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|== Montparnasse and Montmartre ==||== Montparnasse and Montmartre ==|
|Like its counterpart [[Montmartre]] in the mid-19th century, [[Montparnasse]] became famous at the beginning of the 20th century, when it was the heart of intellectual and artistic life in Paris.||Like its counterpart [[Montmartre]] in the mid-19th century, [[Montparnasse]] became famous at the beginning of the 20th century, when it was the heart of intellectual and artistic life in Paris.|
|+||From the [[Dada]] activities of [[World War I]] Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in [[Paris]] and from the [[1920s]] spreading around the globe, impacting many other fields.|
|+||In May [], [[Guillaume Apollinaire]] had coined the term "Surrealism" in the program notes describing the ballet ''[[Parade (ballet)|Parade]]'' which was a collaborative work by [[Jean Cocteau]], [[Erik Satie]], [[Pablo Picasso]] and [[Léonide Massine]]:|
|+||:"From this new alliance, for until now stage sets and costumes on one side and choreography on the other had only a sham bond between them, there has come about, in ''Parade'', a kind of super-realism ('sur-réalisme'), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit ('esprit nouveau')."|
|==American immigrants: The Lost Generation==||==American immigrants: The Lost Generation==|
Revision as of 08:11, 7 August 2012
After World War I, Paris emerged into an energetic but restless interwar period, enlivened by the arrival of glamorous émigrés such as Joséphine Baker. It was a troubled political period, however, especially when the Great Depression hit Paris.
The period is also known as Les Années Folles, corresponding with the Roaring Twenties in the Anglosphere.
Montparnasse and Montmartre
In May 1917, Guillaume Apollinaire had coined the term "Surrealism" in the program notes describing the ballet Parade which was a collaborative work by Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Pablo Picasso and Léonide Massine:
- "From this new alliance, for until now stage sets and costumes on one side and choreography on the other had only a sham bond between them, there has come about, in Parade, a kind of super-realism ('sur-réalisme'), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit ('esprit nouveau')."
American immigrants: The Lost Generation
American writers such as Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Gertrude Stein settled in Paris. African-American expatriation to Paris also boomed after World War I, beginning with black American veterans who preferred the subtler racism of Paris to the oppressive racism and segregation in the United States, which often involved lynchings in the American South. In the 1920s African-American writers, artists, and musicians arrived in Paris and popularized jazz in Parisian nightclubs, a time when Montmartre was know as "the Harlem of Paris." Some notable African-American expatriates from the 1920s onward included Josephine Baker, Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, James Baldwin, Miles Davis, and Charlie Parker.
1920s Paris saw a craze for all things African, now known as Negrophilia. Collecting African art, listening to jazz and to dancing the Charleston, the Lindy Hop or the Black Bottom, was a sign of being modern and fashionable. Sources of inspiration were inanimate African art objects (l'art nègre) that found their way into Paris as a result of colonial trade with Africa as well as live performances by African-Americans many of whom were ex-soldiers remaining in European cities after the First World War who turned to entertainment for a source of income. Perhaps the most popular revue and entertainer during this time was La Revue nègre (1925) starring Josephine Baker.
Nightclubs, bars and brothels
- French Wikipedia article on Années folles
- La garçonne
- Aftermath of World War I
- French jazz
- Artistic Montparnasse
- Lost Generation
- Art Deco
- Jazz Age