Concept car  

From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
Revision as of 14:27, 13 May 2012
Jahsonic (Talk | contribs)

← Previous diff
Revision as of 14:30, 13 May 2012
Jahsonic (Talk | contribs)

Next diff →
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Template}} {{Template}}
-The '''Atomic Age''', also known as the ''Atomic Era'', is a phrase typically used to delineate the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear bomb.+A '''concept vehicle''' or '''show vehicle''' is a [[Automobile|car]] made to showcase new styling and or new [[technology]]. They are often shown at [[Auto show|motor shows]] to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not have a chance of being produced.
-The phrase stems from the feeling of nuclear optimism in the [[1950]]s in which it was believed that all power sources in the future would be atomic in nature. The [[Nuclear weapon|atomic bomb]] ("A-bomb") would render all conventional explosives obsolete and [[nuclear power]] plants would do the same for power sources such as [[coal]] and [[Petroleum|oil]]. There was a general feeling that everything would use a nuclear power source of some sort, in a positive and productive way, from radiating food to preserve it, to cooking it with radiation ([[microwave oven]]), to the development of [[nuclear medicine]]. This would render the discovery of nuclear power as significant as the first smelting of [[Bronze Age|Bronze]] or [[Iron Age|Iron]], or the [[Industrial Revolution]].+[[General Motors Corporation|General Motors]] designer [[Harley Earl]] is generally credited with inventing the concept car, and did much to popularize it through its traveling [[Motorama]] shows of the 1950s.
-This included even [[automobile|car]]s, leading [[Ford Motor Company|Ford]] to display the [[Ford Nucleon]] [[concept car]] to the public in 1958.+Concept cars never go into production directly; in modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, [[car safety|safety]] and cost. A "[[production-intent]]" vehicle, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose.<ref>[http://www.calcars.org/calcars-news/1005.html Chrysler "Jolts" PHEV Race; PHEV Ads; V2Green Acquired], Sep 24, 2008, CalCars (California Cars Initiative)</ref>
-In the 1960s, the term became less common, but the concept remained. In the [[Thunderbirds (TV series)|Thunderbirds]] TV series, a set of vehicles was presented that were imagined to be completely nuclear, as shown in cutaways presented in their comic-books.+They are also known as prototype cars, but should not be confused with prototype race cars such as the [[Le Mans Prototype]].
-Many experts predicted that thanks to the giant nuclear power stations of the near future [[electricity]] would soon become much cheaper and that [[electricity meter]]s would be removed, because power would be "too cheap to meter."+==Design==
 +Concept cars are often radical in [[engine]] or [[car design|design]]. Some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from [[paper]] to [[Graphite-reinforced plastic|carbon fiber]] to refined [[alloy]]s. Others have unique [[Automobile layout|layouts]], such as [[gullwing doors]], 3 or 6 (or more) [[wheel]]s, or special abilities not usually found on cars. Because of these often impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past [[scale model]]s, or even drawings in [[computer design]]. Other more traditional concepts can be developed into fully [[driving|drivable]] (operational) vehicles with a working [[Powertrain|drivetrain]] and accessories. The state of most concept cars lies somewhere in between and does not represent the final product. A very small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10&nbsp;mph. {{Citation needed|date=August 2007}}
-[[Lew Kowarski]], a former director of [[CERN]], recalled even such references as ''Atomic cocktail waitresses.''+Inoperative "[[mock-up]]s" are usually made of [[wax]], [[clay]], [[metal]], [[fiberglass]], [[plastic]] or a combination thereof.
-The term was initially used in a positive, futuristic sense, but by the 1960s the threats posed by [[nuclear weapon]]s had begun to edge out nuclear power as the dominant motif of the atom. In the late 1970s, nuclear power was faced with economic difficulties and widespread public unease, coming to a head in the [[Three Mile Island]] accident in 1979, and the [[Chernobyl disaster|Chernobyl reactor explosion]] in 1986, both of which effectively killed the nuclear power industry for decades thereafter.+If drivable, the drivetrain is often borrowed from a [[production vehicle]] from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design. They can also be quite refined{{Citation needed|date=March 2007}}, such as [[General Motors Corporation|General Motors]]' [[Cadillac Sixteen]] concept.<ref>[http://www.cardesignnews.com/autoshows/2003/detroit/highlights/h06-cadillac-sixteen.html Cadillac Sixteen], by Nick Hull, Detroit Auto Show 2003 Highlights, Car Design News, Inc.</ref>
-As such, the label of the ''Atomic Age'' now connotes either a sense of [[nostalgia]] or naïveté, and is considered by many to have ended with the fall of the [[Soviet Union]], though the term continues to be used by some historians and some [[Science fiction fandom|science fiction fans]] to describe the era following the conclusion of the [[Second World War]]. +After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are usually destroyed. Some survive, however, either in a company's [[museum]] or hidden away in storage. One unused but [[operational]] concept car that languished for years in the [[North Hollywood, California]] shop of car customizer [[George Barris (auto customizer)|George Barris]], [[Ford Motor Company]]'s "[[Lincoln Futura]]" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the [[Batmobile]] in the ''[[Batman]]'' series that debuted in 1966 on the [[American Broadcasting Company|ABC Television Network]].
 + 
 +== Notable concept cars ==
 + 
 +{| class="wikitable"
 +! Model || Notes
 +|-
 +| [[Buick Y-Job]] || Designed in the late 1930s by the famous General Motors designer [[Harley Earl]]. Considered by most to be the first concept car.Inspired many other [[Buick]] vehicles, including the [[Buick Blackhawk]] Concept.
 +|-
 +| [[Le Sabre concept car|General Motors Le Sabre]] || Built by Harley Earl in 1951, it helped introduce 12 volt electrics and the aluminum 215 ci V8 to GM. This [[nameplate]] was transferred over to be a production vehicle.
 +|-
 +| [[Cadillac Cyclone]] || Built in 1959, it is one of Harley Earl's last designs. Its futuristic styling was heavily influenced by 1950's aviation and rocketry.
 +|-
 +| [[Corvair Monza GT|Chevrolet Corvair Monza GT]] || 1962 mid-engined experimental prototype.
 +|-
 +| [[Corvette Mako Shark (Concept car)|Chevrolet Corvette Mako Shark]] ||Previewed the design of the [[Chevrolet Corvette#C3_.281968-1982_ Mako Shark.29|1968&ndash;1982 production Corvette]].
 +|-
 +| [[Chevrolet Volt]] || One of the first [[plug-in hybrid|plug-in hybrid electric vehicle]] concept cars. This vehicle was launched with limited availability in certain states in early 2011, with availability in all of the [[United States]], as well as parts of [[Europe]] by the end of 2012. The production car is the successor to the failed [[GM EV-1]], originally leased through [[Saturn]] dealerships.
 +|-
 +| [[Ford Nucleon]] || A nuclear-powered car.
 +|-
 +| [[Ford SYNus]] || Reflects the modern obsession with safety.
 +|-
 +| [[General Motors Firebird]] || A series of [[gas turbine]]-powered cars. [[Pontiac]] adopted this [[nameplate]] based on the [[Chevrolet Camaro]]. The [[nameplate]] was retired in 2002, along with the [[Chevrolet Camaro]], which was revived in 2010.
 +|-
 +| [[Holden Efijy]] || Based around the [[Holden FJ]], named the United States concept car of the year for 2007.<ref>{{Cite web | date =2007-06-22 | url = http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21950226-2,00.html | title = Bold Holden wins top US award | publisher = [[News Limited]] | accessdate = 2007-07-15}}</ref>
 +|-
 +| [[MIT Car]] || The [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] concept car with Frank Gehry.<ref>[http://www.archinode.com/mitcar1.html Concept Car] w/ GM & Frank O. Gehry</ref>
 +|-
 +| [[Phantom Corsair]] || A 1930s concept car, developed by Rust Heinz.
 +|-
 +| [[Pontiac Bonneville Special]] || [[Pontiac]]'s first 2-seater [[sportscar]] that debuted at the 1954 [[Motorama]]. This [[nameplate]] carried over to a [[Pontiac]] sports car of the 1950s.
 +|-
 +| [[Pontiac Club de Mer]] || [[Pontiac]]'s all stainless steel [[sportscar]] that debuted at the 1956 [[Motorama]].
 +|-
 +| [[Porsche 989]] || [[Porsche]]'s first 4-door car, a predecessor of the [[Porsche Panamera]].
 +|-
 +| [[Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost|Rolls-Royce 1EX]] || The first in a series of 'experimental models', the 1EX was built by Rolls Royce in 1919 on a 40/50 h.p. chassis to test and develop their cars. Individual EX models were produced for over 40 years ending with the 45EX in 1958.The Ghost name [[Rolls Royce Ghost]] was adopted in 2011 as a production vehicle. 1EX was also used for the concept version of this [[Rolls-Royce]] vehicle. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.maybach.ru/en/news_519.html|title=Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech|last=Mosher|first=David|date=07.10.2004|publisher=Maybach|accessdate=21 May 2011}}</ref>
 +|-
 +| [[Volvo YCC]] || The first car designed entirely by women.{{Citation needed|date=December 2011}}
 +|-
 +| [[Lancia Megagamma]] || The prototype for the modern MPV ([[minivan]]).<ref name="tumminelli">{{cite book|last=Tumminelli|first=Paolo|title=Car Design|publisher=[[teNeues]]|year=2004|location=|page=66|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Plwd2uG8ZAQC|isbn=3-8238-4561-6}}</ref><ref name="jackyan">{{cite web|url=http://www.jyanet.com/cap/1998/0213fe3.htm|title=30 Years of ItalDesign|accessdate=2008-01-03|publisher=Jack Yan & Associates|year=1998}}</ref>
 +|-
 +| [[Alfa Romeo BAT]] cars || 1950s aerodynamic studies by [[Gruppo Bertone|Bertone]].
 +|-
 +| [[Chrysler ME Four-Twelve]] || Had an estimated top speed of {{Convert|248|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on}}.<ref name="allpar.com">{{Cite web|url=http://www.allpar.com/cars/me412.html|title=The Chrysler ME Four Twelve|accessdate=2011-12-13|work=allpar.com}}</ref>
 +|-
 +| [[Mercedes-Benz F700]] || Its Pre-Scan feature allows you to not feel any bumps and humps on the road. This design will lead to the development of the next-generation [[Mercedes-Benz A-Class]], [[Mercedes-Benz B-Class]], and [[Mercedes-Benz C-Class]].
 +|-
 +| [[BMW GINA]] || A fabric-skinned shape-shifting sports car. This platform (aside from the body material and changing shape) was adopted in 2012 for the [[BMW i3]] and [[BMW i8]] [[Electric Vehicles]].
 +|}
 + 
 +== See also ==
 +* [[Auto show]]
 +* [[Car design]]
 +* [[Future car technologies]]
 +* [[Pre-production car]]
 +* [[Production vehicle]]
 +* [[Product lifecycle management]]
 +* [[Proof-of-concept]]
 +* [[Prototype]]
 +* [[Serial production]]
 +* [[Show car]]
{{GFDL}} {{GFDL}}

Revision as of 14:30, 13 May 2012

Related e

Google
Wikipedia
Wiktionary
Wiki Commons
Wikisource
YouTube
Shop


Featured:
The Birth of Venus (detail), a 1486 painting by Sandro Botticelli
Enlarge
The Birth of Venus (detail), a 1486 painting by Sandro Botticelli

A concept vehicle or show vehicle is a car made to showcase new styling and or new technology. They are often shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not have a chance of being produced.

General Motors designer Harley Earl is generally credited with inventing the concept car, and did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s.

Concept cars never go into production directly; in modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, safety and cost. A "production-intent" vehicle, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose.<ref>Chrysler "Jolts" PHEV Race; PHEV Ads; V2Green Acquired, Sep 24, 2008, CalCars (California Cars Initiative)</ref>

They are also known as prototype cars, but should not be confused with prototype race cars such as the Le Mans Prototype.

Design

Concept cars are often radical in engine or design. Some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors, 3 or 6 (or more) wheels, or special abilities not usually found on cars. Because of these often impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or even drawings in computer design. Other more traditional concepts can be developed into fully drivable (operational) vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars lies somewhere in between and does not represent the final product. A very small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. Template:Citation needed

Inoperative "mock-ups" are usually made of wax, clay, metal, fiberglass, plastic or a combination thereof.

If drivable, the drivetrain is often borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design. They can also be quite refinedTemplate:Citation needed, such as General Motors' Cadillac Sixteen concept.<ref>Cadillac Sixteen, by Nick Hull, Detroit Auto Show 2003 Highlights, Car Design News, Inc.</ref>

After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are usually destroyed. Some survive, however, either in a company's museum or hidden away in storage. One unused but operational concept car that languished for years in the North Hollywood, California shop of car customizer George Barris, Ford Motor Company's "Lincoln Futura" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the Batmobile in the Batman series that debuted in 1966 on the ABC Television Network.

Notable concept cars

Model Notes
Buick Y-Job Designed in the late 1930s by the famous General Motors designer Harley Earl. Considered by most to be the first concept car.Inspired many other Buick vehicles, including the Buick Blackhawk Concept.
General Motors Le Sabre Built by Harley Earl in 1951, it helped introduce 12 volt electrics and the aluminum 215 ci V8 to GM. This nameplate was transferred over to be a production vehicle.
Cadillac Cyclone Built in 1959, it is one of Harley Earl's last designs. Its futuristic styling was heavily influenced by 1950's aviation and rocketry.
Chevrolet Corvair Monza GT 1962 mid-engined experimental prototype.
Chevrolet Corvette Mako Shark Previewed the design of the 1968–1982 production Corvette.
Chevrolet Volt One of the first plug-in hybrid electric vehicle concept cars. This vehicle was launched with limited availability in certain states in early 2011, with availability in all of the United States, as well as parts of Europe by the end of 2012. The production car is the successor to the failed GM EV-1, originally leased through Saturn dealerships.
Ford Nucleon A nuclear-powered car.
Ford SYNus Reflects the modern obsession with safety.
General Motors Firebird A series of gas turbine-powered cars. Pontiac adopted this nameplate based on the Chevrolet Camaro. The nameplate was retired in 2002, along with the Chevrolet Camaro, which was revived in 2010.
Holden Efijy Based around the Holden FJ, named the United States concept car of the year for 2007.<ref>{{
  1. if: {{#if: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21950226-2,00.html | {{#if: Bold Holden wins top US award |1}}}}
Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified

}}{{

  1. if:
{{#if: |1}}}} Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters archiveurl and archivedate must be both specified or both omitted

}} }}{{#if:

{{#if: [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: , {{{first}}} }} {{{author}}}
   }}]]
{{#if: , {{{first}}} }} {{{author}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

; {{{coauthors}}} }}

}}{{#if: |

   {{#if: 2007-06-22
(2007-06-22) {{#if: {{#if: ({{{month}}} {{{year}}}) ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
}

}}{{#if:

 | . }}{{
 #if: 
 |  {{{editor}}}: 

}}{{#if:

   | {{#if:  | {{#if: Bold Holden wins top US award | [{{{archiveurl}}} Bold Holden wins top US award] }}}}
   | {{#if: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21950226-2,00.html | {{#if: Bold Holden wins top US award | Bold Holden wins top US award }}}}

}}{{#if: | ({{{language}}}) }}{{#if:

 |  ()

}}{{#if:

 | . {{{work}}}

}}{{#if:

 |  {{{pages}}}

}}{{#if: News Limited

 | . News Limited{{#if: 
   | 
   | {{#if: 2007-06-22 || }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

 ||{{#if: 2007-06-22
   |  (2007-06-22)
   | {{#if: 
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} {{{year}}})
       |  ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
 }}

}}.{{#if:

 |  Archived from the original on [[{{{archivedate}}}]].

}}{{#if: 2007-07-15

 |  Retrieved on {{#time:Y F j|2007-07-15{{#if:  | , {{{accessyear}}}}}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  “{{{quote}}}”

}}</ref> |- | MIT Car || The Massachusetts Institute of Technology concept car with Frank Gehry.<ref>Concept Car w/ GM & Frank O. Gehry</ref> |- | Phantom Corsair || A 1930s concept car, developed by Rust Heinz. |- | Pontiac Bonneville Special || Pontiac's first 2-seater sportscar that debuted at the 1954 Motorama. This nameplate carried over to a Pontiac sports car of the 1950s. |- | Pontiac Club de Mer || Pontiac's all stainless steel sportscar that debuted at the 1956 Motorama. |- | Porsche 989 || Porsche's first 4-door car, a predecessor of the Porsche Panamera. |- | Rolls-Royce 1EX || The first in a series of 'experimental models', the 1EX was built by Rolls Royce in 1919 on a 40/50 h.p. chassis to test and develop their cars. Individual EX models were produced for over 40 years ending with the 45EX in 1958.The Ghost name Rolls Royce Ghost was adopted in 2011 as a production vehicle. 1EX was also used for the concept version of this Rolls-Royce vehicle. <ref>{{

  1. if: {{#if: http://www.maybach.ru/en/news_519.html | {{#if: Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech |1}}}}
 ||Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified

}}{{

  1. if:
 | {{#if: {{#if: | {{#if:  |1}}}}
   ||Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters archiveurl and archivedate must be both specified or both omitted

}} }}{{#if: Mosher

 | {{#if: 
   | [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: Mosher
     | Mosher{{#if: David | , David }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}]]
   | {{#if: Mosher
     | Mosher{{#if: David | , David }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{#if: Mosher

 | {{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }}

}}{{#if: Mosher|

   {{#if: 07.10.2004
   |  (07.10.2004)
   | {{#if: 
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} {{{year}}})
       |  ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
 |}}

}}{{#if: Mosher

 | . }}{{
 #if: 
 |  {{{editor}}}: 

}}{{#if:

   | {{#if:  | {{#if: Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech | [{{{archiveurl}}} Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech] }}}}
   | {{#if: http://www.maybach.ru/en/news_519.html | {{#if: Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech | Australian International Motor Show - Rolls-Royce Speech }}}}

}}{{#if: | ({{{language}}}) }}{{#if:

 |  ()

}}{{#if:

 | . {{{work}}}

}}{{#if:

 |  {{{pages}}}

}}{{#if: Maybach

 | . Maybach{{#if: Mosher
   | 
   | {{#if: 07.10.2004 || }}
 }}

}}{{#if: Mosher

 ||{{#if: 07.10.2004
   |  (07.10.2004)
   | {{#if: 
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} {{{year}}})
       |  ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
 }}

}}.{{#if:

 |  Archived from the original on [[{{{archivedate}}}]].

}}{{#if: 21 May 2011

 |  Retrieved on {{#time:Y F j|21 May 2011{{#if:  | , {{{accessyear}}}}}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  “{{{quote}}}”

}}</ref> |- | Volvo YCC || The first car designed entirely by women.Template:Citation needed |- | Lancia Megagamma || The prototype for the modern MPV (minivan).<ref name="tumminelli">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="jackyan">{{

  1. if: {{#if: http://www.jyanet.com/cap/1998/0213fe3.htm | {{#if: 30 Years of ItalDesign |1}}}}
 ||Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified

}}{{

  1. if:
 | {{#if: {{#if: | {{#if:  |1}}}}
   ||Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters archiveurl and archivedate must be both specified or both omitted

}} }}{{#if:

 | {{#if: 
   | [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: 
     | {{{last}}}{{#if:  | , {{{first}}} }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}]]
   | {{#if: 
     | {{{last}}}{{#if:  | , {{{first}}} }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

 | {{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }}

}}{{#if: |

   {{#if: 
   |  ({{{date}}})
   | {{#if: 1998
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} 1998)
       |  (1998)
     }}
   }}
 |}}

}}{{#if:

 | . }}{{
 #if: 
 |  {{{editor}}}: 

}}{{#if:

   | {{#if:  | {{#if: 30 Years of ItalDesign | [{{{archiveurl}}} 30 Years of ItalDesign] }}}}
   | {{#if: http://www.jyanet.com/cap/1998/0213fe3.htm | {{#if: 30 Years of ItalDesign | 30 Years of ItalDesign }}}}

}}{{#if: | ({{{language}}}) }}{{#if:

 |  ()

}}{{#if:

 | . {{{work}}}

}}{{#if:

 |  {{{pages}}}

}}{{#if: Jack Yan & Associates

 | . Jack Yan & Associates{{#if: 
   | 
   | {{#if: 1998 || }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

 ||{{#if: 
   |  ({{{date}}})
   | {{#if: 1998
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} 1998)
       |  (1998)
     }}
   }}
 }}

}}.{{#if:

 |  Archived from the original on [[{{{archivedate}}}]].

}}{{#if: 2008-01-03

 |  Retrieved on {{#time:Y F j|2008-01-03{{#if:  | , {{{accessyear}}}}}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  “{{{quote}}}”

}}</ref> |- | Alfa Romeo BAT cars || 1950s aerodynamic studies by Bertone. |- | Chrysler ME Four-Twelve || Had an estimated top speed of Template:Convert.<ref name="allpar.com">{{

  1. if: {{#if: http://www.allpar.com/cars/me412.html | {{#if: The Chrysler ME Four Twelve |1}}}}
 ||Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified

}}{{

  1. if:
 | {{#if: {{#if: | {{#if:  |1}}}}
   ||Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters archiveurl and archivedate must be both specified or both omitted

}} }}{{#if:

 | {{#if: 
   | [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{#if: 
     | {{{last}}}{{#if:  | , {{{first}}} }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}]]
   | {{#if: 
     | {{{last}}}{{#if:  | , {{{first}}} }}
     | {{{author}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

 | {{#if: | ; {{{coauthors}}} }}

}}{{#if: |

   {{#if: 
   |  ({{{date}}})
   | {{#if: 
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} {{{year}}})
       |  ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
 |}}

}}{{#if:

 | . }}{{
 #if: 
 |  {{{editor}}}: 

}}{{#if:

   | {{#if:  | {{#if: The Chrysler ME Four Twelve | [{{{archiveurl}}} The Chrysler ME Four Twelve] }}}}
   | {{#if: http://www.allpar.com/cars/me412.html | {{#if: The Chrysler ME Four Twelve | The Chrysler ME Four Twelve }}}}

}}{{#if: | ({{{language}}}) }}{{#if:

 |  ()

}}{{#if: allpar.com

 | . allpar.com

}}{{#if:

 |  {{{pages}}}

}}{{#if:

 | . {{{publisher}}}{{#if: 
   | 
   | {{#if:  || }}
 }}

}}{{#if:

 ||{{#if: 
   |  ({{{date}}})
   | {{#if: 
     | {{#if: 
       |  ({{{month}}} {{{year}}})
       |  ({{{year}}})
     }}
   }}
 }}

}}.{{#if:

 |  Archived from the original on [[{{{archivedate}}}]].

}}{{#if: 2011-12-13

 |  Retrieved on {{#time:Y F j|2011-12-13{{#if:  | , {{{accessyear}}}}}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessmonthday}}}, {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  Retrieved on {{{accessdaymonth}}} {{{accessyear}}}.

}}{{#if:

 |  “{{{quote}}}”

}}</ref> |- | Mercedes-Benz F700 || Its Pre-Scan feature allows you to not feel any bumps and humps on the road. This design will lead to the development of the next-generation Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, and Mercedes-Benz C-Class. |- | BMW GINA || A fabric-skinned shape-shifting sports car. This platform (aside from the body material and changing shape) was adopted in 2012 for the BMW i3 and BMW i8 Electric Vehicles. |}

See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Concept car" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

Personal tools