Napalm  

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-'''Huỳnh Công Út''', known professionally as '''Nick Ut''', (born March 29, 1951) is a [[photographer]] for the [[Associated Press]] (AP) who works out of [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]]. His best known photo is the [[Pulitzer Prize]]-winning picture of [[Phan Thị Kim Phúc]], who was photographed as a naked 9-year-old girl running toward the camera to flee a South Vietnamese [[napalm]] attack on the [[Trang Bang|Trảng Bàng]] village during the [[Vietnam War]].+{{Other uses}}
 +{{Cleanup-rewrite|date=September 2010}}
 +[[File:Ecuadorian Kfir dropping napalm.jpg|thumb|250px|An Ecuadorian Air Force [[IAI Kfir]] aeroplane drops napalm on a target during Dominic "Blue Horizon", a US-Ecuador joint military exercise.]]
 + 
 +'''Napalm''' is a [[thickening]]/[[gelling agent|gelling]] agent generally mixed with [[petroleum]] or a similar fuel for use in an [[incendiary device]], primarily as an anti-personnel weapon. "Napalm" is a [[portmanteau]] of the names of two of the constituents of the gel: [[naphthenic acid]] and [[palmitic acid]].
 + 
 +''"Napalm B"'' is the more modern version of napalm and, although distinctly different in its chemical composition, it is often referred to simply as "napalm".<ref name="GS Napalm"/>
 + 
 +Colloquially, ''napalm'' has been used as the generic name of several [[flammable]] liquids used in warfare, often forms of jellied [[gasoline]], such as to be expelled by [[flamethrower]]s in [[infantry]] and [[armored warfare]].<ref name="GS Napalm">[http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/napalm.htm Globalsecurity.org article]</ref>
 + 
 +==Forms of Napalm==
 +Napalm B is chemically distinct from its predecessor Napalm. It is usually a mixture of [[polystyrene]] and [[benzene]], used as a thickening agent to make jellied gasoline. One of the advantages of this new mixture lies in its increased safety while being handled and stored. Many accidents had been attributed to personnel [[tobacco smoking|smoking]] around stockpiles.<ref name="3dchem.com">http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=23#</ref>
 + 
 +Napalm B has a commonly quoted composition of 21% [[benzene]], 33% [[gasoline]] (itself containing between 1% and 4% (estimated) benzene to raise its [[octane number]]), and 46% [[polystyrene]]. This mixture is more difficult to ignite than napalm<ref name="emed"/>. A reliable [[pyrotechnic initiator]], often based on [[thermite]] (for ordinary napalm) or [[white phosphorus]] (for newer compositions), has been used.<ref name="globalsecurity.org"/><ref name="emed">[http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/833665-overview CBRNE - Incendiary Agents, Napalm: eMedicine Emergency Medicine]. Emedicine.medscape.com-Retrieved on 2010-02-11</ref> The original napalm usually burned for 15 to 30 seconds while napalm B can burn for up to 10 minutes.<ref name="emed"/>
 + 
 +Napalm B was used in [[flamethrower]]s and [[bomb]]s by American and [[Allied forces]] in World War II. It is believed by some{{Who|date=December 2011}} that Napalm B is formulated to burn at a specified rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustion, Napalm rapidly deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of [[carbon monoxide]] and [[carbon dioxide]]. Napalm bombs were used during the [[Vietnam War]].<ref name="GS Napalm"/>
 + 
 +Napalm was also used during the [[Korean War]], most notably during the defense of "[[Outpost Harry]]" in [[South Korea]] during the night of June 10 – 11, 1953 {{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}.
 + 
 +Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e.g. [[triethylaluminium]], a [[pyrophoric]] compound that aids ignition.
 + 
 +== Development ==
 +Use of fire in warfare has a [[early thermal weapons|long history]]. [[Greek fire]], also described as "sticky fire" (πῦρ κολλητικόν) is believed to have had a petroleum base. Thickened burning compositions proved their advantages. The development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the [[Allies of World War II|Allied forces]] during [[World War II]].<ref name="GS Napalm"/> The [[latex]] that had been used in these early forms of [[incendiary device]]s became logistically impossible to use during the [[Pacific Theater of Operations]], since [[natural rubber]] was almost impossible to obtain. (The Japanese Army had overrun all of the rubber plantations in [[British Malaya|Malaya]], [[Indonesia]], [[Vietnam]], and [[Thailand]].)
 + 
 +This shortage of natural rubber prompted the [[chemist]]s at American companies such as [[Du Pont]] and [[Standard Oil]], and researchers at [[Harvard University]], to strive to develop factory-made alternatives - [[artificial rubber]] for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, gaskets, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by [[Louis Fieser]] at [[Harvard University]] was the first one to develop synthetic napalm, during 1942 for the [[U.S. Armed Forces]].<ref name="UofBristol">[http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/wright/napalm.htm University of Bristol Webproject]</ref>
 + 
 +From 1965 to 1969, the [[Dow Chemical Company]] manufactured napalm B for the American armed forces. After news reports of napalm B's deadly and disfiguring effects were published, Dow Chemical experienced some [[boycott]]s of all its products, and its recruiters for new chemists, [[chemical engineering|chemical engineer]]s, etc., graduating from college were subject to campus boycotts. The management of the Dow Chemical Company decided that "its first obligation was the government." Meanwhile, napalm B became a symbol for the Vietnam War.<ref>[http://www2.vcdh.Virginia.edu/PVCC/mbase/docs/napalm.html Napalm]. .vcdh.virginia.edu. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref>
 + 
 +==Historical use==
 +[[File:French indochina napalm 1953-12 1.png|thumb|250px|The French [[Aviation navale]] drops napalm over Viet Minh guerrilla positions during an ambush (December 1953).]]
 +Napalm was first used as fuel for [[flamethrower]]s and went on to be used more prevalently in [[incendiary bomb|firebombs]].<ref name="GS Napalm"/>
 + 
 +In 1942, researchers at Harvard University found that a jelly gasoline-like substance burnt more slowly and thus was far more effective. They found that mixing an aluminium soap powder of naphthenate and palmitate (hence na-palm), also known as napthenic and palmitic acids, with gasoline produced a brownish sticky syrup that burned more slowly than raw gasoline. This new mixture of chemicals was widely used in the Second World War in flame throwers and fire bombs. Napalm bombs burned out 40% of the area of Japanese target cities in the World War.{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}} Useful weapons continued to be improved, and napalm was no exception. With many more [[chemical compound]]s available after World War II, the safer (in storage) and just-as-effective napalm B compound was developed.<ref name="3dchem.com"/>
 + 
 +On July 17, 1944, napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by 14 American [[P-38 Lightning]] aircraft of the [[402d Fighter Squadron]] / [[370th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group|370th Fighter Group]] on a fuel depot at [[Coutances]], near [[St. Lô]], [[France]].<ref>{{Cite web|title=Unit History - 370th Fighter Group|last=Campbell|first=James L|coauthors=Captain, Air Corps|date=9 August 1944|publisher=Air Force Historical Research Agency|accessdate=1 December 2009}}</ref> Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific Theater of Operations, where in 1944 and 1945, napalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bunkers, pillboxes, tunnels, and other fortifications, especially on [[Saipan]], [[Iwo Jima]], the [[Philippines]], and [[Okinawa]], where deeply dug-in Japanese troops refused to surrender. Napalm bombs were dropped by [[aviator]]s of the [[U.S. Navy]], the [[United States Army Air Forces]], and the [[U.S. Marine Corps]] in support of their ground troops.<ref>Reference: see any good biography of the WW II Marine Corps pilot [[John Glenn]], who dropped napalm on Okinawa. Also, see war films of American pilots dropping napalm on Japanese strong points on Okinawa{{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}. See Report of the Commanding General Eighth Army on the Luzon Mop-up Operation (February 1946)</ref>
 + 
 +Then, when the U.S. Army Air Forces on the [[Marianas Islands]] ran out of conventional [[thermite]] [[incendiary bomb]]s for its [[B-29 Superfortress]]es to drop on Japanese cities, its top commanders, such as General [[Curtis E. LeMay]] turned to napalm bombs to continue its fire raids on the large Japanese cities.<ref>{{Cite book|last=De Chant|first= John A.|authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Devilbirds|year=1947|publisher= Harper & Brothers Publishers|location=New York|isbn= |page=155}}</ref>
 + 
 +In the [[European Theater of Operations]] napalm was used by American forces<ref>''The Zinn reader: writings on disobedience and democracy'' Howard Zinn S.267''ff'' & 276 [http://books.google.com/books?id=JGLkwCNI7sIC&pg=PA267]</ref> in the [[Allied siege of La Rochelle|siege of La Rochelle]] in April 1945 against German soldiers (and inadvertently{{Citation needed|date=July 2010}} French civilians in [[Royan]]) - about two weeks before the end of the war.<ref>[[Howard Zinn]][http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0416825 You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train. 2004 Documentary]</ref>
 + 
 +Napalm B was also used during the [[Greek Civil War]] between the [[Greek Army]] and Communist rebels. During the last year of this Civil War, 1949, the United States increased its military aid to the [[Greek Government]] by introducing a new weapon to finish off the war - napalm B. The first napalm attack in Greece took place on the mountain of [[Grammos]], which was the stronghold of the Communist rebels.
 + 
 +Napalm B was also widely used by the [[United Nations]] military forces during the [[Korean War]].<ref name="GS Napalm"/> These Allied ground forces in Korea were frequently outnumbered, and greatly, by their Chinese and North Korean attackers, but the [[U.S. Air Force]] and the [[U.S. Navy]] [[naval aviator]]s had control of the air over nearly all of the [[Korean Peninsula]]. Hence, [[close air support]] of the ground troops along the border between [[North Korea]] and [[South Korea]] was vital, and the American and other U.N. aviators turned to napalm B as an important weapon for defending against communist ground attacks.
 + 
 +=== Usage in warfare ===
 +[[File:US riverboat using napalm in Vietnam.jpg|thumb|250px|Riverboat of the U.S. [[Brown-water navy]] deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat mounted [[flamethrower]] in Vietnam.]]
 + 
 +The [[US Air Force]] and [[US Navy]] used napalm with great effect against all kinds of targets to include [[troop]]s, [[tank]]s, buildings, jungles, and even [[railroad tunnel]]s. The effect was not always purely physical as napalm had tangible psychological effects on the enemy as well. During World War II, the U.S. Marines quickly learned that the Japanese soldiers, when threatened with napalm and other incendiary weapons, would abandon positions in which they would fight to the death against other weapons. During the Korean War, the [[demoralizing]] effect napalm had on the enemy became apparent when scores of North Korean and Chinese troops began to surrender to aircraft flying overhead. Pilots noted that they saw surviving enemy troops waving [[white flag]]s on subsequent passes after dropping napalm. The pilots radioed to ground troops and the enemy combatants were captured. Interviews with enemy prisoners of war determined that napalm was the most feared weapon used against them.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Napalm Fire Bombs|author=Naval Aviation News|date=1951-05-01|publisher=Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department|location=Washington D.C.|pages=8–11}}</ref>
 + 
 +More recent uses include: by [[France]] during the [[First Indochina War]] (1946–1954), the [[Algerian War of Independence|Algerian War]] (1954–1962),<ref>[[Benjamin Stora]], "Avoir 20 ans en Kabylie", in ''[[L'Histoire]]'' n°324, October 2007, pp. 28–29 {{fr icon}}</ref> the [[Portuguese Colonial War]] (1961–1974) and the [[Western Sahara War]] (1975–1991),The [[Six days war]] by [[Israel]](1967) in [[Nigeria]] (1969), [[India]] and [[Pakistan]] (1965 and 1971), Turkey (1974), by [[Morocco]] during the [[Western Sahara War]] (1975–1991), [[Iran]] (1980–88), [[Brazil]] (1972), [[Egypt]] (1973), [[Iraq]] (1980–88, 1991, 2003–2011{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}), Israel (2003-2012) [[Angola]] (1993), [[Yugoslav Wars|Yugoslavia]] (1991-1996), and by [[Argentina]] (1982).<ref name="globalsecurity.org">[http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/napalm.htm Napalm]. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref><ref>[http://www.naval-history.net/F48goosegreen.htm Goose Green, 2 Para in Falklands War 1982]. Naval-history.net. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref>
 + 
 +<blockquote>"Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine," said [[Phan Thị Kim Phúc|Kim Phúc]], a napalm bombing survivor known from a famous Vietnam War photograph. "Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (212°F). Napalm generates temperatures of 800 (1,500°F) to 1,200 degrees Celsius (2,200°F)."<ref name="UConn">Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu. University of Connecticut Advance. [http://www.advance.uconn.edu/2004/041108/04110803.htm Napalm Survivor Tells of Healing After Vietnam War]. November 8, 2004.</ref></blockquote>
 + 
 +A US army source, talking about napalm, reported<ref>{{cite book|last=Griffiths|first=Philip Jones|title=Vietnam Inc.|year= 1971|publisher=Collier-Macmillan|location=New York|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=7vEMAQAAMAAJ&q=editions:7vEMAQAAMAAJ&dq=editions:7vEMAQAAMAAJ&hl=en&ei=3s81TobgB8uq8QPm8dGhDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6wEwAQ|authorlink =Philip Jones Griffiths}}</ref> <blockquote>‘We sure are pleased with those backroom boys at [[Dow Chemicals|Dow]]. The original product wasn’t so hot - if the gooks were quick they could scrape it off. So the boys started adding polystyrene - now it sticks like shit to a blanket. But if the gooks jumped under water it stopped burning, so they started adding Willie Peter (white phosphorus) so’s to make it burn better. And just one drop is enough, it’ll keep on burning right down to the bone so they die anyway from phosphorus poisoning.’</blockquote>
 + 
 +==Effects on people==
 +<!--[[File:TrangBang.jpg|thumb| [[Phan Thi Kim Phuc]] after being burned in a napalm attack. ]]-->
 +When used as a part of an [[incendiary weapon]], napalm can cause severe [[burn]]s (ranging from [[superficial]] to [[subdermal]]) to the skin and body, [[asphyxiation]], [[unconsciousness]], and [[death]]. In this implementation, explosions can create an atmosphere of greater than 20% [[carbon monoxide]]<ref name="GS Napalm"/> and [[firestorm]]s with self-perpetuating [[windstorm]]s of up to {{convert|70|mph|km/h}}.<ref>[http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1859.html Travel and History (by Online Highways) article]</ref>{{Verify credibility|date=September 2010}}
 + 
 +One of the main anti-personnel features of napalm is that it sticks to human skin, with no practical method for removal of the burning substance.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}
 + 
 +Napalm is effective against dug-in enemy personnel. The burning incendiary composition flows into [[foxhole]]s, [[trench]]es and [[bunker]]s, and drainage and irrigation ditches and other improvised troop shelters. Even people in undamaged shelters can be killed by [[hyperthermia]]/[[heat stroke]], [[radiant heat]], [[dehydration]], [[suffocation]], smoke exposure, or [[carbon monoxide poisoning]]. The [[firebombing]] [[Strategic bombing during World War II|raids on German cities]], e.g. [[Bombing of Dresden in World War II|Dresden]] and [[Bombing of Hamburg in World War II|Hamburg]], frequently caused death by this mechanism.<ref name="emed"/>
 + 
 +One firebomb released from a low-flying plane can damage an area of {{convert|2500|sqyd|sqm}}.<ref name="emed"/>
 + 
 +== International law ==
 +International law does not prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets,<ref name="UConn"/> but use against civilian populations was banned by the [[United Nations]] [[Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons]] (CCW) in 1980.<ref>[http://www.worldinbalance.net/intagreements/1980-certainconventionalweapons.php Text of Convention on CCW at www.worldinbalance.net]</ref> [[Treaty#Protocols|Protocol]] III of the CCW restricts the use of all incendiary weapons, but a number of states have not acceded to all of the protocols of the CCW. According to the [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]] (SIPRI), states are considered a party to the convention, which entered into force as international law in December 1983, if they ratify at least two of the five protocols. The [[United States]], for example, is a party to the CCW but did not sign protocol III.<ref>[http://www.sipri.org/contents/library/AnnexA05.pdf Microsoft Word - YB05 771 A.rtf]</ref>
 + 
 +== See also ==
 +* [[Early thermal weapons]]
 +* [[Flame fougasse]]
 +*[[German Village (Dugway proving ground)]]
 +* [[Greek Fire]]
 +* [[Japanese village]]
 +* [[M-69 Incendiary cluster bomb]]
 +* [[Mark 77 bomb]]
 +* [[Phan Thị Kim Phúc]]
 +* [[Triethylaluminium]]
 +* [[White phosphorus]]
 + 
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Template:Other uses Template:Cleanup-rewrite [[File:Ecuadorian Kfir dropping napalm.jpg|thumb|250px|An Ecuadorian Air Force IAI Kfir aeroplane drops napalm on a target during Dominic "Blue Horizon", a US-Ecuador joint military exercise.]]

Napalm is a thickening/gelling agent generally mixed with petroleum or a similar fuel for use in an incendiary device, primarily as an anti-personnel weapon. "Napalm" is a portmanteau of the names of two of the constituents of the gel: naphthenic acid and palmitic acid.

"Napalm B" is the more modern version of napalm and, although distinctly different in its chemical composition, it is often referred to simply as "napalm".<ref name="GS Napalm"/>

Colloquially, napalm has been used as the generic name of several flammable liquids used in warfare, often forms of jellied gasoline, such as to be expelled by flamethrowers in infantry and armored warfare.<ref name="GS Napalm">Globalsecurity.org article</ref>

Contents

Forms of Napalm

Napalm B is chemically distinct from its predecessor Napalm. It is usually a mixture of polystyrene and benzene, used as a thickening agent to make jellied gasoline. One of the advantages of this new mixture lies in its increased safety while being handled and stored. Many accidents had been attributed to personnel smoking around stockpiles.<ref name="3dchem.com">http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=23#</ref>

Napalm B has a commonly quoted composition of 21% benzene, 33% gasoline (itself containing between 1% and 4% (estimated) benzene to raise its octane number), and 46% polystyrene. This mixture is more difficult to ignite than napalm<ref name="emed"/>. A reliable pyrotechnic initiator, often based on thermite (for ordinary napalm) or white phosphorus (for newer compositions), has been used.<ref name="globalsecurity.org"/><ref name="emed">CBRNE - Incendiary Agents, Napalm: eMedicine Emergency Medicine. Emedicine.medscape.com-Retrieved on 2010-02-11</ref> The original napalm usually burned for 15 to 30 seconds while napalm B can burn for up to 10 minutes.<ref name="emed"/>

Napalm B was used in flamethrowers and bombs by American and Allied forces in World War II. It is believed by someTemplate:Who that Napalm B is formulated to burn at a specified rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustion, Napalm rapidly deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Napalm bombs were used during the Vietnam War.<ref name="GS Napalm"/>

Napalm was also used during the Korean War, most notably during the defense of "Outpost Harry" in South Korea during the night of June 10 – 11, 1953 Template:Citation needed.

Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e.g. triethylaluminium, a pyrophoric compound that aids ignition.

Development

Use of fire in warfare has a long history. Greek fire, also described as "sticky fire" (πῦρ κολλητικόν) is believed to have had a petroleum base. Thickened burning compositions proved their advantages. The development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the Allied forces during World War II.<ref name="GS Napalm"/> The latex that had been used in these early forms of incendiary devices became logistically impossible to use during the Pacific Theater of Operations, since natural rubber was almost impossible to obtain. (The Japanese Army had overrun all of the rubber plantations in Malaya, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand.)

This shortage of natural rubber prompted the chemists at American companies such as Du Pont and Standard Oil, and researchers at Harvard University, to strive to develop factory-made alternatives - artificial rubber for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, gaskets, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by Louis Fieser at Harvard University was the first one to develop synthetic napalm, during 1942 for the U.S. Armed Forces.<ref name="UofBristol">University of Bristol Webproject</ref>

From 1965 to 1969, the Dow Chemical Company manufactured napalm B for the American armed forces. After news reports of napalm B's deadly and disfiguring effects were published, Dow Chemical experienced some boycotts of all its products, and its recruiters for new chemists, chemical engineers, etc., graduating from college were subject to campus boycotts. The management of the Dow Chemical Company decided that "its first obligation was the government." Meanwhile, napalm B became a symbol for the Vietnam War.<ref>Napalm. .vcdh.virginia.edu. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref>

Historical use

[[File:French indochina napalm 1953-12 1.png|thumb|250px|The French Aviation navale drops napalm over Viet Minh guerrilla positions during an ambush (December 1953).]] Napalm was first used as fuel for flamethrowers and went on to be used more prevalently in firebombs.<ref name="GS Napalm"/>

In 1942, researchers at Harvard University found that a jelly gasoline-like substance burnt more slowly and thus was far more effective. They found that mixing an aluminium soap powder of naphthenate and palmitate (hence na-palm), also known as napthenic and palmitic acids, with gasoline produced a brownish sticky syrup that burned more slowly than raw gasoline. This new mixture of chemicals was widely used in the Second World War in flame throwers and fire bombs. Napalm bombs burned out 40% of the area of Japanese target cities in the World War.Template:Citation needed Useful weapons continued to be improved, and napalm was no exception. With many more chemical compounds available after World War II, the safer (in storage) and just-as-effective napalm B compound was developed.<ref name="3dchem.com"/>

On July 17, 1944, napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by 14 American P-38 Lightning aircraft of the 402d Fighter Squadron / 370th Fighter Group on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lô, France.<ref>{{

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}}</ref> Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific Theater of Operations, where in 1944 and 1945, napalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bunkers, pillboxes, tunnels, and other fortifications, especially on Saipan, Iwo Jima, the Philippines, and Okinawa, where deeply dug-in Japanese troops refused to surrender. Napalm bombs were dropped by aviators of the U.S. Navy, the United States Army Air Forces, and the U.S. Marine Corps in support of their ground troops.<ref>Reference: see any good biography of the WW II Marine Corps pilot John Glenn, who dropped napalm on Okinawa. Also, see war films of American pilots dropping napalm on Japanese strong points on OkinawaTemplate:Citation needed. See Report of the Commanding General Eighth Army on the Luzon Mop-up Operation (February 1946)</ref>

Then, when the U.S. Army Air Forces on the Marianas Islands ran out of conventional thermite incendiary bombs for its B-29 Superfortresses to drop on Japanese cities, its top commanders, such as General Curtis E. LeMay turned to napalm bombs to continue its fire raids on the large Japanese cities.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

In the European Theater of Operations napalm was used by American forces<ref>The Zinn reader: writings on disobedience and democracy Howard Zinn S.267ff & 276 [1]</ref> in the siege of La Rochelle in April 1945 against German soldiers (and inadvertentlyTemplate:Citation needed French civilians in Royan) - about two weeks before the end of the war.<ref>Howard ZinnYou Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train. 2004 Documentary</ref>

Napalm B was also used during the Greek Civil War between the Greek Army and Communist rebels. During the last year of this Civil War, 1949, the United States increased its military aid to the Greek Government by introducing a new weapon to finish off the war - napalm B. The first napalm attack in Greece took place on the mountain of Grammos, which was the stronghold of the Communist rebels.

Napalm B was also widely used by the United Nations military forces during the Korean War.<ref name="GS Napalm"/> These Allied ground forces in Korea were frequently outnumbered, and greatly, by their Chinese and North Korean attackers, but the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Navy naval aviators had control of the air over nearly all of the Korean Peninsula. Hence, close air support of the ground troops along the border between North Korea and South Korea was vital, and the American and other U.N. aviators turned to napalm B as an important weapon for defending against communist ground attacks.

Usage in warfare

[[File:US riverboat using napalm in Vietnam.jpg|thumb|250px|Riverboat of the U.S. Brown-water navy deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat mounted flamethrower in Vietnam.]]

The US Air Force and US Navy used napalm with great effect against all kinds of targets to include troops, tanks, buildings, jungles, and even railroad tunnels. The effect was not always purely physical as napalm had tangible psychological effects on the enemy as well. During World War II, the U.S. Marines quickly learned that the Japanese soldiers, when threatened with napalm and other incendiary weapons, would abandon positions in which they would fight to the death against other weapons. During the Korean War, the demoralizing effect napalm had on the enemy became apparent when scores of North Korean and Chinese troops began to surrender to aircraft flying overhead. Pilots noted that they saw surviving enemy troops waving white flags on subsequent passes after dropping napalm. The pilots radioed to ground troops and the enemy combatants were captured. Interviews with enemy prisoners of war determined that napalm was the most feared weapon used against them.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

More recent uses include: by France during the First Indochina War (1946–1954), the Algerian War (1954–1962),<ref>Benjamin Stora, "Avoir 20 ans en Kabylie", in L'Histoire n°324, October 2007, pp. 28–29 Template:Fr icon</ref> the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974) and the Western Sahara War (1975–1991),The Six days war by Israel(1967) in Nigeria (1969), India and Pakistan (1965 and 1971), Turkey (1974), by Morocco during the Western Sahara War (1975–1991), Iran (1980–88), Brazil (1972), Egypt (1973), Iraq (1980–88, 1991, 2003–2011Template:Citation needed), Israel (2003-2012) Angola (1993), Yugoslavia (1991-1996), and by Argentina (1982).<ref name="globalsecurity.org">Napalm. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref><ref>Goose Green, 2 Para in Falklands War 1982. Naval-history.net. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.</ref>

"Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine," said Kim Phúc, a napalm bombing survivor known from a famous Vietnam War photograph. "Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (212°F). Napalm generates temperatures of 800 (1,500°F) to 1,200 degrees Celsius (2,200°F)."<ref name="UConn">Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu. University of Connecticut Advance. Napalm Survivor Tells of Healing After Vietnam War. November 8, 2004.</ref>
A US army source, talking about napalm, reported<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
‘We sure are pleased with those backroom boys at Dow. The original product wasn’t so hot - if the gooks were quick they could scrape it off. So the boys started adding polystyrene - now it sticks like shit to a blanket. But if the gooks jumped under water it stopped burning, so they started adding Willie Peter (white phosphorus) so’s to make it burn better. And just one drop is enough, it’ll keep on burning right down to the bone so they die anyway from phosphorus poisoning.’

Effects on people

When used as a part of an incendiary weapon, napalm can cause severe burns (ranging from superficial to subdermal) to the skin and body, asphyxiation, unconsciousness, and death. In this implementation, explosions can create an atmosphere of greater than 20% carbon monoxide<ref name="GS Napalm"/> and firestorms with self-perpetuating windstorms of up to Template:Convert.<ref>Travel and History (by Online Highways) article</ref>Template:Verify credibility

One of the main anti-personnel features of napalm is that it sticks to human skin, with no practical method for removal of the burning substance.Template:Citation needed

Napalm is effective against dug-in enemy personnel. The burning incendiary composition flows into foxholes, trenches and bunkers, and drainage and irrigation ditches and other improvised troop shelters. Even people in undamaged shelters can be killed by hyperthermia/heat stroke, radiant heat, dehydration, suffocation, smoke exposure, or carbon monoxide poisoning. The firebombing raids on German cities, e.g. Dresden and Hamburg, frequently caused death by this mechanism.<ref name="emed"/>

One firebomb released from a low-flying plane can damage an area of Template:Convert.<ref name="emed"/>

International law

International law does not prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets,<ref name="UConn"/> but use against civilian populations was banned by the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) in 1980.<ref>Text of Convention on CCW at www.worldinbalance.net</ref> Protocol III of the CCW restricts the use of all incendiary weapons, but a number of states have not acceded to all of the protocols of the CCW. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), states are considered a party to the convention, which entered into force as international law in December 1983, if they ratify at least two of the five protocols. The United States, for example, is a party to the CCW but did not sign protocol III.<ref>Microsoft Word - YB05 771 A.rtf</ref>

See also




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