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"Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine."--Sholem Stein

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Israel may refer to the modern nation in the Middle East, located at eastern shore of the Mediterranean; or to the ancient nation occupying approximately the same area, especially under the united monarchy of Saul, David and Solomon.

The State of Israel is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a parliamentary democracy and by national policy, a "Jewish state." The Israeli population is predominantly Jewish with a large non-Jewish minority, mostly comprised of Christian, Druze, and Muslim Arabs. Israel borders (clockwise from north to south) the states of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel shares the coastlines of the Mediterranean, the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, and the Dead Sea.

See also

See also

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Israel" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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