Panurge  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Panurge (from Greek Πανοῦργος / Panoûrgos meaning "He who makes everything") is one of the principal characters in the Pantagruel (especially the third and fourth books) of Rabelais, an exceedingly crafty knave, a libertine, and a coward.

In Chapter 9 of the first book he shows he can speak many languages (German, Italian, Scottish, Dutch, Spanish, Danish, Hebrew, Greek, Latin and French), including some of the first examples of a constructed language.

In French, he appears in the set phrase mouton de Panurge, after a story in which he buys a sheep from the merchant Dindenault and then, for revenge, makes the sheep jump off a cliff. The rest of the sheep in the herd stupidly jump after it in spite of the shepherd.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Panurge" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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