Synthetic cubism  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Synthetic Cubism was the second main branch of Cubism developed by Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris and others between 1912 and 1919. It was seen as the first time that collage had been made as a fine art work.

The first work of this new style was Pablo Picasso's Still Life with Chair-caning (1911–1912), which includes oil cloth pasted on the canvas. At the upper left are the letters "JOU", which appear in many cubist paintings and may refer to the popular Parisian daily newspaper Le Journal. Newspaper clippings were a common inclusion in this style of cubism, whereby physical pieces of newspaper, sheet music, and the like were included in the collages. At the same time, JOU may be a pun on the French words jeu (game) or jouer (to play). Picasso and Braque had a constant friendly competition with each other, and including the letters in their works may have been an extension of their game.

Whereas analytic cubism was an analysis of the subjects (pulling them apart into planes), synthetic cubism is more of a pushing of several objects together. Picasso, through this movement, was the first to use text in his artwork (to flatten the space), and the use of mixed media—using more than one type of medium in the same piece. Opposed to analytic cubism, synthetic cubism has fewer planar shifts (or schematism), and less shading, creating flatter space.

Another technique used was called papier collé, or stuck paper, which Braque used in his collage Fruit Dish and Glass (1913).

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Synthetic cubism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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