From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
- A philosophy based on the intuitive experience of phenomena, and on the premise that reality consists of objects and events as consciously perceived by conscious beings.
- A movement based on this, originated about 1905 by Edmund Husserl.
Phenomenology has at least three main meanings in philosophical history: one in the writings of G.W.F. Hegel, another in the writings of Edmund Husserl in 1920, and a third, deriving from Husserl's work, in the writings of his former research assistant Martin Heidegger in 1927:
- For G.W.F. Hegel, phenomenology is an approach to philosophy that begins with an exploration of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as a means to finally grasp the absolute, logical, ontological and metaphysical Spirit that is behind phenomena. This has been called a "dialectical phenomenology".
- For Edmund Husserl, phenomenology is "the reflective study of the essence of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view" Phenomenology takes the intuitive experience of phenomena (what presents itself to us in phenomenological reflexion) as its starting point and tries to extract from it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. When generalized to the essential features of any possible experience, this has been called "transcendental phenomenology".
- Martin Heidegger believed that Husserl's approach overlooked basic structural features of both the subject and object of experience - what he called their "being", and expanded phenomenological enquiry to encompass our understanding and experience of Being itself, thus making phenomenology the method (in the first phase of his career at least) of the study of being: ontology.
- Geneva School
- Gestalt therapy
- Important publications in phenomenological psychology
- Personhood Theory
- Phenomenology of religion
- Phenomenology (psychology)
- Philosophical Anthropology
- Philosophy of technology
- Social constructionism