From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Phallic architecture is architecture that "consciously or unconsciously provide[s] a symbolic representation of the phallus" (The Visual Dictionary of Architecture). Phallic architecture is not solely limited to skyscrapers and obelisks; phallic tombstones and other such structures can be found in graveyards and monuments around the world and to decorate buildings and walls as motifs and in sculptural works. Buildings intentionally or unintentionally resembling the human penis can be the local source of amusement and attract tourists in cities around the world.
Phallic architecture became prominent in ancient Egypt and ancient Greece, where genitalia and human sexuality was a fascination. Both the Greeks and ancient Romans honored the phallus and worshiped Priapus, the well-endowed god of fertility and built temples and monuments to worship him, utilizing phallic architecture and sculpture. The Ancient Greeks celebrated phallic festivals and built a shrine which they called "Herm" with an erect phallus at the entrance of major public buildings, homes and along roads to honor Hermes, messenger of the gods. It is believed that they sought their inspiration from the ancient Egyptians and their phallic image of Lord Menu, the valley god, who was similarly depicted, holding his erect phallus. The ancient Egyptian reverence of the phallus was related with the cult of Osiris. Human torsos with a phallus for head (Soter Kosmoi) have been found. In these parts of the ancient world, obelisk-like structures resembling the human penis were built, often with phallic symbols, representing human fertility and asserting male sexuality and orgasm. Phallic symbolism was prevalent in the architecture of ancient Babylonia, and the Romans—who were deeply superstitious—often introduced phallic components as architectural pieces and domestic items. Many cultures worldwide, aside from those of the central ancient world, including the Indonesians, the Malians, and the Japanese, also recognized the phallus as a symbol of fertility, featuring it in motifs on their temples and other areas of society. Fetishism with the phallus architecturally and in smaller implements was also exhibited by certain Christian sects in medieval times, such as the Manicheans, and was connected with forms of religious flagellantism. Phallic shrines are common in Far East Asia, especially in Buddhist parts of Korea and Japan, and are seen as symbols of fertility.
In modern times, the most obvious examples of phallic architecture, but more subtle in nature and often subject to interpretation as such, emerged during urban development in the western world during the 20th century, particularly in Chicago and New York City. Scholars of anthropology, sociology, and feminism have pointed out the symbolic nature of phallic architecture, especially large skyscrapers which dominate the landscape as symbols of masculinity, male domination, political authority, power, and violence, as a clear metaphorical statement of male power. There are many examples of modern phallic architecture, including the Washington Monument and the Empire State Building, and the more obvious Ypsilanti Water Tower of Michigan and the Torre Agbar of Barcelona, Spain, but very few buildings exist in the west in which the human penis has specifically been cited as a chief inspiration by the architect. Nonetheless, many sculptors have created some public phallic works of art, such as the statue in honor to the Carnation Revolution on the top of one hill in Lisbon, Portugal from the sculptor João Cutileiro.
History and background
The worship of the phallus has existed since the Stone Age, and was particularly prevalent during the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age. Phallic architecture became prominent in ancient Egypt and Greece, where genitalia and human sexuality received a high degree of attention. The ancient Greeks honored the phallus and celebrated phallic festivals. The Greco-Roman deity Priapus was worshiped as a god of fertility, depicted with a giant phallus in numerous public architectural pieces. The Greeks regularly built a shrine which they called "Herm" at the entrance of major public buildings, homes and along roads to honor Hermes, messenger of the gods. The shrines typically "took the form of a vertical pillar topped by the bearded head of a man and from the surface of the pillar below the head, an erect phallus protruded". It is believed that they sought their inspiration from the ancient Egyptians and their phallic image of Lord Menu, the valley god, who was similarly depicted in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail. The ancient Egyptian reverence of the phallus was related with the cult of Osiris, whose body was cut into 14 pieces and scattered all over Egypt; each was eventually recovered by his family except his penis which was believed to have been consumed by a fish.
Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, documented women carrying large phallic shaped monuments and ornaments the size of a human body in villages in ancient Dionysia. On the island of Delos a pillar supports a colossal phallus, the symbol of Dionysus; phallus reliefs on buildings on such sites are also believed to have been apotropaic devices to ward off evil. The elaborate use of phallic architecture and sculpture in ancient Greek society can also be seen in sites such as Nea Nikomedeia in northern Greece. Archaeologists excavating the ancient town discovered clay sculptures of plump women with phallic heads and folded arms. Similar figurines of women with phallus heads from the Neolithic period have been found across Greece, Macedonia and parts of old Yugoslavia. The vast majority of the figurines of the Hamangia culture have cylindrical phallus-shaped heads without facial features, although some, particularly of the Aegean culture, had phallic sculptural pieces with phallic heads with a pinched nose and slitty eyes. In these parts of the ancient world, obelisk like structures resembling the human penis were built, often with phallic symbols, representing human fertility and asserting male sexuality and orgasm. Phallic symbolism was prevalent in the architecture of ancient Babylonia, and in Khametian iconography, the obelisk was considered to be symbolic of the phallus of the masculine earth. The obelisks of ancient Egypt themselves had several functions, existing both as a reference to the cultus of the sun and of the phallus, representing fertility and power. Although phallic architecture as individual pieces was not prevalent in ancient Rome as it was in ancient Greece or Egypt, the Romans were deeply superstitious and often introduced phallus-related components as architectural pieces and domestic items. Archaeologists unearthing a site in Pompei discovered many vases, ornaments and sculptures unearthed revealing the preoccupation with the phallus, also unearthing an 18-inch terracotta phallus protruding from what was believed to have been a bakery with the inscription, "Hic habitat felicitas" (here dwells happiness), and many Romans wore phallus amulets to ward off the evil-eye. Priapic worship amongst the women of Sicily continued into the 18th century; worshiping phallic votive objects and kissing such offerings before placing them upon the altar in the churches. Fetishism with the phallus architecturally and in smaller implements was also exhibited by certain Christian sects in medieval times, such as the Manicheans, and was connected with masochism and sadism, a form of religious flagellantism. Smaller phallic shaped monuments in the form of idols, even vases, rings, drinking vessels and jewellery have been well-documented and could be found within medieval churches of Ireland.
In Hinduism, the Hindu trimurthi represents Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer. Shiva, the main deity in India, is both destroyer and is stated to also include his role of creation; this creation role is represented by the phallic symbol, known as lingam in which form he is worshiped or in the form of male trinity of penis and two testicles. The linga, or phallus, is a common feature of Hindu temples across India, engrained as reliefs or other forms. The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu, built during the Chola Dynasty, is dedicated to Shiva, and features lingam between the cells; it is especially renowned for its "Hall of One Thousand Lingas". In Indonesia, the phallic lingga and feminine yoni, remain common symbols of harmony. The Sultan's Palace of Kasepuhan, in West Java, has a number of lingga-yoni carvings along its walls. According to the Indonesian chronicles of the Babad Tanah Jawi, Prince Puger gained the kingly power from God, by ingesting sperm from the phallus of the already-dead Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram. Candi Sukuh temple of Ngancar, East Java, was built in the 10th century and is dedicated to Shiva and is evidence of Tantric ritual in Hinduism and the fertility cult practiced at the time and preoccupation with the lingga. The temple has numerous reliefs graphically depicting sexuality and fertility including several stone depictions of a copulating penis and vagina. It consists of a pyramid with reliefs and statues at the front. Among them is a male statue clutching his penis, with three tortoises with flattened shells. The temple once had a striking 1.82 metre (5'11.5 ft) representation of lingga with four testicles; this is now housed in the National Museum of Indonesia. Phallic references were also made in Khmer architecture in Cambodia, and several Khmer temples depict the phallus in reliefs.
Ancient Malians, particularly the royals of Djenne, decorated their palaces with phallus like piers and columns at the entrance of their palaces and decorated the walls with phallus motifs. Similar features can be seen on the pillars of many temples across Africa, often interpreted by western scholars to be phallic symbols, but may often be more subtle and subject to varying interpretations. Like the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, Aksumite kings built temples with phallic pillars in ancient Ethiopian cities such as Konsu, and monolithic pillars with phallic representation have also been discovered in Madagascar. In ancient Maya, phallic architecture was rare but Uxmal in particular has a considerable number of phallus-like architectural pieces. It contains a temple known as the Temple of the Phallis and phallic sculptures and motifs.
In Claude Nicolas Ledoux's initial draft for the Oikema, the house of pleasure in the Ideal City of Chaux, Ledoux drew upon allegorical ideas in his design with the union of man and woman, a physiological interpretation of intercourse and penetration. Ledoux also drew upon phallic and sexually charged inspiration in other buildings which he designed; his design of the Théatre de Besançon for instance was fueled by the exigencies of prostitution and ancient sexual ritual. However, in comparison to the likes of Jean-Jacques Lequeu, who gained notoriety for his pornographic architectural concoctions, Ledoux's architectural inspiration was relatively mild, and he is said to have omitted towers from his designs on occasion as he was aware that they would be frowned upon shamefully by general society as a too obvious representation of the phallus.
According to Oscar Reutersvärd, the interest in neoclassical architecture in the 18th century was synonymous with and motivated by a similar interest in masculine virility. Works such as Francesco Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1467) and Giovanni Battista Piranesi's Campus Martius (1762) show profoundly the ancient influence of phallic architecture in design and worship, and contain numerous illustrations of Priapic temples and architecture. Piranesi believed that the purpose of the phallic designs were to celebrate virility and male regenerative power. Other commentators such as Carl August Ehrensvärd also provided illustrations and analysis of Priapic temples and the meaning of phallic architecture. A work of note to this effect is Neoclassical Temple of Virility and the Buildings with a Phallic Shaped Plan (1977) of the Institute for Art History of the University of Lund, Sweden.
In America, especially in Chicago and New York, and numerous other global cities, high rise skyscrapers of phallic shape grew up in the 20th century. Le Corbusier, the famous architect, propagated it in Europe in place of traditional decorative architecture. Similar futuristic developments took place in Italy with the initiative of Antonio Sant'Elia, symbolizing the triumph of man. Yet unlike those of ancient times which were blatant architectural representations of the phallus, in the West in modern times phallic symbolism is more subtle, and may often be subject to interpretation as such; very few architects have specifically admitted the human phallus as a source for their architectural creation. The Fascists were cited as having an obsession with phallic architecture which was rigid and impermeable. In the last few decades the high-rise phallic skyscraper has been a symbol of government quest for economic power in China, Hong Kong and South Korea and the other ASEAN/Pacific Rim nations. China fuels billions of dollars annually into high-rise office and residential buildings with the aim of increasing GDP, at a rate far greater than they can be occupied.
In art and architecture, acutely vertical buildings are often seen as a symbol of masculinity and horizontal buildings are seen as more feminine. The terms "phallic verticality", "phallic erectility" and "phallic brutality" have been referred to by architectural theorist Henri Lefebvre, who in The Production of Space argued that buildings of phallic architectural type metaphorically symbolize "force, male fertility, masculine violence" (Lefebvre 1991:287). Phallic erectility "bestows a special status on the perpendicular, proclaiming phallocracy as the orientation of space" while phallic brutality "does not remain abstract, for it is the brutality of political power." Lefebvre conducted considerable research into the meaning of high-rise buildings. He said "The arrogant verticality of skyscrapers, and especially of public and state buildings, introduces a phallic or more precisely a phallocratic element into the visual realm; the purpose of this display, of this need to impress, is to convey an impression of authority to each spectator. Verticality and great height have ever been the spatial expression of potentially violent power." Sigmund Freud (says William Anton, a University of South Florida psychologist) metaphorically drew a comparison between "high achievement and the acquisition of wealth as building monuments to our penises."
In Surrealism and Architecture (2004), in the section on "Surrealism and the Irrational Embellishment of Paris" on the "Recherches expérimentales sur certaines possibilités d'embellissement irrationnel d'une ville", Raymond Spiteri argues that surrealists "capitalized on the phallic symbolism of monuments such as the ancient Egyptian obelisk from Luxor in the Place de la Concorde or the Vendome Column" by "supplementing these phallic structures with female counterparts". André Breton for example suggested moving the obelisk to La Villette abattoir and designing a large gloved hand of a woman holding the obelisk in a suggestive manner, and adapting the Vendome into a factory chimney with a nude woman climbing it.
Auguste Bartholdi's 1870 monument Monument des Aéronautes du Siège for instance, a commemoration of Léon Gambetta's escape from Paris in balloon during the Franco-Prussian War, was also subject to debate amongst Parisian artists of the early 20th century as they believed it resembled a testicle. Arthur Harfaux proposed turning the monument into "an enormous sex, the balloon forming a testicle and the phallus being horizontal", while Breton proposed turning it into copulating genitals, adding a twin balloon to form two testicles.
In monuments and shrines
During the modern era, many sculptors have created some public phallic works of art, with varying degrees of subtlety. One of these examples may be the statue in honor to the Carnation Revolution on the top of a hill in Lisbon, Portugal by the sculptor João Cutileiro. Another example, more subtle, may be the statue named Crystal in Sergel's square, Stockholm, by the sculptor Edvin Öhrström. Phallic architecture is also not uncommon in graveyards, with tombstones resembling the phallus, intentionally or unintentionally. Perhaps the greatest example of a phallic cemetery is the Khalid Nabi Cemetery in hills of northeastern Iran near the border with Turkmenistan, roughly 40 miles northeast of Gonbad-e Kavous. The cemetery, now a national heritage site protected by the Iranian government and tourist attraction, is believed to house the tomb of the Yemeni prophet, Khalid Nabi, a Christian prophet who was born 40 years prior to the birth of Muhammad, in c. 530. The ancient graveyard contains some 600 tombstones of unknown origin, many of which are clear representations of the phallus; from a distance they resemble stone pegs.
Phallic shrines are common in Far East Asia, especially in Buddhist parts of Korea and Japan where they are seen as symbols of fertility or prowess. In Dragon Pool Temple in Jeju City, there is a phallic shrine which is visited by female pilgrims who come to worship it for its perceived fertility blessings. The phallic stone is made from granite, quite small in size and white and was reportedly found in a field nearby by a farmer. In Thailand, the phallus is also considered to be a symbol of good luck and representative of fertility. There are numerous shrines in the country featuring phallic architecture. Chao Mae Tuptim shrine in Bangkok, behind the Swissôtel Bangkok hotel has over a hundred colored circumcised wooden penis statues of all shapes and sizes which are said to possess special cosmic powers and endow good fortune and fertility on anybody coming into contact with them. Near Erdene Zuu Monastery in Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia is Kharkhorin Rock which contains a massive statue of a penis raised on a platform on the steppe. The statue has dual functions; primarily it is a reminder to the monks to remain celibate, but it is also a symbol of fertility and human life.
A smaller statue of a phallus was built nearer the monastery at a later date. Haesindang Park (also known as "Penis Park") in Gangwon Province of South Korea, located about Template:Convert south of Samcheok, is a nature park which contains a number of erect statues. A tragic legend shrouds them in that a virgin was once swept out to sea and drowned, unable to be saved by her lover. The townspeople were devastated and helpless, and a curse appeared to have been cast over them, ruining the local fishing industry. One day, a local fisherman relieved himself in the sea and miraculously the fishing industry revived. He discovered that her restless spirit could be appeased in such a manner, so the townsfolk compensated for the woman's inability to consummate beyond the grave by placing sexually potent phallic statues in view of the shore. The statues range in size and styles; some have faces on them and are more animated in appearance and more colorful, but others are exact depictions of the human penis.
In some Asian countries such as Bhutan, many have a belief that a phallus brings good luck and drives away evil spirits. Symbols are routinely painted outside walls of the new houses and carved wooden phalluses are hung (sometimes crossed by a design of sword or dagger) outside, on the eves of the new homes, at the four corners. On a road drive from Paro airport to Thimphu explicit paintings of phalluses are a common sight on the white-washed walls of homes, shops and eateries. In the Chimi Lhakhang monastery, the shrine dedicated to Drupka Kinley, several wooden penises are used to bless people who visit the monastery on pilgrimage seeking blessings to bear a child or for welfare of their children. The glaringly displayed phallus in the monastery is a brown wooden piece with a silver handle, a religious relic considered to possess divine powers and hence used for blessing the spiritually oriented people. It is also said to prevent quarrels among family members in the houses which are painted with these symbols.
Buildings interpreted as phallic architecture
Empire State Building
The 102-story Empire State Building, located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street, is one of the world's most famous landmarks, and is generally thought of as an American cultural icon. Cited by Valerie Briginshaw as a symbol of American pride and "the ultimate sign of American phallic power", it was inaugurated on 31 May 1931. Designed in the Art Deco style, it has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft (443.2 m) high. It stood as the world's tallest building for 40 years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Numerous people have mentioned its similarities in appearance to the phallus, with its "tall and glinting" towers. However, as one author said, "a modern New Yorker would not consider the Empire State Building in such a manner nor would a Muslim be directly aware of the phallic resemblance of a minaret. Such correlation would hold only if the phallus was understood as a personified animus image and as something vital to the feminine experience of the maternal unconscious."
Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy, dating from around 1173, has long suffered from structural problems. The tower is eight stories high at Template:Convert and before restoration work from 1990 leaned 5.5 degrees. It currently leans about 4 degrees but due to foundation problems it continues to sink about 1mm annually. The resemblance of the tower to a penis has seen the "Leaning Tower of Pisa" became a sexual slang term for a half erect penis. Local retailers have attempted to capitalize on the tower as a phallic architectural piece by making souvenirs featuring underwear with the tower resembling a penis. The Catholic Church denounced the promotion of the tower in such a manner as showing "a complete lack of respect and a "disgrace" and retailers can now be fined up to €500 for selling items promoting the tower as a penis.
Nelson's Column, a monument to Admiral Horatio Nelson, was erected by a grateful nation between 1840 and 1843 to commemorate Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. However the Nelson Memorial Committee ran out of money, having only raised £20,485 in public subscriptions. The column is Corinthian with a granite shaft In his poem A Ballad of the Good Lord Nelson, Lawrence Durrell included the multiply allusive lines "Now stiff on a pillar with a phallic air/Nelson stylites in Trafalgar Square/Reminds the British what once they were."
Obelisk of Luxor
The Obelisk of Luxor, which stands in the Place de la Concorde of Paris, France, was given to the French by the Egyptians in the 1800s. The 23-meter (75-foot) obelisk originally stood at the front of Luxor Temple, honoring Ramses II, pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. According to Michael D. Garval, the French perceived the obelisk as "prodigiously phallic" from the moment it arrived. A legend is based around the stone in that the French allegedly cut off the erect penis of the baboon on Rameses II's obelisk from Luxor before it reached Paris.
Oriental Pearl TV Tower
The Oriental Pearl TV Tower, located in Pudong Park in Lujiazui, Shanghai, China, is the world’s third tallest TV and radio tower at Template:Convert, the tallest such building in Asia. The tower houses restaurants, theaters, a conference hall, and a hotel and is a significant tourist attraction in the city. As Pedro C. López describes it, "At night out of the Pudong skyline, a huge phallic architectural wonder called the Oriental Pearl TV Tower pierced the heavens like a menacing lit missile." The tower has been met mixed a mixed reception, however. The New York Times described it as a "great phallic monster of truly monumental ugliness, a bit like an enormous asparagus with a silver ball on top." The long steel column tower is considered by some to be proof of the city's phallic worship, and that such skyscrapers indicative of wealth are an increasing aphrodisiac of the materialist in Chinese cities.
State Capitol, Lincoln
The State Capitol building of Lincoln, Nebraska has been cited as the "apex" of phallic architecture. At 15 stories and 400 feet (121 m) tall, it is the second-tallest U.S. statehouse, surpassed only by the 34-story Louisiana State Capitol. It is the tallest building in Lincoln, the third-tallest in the state, and also the heaviest Capitol building in North America. The building was designed by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, who drew upon Classical and Gothic architectural traditions. It was constructed between 1922 and 1932, of Indiana limestone, with a golden dome. The building is nicknamed "The Phallus of the Plains" for its phallus-like appearance.
Swiss Re Building
The Swiss Re Building, formally named 30 St Mary Axe, opened in London in April 2004. Designed by Norman Foster, the Template:Convert structure, London’s first environmentally sustainable tall building using recycled and recyclable materials, has been compared to the phallus and a gherkin; its nicknames include Gherkin, the Erotic Gherkin, Towering Innuendo and the Crystal Phallus. Also likened to a "phallic fat cigar", the building has been cited as a "crude anatomical metaphor", yet has become one of the London's most iconic buildings. Cabinet voted it the "Best Uncircumcised Building in the World".
The Torre Agbar is a 38-story skyscraper located in the Plaça de les Glòries Catalanes of the Poblenou neighborhood of Barcelona, Spain. Designed by Jean Nouvel, it is named after its owners, the Agbar Group, a holding company whose interests include the Barcelona water company Aigües de Barcelona. An example of High-tech architecture in the city, its design combines a number of different architectural concepts, resulting in a striking structure built with reinforced concrete, covered with a facade of glass, and over 4,500 window openings cut out of the structural concrete. The building stands out on the skyline of Barcelona; it is the third tallest building in the city, standing at 144.44 m (473.88 ft), with an area of over 50,000 square metres, of which 30,000 are offices. 2,500 LED bulbs cause the tower to change color at night. It was officially opened by the King of Spain on 16 September 2005. Nouvel claims it to be inspired by a geyser and the nearby mountain of Montserrat, although he does note its phallic appearance. Although many draw comparisons with the phallus, locals refer to the structure as el supositorio (the suppository), a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum or vagina.
The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is often seen as a prime example of phallic architecture and American masculinity. The towering monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, it is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk. It was completed on 31 January 1848. In a Journal review, dated 17 October 1911, Arnold Bennett said of the monument, "Saw Washington monument. Phallic. Appalling. A national catastrophe – only equalled by the Albert Memorial. Tiny doll-like people waiting to go into it." Dan Burstein says of it, "Speaking of sex symbols, there is no more phallic symbol in existence than the Washington Monument, and the Capitol dome can be viewed as breastlike." James WebbTemplate:Dn used a metaphor to praise the "uplift[ing]" power of the Washington Monument as a white phallus, "piercing the air like a bayonet". Ozmioz Mak humorously mentions the monument in her novel Geocache of the Rainbow Bull, in which the character of Eve mentions graves with sculptures resembling the Washington Monument, to which the character of Sam replies, "With the Washington Monument, it's just an old-fashioned way to tell old King George III, who's manlier now?"
Ypsilanti Water Tower
Ypsilanti Water Tower is a historic water tower in Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States, listed as a National Registry of Historic Places building in 1981. The tower was designed by William R. Coats and constructed as part of an elaborate city waterworks project that began in 1889. Located on the highest point in Ypsilanti, the tower was completed in 1890 at a cost of $21,435.63. Today the tower is frequently joked about for its phallic shape and has earned the nickname "Big Dick". It has become a well-known landmark in Ypsilanti, and due to the building's shape and location, the tower is frequently used by residents as a point for providing directions for visitors and residents. Iggy Pop said of it in a 1996 interview, "The most famous thing in Ypsilanti is this water tower made out of brick, about 175 years old. It looks like this big penis."
The World's Most Phallic Building contest was a contest held in 2003 by Cabinet magazine to find the building which most resembled a human phallus. The contest originated when writer Jonathan Ames drew the ire of Slate readers by claiming, in a diary that was later published in his book I Love You More Than You Know, that the Williamsburg Bank Building in Brooklyn, New York City, New York, was the world's most phallic. This led Cabinet magazine to initiate a search of its own to find which building was truly the "world's most phallic". Cities and readers subsequently poured in their views and staked their claims to the magazine's editors. After months of entries and discussion, the Ypsilanti Water Tower was announced as the winner, although the winner of a readers' poll was the Florida State Capitol building in Tallahassee. Another notable nominee was the Torre Agbar of Barcelona.
Hyde Park, Hyde, Greater Manchester
In 2012, a beehive metal sculpture by Thompson Dagnall in Hyde, Greater Manchester, was criticized by the council for installment adjacent to the children’s play area in Hyde park for looking too rude and phallic. Although Dagnall was paid £3,500 a week for his efforts, council workers modified the structure by stumping it and moved it to another part of the park.