Quadruple Alliance  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The term "Quadruple Alliance" refers to several historical military alliances; none of which remain in effect.

  1. The Quadruple Alliance of August 1673 was an alliance between the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, and the United Provinces of the Netherlands, in the context of the Franco-Dutch War. It is often incorrectly assumed the fourth partner was not the Duke of Lorraine but the Electorate of Brandenburg, which indeed joined the alliance, but only in July 1674.
  2. The Quadruple Alliance of 1718 was an alliance between Austria, France, the Dutch Republic and Great Britain - aimed at revising (principally at Spain's expense) the treaties which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. See: War of the Quadruple Alliance.
  3. The Quadruple Alliance of 1745 was formed between the United Kingdom, the Dutch Republic, Saxony and Austria in the later stages of the War of the Austrian Succession.
  4. The Quadruple Alliance of March 1813 (renewed on November 20, 1815); between the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, aimed at upholding the settlement following the Napoleonic Wars: with France's admission in 1818, it became the Quintuple Alliance, though British government distaste for the other allies' reactionary policies meant that it lapsed into ineffectiveness after the mid-1820s.
  5. The Quadruple Alliance of April 1834 was formed by the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Portugal to support queen Isabella II of Spain against her uncle Don Carlos, Count of Molina, who claimed the Spanish throne under the succession law of 1714-1830, and queen Maria II of Portugal (represented by her father Pedro, 18th Duke of Braganza, former Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal) against her uncle Miguel of Portugal, who proclaimed himself absolute king before the Portuguese Liberal War.
  6. "Quadruple Alliance" was also used as an alternative term for the Central Powers of World War I, it consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.

See also

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