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A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of a conductor such as copper and that of an insulator such as glass. Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of electrons and holes inside a lattice. An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of integrated semiconductor devices.

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