Pope Pius XII and the Roman razzia  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Pope Pius XII's response to the Roman razzia (Italian for roundup) or mass deportation of Jews on October 16, 1943 is a significant issue relating to Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Under Mussolini, no policy of abduction of Jews had been implemented in Italy. Following the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Nazi forces invaded and occupied much of the country, and began deportations of Jews to extermination camps. Pius XII protested at diplomatic levels, while several thousand Jews found refuge in Catholic networks, institutions and homes across Italy - including in the Vatican City and Pope Pius' Summer Residence. The Catholic Church and some historians have credited this rescue in large part to the direction of Pope Pius XII, however, Susan Zuccotti researched the matter in detail and discovered that although the pope was aware of The Holocaust, he did not issue a rescue order. Zuccotti states that there is, in fact, "considerable evidence of papal disapproval of the hiding of Jews and other fugitives in Vatican properties."

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