From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
- Originally, a secular office, formally subordinate to -, but de facto the power behind the throne of the (theoretically universal) caliph.
- A hereditary ruler in various Muslim states (sultanate), varying from petty principalities (as in Indonesia and in Yemen), often vassal of a greater ruler, to independent realms, such as Oman, Brunei, or an empire such as the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
- A variant of solitaire, played with two decks of cards.
- A breed of chicken originating in Turkey, kept primarily in gardens for ornamental reasons.