From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
- The Protestant (rather than the Roman Catholic or Orthodox) Christian religion.
- Collectively, the Protestant churches or the Protestants.
The Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. While Italy was dominated by independent city-states, countries in central and western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church.
Protestant work ethic
The Protestant work ethic, sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a person's calling as a sign of personal salvation. Protestants beginning with Martin Luther had reconceptualised work as a duty in the world for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. The Catholic idea of good works was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace.
Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians
- Twelfth century
- Fourteenth century
- John Wycliffe, English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".
- Fifteenth century
- Jan Hus, Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church (Moravianism), Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in Constance, Holy Roman Empire in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. After the devastation of the Hussite Wars some of his followers founded the Unitas Fratrum in 1457, "Unity of Brethren", which was renewed under the leadership of Count Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the 30 Years War and Counter Reformation. Today it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church, in German the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine.
- Sixteenth century
- Jacobus Arminius, Dutch theologian, founder of school of thought known as Arminianism.
- Heinrich Bullinger, successor of Zwingli, leading reformed theologian.
- John Calvin, French theologian, Reformer and resident of Geneva, Switzerland, he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism.
- Balthasar Hubmaier, influential Anabaptist theologian, author of numerous works during his five years of ministry, tortured at Zwingli's behest, and executed in Vienna.
- John Knox, Scottish Calvinist reformer.
- Abaomas Kulvietis, jurs and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a Reformer of the Lithuanian church.
- Martin Luther, church reformer, Father of Protestantism, theological works guided those now known as Lutherans.
- Philipp Melanchthon, early Lutheran leader.
- Menno Simons, founder of Mennonitism.
- John Smyth, early Baptist leader.
- Huldrych Zwingli, founder of Swiss reformed tradition.
- Black Legend
- Northern Renaissance
- Protestant work ethic