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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Pneuma (πνεύμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath," and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul." It is given various technical meanings by medical writers and philosophers of antiquity, including:

  • Pneuma, "air in motion, breath, wind," equivalent in the material monism of Anaximenes to aer (ἀήρ, "air") as the element from which all else originated; the earliest extant occurrence of the term
  • Pneuma (ancient medicine), the circulating air that is necessary for the systemic functioning of vital organs, according to various medical writers of antiquity
  • The connate pneuma of Aristotle, the warm mobile "air" that in the sperm transmits the capacity for locomotion and certain sensations to the offspring; see also Vital heat and Spontaneous generation: Aristotle
  • Pneuma (Stoic), the Stoic philosophical concept of the animating warm breath, in both the cosmos and the body

In Judaic and Christian usage, pneuma is a common word for "spirit" in the Septuagint and Greek New Testament, and also refers to:

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Pneuma" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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