The Division of Labour in Society
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
The Division of Labor in Society (French: De La Division Du Travail Social), written by Émile Durkheim in 1893, was influential in advancing sociological theories and thought, with ideas which in turn were influenced by Auguste Comte. Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies, and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies.
Durkheim suggested that in a "primitive" society, mechanical solidarity with people acting and thinking alike with a collective or common conscience allows social order to be maintained. In such a society, Durkheim viewed crime as an act that "offends strong and defined states of the collective conscience."
In an advanced, industrial, capitalist society, the complex division of labor means that people are allocated in society according to merit and rewarded accordingly. Durkheim argued that moral regulation was needed, as well as economic regulation, in order to maintain order (or organic solidarity) in society with people able to "compose their differences peaceably".
BOOK I THE FUNCTION OF THE DIVISION OF LABOR
Chapter I: The Method of Determining This Function
Chapter II: Mechanical Solidarity, Or Solidarity of Labor
Chapter III: Solidarity Arising From the Division Of Labor
Chapter IV: Another Proof of the Preceding Theory
Chapter V: The Increasing Preponderance of Organic Solidarity and Its Consequences
Chapter VI: The Increasing Preponderance of Organic Solidarity and Its Consequences (cont.)
Chapter VI: Organic Solidarity And Contractual Solidarity
BOOK II THE CAUSES AND CONDITIONS
Chapter I: The Progress of the Division of Labor and Of Happiness
Chapter II: The Causes
Chapter III: Secondary Factors
Chapter IV: Secondary Factors (cont.)
Chapter V: Consequences of the Foregoing
BOOK III THE ABNORMAL FORMS
Chapter I: The Anomic Division of Labor
Chapter II: The Forced Division of Labor
Chapter III: Another Abnormal Form