of Caesar and Augustus,' by Reifferscheid (p. 360, n. 224) to Suetonius; cf- Gardthausen, Augustus, i, p. 67.

P. 32, 25. Arvemis : the temple is presumably the one described by Gregory of Tours (i, 30), of which the foundations were discovered in 1874, see Mowat, Rev. Arch. 1875, p. 31 ff., where the five inscriptions Mercuric Arverno are discussed. As to the type of Zenodoros' Mercury, Mowat, Bull. Monum. 1875, p. 657 if., conjectures that we possess an echo of it in the seated Mercury on an altar from Horn in Holland (inscr. Brambach, C. I. R. 2029, p. xxvii); cf. S. Reinach, Bronzes Figuris, p. 80, no. 68.

P. 34, 5. in officina: perhaps it is scarcely correct to refer this to the work- shop or studio of Zenodoros. From the size of the colossus it is probable that a special workshop was erected for the artist.

P. 34, 21. sphingem : Miinzer points out to me that Quinct. vi, 3, 98, accords with Pliny in giving bronze as the material of the sphinx. Now 'in this


234 ADDENDA

chapter of Qiiinctilian several hons mots of the personages of the Ciceronian age and of Cicero himself have been shown by Wissowa {Hermes, xvi, p. 499 ff.) to be borrowed from the book of Domitius Marsns, de urbanitate, which Quinctilian frequently quotes in this chapter.' Therefore we may assume the same D. Marsus, who appears in the Index to Bk. xxxiv, to have been Pliny's authority for the story of Hortensius and the sphinx. (This observation of Mimzer's will shortly be published in his Beitrdge ssur Qtiellenkritik der Naturgeschichte des Plinius.)

P. 36, II. Hagelades: E. Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculpture, p. 192, proposes to read the 'A7eXof6a of /. G. B. 30 (bathron of Praxiteles) as & 'A-yfKaiSa, and, accordingly, takes the name of the Argive master to have been Agelaidas. The form Hagelaidas (Greek Hagelaidas), which we print in the translation, is also retained by Dittenberger and Purgold, Inschr. von Olympia 631, where see literature.

P. 38, I. Argium : owing to its position a proper name, and not, as often surmised, the ethnic of Asopodoros, in which case it would have been placed after the name it qualified, cf Gorgias Lcuon (§ 49), Demean Clitorium; Ditten- berger and Purgold in Inschriften von Olympia, col. 647, where see literature.

P. 38, I. Asopodorum : for the inscription on the bathron of Praxiteles, see now Inschr. von Olympia, 630, 631, where Dittenberger and Purgold rightly reject Rbhl's proposed identification of the Plinian Asopodorus and Athenodorus with the artists of the bathron.

P. 38, a. Clitorium : Paus. x, 9, *j, ovtoi (sc. 'ABtjv. Kal 'Aa/iias) 5e 'ApKaSes eifflv eK KXeiropoi.

P. 38, 5. Leochares: I refer the passage concerning the statue of Isokrates by Leochares in Vit. X Orat. 2'] to Heliodoros on the authority of Keil, Hermes, XXX, 1895, p. 202.

P 40, 1. Date of Seilanion : Furtwangler, Statuenkopien im Alterthum, p. 562, shows, however, that the connexion attempted by Delamarre between C. I. G. S. 414, and C. I. G. S. 4253, 4254, is unfounded : D.'s conjecture that the latter refers to the revival of the games in 329-8 B.C. is unproven; 4253 refers not to the games but generally to the Hieron of Amphiaraos and the Penteteris, 'while 4254is a decree in honour of the officials in charge of the games. There is nothing in either inscription implying a revival. Thus the only evidence we are left with for the date of 414 is derived from the epigraphy ; according to Dittenberger the upper limit is 366 B. C. Now if we accept the extant por- traits of Plato as copies after an original by Seilanion (Helbig, Class. Ant. 265, p. 183 f.), and adopt Furtw'angler's identification of the Theseus at Ince- Blundell Hall {Statuenkopien, pi. ii, iii, ib. p. 559 ff.) as a copy of the Theseus of Seilanion (Plut. Thes. iv), there would be artistic grounds for placing the artist as far back in the fourth century as the epigraphy of C. I. G. S. 414 allows. — No great weight can be attached to the date assigned to Seilanion in Pliny's chronology, the mention of Seilanion having been loosely tacked on by a later hand to the old Xenokratic chronology, Introd. p. xlix, note 2.

P. 40, 2. Zeuxiaden : the identity of the portraitist of Hypereides with the pupil of Seilanion is, however, doubtful, cf. Introd. p. liii.

P. 42, 4. formae cognomen ^Vx. ' the surname of beauty'; for/o?-»za= beauty, cf. below § -i%,cliduchon eximia forma ; xxxv, S6,ob admiral, formae; O. Jahn, Arck. Zeit. 1847, p. 63 (cf. Brunn, JiT. G. p. 182), believe the Greek epithet of the goddess to have been Mopcpii, which occurs as an epithet of Aphrodite at Sparta (Paus. iii, 15, 8). Other conjectures are /toAAi/top^os and KcMuoTrj.


ADDENDA 235

P. 42, 5. cliduchum : it is Pliny's rule to mention the names of gods, while he almost invariably omits to name mortals ; their statues are referred to by their motive, e.g. diadumenus, discobolus, apoxyomenus, malaferens nudus, &'c. Hence it is that the cliduchus cannot be regarded as the Athena Promachos (so Urlichs in Chreslom.), nor the astragalhontes of Polykleitos as the Dioscuri (so Furtwangler in Masterpieces, p. 292, note i), nor the mala ferens nudus as a statue of Herakles.

P. 42, 10. diadumenum : another fairly complete copy of this statue, recently found in Delos {B. C. H. 1895, pi. viii), is— to judge from the publica- tion—of poor workmanship, inferior to the Madrid copy; cf. Furtwangler, Statuenkopien im Alterthum, p. 548.

P. 44, I. telo incessentem : I ought to have stated more fully that Furt- wangler (/o^-. aV.) shows the impossibility — on grammatical and other grounds — of the reading talo, which is supported by Benndorf. The latter supposes the statue referred to, to have stood on an astragal basis — a forerunner to the Kairos of Lysippos {Schriftqu. 1463-1467), further, to have been described by some Greek writer as -yv/jLyds daTpayaAai eiriKfiiievos where Pliny then translated the ewi/ceiij.(vos in its alternative sense of ' advancing ' or ' pursuing.' But in that case talo incessens could only mean advancing towards or pursuing a knuckle- bone, which is nonsense. Talo can only be the instrument, the weapon with which the man is attacking, so that everything combines to commend Benn- dorf s own earlier conjecture telo.

P. 44, 3. in Titi imperatoris atrio ; the reading of Cod. Bamb. seems to be : in titi imperis atrio duo (see our facsimile) ; incliti in patrio duo Bamb. e corr.

P. 44, 6. Portrait of Artemon : in Class. Rev. 1894, p. 219, I pointed out that the erection of the portrait should probably be connected with the Samian expedition of 439 B.C., at which date Furtwangler {Masterpieces, p. 119) con- jectures the Perikles by Kresilas to have been put up. Meanwhile grave doubts have arisen in my mind as to the authenticity of the Polykleitan Artemon. The confusion already noted by Plutarch with the Artemon of Anakreon is suspicious. The notice in Pliny is clearly derived from an anecdotic source other than that from which his main narrative is borrowed. Possibly, as Mvinzer hints, Hermes, xxx, p. 537, we have here further traces of Duris.

P. 46, 1 . pristas : the MSS. are unanimous ; hence, since H. L. Urlichs {loc. cit.) has satisfactorily shown that a group of sawyers — put up doubtless by some successful master-builder — is absolutely in harmony with fifth-century traditions, I had not thought it necessary to refer to Loeschcke's proposed emendation of pristas to pyctas — an emendation, however, which threatens to come into favour again.

P. 46, 14. puerum . . . tabellam : for the motive Reisch (/. c) compares the vase in Munich (Cat. 51), Benndorf, Griechische u. Sicilische Vasenbilder, i, pi. ix.

P. 48, 16. The Apoxyomenos of Lysippos : the copy in the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican (Helbig, 31) seemed to me too well known to need mention. For the writer from whom Pliny got the story of Tiberius's passion for the statue, see Introd. p. xcii, n. 4.

P. 50, 6 : for portraits of Alexander, see also Helbig, Sopra un Busto Colossale d'Alessandro Magno in Mon. Antichi (R. Acad. Lincei), vol. vi, 1895.

P. 60, I. Fortrait of Perikles: Bliimner and Hitzig (Pausanias, p. 307) remark that the word dcSpiai, used by Pausanias (i, 25, i), does not apply to a terminal bust. Cf. further Bernoulli in Jahrb. xi, 1896, p. 107 f.


236 ADDENDA

P. 60, 3. Minervam niirabilem . . . et aram: while still proposing to see a copy of this Athena in the ' Pallas de Velletri ' whose original he refers to Kresilas (see Introd. p. Ixxv, n. 2), Furtwangler recognizes a copy of the Zeus in a fine statue at Ince-Blundell Hall, Statuenkopien im Alterthum, plates i and iii, i, ib. p. 551 ff., the original of which he attributes on stylistic grounds neither to Kresilas nor to the unknown Kephisodoros, but to the elder Kephisodotos. The reasons adduced, however, are scarcely strong enough to warrant the alteration in the Plinian text of the MS. reading Cefhisodorus to Cephisodotus.

P. 60, 10. celetizontas : for the motive cf. further a statue in the Palazzo Orlandi at Florence, Arndt-Bruckmann, Einzelverk. 342.

P. 66, 7. Hermaphrodite of Polykles : the Berlin statue (193) is now pub- lished by Furtwangler, Statuenkopien, pi. xii, who sees in it a copy of the work of Polykles {ib. p. 582 ff.).

P. 68, 3. nee hominem ex aere fecit, sed iracundiam : while admitting — what is indeed incontrovertible — that this phraseology is common to Silver Latinity, I now believe that an epigram is after all concealed behind it (Introd. p. Ixx), all the Plinian criticism and analysis of Greek works of art being Greek in their origin ; cf. note on xxxv, 61.

P. 68, 8. Theodorus : cf. also vii, 198 ; xxxv, 152. Identity with the artist of C. I. A. 373, 90 (from Akropolis, middle of sixth century) is probable but not certain.

P. 70, 4. infans . . . anserem strangulat: in his translation of Herondas (1893), p. xiv, Crusius alludes to the group in Herondas as being wholly marble. The attempt to establish identity with the Plinian group seems futile, seeing how common the subject was in antiquity ; cf. E. Gardner in J. H. S. vi, 1885, pp. 7 ff.

P. 72, i. Apellas: cf. also /. G. B. 100 { = Insckriften von Olympia, 634), from the basis supporting the horses of Kyniska in the Pronaos of the Temple of Zeus, Pans, v, 12, 5 (/. G. B. ^^=Inschr. von 01. 160).

P. 72, 8. Hermes mining the infant Dionysos by Kephisodotos : the Identity of this group with the famous group at Olympia seems to me probable. The latter is attributed to Praxiteles on the authority of Pausanias (v, 17, i) only. I believe that in this case, as often in that of works attributed to Pheidias (xxxv, 54, Athena by Kolotes; xxxvi, 17, Nemesis and Mother of the Gods by Agora- kritos), all of which are put down to Pheidias by Pans. (Introd. p. xl, cf. p. liii, note i), Pliny represents the more detailed — and perchance the more trust- worthy — tradition, while Pausanias gives only the popular attributions. If the Hermes of Olympia was really by Praxiteles, but could pass in the eyes of certain critics as the work of his father or elder brother, it follows that the statue belonged, as Brunn has maintained, to the artist's earlier period and not to his later as recently argued by B'urtwangler {Masterpieces, p. 307 f). It may be questioned whether we are not too completely under the spell of Pausanias, whose untrustworthiness in the matter of attributions is notorious, and who, writing some 600 years after the artists of the great period, was as liable to blunder concerning their works as the compiler of a modern guide-book cotceming the artists of the Renascence and their works. However, I am at present neither prepared nor equipped to challenge the Praxitelean authorship of the Hermes on morphological or aesthetic grounds. A long and complete reinvestigation of all the extant material would first be necessary, but I think it worth while to point out distinctly that there were probably two ancient


ADDENDA 237

traditions concerning the authorship of the statue, and that the comparative trustworthiness of each should be investigated. I may add that the resemblance of the Kephisodotian Eirene holding the child Ploutos to the Hermes nursing the child Dionysos is so strong as only to be satisfactorily accounted for by referring them to the same artist : both figures are posed in the same manner, while the children are, as has often been noted, practically identical (cf. Fnrt- wiingler, op. cit. p. 296).

P. 72, 12. Cenchramis : cf. for Kenchramos, Purgold on Inschriften von 01. 638.

P. 74, 2. tubicine: cf. Urlichs, Pergamenische Inschriften, p. 24. The commentary is not quite clear at this point ; the explanation of Winckelmann {Geschichte, ed. 1776, p. 660 if. = tr. Lodge, vol. ii, p. 204fr.) applies to the ' dying Gaul ' of the Capitol, and not to the Plinian tubicen.

P. 74, i. main interfedae : that this was a Gaulish woman seems to have been Jirst suggested by Urlichs, /oc. cit. ; on the whole subject of these works by Epigonos see G. Habich, Die Amazonengrufpe des Attalischen Weih- geschenks CEine Studie zur Pergamenischen Kunstgeschichte), Berlin, 1896, p. 14 ff.

P. 76, 8. Scopas uterqtie: G. Habich, Die Amazonengruppe, p. 66, note z, is of opinion that scopas refers to the works of art made by each of two artists (uterque), and explains these works to have been dancing satyrs. Habich supports his theory by appeal to the Munich vase. I must abide, however, by the opinion which I arrived at about a year ago after careful study of the vase in question, and which I have expressed in the Commentary.

P. 78, I. Callimachus : for his date consult Winckelmann, Geschichte (ed. 1776), p. 460 (=tr. Lodge, vol. ii, p. 123), Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 437.


BOOK XXXV.

P. 92, 13. M. Agrippa: for Agrippa's interest in art, see now Gardthausen, Augustus, i. p. 749 ff.

P. 102, § 57, § 59. For the pictures in the Poikile Stoa, see now Hitzig and Bliimner, Pausanias, p. 201 f.

P. 106, 2 . Zeuxis of Herakleia : I have not sufficiently emphasized the difficulties at the commencement of Pliny's account of Zeuxis. It seems to me probable that the two conflicting dates of his birth given by Pliny represent the conflicting opinions of Greek art-historians (Antigonos and Duns? cf. Introd. p. xxxiii, on the beginnings of encaustic ; Introd. p. xxvi, on the origin of sculpture). The epigram against Zeuxis attributed to Apollodoros should have been alluded to among the epigrams discussed, Introd. p. Ivii.

P. 108, 7. Herakles strangling the snakes in presence of Alkmena and Amphitryon. The vase-painting in the Brit. Mus. (F. 479) is now published, Cat. of Vases in Brit. Mus. vol. iv, pi. xiii. The clumsiness of the figures, the coarseness of the picture as a whole, and the absence of Amphitryo must make us wary of accepting it as more than a distant echo of the picture by Zeuxis,


238 ADDENDA

P. 134. The Pompeian Mosaic : now at last well photographed by Alinari, Naples 12050.

P. 136. The ' Thesmothetai' of Protogenes: the view of Curtius seems to me probable. For dissentient opinions and the full literature of the subject, see Hitzig-Bliimner, Pausanias, p. 145.

P. 140. The Resting Satyr : the subject occurs likewise in painting ; a well preserved instance in the Casa Nuonia at Pompei, phot. Brogi, Naples 11 216. But, at present, no safe connexion can be established between these paintings and the work of Protogenes.

P. 142, 1 7. shortened methods of techniqtu : recent study in the Museum of Naples has convinced me that the clue to these words is afforded by a singular group of ' Campanian ' pictures — the most striking of which is Helbig 1 1 1 1 (=phot. Alinari, Naples 12035), known since the days of Bbttiger as ' Evening prayer in front of the Temple of Isis.' The picture is not a work of the first rank, but it proves that the ancients possessed to as great a degree as any moderns all the secrets of impressionism : the broad flight of steps is indi- cated by a few bold dashes of white ; the heads of the crowd on either side are roughly modelled within two bands of dark shadow ; white is applied vrith extraordinary intelligence and variety, now for an effect of light, now for the white garments that contrast with the dark skin of the Egyptian priests. Closely connected with this picture is the similar subject, Helbig 1112, and the two pictures of the 'Trojan horse' ((i) phot. Sommer, Pompei 9218, (2) Helbig 1326). Egyptian origin is attested from their subjects for the Isis pictures, while for those of the Trojan horse it has been proved both from the treatment and motives by L. von Urlichs {das Holzerne Pferd). There seems little doubt that these pictures are an example of that compendiaria, that shortened method hated by Petronius, as in modem times by Ruskin, which was successfully cultivated and perhaps first brought into fashion by Antiphilos, and imitated in Greece by Nikomachos.

P. 154, 2. exilior: Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogramm, xix, 1895, p. 25, maintains that the adjective in its usual sense of slender, slim or thin, cannot be properly applied to the figures of an artist who expressed the dignitatis of heroes, or who boasted that 'his Theseus had been fed on meat.' Robert, accordingly, proposed to see in exilior the (mis)translation of some such word as ^paxvT€pos = short, thick-set or stumpy. Robert's arguments have been vigorously controverted by Furtwangler {Statuenkopien im Alterthum, p. 568 f.), who defends the received interpretation of the passage. It seems to me that the contradictions in the criticisms passed upon Parrhasios, which vex Robert, and which Furtwangler attempts to reconcile, are the effect of the present juxta- position inPliny of two or more appreciations of Euphranor, derived from totally different sources : the sentence mdetiir expressisse dignitatis heroum . . . articulis- que grandior is plainly Xenokratic in its origin (Inlrod. p. xxvii) ; here there can be no real contradiction between the dignitaies which Euphranor expressed and the fact that he was in universitate corporum. exilior, for the first refers to the artist's ethical conception of his heroes, the latter to their physical present- ment. As regards the saying attributed to Euphranor concerning his Theseus, I have pointed out both in the note on the passage and in the Introduction (p. Ixiii f ) that its source is anecdotic, and can be traced back — perhaps through Antigonos — to Duris of Samos.

P. 155. Andromeda : for the finest and best preserved of the Pompeian pictures see phot. Alinari, Naples 1 2034.


ADDENDA


239


P. 156. Achilles detected by Ulysses: phot. Alinari, Naples 12001, id. 12000; a different scheme seems preserved in the recently discovered picture in the Casa Nuova at Pompei, phot. Brogi 11226.

P. 159. Medeia of Timomachos : the picture Helbig 1262 (= phot. Alinari, Naples 12024) seems to me on close inspection to be really a copy after a good original, presumably, then, after the Medeia by Timomachos. The single figure of Medeia, on the other hand, appears to me extremely inferior in conception and execution ; pose and accessories are different, and I can see not the slightest reason for referring it to the same original as the former picture.

P. 159. Orestes and Iphigeneia: phot. Alinari, Naples 12020.

P. 162.. Herakles and Deianeira : for the subject, treated with considerable mastery, and evidently after a good original, see the Pompeian picture, phot. Alinari, Naples 12026 (cf. Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 1146).

P. 166, 14. quinquatrus celebraniem : Simos' picture apparently lent itself to a Roman interpretation, which by Pliny's time had superseded the true Greek explanation of the subject.


BOOK XXXVI.

P. 190, 9. Statue of Mother of Gods by Agorakritos : Furtwangler, Statuen- kofien, p. ^I'j ff., claims to have discovered a copy of this work in a statue of the Villa Pamfili in Rome.

P. 202, 12. Timotheos: I have lately examined the 'Leda and the Swan' in the Capitol ; the connexion established between it and the Epidaurian sculptures by both Amelung and Winter seems to me to stand the test of minute criticism ; it is, however, disputed by Arndt (Arndt-Bruckmann, Phot. Einzel- verk. ii, p. 30).

P. 205, 9. Hermerotes : the point made by Cicero {loc. cit.) was probably suggested by the word Hermathena, rather than by the actual monument. Cf. also Att. i, I, 5 ; ib. 10, 3 {ffermeracles']. A terminal iigure at Newby Hall (Michaelis, Anc. Marbles in Great Britain, p. 531) affords a doubtful instance of an Hermeros. Michaelis brings it into connexion with the work of Tauriskos.

P. 208, 1. 4. Venerem lavante?n se . . . Polycharmus : concerning this difficult passage I can only arrive at negative results, (i) The reading sese Daedalus must, I think, be rejected, the best codices offering no evidence for it whatsoever ; the corrupt sedaedalsas of Cod. Bamb. conceals either further descriptive words or the name of the locality where the statue was. (2) The current attribution of the Venus lavans se to one Daidalos of Bithynia, known only on the authority of Eustathios {Schriftqu. 2045), which seemed to receive sup- port from the recurrence of a crouching or bathing Aphrodite on Bithynian coins (see Bernoulli, Aphrodite, p. 317), must also be renounced; the type on the coins occurs elsewhere, and belongs to a series whose origin can be traced back to high antiquity (cf. Friederichs-Wolters, p. 571). (3) The notion that two statues are mentioned in the passage, and that the first was crouching, in oppo- sition to the Venus stans of Polycharmos, is entirely without support ; stantem may be used here, not necessarily of an upright versus a stooping figure, but in the sense of ' placed,' ' situated.' Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 528, Miiller, Handbuch, 377, note 5, take the whole sentence to be descriptive of one statue by Poly- charmos.


240 ADDENDA

P. 210. Caryatids of the Pantheon: see also Helbig, Class. Ant. I, and Gardthausen, Augustus, ii, p. 439 f.

P. 212. Lioness by Arkesilaos : Mr. Cecil Smith kindly reminds me, in this connexion, of a ' fine mosaic in the Brit. Mus., from Pompei (an early one), representing a lion and three Cupids : one has bound the lion with a cord, one seems to hold a drinking-vessel, and the third holds an object which seems to be a large dart. It is a good illustration of the Arkesilaos subject, and is evidently a copy from a Hellenistic relief.'

N.B. — The student will find all references concerning Roman topography admirably put together by Hiilsen in the Nomenclator Topographicus to Kiepert and Hiilsen's Formae Urbis Romae Antiquae, Berlin, 1896.


INDEXES


INDEX I


NAMES OF ARTISTS


Action, painter, xxxv, 50, 78. Action, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Aglaophon, painter, xxxv, 60. Agorakritos, sculptor, xxxvi, 17. Aiginetas, painter, xxxv, 145. Akragas, chaser, xxxiii, 155. Aleuas, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Alexis, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Alkamenes, statuary and sculptor,

xxxiv, 49, 72; xxxvi, 16, 17. Alkimachos, painter, xxxv, 139. Alkon, statuary, xxxiv, 141. Amphikrates, statuary, xxxiv, 72- Amphistratos, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. Anaxander, painter, xxxv, 146. Androbios, painter, xxxv, 1 39. Androboulos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Androkydes, painter, xxxv, 64. Angelion, sculptor, Athenag. IlpeaP.

17 (App. II). Antaios, statuary, xxxiv, 52. Antidotes, painter, xxxv, 130. Antignotos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Antigonos, statuary, xxxiv, 84. Antimachos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Antipater, chaser, xxxiii, 156. Antiphilos, painter, xxxv, 114, 138. Antorides, painter, xxxv, iii. Apellas, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Apelles, painter, xxxv, 50, 75, ^6,

79-97, 107, III, 118, 123, 140,

145; vii, 125 (App. i). Aphrodisios, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Apollodoros, painter, xxxv, 60, 61. ApoUodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 81, 86. Apollonides, graver, xxxvii, 8tApp.io). ApoUonios, sculptor, xxxvi, 24, 34. Archermos, sculptor, xxxvi, n-13. Arellius, painter, xxxv, 119. Argeios, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Aridikes, painter, xxxv, 16. Aristarete, painter, xxxv, 147. Aristeides, painter (and statuary (?),

xxxiv, 50, 72), xxxv, 76, 108, III,

122.


Aristeides, painter, vii, 126 (App. 1);

xxxv, 24, 98-100, no, 122. Aristoboulos, painter, xxxv, 146. Aristodemos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Aristokleides, painter, xxxv, 138. Aristokydes, painter, xxxv, 146. Aristolaos, painter, xxxv, 137. Ariston, chaser and statuary, xxxiii.

156; xxxiv, 85. Ariston, painter, xxxv, no, iii. Aristonidas, painter and statuary,

xxxiv, 140 ; xxxv, 146. Aristophon, painter, xxxv, 138. Arkesilaos, modeller and sculptor,

xxxv, 155, 156 ; xxxvi, 33, 41. Arkesilas, painter, xxxv, 146. Artemon, painter, xxxv, 139. Artemon, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Asklepiodoros, painter, xxxv, 80,

107. Asklepiodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 86. Asopodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Athanodoros, sculptor and statuary,

xxxiv, 86 ; xxxvi, 37. Athanodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Athenion, painter, xxxv, 134. Athenis, sculptor, xxxvi, 11 -14. Attius Priscus, painter, xxxv, 1 20. Autoboulos, painter, xxxv, 148. Avianius Evander, xxxvi, 32.

Baton, statuary, xxxiv, 73, 91. Batrachos, sculptor, xxxvi, 42. Boedas, statuary, xxxiv, 66, 73. Boethos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii,

155; xxxiv, 84. Boularchos, painter, vii, 126 (App. i);

xxxv, 55. Eoupalos, sculptor, xxxvi, 11-13. Boutades, modeller, xxxv, 151, 152,

163- Bryaxis, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv,

42, 73; xxxvi, 22, 30,31. Bryetes, painter, xxxv, 123.

Chaireas, statuary, xxxiv, 75-


R 2


244


INDEX I


Chalkosthenes, statuary and modeller,

xxxiv, 87 ; XXXV, 155. Chares, statuary, xxxiv, 41, 44. Channadas, painter, xxxv, 56. Charmantides, painter, xxxv, 146. Chersiphron, architect, xxxvi, 95

(App. 7). Coponius, sculptor, xxxvi, 41. Cornelius Finns, painter, xxxv, 120.

Daidalos, sculptor, vii, 125 (App. 3);

Athenag. IIpeff/3. 17 (App. 11) Daidalos, statuary, xxxiv, 76. Daimon, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Daiphron, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Daippos, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Damokritos, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Damophilos, painter and modeller,

xxxv, 154. Deinias, painter, xxxv, 56. Deinomenes, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 76. Deinon, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Deliades, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Demeas, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Demetrios, statuary, xxxiv, 76. Demophilos, painter, xxxv, 61. Derkyllidas, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. Dikaiogenes, painter, xxxv, 146. Diogenes, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Dionysios, painter, xxxv, 113, 148. Dionysios, sculptor, xxxvi, 35. Dionysodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Dionysodoros, painter, xxxv, 146. Diopos, modeller, xxxv, 152. Dioskourides, graver, xxxvii, 8 (App.

10). Dipoinos, sculptor, xxxvi, 9, 10, 14. Dorotheos, painter, xxxv, 91.

Eirene, painter, xxxv, 147. Ekphanlos, painter, xxxv, 16. Elasippos, painter, xxxv, 122. Endoios, sculptor, xvi, 214 (App. 4) ;

Athenag. Ilpeaff. 17 (App. 11). Epigonos, statuary, xxxiv, 88. Erigonos, painter, xxxv, 145. Erillos, painter, xxxv, 114.. Euboulides, statuary, xxxiv, 88. Euboulos, statuary, xxxiv, 88. Eucheir, painter, vii, 205 (App. 3). Eucheir, modeller, xxxv, 152. Eucheir, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Eudoros, painter and statuary, xxxv,

141. Euenor, painter, xxxv, 60. Eugrammos, modeller, xxxv, 152. Eumaros, painter, xxxv, 56. Eunikos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii,

156 i xxxiv, 85. Euphorion, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Enphranor, painter and statuary,

xxxiv, 50, 77; xxxv, iii, 128-130,

146.


Euphron, statuary, xxxiv, 51. Eupompos, painter, xxxiv, 61 ; xxxv,

64. 75- Euthykrates, statuary, xxxiv, 5 1, 66, 83. Euthymides, painter, xxxv, 146. Eutychides, painter, statuary and

sculptor, xxxiv, 51, 78 ; xxxv, 141 ;

xxxvi, 34. Euxeinidas, painter, xxxv, 75-

Fabius Pictor, painter, xxxv, 19. Famulus, painter, xxxv, 120.

Glaukides, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Glaukion, painter, xxxv, 134. Gorgasos, modeller and painter, xxxv,

154- Gorgias, statuary, xxxiv, 49.

Habron, painter, xxxv, 141, 146. Hagelaidas, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 55, 57- Hagesander, sculptor, xxxvi, 37. Hegesias, statuary, xxxiv, 78.

  • Hedys*, chaser, xxxiii, 156.

Hegias, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 78. Hekataios, chaser and statuary, xxxiii,

156, xxxiv, 85. Heliodoros, statuary and sculptor,

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 35. Heniochos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. Herakleides, painter, xxxv, 13,5, 146. Hermolaos, sculptor, xxxvi, 38 Hikanos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Hippys, painter, xxxv, 141. Hygiainon, painter, xxxv, 56. Hypatodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50.

laia, painter, xxxv, 147, 148. Ion, statuary, xxxiv, 51. lophou, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Isodotos, statuary, xxxiv, 78. Isogonos, statuary, xxxiv, 84.

Kalamis, chaser, statuary and sculptor, xxxiii, 155 ; xxxiv, 47, 71 ; xxxvi, 36.

Kalates, painter, xxxv, 114.

Kallides, statuary, xxxiv, 85.

Kallikles, painter, xxxv, 114.

Kallikles, statuary, xxxiv, 87.

Kallikrates, sculptor, xxxvi, 43.

Kallimachos, statuary and painter, xxxiv, 92.

Kallistratos, statuary, xxxiv, 52.

Kallixenos, statuary, xxxiv, 52.

Kallon, statuary, xxxiv, 49.

Kalypso, painter, xxxv, 147.

Kanachos, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv, 50, 75 ; xxxvi, 41.

Kantharos, statuary, xxxiv, 85.

Kenchramos, statuary, xxxiv, 87.

Kephisodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 74.

Kephisodoros, painter, xxxv, 60.

Kephisodotos, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 87.


NAMES OF ARTISTS


245


Kephisodotos, statuary and sculptor,

xxxiv, 51, 87; xxxvi, 24. Kepis, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Kimon, painter, xxxv, 56. Kleanthes, painter, xxxv, 16, Athenag.

npirrP. 17 (App. 11). Kleomenes, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. Kleon, painter, xxxv, 140. Kleon, statuary, xxxiv, 87. Koines, painter, xxxv, 140. Kolotes, statuary, xxxiv, 87 ; xxxv, 55. Koroibos, painter, xxxv, 146. Krateros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Kratinos, painter, xxxv, 140, 147. Kraton, painter, Athenag. Tlpiaff. 17

(App. II). Kresilas, statuary, xxxiv, 53, 74. Kritios, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 85. Kronios, graver, xxxvii, 8 (App. 10). Ktesias, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Ktesidemos, painter, xxxv, 1 14, 140. Ktesikles, painter, xxxv, 140. Ktesilaos, statuary, xxxiv, 76. Ktesilochos, painter, xxxv, 140. Kydias, painter, xxxv, 130. Kydon, statuary, xxxiv, 53.

Laippos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 66. Leochares, statuary and sculptor,

xxxiv, 50, 79; xxxvi, 30, 31. Leon, painter, xxxv, 141. Leon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Leontiskos, painter, xxxv, 141. Lesbokles, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Lykios, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 79. Lysias, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. Lysippos, statuary, xxxiv, 37, 40, 41,

51, 61-67, 8°; xxxv, 153; vii, 125

(App. 1). Lysistratos, statuary and modeller,

xxxiv, 51 ; xxxv, 153. Lyson, statuary, xxxiv, 91.

Melanthios, painter, xxxv, 50, 76, 80. Melas, sculptor, xxxvi, 11. Menaichmos, statuary, xxxiv, 80. Menestratos, sculptor, xxxvi, 32. Menodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Menogenes, statuary, xxxiv, 88. Mentor, chaser and statuary, xxxiii,

154; vii, 127 (App. i). Metrodoros, painter, xxxv, 135. Mikkiades, sculptor, xxxvi, 11. Mikon, statuary and painter, xxxiv,

88 ; xxxv, 59. Milon, painter, xxxv, 146. Mnasilaos, painter, xxxv, 122. Mnasitheos, painter, xxxv, 146. Mnasitimos, painter, xxxv, 146. Myagros, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Myrmekides, sculptor, xxxvi, 43. Myron, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv,

10,49,50,57-59,68,79; xxxvi, 32.


Mys, chaser, xxxiii, 155.

Naukeros, statuary, xxxiv, 80. Naukydes, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 80. Nealkes, painter, xxxv, 104, 142, 145,

146. Nearchos, painter, xxxv, 141, 147. Neokles, painter, xxxv, 146. Neseus, painter, xxxv, 6i. Nesiotes, statuary, xxxiv, 49. Nessos, painter, xxxv, 146. Nikanor, painter, xxxv, 122. Nikeratos, statuary, xxxiv, 80, 88. Nikeros, painter, xxxv, 11 1. Nikias, painter, xxxv, 133. Nikias, painter, xxxv, 27, 130-134. Nikomachos, painter, xxxv, 50, 108-

109. 145. 146. Nikophanes, painter, xxxv, 11 1, 137. Nikosthenes, painter, xxxv, 146.

Oinias, painter, xxxv, 143. Olympias, painter, xxxv, 148.

Pacuvius, painter, xxxv, 19. Pamphilos, painter, xxxv, 75-77, 123. Panainos, painter, xxxv, 54, 57, 58,

177; xxxvi, 177 (App. 8). Papylos, sculptor, xxxvi, 34. Parrhasios, painter, xxxv, 60, 64, 65,

67-72, 129. Pasias, painter, xxxv, 145. Pasiteles, chaser, modeller, sculptor, and statuary, xxxiii, 156 ; xxxv, 156 ; xxxvi, 35, 39, 40. Patrokles, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 91. Pausias, painter, xxi, 4 (App. 5) ;

xxxv, 123-127, 128, 137. Pedius (Quintus), painter, xxxv, 21. Peiraikos, painter, xxxv, 112. Perellos, statuary, xxxiv, 49. Periklymenos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Perillos, statuary, xxxiv, 89. Perseus, painter, xxxv, iii. Phalerion, painter, xxxv, 143. Phanis, statuary, xxxiv, 80. Pheidias, painter, sculptor and statuary, xxxiv, 49, 63, 54, 56, 72, 87 ; xxxv, 54. 66. 67; 'fxxvi, 15-19; App. I, 8, II. Philiskos, sculptor, xxxvi, 34, 35. Philiskos, painter, xxxv, 143. Philochares, painter, xxxv, 28. Philokles, painter, xxxv, 16. Philon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Philoxenos, painter, xxxv, no. Phradmon, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 53. Phrynon, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Piston, statuary, xxxiv, 89. Plautius, Marcus Lykon, painter,

xxxv, 115. Polemon, painter, xxxv, 146. PoUis, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Polycharmos, sculptor, xxxvi, 35.


2^6


INDEX I


Polydeukes, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Polydoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 37. Polygnotos, statuary and painter, vii,

205 (App. 3) ; xxxiv, 85 ; xxxv, 58,

59, 122, 123. Polyeidos, statuary, xxxiv, gi. Polykleitos, statuary, xxxiv, 64. Polykleitos, statuary, xxxiv, 10, 49,

6°. 63, 55, 56, 58, 68, 73. Polykles, statuary, xxxiv, 50. Polykles, sculptor and statuary, xxxiv,

53, 80 (?) ; xxxvi, 35. _ Polykrates, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Poseidonios, cliaser and statuary,

xxxiii, 156; xxxiv, 91. Possis, modeller, xxxv, 155. Praxiteles, painter, sculptor, and sta- tuary, vii, 127 (App. I); xxxiv, 50,

69-71 ; xxxv, 122, 133; xxxvi, 20-

23, 24, 28, 34; Athenag. Tlpea^. 17

(App. 11). Prodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Protogenes, statuary and painter, vii,

126 (App. i); xxxiv, 91; xxxv, 80,

81-83,88, 101-106, 118. Pyrgoteles, graver, vii, 125 (App. i) ;

xxxvii, 8 (App. 10). Pyromachos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 80,

84 ; xxxv, 146. Pyrrhos, statuary, xxxiv, 80. Pythagoras, statuary and painter,xxxiv,

49, 59, 6°, 68. Pytheas, chaser, xxxiii, 156. Pythias, statuary, xxxiv, 52. Pythis, sculptor, xxxvi, 31. Pythodikos, statuary, xxxiv, 85. Pythodoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Pythodoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. Pythokles, statuary, xxxiv, 52. Pythokritos, statuary, xxxiv, 91.

Rhoikos, modeller and architect, xxxv, 152 ; xxxvi, 90 (App. 6).

Sauras, sculptor, xxxvi, 42.

Saurias, painter, Athenag. IlpeaP. 17

(App. II). Seilanion, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 81, 82. Serapion, painter, xxxv, 113. Simon, statuary, xxxiv, 90. Simonides, painter, xxxv, 143. Simos, painter, xxxv, 143. Skopas, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv,

49,90; xxxvi, 22, 35, 26, 38, 30,

31, 95 (App- 7). Skyllis, sculptor, xxxvi, 9, 10. Skynanos, chaser andstatuary,xxxiv,85. Smilis, architect, xxxvi, 90 (App. 6) ;

Athenag. Ilpeafi. 17 (App. 11). Sokrates, painter, xxxv, 137; xxxvi, 32. Sokrates, sculptor, xxxvi, 32. Sophokles, statuary, xxxiv, 51.


Sopolis, painter, xxxv, 148.

Sosos, mosaic- worker, xxxvi, 184

(App. 9). Sostratos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 60. Stadios, painter, xxxv, 146. Stephanos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. Sthenuis, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 90. Stratonikos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii,

156; xxxiv, 84, 85, 90. Strongylion, statuary, xxxiv, 82. Studius, painter, xxxv, 116. Styppax, statuary, xxxiv, 81. Symenos, statuary, xxxiv, 91.

Tauriskos, chaser and painter, xxxiii,

156; xxxv, 144; xxxvi, 33, 34. Tauriskos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. Teisias, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Teisikrates, statuary, xxxiv, 67, 83,

89; xxxv, 146. Tektaios, sculptor, Athenag. Ilpecrp.

17 (App. II). Telekles, sculptor, Athenag. UpiaP.

17 (App. II). Telephanes, statuary, xxxiv, 68. Telephanes, painter, xxxv, 16. Teuker, chaser, xxxiii, 157. Theodoros, statuary and architect,

xxxiv, 83 ; xxxv, 146, 152 ; App. 2,

6, II. Theomnestos, painter, xxxv, 107. Theomnestos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Theon, painter, xxxv, 144. Theoros, painter, xxxv, 144. Therimachos, statuary and painter,

xxxiv, 50 ; xxxv, 78. Thrakides, chaser, xxxiii, 156. Thrason, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Timagoras, painter, xxxv, 58. Timanthes, painter, xxxv, 64, 72-74. Timarchides, statuary and sculptor,

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 35. Timarchos, statuary, xxxiv, 51. Timarete, painter, xxxv, 59, 147. Timokles, statuary, xxxiv, 51. Timomaciios,painter,vii, 1 36 (App. i ) ;

xxxv, 136, 145. Timon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. Timotheos, sculptor and statuary,

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 30-32. Titedius Labeo, painter, xxxv, 20. Turpilius, painter, xxxv, 20.

Vulca, modeller, xxxv, 157.

Xenokrates, statuary, xxxiv, 83. Xenon, painter, xxxv, 146.

Zenodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 45-47. Zeuxiades, statuary, xxxiv, 51. Zeuxis, painter, xxxv, 61-66, iii. Zopyros, chaser, xxxiii, 156.


INDEX II


MUSEOGRAPHIC


Agragentum, painting of Alkmena by Zeuxis at, xxxv, 62. Temple of Hera, painting by Zeuxis in, xxxv, 64. Alexandria, Ptolemy's fool sketched by Apelles, xxxv, 89. Gorgosthenes painted by Apelles, xxxv, 93. Ambrakia, terracottas by Zeuxis left, statues of the Muses removed to Rome, xxxv, 66. works of Dipoinos in, xxxvi, 14. Antium, portraits of gladiators, xxxv,

52- Ardea, contains pictures older than Rome, xxxv, 1 7. Temple of Hera, paintings by Plautius Marcus Lykon, xxxv, 115. Argos, works of Dipoinos in, xxxvi, 14. Hera, statue of, by Smilis, and other statues by Pheidias, Athenag. Tlpea$. 17 (App. II). Athens, Harmodios and Aristogeiton, statues of, xxxiv, 1 7 ; statues of, by Praxiteles, xxxiv, 70. Demetrios of Phaleron, 360 statues

to, xxxiv, 27. not less than 73,000 statues remain- ing at, xxxiv, 36. many statues by Alkamenes in

temples, xxxvi, 16. Athena, surnamed 'the Fair,' bronze statue of, by Pheidias, xxxiv, 54 ; statue of, and seated statue of, by Endoios, Athenag. Tlpia^. 17 (App. II). Satyr, statue of, by Lysippos, xxxiv,

64. Leaina, statue of, xxxiv, 72. shield painted by Pheidias, xxxv, 54. replica of aTe<pav7jn\6xos of Pausias

bought by LucuUus, xxxv, 125. warrior painted by Antidotos, xxxv, 130.


Athens {continued).

yeavoftai/Teia painted by Nikias, xxxv, 132.

<rvyyeviic6v painted by Athenion, xxxv, 134.

Gardens {hv «^iro:s), statue of Aphro- dite by Alkamenes, xxxvi, 16.

Kerameikos, clay models by Chal- kosthenes, xxxv, 155 ; statues by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20.

Metroon, statue of ' Mother of the Gods,' by Agorakritos, xxxvi, 17.

Parthenon, statue of Athena by Pheidias, xxxiv, 54 ; description of details, xxxvi, 18, 19.

Pompeion, picture of comic actors by Kratinos, xxxv, 140.

Propylon, Paralos and Hammonias, pictures of, by Protogenes, xxxv, loi ; Charites, statues of, by Sokrates, xxxvi, 32.

Stoa Eleutherios, cavalry engage- ment. Twelve gods, Theseus, pictures by Euphranor, xxxv, 129.

Stoa Poikile, paintings by Polygno- tos and Mikon, xxxv, 59.

Caere, ancient paintings at, xxxv, 18. Chios, celebrated for works by Bou-

palos and Athenis, xxxvi, 12;

mask of Artemis by the same,

xxxvi, 13. Corinth, earliest portrait in clay

preserved at, Athenag. TlpeaP. 1 7

(App. II). Temple of the Nymphs, first por- trait in clay by Boutades, xxxv,

151. Cyprus, Zeno, statue of, left by Cato,

xxxiv, 92.

Delos, images in, by Bonpalos and Athenis, xxxvi, 12. works of Archermos in, xxxvi, 13. Apollo and Artemis, statues of, by


248


INDEX II


Delos {coniimied).

Tektaios and Angelion, Athenag.

UptaB. 17 (App. 11). Delphoi, not less tjian 73,000 statues

remaining at, xxxiv, 36. Alexander and hunting-gronp by

Lysippos, xxxiv, 64. Apollo Pythios, statue of, by Theo-

doros and Telekles, Athenag.

Tlpea^l. 17 (App. n). Herakles, statue of, by Euthykrates,

xxxiv, 66. Pankratiast, statue of, by Pytha- goras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 59. Lesche, paintings by Polygnotos

and Mikon, xxxv, 59. Temple of Apollo, painted by Aristo-

kleides, xxxv, 138. Didyma, Apollo Philesios, statue of,

by Kanachos, xxxiv, 75.

Egypt, Janus, statue of, transported

to Rome, xxxvi, 28. lilensis, captain of cavalry, painted by Athenion, xxxv, 134. maiden painted by Eirene, xxxv, 147. Elis, Athena, shield of, painted by

Panainos, xxxv, 54. Ephesos, painting of Queen Strato- nike, by Ktesikles, xxxv, 140. Apollo, statue of, by Myron, re- stored by Augustus, xxxiv, 58. Artemis, picture of, by Timarete,

xxxv, 147. Artemis, priest of, painted by

Nikias, xxxv, 132. Odysseus, picture of, by Euphranor,

xxxv, 129. Temple of Artemis, Alexander, pic- ture of, by Apelles, xxxv, 92. Amazon, statues of, by Polykleitos, Pheidias, Kresilas, Kydon, Phrad- mon, xxxiv, 53. Artemis, ebony image of, by En- doios, xvi, 213 (App. 4) ; Athenag. Up€tr0. 17 (App. II). Athena and Dionysos, statues of, xvi, 213 (App. 4). Herakles, statue of, by Menestratos, xxxvi, 32. Hekate, statue of, in shrine behind

temple, xxxvi, 32. Thirty-six sculptured columns, one

by Skopas, xxxvi, 95 (App. 7 ). cups by Mentor, vii, 127 (App. i) ; perished in fire, xxxiii, 1 54. Epidatiros, Asklepios, statue of, by Pheidias, Athenag. Ilpca/S. 17 (App. II). Etruria, Tuscan statues made there, xxxiv, 34.


Gaul, State of the Arverni,

Mercury, statue of, by Zenodoros, xxxiv, 45 ; cups by Kalamis, copied by Zenodoros, xxxiv, 47.

lasos, Artemis, mask of, by Bonpalos and Athenis, xxxvi, 13.

Karia, Mausoleion, sculptures of, by Skopas, Bryaxis, Timotheos, Leo- chares, xxxvi, 30 ; chariot on, by Pythis, xxxvi, 31.

Kleonai, works of Dipoinos in, xxxvi, 14.

Knidos, Aphrodite, statue of, by

Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20, 21, 22 ; vii,

127 (App. i); Athenag. Tlpta^.

17 (App. II).

Athene, statue of, by Skopas, xxxvi,

22. Dionysos, statues of, by Bryaxis and Skopas, xxxvi, 22.

Kos, Aplirodite, draped statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20; unfinished picture of, by Apelles, xxxv, 87, 92.

Kyzikos, Aias and Aphrodite, pic- tures of, bought by Agrippa, xxxv, 26.

Lanivium, Atalanta and Helen,

pictures of, xxxv, 17. Iiebadeia, Trophonios, statue of,

by Euthykrates, xxxiv, 66. Iiesbos, works of Archermos in,

xxxvi, 13. Iiindos, Herakles, picture of, by

Parrhasios, xxxv, 71. Temple of Athena, works by Eoethos,

xxxiii, 155. Iiysimacheia, Hermes, statue of, by

Polykleitos formerly at, xxxiv, 56.

Ifaples, old woman, picture of, by laia, xxxv, 147.

Olympia, first portrait statues at, xxxiv, 16.

not less than 73,000 statues remain- ing at, xxxiv, 36.

Astylos, boy with tablet, nude figure bearing apples, statues of, by Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv,

59- Zeus, statue of, by Pheidias, xxxiv, 49 ; xxxvi, 18 ; vii, 127 (App. i).

Paiion, colony of —

Eros, statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi,

22. Herakles, statue of, by Hegesias,

xxxiv, 78.


MUSEOGRAPHIC


249


Peiraeus, Temple of Zeus the Saviour,

Athena, statue of, by Kephiso-

doros, xxxiv, 74. altar by Kephisodoros, xxxiv,

74- Pella, dying mother with child,

picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv,

98. Pergamon, Priest in prayer, and

Aias, pictures of, by Apollodoros,

xxxv, 60, marble av/jLirKey^ by Kephiso-

dotos, xxxvi, 34. dodpwTos oTkos, mosaics in, xxxvi,

184 (App. 9). Praeneste, miniature chariot, horses,

and driver, by Theodoros, xxxiv,

83.


Khamnous, statue of Nemesis, by

Agorakritos, xxxvi, 1 7. Rhodes, 73,000 statues remaining in,

xxxivj 36. colossal statue of the Sun, by

Chares of Lindos, xxxiv, 41. 100 colossal statues in, xxxiv, 43. five colossal statues by Bryaxis,

xxxiv, 42. chariot, horses, and statue of the

Sun, by Lysippos, xxxiv, 63. Zethos, Amphion, Dirke and bull,

marble group of, by ApoUonios

and Tauriskos, removed to Rome,

xxxvi, 34. Athamas, copper and iron statue of,

by Aristonidas, xxxiv, 140. Herakles, iron statue of, by Alkon,

xxxiv, 141. lalysos, picture of, by Protogenes,

xxxv, 104; spared byDemetrios,

vii, 136 (App. i). Satyr resting, picture of, by Proto- genes, xxxv, 106. Meleager, Herakles and Perseus,

picture of, by Protogenes, xxxv,

69. Menander and Antaios, portraits of,

by Apelles- xxxv, 93. Temple of Dionysos, cups chased

by Akragas and Mys, xxxiii, 155. Eome, C. Aelius, statue of, xxxiv,

32. Alexander's bodyguard, statues of,

by Lysippos, xxxiv, 64. Amazon, figure of, owned by Nero,

xxxiv, 48. Apollo and Poseidon, statues of, by

Praxiteles, xxxvi, 23. Ceres, bronze image of, the first

ever made, xxxiv, 1 5.


Borne {continued).

Cloelia, equestrian statue of, xxxiv, 28, 29.

Corinthian bronze, statue of, owned by C. Sestius, xxxiv, 48.

C. Duillius, column of, xxxiv, 20.

equestrian statues, xxxiv, 19, 28.

Fabricius, statue of, xxxiv, 32.

fruit modelled by Possis, xxxv, 155-

Hannibal, three statues of, xxxiv, 32.

Hercules, statues of, by Polykleitos, xxxiv, 56 ; in clay by Vulca, xxxv, 157.

M. Horatius Codes, statue of, xxxiv, 32, 39.

Janus, statue of, dedicated by Numa, xxxiv, 33.

Lupercales, statues of, xxxiv, 18.

C. Maenius, column of, xxxiv, 20.

Mancinus, statue of, xxxiv, 18.

Marius Gratidianus, numerous statues of, xxxiv, 2 7.

multitude of works of art in, xxxvi, 37.

Nero, colossal statue of, by Zeno- doros, afterwards dedicated to the Sun, xxxiv, 45.

pictures from Sikyon, xxxv, 137.

scenery at games of Claudius Pul- cher, xxxv, 23.

sphynx in bronze owned by Hor- tensius, xxxiv, 48.

statues, 3,000 on temporary stage, xxxiv, 36.

Taracia Gaia or Fufetia, statue of, xxxiv, 35.

Asmius Pollio, gallery of, statues in, Aphrodite by Kephisodotos, xxxvi, 24, Dionysos by Euty- chides, xxxvi, 34, Mainades, Thyiades, Karyatides, Seilenoi, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 33, Kentaurs and Nymphs by Arkesilas, Thes- piades by Kleomenes, Okeanos and Zeus by Heniochos, Appiades by Stephanos, Hermerotes by Tauriskos, Zeus Xenios by Papylos, Zethos, Amphion, Diike and bull by ApoUonios and Tauriskos, xxxvi, 33, 34 ; basket-bearer by Skopas and goal-posts, xxxvi, 34. Augustus, temples built by, works by Boupalos and Athenis, xxxvi, 13. Baths of Agrippa, small paintings in walls of, xxxv, 26 ; Apoxy- omenos, bronze statue by Ly- sippos, xxxiv, 62. Capitol, Apollo, colossal statue of, from ApoUonia, xxxiv, 39.


25°


INDEX II


Borne {continued).

Athena, bronze statue of, by En-

phranor, below the, xxxiv, 77. battlepiece exhibited by L. Scipio,

XXXV, 22. Spiirins Carvilius, statue of, at feet

of colossal Jupiter, xxxiv, 43. colossal heads by Chares and

. . . dikos, xxxiv, 44. Good Luck and Good Fortune,

statues of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi,

23- Herakles, colossal statue of, from

Tarentum, xxxiv, 40. Jupiter, colossal statue of, xxxiv, 43. Kings, statues of, xxxiv, 22, 29. Temples on, of Faith, oi Juno, of Jupiter Capitolinus, of Jupiter

the Thunderer, of Minerva, see

Temples. Cattle Market, bronze bull from

Aigina, xxxiv, 10. Hercules, bronze statue of, dedi- cated by Evander, xxxiv, 33. Temple of Hercules, see Temples. Comitium, Hermodoros of Ephesos,

statue of, xxxiv, 21. Pythagoras and Alkibiades, statues

of, xxxiv, 26. Curia Hostilia, in front of, Attus

Navius, statue of, xxxiv, 21, 22,

29. at side of, battle-piece exhibited by

Messala, xxxv, 22. Curia Julia, pictures in, Nemea by

Nikias, xxxv, 27, 131 ; Glaukion

and Aristippos, portraits of, by

Philochares, xxxv, 28. Field of Mars, Jupiter, colossal

statue of, xxxiv, 40. Forum, many pictures in ; Gaul and

old shepherd, pictures of, xxxv,

25- picture of assault of Carthage ex- hibited, xxxv, 23. P. Junius, Ti. Coruncanius, statues

of, xxxiv, 24. magistrates, statues of, removed by

censors, xxxiv, 30. Old Shops, picture on, by Serapion,

xxxv, 113. Regia, in front of, two statues from

tent of Alexander, xxxiv, 48. Rostra, Cn. Octavius, statue of,

upon the, xxxiv, 24. envrfys killed on embassy, statues of,

upon the, xxxiv, 23, 24. Camillus, statue of, upon the, xxxiv,

23- Herakles in tunic, statue of, beside the, xxxiv, 93.


Borne {continued).

Sibyl, three statues of, beside the, xxxiv, 22, 29.

Forum of Augustus, pictures there by Apelles, of War and Triumph, and of Kastor, Polydeukes, and Victory, xxxv, 27, 93.

Forum of Caesar, Dictator Caesar, statue of, xxxiv, iR.

Gallery of Metellus, statue of Cor- nelia formerly there, xxxiv, 31.

Gallery of the Nations, in front of, Hercules, statue of, xxxvi, 39.

Galleries of Octavia, Cornelia, statue

of, xxxiv, 31. Apotheosis of Herakles, picture of,

by Artemon, xxxv, 139. Story of Laomedon, Herakles, and Poseidon, picture of, by Artemon, xxxv, 139. Aphrodite, statue of, by Pheidias,

xxxvi, 15. Scholae and Council Chamber in, Hesione and group of Alex- ander, Philip, and Athene, painted by Antiphilos, xxxv, 114; Eros, statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 22 ; Satyrs and wind-goddesses, marble groups of, xxxvi, 29 ; many statues by unknown sculp- tors, xxxvi, 29. Alkibiades as Eros, statue by Skopas or Praxi- teles, xxxvi, 28.

Gallery of Octavius, bronze capitals of columns, xxxiv, 1 3.

Gallery of Temple of Peace, Aphro- dite, statue of, by unknown artist, xxxvi, 27.

Gallery of Philip, pictures in, Dionysos, the young Alexander, and Hippolytos by Antiphilos, xxxv,ii4; Helen by Zeuxis, xxxv, 66 ; cycle representing Trojan war, by Theoros. xxxv, 144.

Gallery of Pompeius, pictures in, Kadmos and Europa by Anti- philos, xxxv, 114; Alexander by Nikias, xxxv, 132; sacrifice of oxen by Pausias, xxxv, 126; warrior by Polygnotos, xxxv, 59.

Gardens of Mains, Nero, colossal portrait of, xxxv, 51.

Gardens of Servilius, statues in, Flora, Triptolemos, Demeter, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 23 ; Hestia, seated statue by Skopas, placed between two goal-posts, xxxvi, 25 ; Apollo by Kalamis, boxers by Derkyllidas, portrait of Kalli- sthenes by Amphistratos, xxxvi, 36-


MUSEOGRAPHIC


251


Eome {continued).

Trigemina Gate, outside the, column of L. Minucius, xxxiv, 21.

Golden House of Nero, bronzes col- lected by Nero, xxxiv, 84 ; paint- ings by Famulus in, xxxv, 120.

Palatine, House of the Caesars, panel with lines by Apelles and Protogenes, xxxv, 83 ; filled with statues by Krateros and Pytho- doros, Polydeukes and Hermo- laos, Pythodoros and Artemon, and Aphrodisios of Tralles, xxxvi, 38.

Palatine, Chapel above Arch, chariot and horses. Apollo, Artemis, marble group by Lysias, xxxvi, 36.

PaBMeawz, bronze capitalsof columns, xxxiv, 13 ; decorated with sculp- tures by Diogenes, xxxvi, 38-

Saepta, Olympos and Pan, Cheiron and Achilles, groups by unknown sculptors, xxxvi, 29. Tarquin, House of, Valeria, statue of, xxxiv, 29.

Temples :

Apollo in Circus of Flaminius, tragic actor and boy, picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv, 99 ; children of Niobe, statues of, by Skopas or Praxiteles, xxxvi, 28 ; Apollo by Philiskos ; Leto, Artemis, nine Muses and Apollo ; Apollo by Timarchides with cithara, statues of, xxxvi, 34. Apollo of the Palatine, Apollo, statue of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 25; Artemis, statue of, by Timotheos, xxxvi, 32 ; Leto, statue of, by Kephisodotos, xxxvi, 24 ; bronze lamp, xxxiv, 14 ; statues by Bou- palos and Athenis, in fastigio, xxxvi, 13. Augustus, pictures dedicated there by Tiberius, xxxv, 28 ; pictures of Hyakinthos, by Nikias, from Alexandria, and of Danae, xxxv, 131 ; Library of, Tuscan Apollo, colossal statue of, xxxiv, 43. Castor and Pollux, in front of, Q. Marcius Tremulus, statue of, xxxiv, 23. Ceres, decorated with painted terra- cottas by Damophilos and Gor- gasos, xxxv, 154; Dionysos and Ariadne, picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv, 24, 99. Concord, statues of Asklepios and Hygieia, by Nikeratos, xxxiv, 80 ; Apollo and Hera, by Baton,


Eome {continued).

xxxiv, 73 ; Ares and Hermes, by Piston, xxxiv, 89 ; Demeter, Zeus, Athena, by Sthennis, xxxiv, 90 ; Leto witli infant Apollo and Artemis, by Euphranor, xxxiv, 77- Pictures of Dionysos, by Nikias, xxxv, 131 ; Kassandra, by Theoros, xxxv, 144; Marsyas bound, by Zeuxis, xxxv, 66.

Diana, in Circus of Flaminius, Herakles painted by Apelles, xxxv, 94.

Earth, in vicinity of, Spurius Cas- sius, statue of, xxxiv, 30.

Faith, on Capitol, old man and boy, picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv, 100.

Felicitas, Thespiades, statues of, xxxvi, 39 ; Aphrodite, statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxiv, 69 ; in front of, bronze statues by Praxiteles, xxxiv, 69.

Fortune of the Day, statues in, Athena, two draped figures, nude Colossus, all by Pheidias, xxxiv, 54 ; seven nude and one of old man, by Pythagoras of Samos, xxxiv, 60.

Hercules, in Cattle Market, paint- ings by Pacuvius, xxxv, 19.

Hercules Musarum, muses, statues of, xxxv, 66.

Hercules Ponipei, Hercules, statue of, by Myron, xxxiv, 57.

Honour and Virtue {twin temples), paintings by Cornelius Pinus and Attius Priscus, xxxv, 120.

Janus, statue of Janus by Skopas or Praxiteles, brought from Egypt, xxxvi, 28.

Janus, Janus, statue of, dedicated by Numa, xxxiv, 33.

Julius Caesar, Aphrodite Anadyo- mene, picture by Apelles, xxxv, 27, 91 ; Aphrodite, picture of, by Dorotheos, xxxv, 91.

Juno on Capitol, bronze dog, xxxiv,

38-

Juno within gallery of Octavia, Asklepios and Artemis, statues of, by Kephisodotos, xxxvi, 24 ; statues of Juno by Dionysios and Polykles, and Aphrodite by Phili.skos ; statues by Pasiteles, xxxvi, 35 ; decorations appro- priate to Jupiter, xxxvi, 43.

Jupiter of the Capitol, statue of Jupiter in clay by Vulca, xxxv, 157; four horse chariots in clay on roof of, xxxv, 157; cups by


253


INDEX II


Eome {continued).

Mentor, vii, 127 (App. i) ; per- ished there in fire, xxxiii, 154. Pictures of Theseus, by Parrhasios, XXXV, 69, and of Victory and horses, by Nikomachos, xxxv, 108.

Jupiter the Thunderer on Capitol, statue of Jupiter by Leochares, in Dalian bronze, xxxiv, 10, 79 ; in front, statues of Kastor and Polydeukes by Hegias, xxxiv, 78.

Jupiter, within gallery of Octavia, Jupiter, statue of, by Dionysios and Polykles, Pan and Olympos by Heliodoros, Aphrodite by Daidalos, Aphrodite by Poly- charmos, xxxvi, 35 ; Jupiter, statue of, by Pasiteles, xxxvi, 40 ; decorations appropriate to Juno, xxxvi, 43.

Mars the Avenger, in front of, two statues from tent of Alexander, xxxiv, 48.

Mars, built by Brutus Callaecus, Ares and Aphrodite, statues of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 26.

Minerva on Capitol, Rape of Perse- phone, picture of, by Nikomachos, xxxv, 108.

Mttses, L. Accius, statue of, xxxiv, 19.

Neptune, tn Circus of Flaminius, Poseidon, Thetis, Achilles, Ne- reids and sea-beasts, marble group by Skopas, xxxvi, 26.

Peace, works in bronze dedicated by Vespasian, xxxiv, 84 ; hero, pic- ture of, by Timanthes, xxxv, 74 ; lalysos, picture of, by Protogenes, xxxv, 102 ; Scylla, picture of, by Nikomachos, xxxv, 109.

Safety, in Quirinali, paintings by Fabius Pictor, xxxv, 19.

Venus the Mother, statue of Venus by Arkesilaos, xxxv, 156. Aias and Medeia, pictures of, by Timo- machos, xxxv, 26, 136 ; vii, 126 (App. 1).

Theatre of Pompeius, Fourteen na- tions, statues of, by Coponius, xxxvi, 41.


Kome {continued'). Tiberius, apartments of, priest of

Kybele, portrait of, by Parrhasios,

xxxv, JO. Titus, house of Laokoon, group by

three artists, xxxvi, 37 ; two boys

playing at knuckle-bones by

Polykleitos, xxxiv, 55.

Samothrake, Aphrodite and Pothos, statues of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 25.

Samos, Aias, picture of, by Parrhasios, xxxv, 72 ; Habron, picture of, by Apelles, xxxv, 93 ; Hera, statue of, by Smilis, and other statues by Pheidias, Athenag. Upea^. 17 (App. II).

Sikyon, Apollo, Artemis, Herakles, Athena, statues of, by Dipoinos and Sky His, xxxvi, 10; Telestes, monument of, painted by Niko- machos, xxxv, 109 ; pictures re- moved to Rome, xxxv, 127.

Smyrna, old woman, statue of, by Myron, xxxvi, 33.

Syracuse, lame man, statue of, by Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 59.

Tarentum, Herakles, colossal statue of, taken to Rome ; Zeus, colossal statue of, by Lysippos, xxxiv, 40.

Thebes, cithara-player, statue of, by Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 69 ; old man, statue of, by Teisi- krates, xxxiv, 67.

Thespiai, Eros, statue of, by Praxi- teles, removed to gallery of Octavia, xxxvi, 22 ; Alexander hunting, Thespiades, equestrian combat, bronze groups of, all by Euthykrates, xxxiv, 66 ; wall paintings at, by Polygnotos and Pausias, xxxv, 123.

Thessaly, works of Telephanes there, xxxiv, 68.

Tusouliun, Argonauts, picture of, by Kydias, xxxv, 130 ; Grove of Diana, first picture of gladiatorial show, xxxv, 52.

Verona, pictures by Turpilius, xxxv,

20. Volsinii, 2,000 statues at, xxxiv, 34.


THE END



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