Spirit in the Sky  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

"Spirit in the Sky" is a song written by Norman Greenbaum and released in 1969. The single sold 2 million copies in 1969 and 1970 and got to number 3 in the U.S. Billboard chart, as well as number 1 on the UK charts in 1970. The song was featured on the 1969 album of the same name. Cover versions by Doctor and the Medics and Gareth Gates have also made the number 1 spot in the UK.

Original version by Norman Greenbaum

Greenbaum had previously been a member of psychedelic jug band Dr. West's Medicine Show and Junk Band. When they split up he won a solo contract with producer Erik Jacobsen, who had previously worked successfully with The Lovin' Spoonful. He was inspired to write the song after watching Porter Wagoner on TV singing a gospel song. Greenbaum later said : "I thought, 'Yeah, I could do that,' knowing nothing about gospel music, so I sat down and wrote my own gospel song. It came easy. I wrote the words in 15 minutes."

"Spirit in the Sky" contains lyrics about the afterlife, making several references to Jesus and Christianity. However, Greenbaum, who identifies himself as Jewish, stated that he had no particular religious intentions with the song. He simply wanted to reach a bigger market.

The song's arrangement came together in the studio in San Francisco, when Greenbaum was recording his first solo album with Jacobsen for Reprise Records. The production team brought in the Stovall Sisters, an Oakland-based gospel trio, to sing backing vocals. According to one source, Greenbaum himself used a Fender Telecaster with a fuzz box built into the body to generate the song's characteristic guitar sound. However, elsewhere guitarist Russell DaShiell explained how the tone was created:

"I actually played the lead guitar parts on Spirit, using a 61-62 SG Les Paul, a 68 Marshall Plexi 100w half stack and a home-made overdrive box in front of the Marshall. Regarding the 'beep beeps' as I call them, when the producer asked me to play some fills in between the verses, as a joke I said how about something spacey like this and I did the pickup switch/string bending thing. I saw him stand up in the control booth and he said "that's it! let's record that!" so we did. (There was no slide involved, just my fingers, and I used the bridge humbucker and the pickup switch). The fuzz part is Norman with a built-in overdrive circuit built into his Tele pickguard."
"I've been asked a lot over the years how I did the 'beep beep' guitar parts on Spirit, so for any guitar players out there who would like to learn how, try the following: Using a 2-pickup Gibson, set the neck pickup volume to zero, bridge pickup volume to max, with the pickup switch in the middle position (with Gibson wiring this gives you silence in the middle position). Do a string bend, picking the B & E strings together with one hit, just ahead of the beat, then use the pickup switch to kick in the bridge pickup in triplets (6 per bar) as you let the B string bend down two frets."
"I mainly used two positions on Spirit, which is in the key of A. For the low position, fret a stationary C note (8th fret) on the E string while bending the B string up to an A note for your starting-position, then pick the two strings together once while the guitar is silent and work the pickup switch as you let the A note bend downwards to a G. For the high position, do the same thing at the 15th fret holding a stationary high G note on the E string while bending down from E to D on the B string."
"I must give credit to Jimi Hendrix as my inspiration for this technique (as well as for the double-string riffs I did at the beginning of the Spirit solo tail section). I saw him perform live in a small club in Madison, Wisconsin and loved the way he used his Strat pickup switch to create stacato feedback on songs like Voodoo Child. The difference is, on a Gibson you can start from silence and create the on/off effect, which worked well with the downward string bending thing I did on Spirit."

The resulting sound was an innovative and compelling combination of gospel and psychedelic rock music, with loud drums, distorted electric guitar, clapping hands, tambourines, and a female gospel backing chorus. Because of its unusual lyrics and style, the record company were initially reluctant to issue it, but was finally released as a single after two other singles from the album had poor sales. "Spirit in the Sky" became a worldwide hit, and was at the time the best-selling single ever for the Reprise label.

Cultural impact

During John Lennon's famously scathing 1970 Rolling Stone "Beatles break-up" interview (Jann S. Wenner), while highly critical of the recent work of many of his peers, including Bob Dylan and ex-bandmate Paul McCartney, Lennon professed to liking the then-current radio single, "Spirit in the Sky," stating that he "always liked simple rock and nothing else."

Rolling Stone ranked "Spirit in the Sky" #333 on their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Of the song, Greenbaum once said, in an interview: 'It sounds as fresh today as when it was recorded'.[1] "Spirit in the Sky" was also ranked #85 in VH1's 100 Greatest One-hit Wonders.

The song has been featured in many movies, including Superstar, Saving Grace, Contact, Michael (trailer only), Apollo 13, Remember the Titans, Ocean's Eleven, Jesus Camp, Wayne's World 2, The Sandlot 2, The Longest Yard, Knocked Up, Miami Blues, Universal Soldier II: Brothers In Arms, The Wolves of Kromer, The Huntress, Forest Gump, Evan Almighty, December Boys, and When I Die

Recently, Nike, Inc. used the song in a commercial featuring Deion Sanders, Matt Leinart, and Steve Young, among others.

It was included on the list of songs deemed inappropriate by Clear Channel following the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Spirit in the Sky" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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