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"Doubtless contradictory, hotheaded, "raving" if you wish, Celine's pamphlets ("Mea Culpa", 1936, "Bagatelles pour un massacre", 1937, "L'Ecole des cadavres", 1938, "Les Beaux Draps", 1941), in spite of their stereotyped themes, carry on the wild beauty of his style. Isolating them from the whole of his writings constitutes a defense or a claim on the part of the political left or right; it is at any rate an ideological stance, not an analytic or literary position."--Powers of Horror - An Essay on Abjection (1982) by Julia Kristeva

"Anthropologists, since Sir James George Frazer, W. Robertson Smith, Arnold van Gennep, and Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Brown, or Rudolf Steiner, have noted that secular "filth," which has become sacred "defilement," is the excluded on the basis of which religious prohibition is made up."--Powers of Horror - An Essay on Abjection (1982) by Julia Kristeva

"There looms, within abjection, one of those violent, dark revolts of being, directed against a threat that seems to emanate from an exorbitant outside or inside, ejected beyond the scope of the possible, the tolerable, the thinkable. It lies there, quite close, but it cannot be assimilated. It beseeches, worries, and fascinates desire, which, nevertheless, does not let itself be seduced. Apprehensive, desire turns aside; sickened, it rejects. A certainty protects it from the shameful - a certainty of which it is proud holds on to it. But simultaneously, just the same, that impetus, that spasm, that leap is drawn toward an elsewhere as tempting as it is condemned. Unflaggingly, like an inescapable boomerang, a vortex of summons and repulsion places the one haunted by it literally beside himself."--Powers of Horror (1980) by Julia Kristeva

" I think, however, Kristeva’s analysis in the long run transcends Douglas’s, which is arguably too intellectual, too narrowly confined to remarking category transgressions that violate a given culture’s conceptual-classificational paradigm and thereby provoke aversion responses to "impurity.”" --The Biology of Horror (2002) by Jack Morgan

Related e



Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection (1980, Pouvoirs de l'horreur. Essai sur l'abjection) is a book by Julia Kristeva. The work is an extensive treatise on the subject of abjection (mentioned 395 times), in which Kristeva draws on the theories of Sigmund Freud (mentioned 81 times) and Jacques Lacan (mentioned 10 times) to examine taboo (mentioned 60 times) and horror (mentioned 80 times). Although the text has become a classic in feminist criticism and queer theory, the term feminism is only mentioned one time and the term queer zero times.

Minor parts are given to Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Marcel Proust, Jorge Luis Borges, Antonin Artaud and Franz Kafka, but the protagonist of this text is the French writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline who is mentioned 219 times and who is the subject of one third of the text.

The chapter "From Filth to Defilement" deals with anthropological aspects, "Semiotics of Biblical Abomination" with the Old Testament and "Qui Tollis Peccata Mundi" with the New Testament.


See also

Table of contents

Translator's Note vii

Roudiez, Leon S(amuel) (November 18, 1917, in Bronxville, NY; died June 18, 2004)

1. Approaching Abjection i

No Beast is there without glimmer of infinity,
No eye so vile nor abject that brushes not
Against lightning from on high, now tender, now fierce.

--Victor Hugo, La Légende des siècles, epigraph

2. Something To Be Scared Of 32

A regal soul, inadvertently surrendering to the crab of lust, the octopus of weakmindedness, the shark of individual abjection, the boa of absent morality, and the monstrous snail of idiocracy!--Lautreamont, Les Chants de Maldoror

Translation of:

"Âme royale, livrée, dans un moment d’oubli, au crabe de la débauche, au poulpe de la faiblesse de caractère, au requin de l’abjection individuelle, au boa de la morale absente, et au colimaçon monstrueux de l’idiotisme !

3. From Filth to Defilement 56

| Abjection [. . .] is merely the inability to assume with sufficient strength the imperative act of excluding abject things (and that act establishes the foundations of collective existence). [...] The act of exclusion has the same meaning as social or divine sovereignty, but it is not located on the same level; it is precisely located in the domain of things and not, like sovereignty, in the domain of persons. It differs from the latter in the same way that anal eroticism differs from sadism.--Georges Bataille, Essais de sociologie

"The instance of the Nuer, analyzed by Evans Pritchard and again by Mary Douglas, is very significant in that respect. It involves a society that is dominated, at least among the aristocrats, by the agnatic principle and in which women are a divisive factor; essential for reproduction, they nevertheless endanger the ideal norms of the agnatic group, the more so as cohabitation with maternal relatives seems common." --p.86
"As I have pointed out, it is Celestin Bougie who has evoked, along with the socio-logical principle ruling the caste system ("hierarchy, hereditary specialization"30), the one he calls "repulsion"31 or "loathing";32 a principle that seems more psychological but is in fact linked to the logic of the sacred."

4. Semiotics of Biblical Abomination 90

Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

Exodus 23:19

See now that I, even I, am he and there is no god with me.

Deuteronomy 32:39

ludei mente sola unumque numen intellegunt.

Tacitus, Histories, 5:5

5. . . . Qui Tollis Peccata Mundi 113

"To breed out of mankind a self-contradiction, an art of self-defilement, a will to lie at any cost, a revulsion, a scorn for all good and upright instincts! [...] I call Christianity [...] the immortal defiling of mankind." --Nietzsche, The Antichrist

6. Celine: Neither Actor nor Martyr • 133

To be mistaken about the rhythm of a sentence is to be mistaken about the very meaning of that sentence.

Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil

7. Suffering and Horror 140

One can be a virgin with respect to Horror as one is virgin toward Voluptuousness. *

On est puceau de l'Horreur comme on est puceau de la Volupte.

--Celine, Journey to the End of the Night

8. Those Females Who Can Wreck the Infinite 157

9. "Ours To Jew or Die" 174

12. In the Beginning and Without End . . . 188

You know, in the Scriptures it says, "In the beginning was the word." No! In the beginning was emotion. The Word came later, replacing emotion like trot replaced gallop, while the natural law of the horse is gallop; it is forced to break into trot. Man was removed from emotional poetry and pushed into dialectics, in other words, splattering, isn't that so?"

"Vous savez, dans les Écritures, il est écrit : « Au commencement était le Verbe. » Non ! Au commencement était l'émotion. Le Verbe est venu ensuite pour remplacer l'émotion, comme le trot remplace le galop, alors que la loi naturelle du cheval est le galop ; on lui fait avoir le trot. On a sorti l’homme de la poésie émotive pour le faire entrer dans la dialectique, c’est-à-dire le bafouillage, n’est-ce pas?"

--"Louis-Ferdinand Celine vous parle"

11. Powers of Horror 207

All the great monstrosities, all of them are in Saint John! Kirghiz librarians can cook up the damnest tricks!

Celine, Feerie pour une autrefois

Notes 211

NOTES i. APPROACHING ABJECTION i. Francis de Sales, Introduction to a Devout Life, Thomas S. Kepler, tr. (New York: World, 1952), p. 125. [Modified to conform to the French text, which reads, 'Tabjection de soy-mesme."] 2. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Devils, David Magarshack, tr. (London: Penguin Books, 1953), p. 512. 3. Dostoyevsky, pp. 586-587. 4. Dostoyevsky, pp. 418-419. 5. Marcel Proust, Swann's Way, C. K. Scott-Moncrieff, tr. (New York: Random House, 1922), 2:141. 6. Proust, Cities of the Plain, Frederick A. Blossom, tr. (New York: Random House, 1934), p. 9. 7. James Joyce, Ulysses (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), pp. 738-739. 8. Jorge Luis Borges, A Universal History of Infamy, Norman Thomas Di Giovanni, tr. (New York: Dutton, 1979), pp. 23-25. 9. Antonin Artaud, "Suppots et supplications," in CEuvres Completes (Paris: Gallimard, 1978), 14:14. 10. Artaud, p. 72. n. Artaud, p. 203. 12. Artaud, p. 155- 13. Jacques Lacan, Television (Paris: Seuil, 1974), p. 28. 14. In connection with catharsis in the Greek world, see Louis Molinier, Le Pur et I'impur dans la pensee des Grecs (Paris: Klincksieck, 1952). 15. See A. Philonenko, "Note sur les concepts de souillure et de purete dans l'idealisme allemand," Les Etudes Philosophiques (1972), 4:481-493. 2. SOMETHING TO BE SCARED OF 1. See particularly D. W. Winnicot, The Maturation Processes and the Facilitating Environment (New York: International Universities Press, 1965), and Playing and Reality (New York: Basic Books, 1971). 2. Sigmund Freud, Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy, in The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: Hogarth Press, 212 2. SOMETHING TO BE SCARED OF 1953-1974), 10:83. Later, when he referred to "the enigmatic phobias of early childhood," Freud explicitly defined them as "reactions to the danger of object loss." He suggests that the reactions are (phantasmatically?) very archaic when he considers the possible connections between childish phobia of small animals or storms, for instance, and "the atrophied remainders of congenital preparation for real dangers that are so clearly developed in other animals." He nevertheless concludes that, "in the case of man, the only portion of that archaic inheritance to be appropriated is what pertains to object loss" (Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, in Complete Psychological Works, 20:160). That clearly locates the reflection on phobia within the problematic scope of object relation. What remains to be clarified is the latter's dependency on symbolic function, particularly on language, on which rest not only its very existence but all of its variants. 3. "It may well be that before its sharp cleavage into an ego and an id, and before the formation of a super-ego, the mental apparatus makes use of different methods of defense from those which it employs after it has reached these stages of organization." Freud, Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, p. 164. To begin with, Freud had pointed out that the word "defense," in opposition to the more precise term "repression," included all the protective devices of the ego against the demands of drives; with the statement I have just quoted, Freud seems to proceed to areas where, without the ego existing as such, modalities of defense other than repression are at work. Does this have to do with defensive capabilities that are elaborated along with primal repression? With the power of the symbolic alone, always already present but working within its pre-sign, pre-meaning (trans-sign, trans-meaning) modality, which I call "semiotic"? Would not the phobic "object," and the abject as well, be located on that trail, which was blazed by Freud? 4. Freud, Analysis of a Phobia, p. 83. 5. See Anneliese Schnurmann, "Observation of a Phobia" (contribution to Anna Freud's seminar, 1946), in Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 3/ 4:253-270. 6. Freud, Analysis of a Phobia, p. 139. 7. Freud, Papers on Metapsychology, in Complete Works, 14:122. Emphasis mine. 8. "Voyeurism is a normal moment of evolution during pregenital stages; if it remains within limits, it allows a very sophisticated approach to the Oedipal conflict. Paradoxically, it becomes a perversion as a result of its failure to provide assurance against the possible destruction of the object." Michel Fain, "Contribution a l'analyse du voyeurisme," Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse (1954), 18:177-192- 9- Jacques Lacan, EcritsIA Selection (New York: Norton, 1977), pp. 156-157. 10. Andre Green, he Discours vivant (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, x 973). 3- FROM FILTH TO DEFILEMENT 213 11. Hanna Segal, "Notes on Symbol Formation," International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1957), 38:381-397. 12. See Freud's first book, Aphasia (Zur Auffassung der Aphasien, 1891). 13. See The Interpretation of Dreams (1900; New York: Random House, 1950). 14. See Negation (1925), in volume 19 of the Complete Works. 15. One might compare that definition with what Andre Green says concerning the trauma-object: "Thus, within the series, precocious trauma-defense (this set establishing fixation)-latency-breaking out of neurosis-partial return of the repressed, I should like to emphasize the confusion between drive (represented by affect) and object, for the danger stems from the violence done to sexuality in the Ego as well as from violence done to the object. Consequently it will be understood that the problem involving relationship between Ego and object is that of their limits, their coexistence. [. . .] When I speak of trauma-object 1 basically refer to the threat that the object holds for the Ego, to the extent that it forces the Ego to modify its operation through its presence alone." Andre Green, "L'Angoisse et le narcissisme," Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse (1979), 1:52-53 and 55. 16. Freud, "Draft G. Melancholia" (1895), in vol. 1 of Complete Works; ].- B. Pontalis comments, "not a lacuna but a hole, not a want but an overflow," in Entre le rive et la douleur (Paris: Gallimard, 1977), p. 248. 3. FROM FILTH TO DEFILEMENT 1. In Totem and Taboo (1913), in vol. 13 of Complete Works. References will be to the Vintage Book edition published by Random House. 2. Totem and Taboo, p. 170. 3. Totem and Taboo, p. 185. 4. See Rene Girard, Des Choses cachees depuis la fondation du monde (Paris: Grasset, 1978). 5. Freud quoted from T. W. Atkinson's Primal Law, Totem and Taboo (London, 1903); see p. 184m 6. Totem and Taboo, pp. 85-86—although the translation used is that of the Complete Works, 13:64. 7. Totem and Taboo, p. 86n; quoted from the Complete Works, 13:65. 8. Totem and Taboo, p. 207. 9. Totem and Taboo, pp. 115-116. 10. See Georges Bataille, "L'Abjection et les formes miserables," in Essais de sociologie, (Euvres completes, (Paris: Gallimard, 1970), 2:2i7ff. 11. Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger (London, Boston, and Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969), P- 121 ■ 12. Douglas, p. 113- 13. Douglas, p. H3- . 14. See Douglas, pp- I49ff-' 214 3- FROM FILTH TO DEFILEMENT 15. "For the Lele evil is not to be included in the total system of the world, but to be expunged without compromise" (Douglas, p. 171). 16. V. S. Naipaul, An Area of Darkness (London: Deutsch, 1964), as quoted by Douglas, p. 124. 17. Louis Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), pp. I39ff. 18. See Charles Malamoud, "Observations sur la notion de "reste" dans le brahmanisme," Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde Siidasiens (1972), 16:5-26. 19. See K. Maddock, "Dangerous Proximities and Their Analogues," Mankind (1974), j(3):206-2i7. 20. See K. Gouph, "Nuer Kinship: A Re-examination," in T. O. Beidelman, ed., The Translation of Culture (London: Tavistock, 1971), p. 91. 21. See L. N. Rosen, "Contagion and Cataclysm: A Theoretical Approach to the Study of Ritual Pollution Beliefs," African Studies (1973), 32(4)^29-246. 22. See S. Lindenbaum, "Sorcerers, Ghosts, and Polluting Women: An Analysis of Religious Belief and Population Control," Journal of Geography (1972), n(3):24i. 23. Dumont, pp. 137-138. 24. M. B. Emenau, "Language and Social Forms. A Study of Toda Kinship Terms and Dual Descent," in Language, Culture, and Personality, Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir (Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund, 1941), PP- I58-I79- 25. Dumont, "Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South India Kinship," Occasional Papers of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1957), 12:22. 26. Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus, p. 120. 27. Dumont, p. 53. 28. Dumont, p. 53. 29. Dumont, p. 120. 30. Celestin Bougie, Essai sur le regime des castes (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969), p. 3. 31. Bougie, pp. 3, 25, etc. 32. Bougie, p. 18. 33. Bougie, pp. 36-37- 34. Bougie, p. 64. 35. J.-P. Vernant has analyzed that logic in "Ambigui'te et renversement. Sur la structure enigmatique d'CEdipe roi," in J.-P. Vernant and P. VidalNaquet, Mythe et tragedie (Paris: Maspero, 1973), pp. ioiff. 36. See Vernant and Vidal-Naquet and also the publications of L. Gernet. 37. R. C. Jebb's translation has been used; it comes somewhat closer than more recent ones to the French translation by Jean Grosjean quoted by Julia Kristeva [trans.]. 4- SEMIOTICS OF BIBLICAL ABOMINATION !• See Jacob Neusner, The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism (Leiden: Brill, 1973). p. 9. 5- . . . QUI TOLLIS PECCATA MUNDI 215 2. Baruch A. Levine, In the Presence of the Lord. Aspects of Ritual in Ancient Israel (Leiden: Brill, 1974). 3. The Code of Maimonides. The Book of Cleanness, Herbert Danby, tr. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954), p. 535. 4. Neusner, p. 12. 5. Mary Douglas, "Critique and Commentary," in Neusner, pp. 138-139. 6. Genesis 8:20. 7. Genesis 8:21-22. 8. There are other words, with different origins and semantic variants, that are used to signify purity and impurity at various points and stages of the biblical text. See H. Cazelles, "Purete et impurete dans l'Ancien Testament," in Supplement au dictionnaire de la Bible (Paris: Letaizey et Ane, 1965), pp. 491-508. 9. See Neusner, "The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism," fournal of the American Academy of Religion (1975), 43(I )

i5-26. 10. See E. M. Zuesse, "Taboo and the Divine Order," fournal of the American Academy of Religion (1974), 42(3):482-504. 11. See the excellent article, J. Saler, "Semiotique de la nourriture dans la Bible," Annates, July-August 1973, pp. 93ff. 12. Ibid. 13. See Cazelles, Supplement. 14. According to B. Levine, as quoted in Ncusner's "The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism." 15. Jacob Neusner, A History of the Mishnah Law of Purities (Leiden: Brill, 1974)- 16. See Melanie Klein, "On the Importance of Symbol Formation in the Development of the Ego," in Contributions to Psychoanalysis ig2i-ig^ (London: Hogarth Press, 1948). 17. Rene Girard, Des choses cachees depuis le commencement du monde, pp. 203 ff. 18. See H. McKeating, "The Development of the Law on Homicide in Ancient Israel," Vetus Testamentum (1975), 25(i):46-68. 5. ... QUI TOLLIS PECCATA MUNDI 1. See J. Jeremias, Les Paroles inconnues de fesus (Paris: Cerf, 1970), pp. SO-62. 2. "If Man is not by nature what he should be, then he is implicitly rational, implicitly Spirit. [. . .] in the state of nature he is not what he ought to be"; "it is reflection of knowledge which makes him evil"; "knowledge or consciousness is just the act by which separation [. . .] comes into existence"; "Man regarded in accordance with his conception or notion [. . .] is consciousness, and consequently he enters into this state of disunion"; G. W. F. Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, E. B. Speirs and J. Burdon Sanderson, tr. (New York: Humanities Press, 1962), 3:5°. 52, and 55. 216 5. ... QUI TOLLIS PECCATA MUNDI 3. Such osmosis of separate terms, such heterogeneity, appears to have been glimpsed by Hegel when he considered "sin" as inseparable from "remission of sins" and concluded, "Between sin and its forgiveness there is as little place for an alien thing as there is between sin and punishment. Life has severed itself from itself and united itself again." The Spirit of Christianity and its Fate in Early Theological Writings, T. M. Knox, tr. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), p. 239. 4. De libero arbitrio, 3, 19, 53, col. 1,256. 5. The Speirs translation of Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion reads, "This is the extraordinary combination which directly contradicts the Understanding" (3:76). It corresponds to the text of the Samtliche Werke (Stuttgart, 1959), 16:286: ". . . diese ungeheure Zusammensetzung ist es, die dem Verstande schlechthin widerspricht." See "Translator's Note" in this volume. 6. The passage within brackets appears neither in the Speirs translation (3:53) nor in the Samtliche Werke (16:265). See "Translator's Note." 7. Jacques Maritain, The Sin of the Angel, William L. Rossner, S. J., tr. (Westminster, Md.: Newman Press, 1959), p. 50. 8. Sententia 4, 14, 4, 7. Duns Scotus indeed posits "the absolution of penitent man accomplished by certain words," Sententia 4, 14, 4, 2. See Joseph Turmel, Histoire des dogmes (Paris: Rieder, 1936), pp. 449-450. 6. CELINE: NEITHER ACTOR NOR MARTYR 1. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Journey to the End of the Night, John H. P. Marks, tr. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1934), p. 213. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as J, will appear in the body of the text. 2. Letter to Milton Hindus, dated May 29, 1947, in Louis-Ferdinand Celine II, Les Cahiers de I'Herne (1965), 5:76. 3. See Julia Kristeva, "L'Experience et la pratique," in Polylogue (Paris: Seuil, 1977), pp. 107-136. I 4. s ,See Mikhail Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ardis, 1973) and Rabelais and His World (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1968). 5. Celine, Entretiens avec le professeur Y. (Paris: Gallimard, 1954), p. 67. 6. Letter to Hindus, March 31, 1948, L'Herne, 5:107. 7. SUFFERING AND HORROR 1. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Death on the Instalment Plan, Ralph Manheim, tr. (New York: New Directions, 1966), pp. 39-40. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as D, will appear in the body of the text. 2. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Le Pont de Londres ("Guignols's Band II"; Paris: Gallimard, 1964), p. 137- Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as P, will appear in the body of the text. 9- "OURS TO JEW OR DIE" 217 3. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Guignol's Band, Bernard Frechtman and Jack T. Nile, tr. (New York: New Directions, 1969), p. 135. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as G, will appear in the body of the text. 4. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Rigadoon, Ralph Manheim, tr. (New York: Dell, 1974), p. 179- Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as R, will appear in the body of the text. 8. THOSE FEMALES WHO CAN WRECK THE INFINITE 1. "Entretiens avec A. Zbinden," in Celine, Romans II (Paris: Gallimard, 1974), P- 945- 2. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Feeriepour une autrefois (Paris: Gallimard, 1952), p. 144. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as F, will appear in the body of the text. 3. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, La Vie et I'ceuvre de Philippe Ignace Semmelweis (Paris: Denoel et Steele, 1936), p. 588. 4. Celine, Semmelweis, p. 617. 5. Celine, Semmelweis, p. 621. 6. On September 10, 1947, L'Herne, 5:96. 7. Letter to Hindus, August 23, 1947, L'Herne, 5:92. 8. Letter to Hindus, February 28, 1948, L'Herne, 5:104. 9. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, L'Eglise (Paris: Denoel et Steele, 1933), p. 488. 9. "OURS TO JEW OR DIE" 1. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Les Beaux Draps (Paris: Nouvelles Editions Franchises, 1941), p. 90. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as BD, will appear in the body of the text. 2. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, L'Ecole des cadavres (Paris: Denoel, 1938), p. 140. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as EC, will appear in the body of the text. 3. Letter to Hindus, September 2, 1947, L'Herne, 5:94. 4. Letter to Hindus, April 16, 1947, L'Herne, 5:72. 5. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Bagatelles pour un massacre (Paris: Denoel, 1937), p. 144. Subsequent references to this work, abbreviated as BM, will appear in the body of the text. 6. From an interview with Ivan-M. Sicard published in L'Emancipation Nationale, November 21, I941 - 7- It would not only seem that, to the end of his life, he never clearly renounced anti-Semitism ("I disown nothing at all ... I have not at all changed my mind ... I simply put in a modicum of doubt, but people will have to prove that I was wrong rather than me showing that I was right"— "Entretien avec A. Zbinden," Romans II, p. 940), but even when he entertains the idea of a reconciliation with Jews (he specifies, "not a Defense of the Jews ) 218 9- "OURS TO JEW OR DIE" but a Reconciliation") he is led to advocate a new racism, a decidedly permanent feeling of love/hatred for the other: "We must create a new racism upon biological bases" (letter to Hindus, August io, 1947, L'Herne, 5:90). 8. Catherine Francblin has presented a very lucid analysis of Celine's antiSemitism in an unpublished master's essay entitled "Celine et les Juifs." I am indebted to her for the following development. 9. See A. Mandel, "D'un Celine juif," L'Herne (1963), 3:252-257, and "L'Ame irresponsable, ou Celine et le Dibbouk," L'Herne (1965) 5:207-209. 10. "Entretiens avec A. Zbinden," Romans II, p. 939. 10. IN THE BEGINNING AND WITHOUT END . . . 1. "Louis-Ferdinand Celine vous parle." in Romans II, p. 934. 2. "Celine vous parle," p. 933. 3. Quoted in Pierre Monier, "Residence surveillee," L'Herne (1963), 3:76. 4. See letter to Hindus, December 15, 1947, L'Herne, 5:103. 5. Entretiens avec le professeur Y., p. 104. 6. Entretiens, p. 122. 7. See letter to Hindus, May 15, 1947, L'Herne, 5:76. 8. Same letter, p. 75. 9. Same letter, p. 75. 10. Letter to Hindus, March 30, 1947, L'Herne, 5:72. 11. Letter to Hindus, May 15, 1947, L'Herne, 5:75. 12. Letter to Hindus, May 29, 1947, L'Herne, 5:76. 13. Entretiens avec le professeur Y. p. 72. 14. Entretiens, p. 23. 15. Entretiens, p. 28. 16. Entretiens, p. 35. 17. Letter to Hindus, October 17, 1947, L'Herne, 5:99. 18. Leo Spitzer, "Une Habitude de style, le rappel chez Celine," Le Francais Moderne (1935), 3:193-208; reprinted in L'Herne, 5:153-164. 19. With respect to segmentation in contemporary French, see Jean Perrot, "Fonctions syntaxiques, enonciation, information," Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris (1978), 73(i):85l Mario Rossi, "L'Intonation et la troisieme articulation," BSLP (1977), 72(i):55-68; Claude Hagege, "Intonation, fonctions syntaxiques, universaux," BSLP (1977), 72(I):I-47. 20. See Ivan Fonagy, "Prelangage et regressions syntaxiques," Lingtia (I97S), 36:163-208. 21. See Jean Perrot, "Fonctions syntaxiques." 2,2. Spitzer, L'Herne, 5:162. 23. See Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics. 24. See Fonagy, "Prelangage et regressions syntaxiques." 25. See Rossi, "L'Intonation et la troisieme articulation, and Hagege, "Intonation, fonctions syntaxiques, universaux." IO. IN THE BEGINNING AND WITHOUT END 219 26. Letter to Hindus, April 16, 1947, L'Herne, 5:73. 27. Louis-Ferdinand Celine, Castle to Castle (New York: Delacorte, 1968), p. 80. 28. "Louis-Ferdinand Celine vous parle," in Romans II, p. 934. 29. Ibid., pp. 933-934- 30. See H. Sterlin, La Verite sur VApocalypse (Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1972); R. P. Boismard, "L'Apocalypse ou les apocalypses de Saint Jean," Revue Biblique, October 1949; J. Levitan, Une Conception juive de I'apocalypse (Paris: Debresse, 1966); etc.

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