Paul Citroen  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Roelof Paul Citroen (December 15, 1896 - March 13, 1983) was a German-born Dutch artist, art educator and co-founder of the New Art Academy in Amsterdam. Among his best known works are the photo-montage Metropolis and the 1949 Dutch postage stamps.

Contents

Biography

Early life and works

Citroen was born and grew up in a middle-class family in Berlin. Both his parents were Dutch Jews. His father owned a fur shop. At an early age, Citroen began drawing, provoking strong support from his parents. He soon started to experiment with photography with Erwin Blumenfeld and studied art in Berlin.

In 1919 Citroen began studying at the Bauhaus, where he started taking lessons from Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky (part of Der Blaue Reiter) and Johannes Itten, who became one of his biggest influences. Around this time, he started Metropolis (1923), which became his best known piece. Citroen's Metropolis influenced Fritz Lang to make his classic film Metropolis. Between 1929 and 1935, Citroen made many photographs, clearly influenced by his work with Blumenfeld.

Later life

He soon started up the Nieuwe Kunstschool (New Art School) with Charles Roelofsz. It ran out of money and closed down in 1937. That year, Citroen became a scholar at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague. Among his many students are Kees Bol, Madeleine Gans, Henk Hartog, and Jos Zeegers. He designed his monumental postage stamps in 1949. In 1960 he stopped teaching and started painting portraits as his main focus. He painted portraits of famous Dutch people, including a well-known portrait of Liesbeth List in 1979.

Paul Citroen died in 1983 in Wassenaar.

Prijzen

Werken in musea

  • Hannema-de Stuers Fundatie (Heino, Zwolle)
  • Gemeentemuseum Den Haag
  • Letterkundig Museum, Den Haag (o.m. drie olieverfschilderijen, 43 tekeningen, drie litho's van schrijvers)
  • Hermann-Hesse-Museum Calw (houtskooltekening van Hermann Hesse, 1962)
  • Prentenkabinet Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

Boeken, artikelen van en over Paul Citroen

  • Palet-een boek gewijd aan de hedendaagse Nederlandsche schilderkunst (1931, de Spieghel, Amsterdam)
  • Jacob Bendien 1890-1933 (1940, W.L. en J. Brusse, Rotterdam, herinneringsboek, samenst. Paul Citroen)
  • Licht in 'n groene schaduw (1941, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag)
  • Richard (1942, Den haag)
  • Ontaarde kunst (1945, de Driehoek, 's Graveland)
  • Eigenhand. Brief m. Unterschrift (1947, Wassenaar)
  • Sketchbook for friends - (1947)
  • De tekenaar Henk Hartog 1915-1942 (1947, H.P. Leopolds, Den Haag)
  • Kunsttestament (1952, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag, Duitstalig)
  • Gezien door (1956, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag)
  • Gezien door... (1956, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag)
  • Introvertissimento (1956, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag)
  • Paul Citroen (1956, artikel in Kroniek van Kunst en Kultuur 16)
  • Over het portretteren (1956, artikel in Parnas, Tijdschrift over de vormgeving 1)
  • Het tekenwerk van Paul Citroen (1957, catalogus Gemeentemuseum Arnhem)
  • Kleine Zeichenlehre (1957)
  • Wie Ich Thomas Mann zeichnete (1957, artikel in Bulletin Museum Boymans 8)
  • Tekeningen van Paul Citroen (1958, Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven)
  • Collectie Paul Citroen (1959, Gemeentemuseum Arnhem, museum Boijmans-van Beuningen)
  • Een tekenles. De nieuwe tekenleer, lijn, toon, materiaal, de stip (1960, Rotterdam Brusse N.V.)
  • Appel of citroen (1963, Wending)
  • Notities van een schilder (1966, L.J.C. Boucher, Den Haag)
  • Portretten van letterkundigen (1966, Dordrechts Museum)
  • Kunsttestament (1967, Drukkerij Trio, Den Haag, vertaling van Kunsttestament, 1952)
  • De portrettist Paul Citroen als verzamelaar (1968, Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden)
  • Wir Maler heute un die Kunsttradition - (1968, privédruk, Ascona)
  • Paul Citroen/Sierk Schroder (1971, tentoonstellingscat. De Zonnewijzer, Philips Ontspanningscentrum Eindhoven, met Sierk Schroder))
  • A'dams (A'dam's) en Eva's (1971, Galerie Hooft, portfolio met litho's)
  • Paul Citroen en het Bauhaus: herinneringen in woord en beeld (1974, Bruna, Utrecht, met Kurt Lob)
  • Portretten - (1974, uitgever Semper Agendo, Apeldoorn/Antwerpen, tweede druk in 1975)
  • Retrospektive Fotografie - (1978, Bielefeld/Dusseldorf)
  • Bij benadering (1979, De Pelikaan)
  • Landschappen (1979, Terra, Zutphen)
  • Paul Citroen fotograaf. Foto's uit de jaren '29-'35 (1979, Haags Gemeentemuseum Prentenkabinet)
  • Paul Citroen, schilder-tekenaar (1981, Van Holkema & Warendorf, Bussum, met Klaas Peereboom)
  • Palet-een boek gewijd aan de hedendaagsche Nederlandsche schilderkunst (1981, Reflex, Utrecht, facsimile van boek 1931)
  • Paul Citroen & Erwin Blumenfeld (1993, Photographer's Gallery, London, met E. Blumenfeld)
  • Paul Citroen. Kunstenaar, docent, verzamelaar (Waanders/Hsf, Zwolle, Heino, Wijhe, door H. van Rheeden e.a.)
  • Paul Citroen 1896-1983 (1996, Focus, Amsterdam)
  • Paul Citroen en de fotografie. Het begin Berlijn (1996, Focus, Amsterdam, door Herbert Molderings)
  • Collectie Paul Citroen (ongedateerd, Provinciaal Bestuur Overijssel, Zwolle)





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