Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Their Works  

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{{Template}} Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Their Works (1874) is a book by Clara Erskine Clement Waters.

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REFACE TO SECOND EDITION.


For the convenience of my readers it seems best to explain more fully than has been done the plan of this book. In writing it I had two objects constantly in mind, namely, that it must be kept within a portable size and a moderate cost. In order to do this, all living artists were excluded, and those not living spoken of with as much conciseness as possible, while few were mentioned whose works do not come in the way of most travel- lers. This last rule when applied to the artists of antiquity takes in a very small number. Of antique paintings we have almost nothing remaining, and of antique sculptures but a small number of well attested originals and some copies. My limits have been exceeded in this respect by adding a few artists of antiquity of whom much is written and said, but whose works are not extant. It is a pleasure to elaborate, to dwell with mi- nuteness upon every known circumstance in the lives of those who have left us works of Art, and this has often been done. Our libraries are rich in such fascinating and valuable books ; but my aim was to give outlines ; to supply the want of a Hand- book for travellers, and a convenient book of reference for all, in which facts may be quickly ascertained, to make a suggestive rather than an exhaustive work, — in short, a book wherein

" Th' unlearned their wants may view, The learned reflect on what before they knew."

January, 1874.


PREFACE.


"When I regard a favorite shelf in my library, and consider how exhaustively the subjects of this volume have been treated, I feel inclined to hide it away ; but when I think how many there are in our land who are as much interested in art and artists as I am, and have not the means to furnish such a shelf, I hope that this book may do something for them. I have also endeavored to make it a book of reference which can be easily consulted and used to advantage in connection with more exten- sive works. Much time and study have been given to its prep- aration, and I have aimed to be conscientiously correct as well as unprejudiced in my decisions between conflicting authorities. The books consulted are too numerous to be named except in part, which will be done at the end of this preface. The book is not necessarily connected with my work on " Legendary and Mythological Art," but the two are so related to each other as to be profitably used together.

The arrangement of engraving lists is, so far as I know, unique, and will render it a useful handbook for connoisseurs and buyers.

The illustrations are representations of standard works of art, most of which are seen in European galleries and churches. A good number of monograms of painters and engravers are also given.

I have endeavored in a small space to speak not only of artists as such, but by various facts and anecdotes to convey an idea of what they were in character and life.

Three comprehensive indexes are added, which will increase the convenience and usefulness of the book, and in short, in its entire plan I have adopted the motto of Jan van Eyck, " Als ich chan." Clara Erskine Clement.

Boston, October 14, 1873.


AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.


D'Argexyille. " Abrege de la Vic de plus fameux Peintres." D'Agixcourt. " Histoire de l'Art par les Mouuments."

" AXOXIMO DI MoRELLI."

Bermudez. "Diecionario Historico de los mas Illustres Profesores de las Bellas Artes en Espana."

Blaxc, Charles. The Works of.

Carpexter. " Memoir of Sir Anthony Vandyek."

Cuxxixgham. " Lives of the most Eminent British Painters."

Crowe axd Cavalcaselle. " Early Flemish Painters," etc., etc.

Cartox, L'Abbe. " Les Trois Freres Van Eyck."

Eastlake. " Materials for a History of Oil Painting."

Didrox. " Manuel dTconographie Chretienne."

Dayies. " Life of Murillo."

Ford. " Handbook of Spain."

Felibiex. »' Entreticns sur les Vies et sur les Ouvrages de plus excel- lens Peintres."

Gate. " Carteggio Inedits d'Artisti."

Grimm. " Life of Michael Ancrelo."

Heller. "Das Leben und die Werkc Albreeht Diirers."

Jamesox, Mrs. " Italian Painters."

Kugler. Handbooks of Italian, German, Dutch, and Flemish Paint- ing.

Laxzi. " Storia Pittorica dell' Italia."

"Legexda Aurea," The.

Lubke. Histories of Painting and Sculpture.

Miciiiel. " Rubens et l'Ecolc d'Anvers."

Michiel. " La Peintre Flamande."

Maschixi " Guida di Venezia."

Milaxesi. " Documenti per la Storia dell 'Arte Senese."

Merrifield, Mrs. Translation of " Cennino Cennini's Treatise on Painting."

Northcote. " Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds."

Passavaxt. " Rafael von Urbino," etc.

Raczyxski. " Les Arts en Portugal."

Rumour. "Italienische Forschungen."

Rameoux. " Umrisse zur veranscbaulichung alt Christlichen Kunst in Italien."

Schafer. Translation, "Das Handbuch der Malerei vom Berge Athos."


AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.

Shaw. " Illuminated Ornaments sketched from MSS., etc.'

Stirling. " Annals of the Artists of Spain."

Vosmaer. " Rembrandt Harmens van Rijn."

Villot. " Notice des Tableaux du Louvre."

Vasari. " Lives of Painters, Sculptors, Architects," etc.

Vebmiglioli. Memoir, etc., of Pinturicchio and Perugino.

TV.VLPOLE. WORNTJM.


" Anecdotes of Painting. " Epochs of Painting."


Dictionaries and Catalogues : Bartsch, Bryan, Elmes, Heineken, Nag- ler, Pilkington, Rigollot, Seguier, Smith, etc.


ABBREVIATIONS USED.


Card. Cardinal. Cath. Cathedral. Ch. Church. Coll. Collection.


S. Saint.


Gall. Gallery.

Gio. Giovanni. Mus. Museum. Pal Palace.


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Transfiguration of Christ. Apollo Belvedere. "Vatican Laocoon. Vatican .

Cupids. Francisco Albani Magdalene. Correggio. Dresden Gall Spalatro. "Washington Allston The False Players. Caravaggio Dirce. Naples . . Head of Roxana. Farnesina, Rome .


Raphael. Vatican


Frontispiece.


Venice


S. Lorenzo Giustiniani.

Christ. Gio. Bellini

Relief. From Pulpit in Sta. Croce, Florence Milking a Goat. Nicolas Berchem Apollo and Daphne. Villa Borghese, Rome

A Glorified Madonna. Berlin Mus.

S. Justina and Alphonso I. of Ferrara. Belvedere, Vienna Coronation of the Virgin. S. Simpliciano, Milan . Isaiah. M. Angelo. Sistine Chapel, Rome Moses. M. Angelo. S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome . Adoration of the Magi. Paul Veronese. Dresden Gall Venus and Mars. A. Carracci. Farnese Pal., Rome . S. John. Cimabue. S. Maria Novella, Florence Death of S. Mary of Egypt. Pietro da Cortona Group. From a painting by Lucas Cranach

S. Lucia. Crivelli

Communion of S. Jerome. Domenichino. Vatican

Picture by G. Dow. Vienna Gall

The Women going to the Sepulchre of Christ. Duccio

Siena ......

S. Christopher. Albert Durer .

The Anchorites. Hubert van Eyek

Annunciation. J. van Eyek

A Wall-Painting. In the Catacombs of S. Calixtus, Rome .

Coronation of the Virgin. Fra Angelico. Acad, of Florence

Madonna. Fr. Francia. Dresden

Relief. From Ghiberti's Gate to the Baptistery at Florence Zaciiapias -writing the Name of John. Domenico Ghirlandaio.

Maria Novella, Florence

The Concert. Giorgione. Pitti Gall

Figure of S. John. Giotto. From Painting in S. Maria dell' Arena,

Padua

From the History of Noah. Benozzo Gozzoli. Campo Santo, Pisa S. Petronilla. Guercino. Capitol, Rome


Cath of


From the Ghent Painting


S


PAGE

6

7

14

26

31

39

49

81

92

94

97

100

105

121

122

123

150

157

168

194

209

225

230

234

247

252


255 258 267 268 273 278 284 296

297 305

307 313 319


xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Marriage a la Mode. Hogarth. National Gall. .... 332

The Burgomaster Meier Madonna. Holbein. Dresden Gall. . 337

Cathedral of S. Mark. Venice. Byzantine Architecture . . 344

Still-Life. Kalf 353

One of the Seven Stages of the Passion of Christ. Adam Krafft 357

Temptation of Christ. Lucas van Leyden .... . 366 SS. Peter and Paul before the Proconsul Felix. Filippino Lippi.

Brancacci Chapel • 372

S. Ursula. Cath*. of Cologne. Stephan Lothener 379

Christ mourned by Angels. Mantegna. Berlin Mus. . . . 388

Peter baptizing. Masaccio. S. Maria del Carmine, Florence . . 395

The Misers. Q. Massys. Windsor Castle 397

S. Ursula landing at Cologne. Hans Memling. Shrine of S. Ursula 402

A Sportsman. Metsu. At the Hague 406

S. John. Murillo. Madrid Mas 418

Marble Copy of Myron's Bronze Disk-Thrower. Massimi Pal.,

Rome ... 423

Samson overcoming the Lion. Master Nicolaus. Kloster-Neuberg 428 Beggars beseeching tee Angel of Death to take them. Attrib- uted to Orcagna. Campo Santo, Pisa . * 432

Coronation of the Virgin. Imhoff Altar-piece, Nuremberg . . 438

The Three Graces. Palma Vecchio. Dresden Gall. . . . 441 Relief on a Baptismal Basin. Lambert Patras. S. Barthelemy,

Liege 446

Madonna. Perugino. Pitti Gall., Florence 450

Raising of Lazarus. Sebastian del Piombo. National Gall. . . 457 Adoration of the Kings. Niccolo Pisano. Pulpit in Baptistery at

Pisa ..... ........ 459

Head of Juno. Ludovisi Villa, Rome 463

The Descent from the Cross. Fra Bartolommeo. Pitti Gall. . . 465

Moses at the Spring. N. Poussin 467

A Satyr. After Praxiteles. Capitol, Rome 469

Rape of Ganymede. Rembrandt. Dresden Gall 489

The Aurora. Guido Reni. Rospigliosi Pal., Rome .... 497

Lear, a Study. Sir Joshua Reynolds 502

Madonna in Terra-Cotta. Luca della Robbia 510

Children. Rubens. Berlin Gall. 524

Bronze Group of the Baptism of Christ. Andrea Sansavino . 536 The Entombment of Christ. Jacopo Sansavino. From the Bronze

Gate of the Sacristy of S. Mark, Venice 538

Madonna. Andrea del Sarto 540

From the Last Judgment. Signorelli. Cath. of Orvieto . . 550

Picture. By Teniers. Madrid Gall. . .... 563

Allegorical Picture. Tintoretto. Doge's Pal., Venice . . . 570

S. Sebastian. Titian. Vatican 573

The Children of Charles I. Vandyck. Dresden Gall. . . 587

Portrait. Velasquez 598

John, Peter, and Judas. Da Vinci. Milan 608

Tomb of S. Sebald. P. Vischer. Nuremberg 613

Relief from the Tomb of S. Sebald. P. Vischer. Nuremberg . G14 The Sibyl and the Emperor Augustus. R. van der Vfeyden. Berlin

Mus 620

Shed avith Horses. Philip Wouvermans 625



PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, ARCHITECTS, ENGRAVERS, AND THEIR WORKS.


A.

Aalst or Aelst, Evert or Everhard Van, born at Delft (1602- 1658). Painted dead birds, game, instruments of the chase, armor, vases, etc.. with great exactness in detail. He sometimes used a clear or white ground, which is very effective. His characteristics were truthfulness and heaviness of tone. Dresden Gall., Nos; 1126, 1127; Berlin Mus., 921, 936.

Aalst or Aelst, Wilhelm or William Van, born at Delft, 1620; died at Amsterdam, 1679. The nephew and pupil of Everhard, whom he much excelled. He also painted still life, dead birds, oys- ters, herrings, etc. His favorite subjects were fruit and other eat- ables, with accessories of glass and rich vessels of gold and silver. He spent some years in France and Italy. AVas employed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who presented him with a gold medal and chain. He returned to Holland in 1656, where his works were in great demand. They are of exquisite polish and finish. Dresden Gall., Nos. 1128, 1129, 1130 ; Berlin Mus., 975.

Abate, Andrea, called Belvedere. Said to have died in 1732; but there are reasons for believing that he died several years earlier than that time. He was a Neapolitan, and excelled in paintino- flowers, fruit, etc. He was employed by Charles II. of Spain, and together with Luca Giordano, who painted figures, executed a part of the ornamentation of the Escurial.

Abbate, or dell' Abate, Niccolo. Called also Xiccolo da Modena. Born at Modena, 1509 ; died at Paris, 15 71. He was a pupil of Bega- relli, and, it is supposed, of Correggio, which opinion is confirmed by his knowledge of foreshortening. Algarotti enumerated him " among the first that had adorned the world." His frescoes in Bo- logna were models for the Caracci ; and Agostino Caracci said in a sonnet, that in Niccolo were united the symmetry of Raphael, the terror of Michael Angelo, the truth of Titian: the dignity of Cor- reggio, the composition of Tibaldi, and the grace of Parmigianino.

1


2 ABBATE— ABSHOVEN.

At the Castle of Scandiano he executed twelve scenes from the iEneid which are now in the Florence Gallery. He painted his fres- coes so correctly that he seldom retouched them ; this was the secret of his beautiful coloring. At Bologna he painted a beautiful " Na- tivity " in the portico of the Lions, and in a frieze in the hall of the Institute his celebrated " Conversazione," of ladies and youths. In 1552 he accompanied Primaticcio to Fontainebleau, and painted thirty-eight scenes from the history of Ulysses, from the designs of that master. After Primaticcio died, Xiccolo was employed by the French court during his life. His "Beheading of S. Paul" is at Dresden ; and " The Rape of Proserpine," with a rich, fantastically lighted landscape," is at Stafford House Gall.

Abbiati, Filippo, born at Milan (1640-1715). Pupil of " il Pan- filo." A man of great talent and powers of invention; well fitted for colossal labors. He competed with Federigo Bianchi, at Milan, in painting the ceiling of S. Alessandro Martire. One of his best works was the " Preaching of S. John the Baptist," at Sarono.

Abbot, Lemuel, born at Leicestershire, England ; died 1803. Pupil of Francis 1 layman. Truthfulness was his characteristic, and por- traits of men his best works. Those of " Cowper " and "Lord Nelson " were especially fine.

Abel de Pujol, Alexander Denis, born at Valenciennes (1787- 1861). Succeeded Gros, ami became a member of the Institute in 1835. He painted " The History of Joseph" on the ceiling of the Antique Museum of the Louvre. In Notre Dame an altar-piece, "The Burial of the Virgin," and "The Preaching of S. Stephen," in S. Etienne du Mont, are by this master.

Abel, Joseph, died at Vienna (1 7(is-l818). Pupil of Fiiger. He was employed by the Czartorysky family. He passed six years in Rome, and gained a reputation by his pictures illustrative of ancient history and Greek poetry. At Vienna he painted large historical subjects and decorated the theatre.

Abildgaard, Nikolai, born at Copenhagen (1744-1809). He has been called the best painter of Denmark. His principal pictures were subjects taken from the ancient poets. When the palace of Christianborg was burned in 1704, some of his best works were de- stroyed. Fiissli relates that this so affected his mind that he painted but little afterwards.

Abshoven, or Apshoven (1648-1690). Kugler calls him Mi- chael; he is also called Theodore van Abshoven, and F. van Ap- shoven. He was a favorite scholar and successful imitator of David Teniers the younger. His pictures, like those of his master, repre- sent village festivals, scenes from peasant life, etc. They are fre- quently seen in Flanders, where they are placed in the best collec- tions. Dealers in pictures have been in the habit of taking his name from his works and substituting that of Teniers.


ACEVEDO — ADRIANO. o

Acevedo, Cristobal, born at Murcia. Pupil of Bartolome Cardu- cho at Madrid in 1585. He painted at Murcia for the chapel of the college of S. Fulgencio a picture of that saint adoring the Virgin, and some other works for convents, which prove him to have been a fjood artist.

- ym • Achen or Ach, Hans Van, born at Cologne

| OQ/£ 1 Aa\ 1552; died at Prague 1615. A pupil of Jer-

  • ^ ^* righ, afterwards an imitator of Bartholomew

Spranger. He passed some time in Italy, and after his return was employed by the courts of Cologne and Prague. Specimens of his ecclesiastical pictures are to be seen in the eh. of Our Lady, and in the Jesuit ch. at Munich, where he painted the "Resurrection of Christ," and the " Finding of the True Cross by S. Helena." Three of his pictures are in the Vienna Gall.: " Bathsheba Bathing," after the style of Tintoretto ; " Bacchus with Venus ; " and "Jupiter and Antiope."

Achtschelling, Lucas, born at Brussels (about 1570-1631). Pupil of Louis de Vadder. Painted landscapes, which are highly esteemed in the Low Countries. Three large works of his are in the collegiate ch. of S. Gudula at Brussels.

Acosta, Cayetano, born in Portugal (1 710-1 780). It is not known under what master he studied, if at all, but he settled in Seville, calling himself a sculptor. He made a high altar for the collegi- ate ch. of San Salvador, in which he disregarded all architectural rules. Here, as in other places, a more beautiful structure was re- moved to make way for his. The barefooted friars of Mercy em- ployed him to carve three figures to replace those of Montanes ; and Cean Bermudez asserts that even the inestimable works of Alonso Cano were put aside to be replaced by the deformities of Acosta. He left a son and nephew, also wood-carvers, and no better than himself.

Adda, Conte Francesco d\ born at Milan, died 1550. An ama- teur painter of small pictures on panels and slate, for private cabinets. He imitated Leonardo da Vinci. An altar-piece in the ch. of S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan, is attributed to him.

Adolfi, Giacomo, born at Bergamo (1682-1741). In the ch. of the monastery Del Paradiso, at Bergamo, is his picture of the " Crownino- of the Virgin," which is considered one of his best ; that of the "Adoration of the Magi" is in the ch. of S. Alessandro della Croce.

Adolfi, Ciro, born at Bergamo (1683-1 758). Brother of Giacomo. Distinguished himself in fresco painting in the edifices of Bergamo. The "Four Evangelists" in the ch. of S. Alessandro della Croce, and The "Deposition from the Cross " in S. Maria delle Grazie, are his principal works. The " Decollation of S. John," by this master, in the church at Colognola i< a! so admired.

Adriano. A barefooted Carmelite of Cordova. Pupil of Paul


1 ADRIANO — AETIOX.

de Cespedes. His convent had for a long time a Magdelene by Adriano, which was considered a Titian. He was in the habit of destroying his works because they seemed to him so inferior. But his brethren have preserved a few by interceding in the names of souls in purgatory, a fraud easily forgiven by the lover of art. He left a great name; " great in art, and still greater in piety."

Adrianssen, Alexander, born at Antwerp (1625-1685). An ex- cellent painter of still-life. He painted fish remarkably well. Berlin Mu-.. Nos. 922, 952, and 240.

Aelst, Everhard Van. See Aalst. Aelst, Wilhelm Van. See Aalst.

Aerts, Richard, born at Wvck 1482; died at Antwerp 1577. Son of a poor fisherman. When a boy his leg was so badly burned, as to necessitate amputation. During his confinement he manifested such a talent for sketching, that he was placed with an artist to gtudv, — John Moestaert, the elder, of Haerlem. He became one of the ablest artists of his time. His first works after leaving school, were two scenes from the life of Joseph, painted on the folding panels of an altar-piece in the great ch. at Haerlem. He removed to Antwerp, and was admitted to the Academy there in 1520.

Aertszen, Pieter, called Lange Peer, born at Amsterdam. Writers differ as to the year of his birth, 1507-17, and 19, are all given. Died at Amsterdam in 1573. He was a pupil of Allard Claessen. When quite young he painted genre pictures, which were spirited and well colored. He then applied himself to Scriptural subjects. He painted numerous large altar-pieces in Amsterdam, Delft, Lou vain. etc. These were destroyed by the Iconoclasts in 1566. One of his most celebrated works was an altar-piece for the ch. of Our Lady at Amsterdam. It was a triptych, the centre compartment represented the " Death of the Virgin Mary," with the Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi upon the folding panels. For this he is said to have received two thousand crowns. Michael Coxie of Mechlin, a great artist, was asked to paint an altar-piece for a new church in Amsterdam, but when he saw the works of Aertszen he refused, saying that they had no need of him while they had such an artist in their own city. He sometimes painted market scenes, one of which is in the Vienna Gall.. Antwerp Mus., No. 159 ; Berlin Mus., No. 726. His three sons, Peter, Arnold, and Theodore, were all painters.

Aetion. A Greek painter, sometimes said to have lived in the time of Alexander ; but Lucian, in his account of him, distinctly says that he did not live in ancient times, and it is generally believed that he was of the time of Hadrian and the Antonines. His great work described by Lucian, represented the " Nuptials of Alexander and Roxane," with Erotes busy about them, and the armor of the king. This picture excited so much admiration when exhibited at the


AETION— AGASIAS.

Olympic game?, that Proxenidas, one of the judges, exclaimed, "I reserve crowns tor the heads of the Athleta?, but I give my daughter in marriage to the painter Aetion, as a recompense for his inimitable picture." This painting was carried to Rome, where Lucian saw it. Aetion seems to have excelled in the art of mixing and laying on his colors.

Afesa, Pietro. Flourished about 1650. Was called della Basili- cata, because a native of the province of that name, a part of the kingdom of Naples. His works are in many churches and convents of Naples. One much esteemed is in the chapel of the monastery at Marsico Xfuovo, and represents the " Assumption of the Viro-in Mary." Dominici mentions Afesa very favorably.

Agabiti, Pietro Paolo, born at Sassoferrato. Some of his works are in that place, in the ch. of S. Agostino, and are dated 1514.

Agaptos. Spooner says that " According to Pausanias, Agaptos, a Grecian architect, invented the porticoes around the square attached to the Greek stadii, or racecourses of the crvmnasmms, which grained him so much reputation, that they were called the Porticoes of Agap- tos, and were adopted in every stadium."'

Agar, Jacques d', born at Paris 1G40; died at Copenhagen 171G. He was a scholar of Simon Vouet, but became a portrait painter. He went to England and painted many of the nobility of the reign of Queen Anne. He was afterwards invited to the Danish court, where he was much patronized. His portrait, painted by himself, is in the Florentine Gall, of Artists.

Agasias. Sculptor of Ephesus. Three Ephesians of this name are mentioned. Agasias, son of Dositheus, whose name is on the Borghese " Gladiator ; " Agasias, son of Menophilus, a sculptor in the island of Delos when it was under Roman sway, about 100 b. c; and Agasias, father of Heraclides, on a statue in the Louvre, 411. This was probably the name of an Ephesian family of artists, or had been made famous bv one oreat master. The Boro-hese " Gladiator," Louvre, 304, and the " Apollo Belvedere" were discovered among the ruins of a palace of the Roman Emperors at Antium. From the attitude of the so-called " Gladiator," it is plain that it represents a warrior contend- ing with a horseman. Mifller thinks it may have been taken from a large battle group, in order to finish it with greater refinement of art. Thiersch thinks it may be Achilles contending Avith Penthesilea. This Abasias probably lived about 400 b. c. The sculptor of the Apollo Belvedere is not known. Until recently it has been thought that the god held a bow ; but the discovery of a statuette, which agrees with it in all essential points, has afforded a much more satisfactory explanation of the action represented. It is tha.t he held the ^Egis with the Gorgoneia. which had a paralyzing effect, and was lent to Apollo by Jupiter, according to Homer (" Iliad," xv. 318, et seq.). Ludwig Preller believes that this statue represents Apollo in


6


AGASIAS — AGATHARCUS.


the battles with the Gauls before Delphi. Liibke says : u Not till now have we understood the Apollo Belvedere Ardentlv ex- cited, and filled with divine anger, with which is mingled a touch of triumphant scorn, the intellectual head is turned sidewards" (see figure), "while the figure with elastic step is hastening forwards. The eve seems to shoot forth lightning ; there is an expression of con- tempt in the corners of the mouth ; and the distended nostrils seem to breathe forth divine anger."



APOLLO BELVEDERE.

Vatican.

Agatharcus, an Athenian painter. Yitruvius says he was the in- ventor of scene-painting, and painted a scene for a tragedy which iEschylus exhibited. This contradicts Aristotle, who says that Sophocles introduced this art. Dr. Smith thinks that probably scene-painting was introduced towards the close of the career of iEschylus, but was not in general use until the time of Sophocles. There was another Greek painter named Agatharcus, of the time of Alcibiades, who had no great merit, and prided himself chiefly on the rapidity with which lie worked.


AGELADAS — AGESANDER. 7

Ageladas, native of Argos. Distinguished as a sculptor, and the instructor of the three great masters, Phidias, Myron, and Poly- cletus. The contradictory statements of the writers who mention this name, have oiven rise to much discussion as to when he lived, all of which has resulted in the opinion that there were two sculptors of this name. The instructor of Phidias, the Argive, was most eminent, and was born about 540 b. c. The other a native of Sic yon, who flourished in the 87th 01. as mentioned by Pliny, or about 432 b. c.



LAOCOON.

Vatican.

Agesander, native of the island of Rhodes. Pliny is the only writer who speaks of him, and but one work of his is known, — the «• Laocobn " of the Vatican. In this he was assisted by Polydorus and Athenodorus. Another statue, found at Antium, shows that Atheno- dorus was the son of Agesander. It is thought not unlikely that Polydorus was also his son, and that the figure of Laocoon was exe- cuted by the father, and the remaining figures by the sons. This group was found near the baths of Titus, on the Esqftiline Hill, in 1506. It is considered a most perfect work by all competent judges, and is very wonderful from the fact, that while it portrays the most intense suffering in every feature, limb, and muscle, it still has the sublime repose of true Grecian art. Laocoon was a priest of Apollo,


8 AGESANDER — AGNOLO.

and had committed some crime against that god, who sent two im- mense serpents from the island Tenedos to kill him just as he was offerino- a sacrifice, assisted by his two sons. Laocoon had opposed the reception into Troy of the horse left by the Greeks; and his death was believed by the Trojans to be a divine punishment for this ; therefore a breach was made in the walls and the horse admit- ted ; thus the death of the priest decided the ruin of Troy.

Agi, Andrea Cardelle. The Berlin Museum has a marriage of S. Catherine which is attributed to this painter. The expression is o-ood. A small '* Madonna " by him which was in the Beckford Coll., was remarkable for its fused execution.

Aglaophon. Greek artist, native of the island of Thasos. The father and teacher of Polygnotus. He had another son, Aristophon. He probably lived about 01. 70 (b. c. 500). Quintilian praised his coloring. Pliny speaks of a younger Aglaophon, contempora- neous with Alcibiades. He was probably the son of Aristophon, as the Greeks bore the name of the grandfather rather than the father. In one picture this artist represented the presiding geniuses of the Olympic and Pythian games, Olympias and Pythia, as crowning Alcibiades, and in another, the genius of the Nemean games held Alcibiades in her lap. Alcibiades could not have won any victories which merited these honors before 01. 91 (u. c. 416). It is said that this Aglaophon is the first artist who represented Victory with wings.

Aglio, Andrea-Salvatore di Antonio di Arzo, born at Lugano (1730-1786). Said to have discovered the method of fixing colors on marble.

Agnolo, Sienese sculptor. See Agostino and Agnolo. Agnolo, Baccio d' (1460-1543). In his youth he was an ex- cellent artist in inlaid works. He executed some fine things in wood for the churches of S. Maria Novella, and the Nunziata at Flor- ence. These last were removed when the Nunziata was re-adorned. After studying zealously at Rome, he returned to Florence, where he became a great architect, He erected several arches of triumph when Pope Leo visited that city. His work-shop, which he seldom left, became the rendezvous of artists and the young men of Florence, as well as strangers there, and in it many discussions were held. At length after he had proved his ability, the most magnificent buildings were committed to his care. He assisted with other architects to construct the Great Hall of the Palace, and carved with his own hand the frame-work for the large picture sketched by Fra Bartolomeo. He also took part in the erection of the steps leading to the Hall now called that of the Dugento, and also the marble doors to the same. On the Piazza di Santa Trinita he constructed a palace for Gio. Bartolini. This was ridiculed in sonnets, and every way, be- cause of its unusual style, and festoons of foliage hung on it as on


AGNOLO — AGORACRITUS.


a church during a festival. This drove Baccio almost insane, but he knew the work was good, and he had his revenge by carving this inscription above the door, Carpere promptius quean imitari. He then built many other beautiful palaces ; and for Giovan-Maria Benintendi made a frame-work for certain pictures Avhich was esteemed ex- traordinarily beautiful. He made the model for the ch. of S. Giu- seppe at S. Onofrio, and erected its portal. This was his last work. He directed the work of the Campanile of Santo Spirito of Florence, but he did not finish it. He also built the bell-tower of S. Miniato-in-Monte. He was at length appointed architect of S. Maria del Fiore, and made a model for the gallery encircling the cupola, but Michael Angelo so criticised it, that a discussion was held before competent judges, and in the end neither plan was adopted. Baccio then attended to the pavement of S. Maria del Fiore and to the care of many other buildings that were trusted to him. He was eighty-two years old when he died. He was buried in S. Lorenzo. His three sons, Giuliano, Filippo, and Domenico were all artists.

Agnolo, Giuliano, son of the preceding, gave much of his atten- tion to architecture, and by the favor of the Duke Cosimo he suc- ceeded to his father's office at S. Maria del Fiore, and finished what he had there commenced, as well as in many other buildings which Baccio had left unfinished. He made at Pescia a beautiful tomb, which was surrounded by a chapel, for Messer Baldassare, and also restored his house and furnished it. He built a house at Montughi, a short distance from Florence, for Messer Francisco Campana, and at Colle another house for the same Campana, and a most magnifi- cent palace al Tedesco for Messer Ugolino Grivoni, Signor of Alto- pascio. But space would not allow the enumeration of all his works. He was associated also with Baccio Bandinelli in various affairs, one of which was the reconstruction of the great hall in the ducal palace, which was a failure, according to Vasari ; another was the choir in S. Maria del Fiore, etc., etc. He also made couches, picture-frames, and various wood carvings Died 1555.

Agnolo, Domenico. He excelled Giuliano in wood-carving;, and was a reputable architect. He completed the terrace for the house of the Xasi family, which his father had commenced, and executed several good architectural works. He promised to excel both his father and brother, but died before he reached his prime.

Agoracritus, born in the island of Faros. Scholar of Phidias. Brass-caster and sculptor. He was so much the favorite of Phidias, that the master is even said to have put the name of this disciple upon some of his own works. Four of the works of Agoracritus are mentioned by different authors : namely a statue of Zeus ; a statue of the Ionian Athene, in the temple dedicated to her at Athens ; a statue in the temple of the great goddess at Athens, probably a Cybele ;


10 AGORACRITUS — AGOSTIXO.

and the Rhamnusian Nemesis. It is said of this last that it was originally a Venus, for Agoracritus and Aleamenes contended with each other in making a statue of that goddess, and when the Athe- nians gave the preference to the statue of Aleamenes, Agoracritus changed his to a Nemesis, and sold it to the people of Rhamnus, making the condition that it should not be set up in Athens. Al- though this story is often repeated, it is not known to be true, and Fausanias savs that this same Xemesis was the work of Phidias ; but be that as it may, there is no doubt that Afjoracritus was a ^reat sculptor from 440 to 428 b. c. and the other works attributed to him were undoubtedly his own.

Agostino and Agnolo, Sienese sculptors, died 1348 and 1350. In 1284 Giovanni Pisano visited Siena to prepare designs for the Cathedral. Asrostino, said to liave been at this time about fifteen years old, became his pupil. So great was his talent, and his appli- cation to study, that he soon surpassed his co-disciples. Meantime his young brother. Agnolo, had made some secret attempts at sculp- ture, and from constant intercourse with Agostino and other artists had acquired a love for their art. At length Agostino prevailed upon Giovanni to employ Agnolo, together with himself, in executing a marble altar for Arezzo. Agnolo so acquitted himself, that Gio- vanni continued to employ the two at Pistoja, Pisa, etc. They also studied architecture, and in 1308 were employed by the Nine, who ruled Siena, to make designs for a palace. When Giovanni died they were appointed architects to the State, and in 1317 directed the building of the north front of the Cathedral. After designing the Porta Romana and other gates, a church, convent, etc., they were invited to Orvieto by the Tolomei family, and there executed sculp- tures for the ch. of S. Maria. In 1320 Giotto visited Orvieto, and pronouncing the Sienese brothers the best sculptors who had worked there, recommended them to Piero Saccone da Pietramala, as the best persons he could employ to construct the tomb of Guido, bishop and lord of Arezzo. This work they did after the plan of Giotto, which occupied them three years. The tomb was very beau- tiful, and was adorned with sixteen relievi, representing the principal events in the life of Guido. Thev then executed an altar for the

ch. of S. Francisco at Bologna, and when the Pope promised to remove to that city, these sculptors were employed to make designs for the castle fortress to be built for his reception. While they were at Bologna the Po burst its banks and caused great destruction of life and property. These brothers found means to reconduct it to its channel, and for this were honorably rewarded by the lords of Mantua, and the house of Este. In 1338 they returned to Siena, where a new church was erected after their designs, and thev were employed to construct a fountain on the principal piazza of the city. This was successfully done, and the water let on June 1, 1343, greatly


AGOSTINO — AGUIRRE. 1 1

to the iov of the Sienese. and the glorv of the artists. After several other works in Siena, Agnolo went to Assisi to build a tomb, while Agostino remained at Siena in the service of the state, where he soon after died. It is not known where Agnolo died.

Agresti, Livio, called also Livio da Forli, from the place of his birth, the date of which is not known, died about 1585. He was a fellow-student with Luca da Ravenna under Pierino del Vaga at Rome. Vasari calls him the rival of Luca. There are works of Agresti in many churches and public buildings at Rome. In S. Caterina de Funari he painted an i; Annunciation" and " SS. Peter and Paul." In a chapel of S. Spirito in Sassia, the " Assumption of the Virgin. " Pope Gregory XIII. employed him to assist in the great works at the Vatican, where he painted a fresco in the grand stair- case, representing the submission of Philip of Arragon to Pope Eugenius III. But his best works arc in Forli. In a chapel of the Cathedral he painted the i; Last Supper," and in the vault some fine figures of the prophets. He also painted seven pictures on cloth of silver, to be used as hangings for the Card, of Augusta, who sent them as a present to the King of Spain, in which country they were thought very beautiful. He also painted a picture on cloth of silver for the ch. of the Theatines in Forli.

Agricola, Christopher Ludwig, born at Regensburg (1667-1 719). Portrait and landscape painter. He studied principally from nature when travelling, and his pictures resemble those of Poussin. He lived some time at Naples, and some of the pictures he painted there were carried to England. In the Dresden Gall, there are two works of his, Xos. 1 784 and 1 785. The Vienna Gall, has one of his finest landscapes, representing the ruins of a monument and the pillars of a temple, seen between the trees.

Agua, Bernardino del, a Venetian painter. He executed frescoes in the cloister of the court of the Evangelists at the Escurial. These he did under the direction of Tibaldi, and after the sketches of that master, who attributed the defects in them to the haste with which Philip II. would have them done, rather than to any fault of Agua.

Agiiero, Benito Manuel de, born at Madrid (1G26-1670), pupil of Martinez. When Philip IV. visited the studio of that master he was attracted by Aguero's wit as much as by his artistic powers. He painted a " S. Ildefonso" for the nuns of S. Isabel, which was like Titian in color. His usual subjects and those in which he ex- celled were battle-scenes and views of cities.

Aguiar, Tomas de, a gentleman of Madrid, — flourished about 1660. He acquired considerable reputation for small pictures in oil. He painted the portrait of Antonio de Solis, who in return wrote an extravagant sonnet in praise of Aguiar.

Aguirre, Francisco de, a pupil of Caxes. He was a portrait- painter and restorer of pictures, to which last profession he espe-


12 AGUIRRE — AKERS.

daily devoted himself. He commenced at Toledo in 164G, and was employed to restore the pictures in the Cathedral. Like many others who have done like work, he did not adhere to the original, but introduced his own ideas, thus destroying the true yalue of the paintings.

Ainemolo, Vincenzo, born at Palermo, died 1540. The most important Sicilian artist of the sixteenth century. It is believed that he went to Naples, where he studied the style of Perugino. He went at length to Rome, and became famous as an imitator of Raphael. His works are mostly in Palermo, and the best one represents the " Virgin and Child" between four saints. It is in the ch. of S. Pietro Martire. At S. Domenico there is a " Descent from the Cross," which is, in some of its figures, almost a copy of Raphael's " Spasimo di Sicilia." In several other churches of Palermo, and in its gallery, there are works of this artist.

Aikman, William, born in Aberdeenshire (1G82-1731). He studied law, but in 1707 left Scotland, and travelled extensively on the Continent, and in the East. He next spent some years in Rome, and studied painting under Sir John Medina, and then established himself as a portrait-painter in Edinburgh. He had no success, and in 1723 removed to London, where he became the friend of Sir God- frey Kneller, whom he imitated. His career was short. There is a head of Gay by Aikman, which is good. He had good literary parts, and was the friend of Allan Ramsay, and of Thomson, who wrote his elegy. He was taken to Scotland for burial.

Aken, Joseph van, died in London 1749. A Flemish artist, he passed most of his life in England, and painted on velvet and satin with great success. He was often employed by other artists to paint figures in landscapes, in which he was very skilful.

Akerboom. Dutch painter of interiors, who flourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. His pictures are very highly finished.

Akers, Benjamin, called also Paul, born at Saccarappa, Maine, 182.3, died at Philadelphia, 1861. His father owned a saw-mill, in which as a boy he spent much time. His most striking characteris- tics were intense attachments to persons and places, and extreme love of adventure and travel. When at work in the saw-mill, by means of a turning lathe, he made beautiful toys, and specimens of ornamental wood-work, from original desions. He invented a shin- gle machine, which is now in use. He went to Portland and tried to be a printer. He also attempted to paint, but it was not until his attention was attracted to a plaster cast that his true vocation was revealed to him. He went in 1849 to Boston and was instructed in plaster-casting by Joseph Carew. He returned home, and after a few attempts at moulding, in a good degree successful, he opened a studio in Portland with Til ton, the landscape-painter. During the


AKERS — ALBANI. 13

two following years he made several portrait busts, so excellent as to establish his reputation. In 1852 he went to Florence, where he passed a year in study and labor. Returning home he made his "Benjamin in Egypt," which was burned in the Portland Ex- change. He passed a winter in Washington, where he made models for portrait busts of many eminent men. Some medallions also, which were much admired, especially that of Samuel Houston. He modelled a head of " Peace," and visited Providence, R. L, to execute commissions in portrait busts. In 1854 he went to Rome, and finished in marble the heads modelled in America. He copied works in the Vatican to fill American commissions, and also executed several original designs; " Una and the Lion,*' "Diana and En- dymion," " Girl pressing Grapes," " Isaiah," " Schiller's Diver," and the " Reindeer," being those most admired. He then went to Venice, Switzerland, Paris, and England, and again to Rome, where he made a colossal head of Milton, the "Lost Pearl Diver," and " Saint Elizabeth of Hungary," which last was often repeated for his American admirers and patrons. He was never strong, and his health now failed. He came to America, but was obhVed soon to seek a milder climate. He returned to Rome, and the last work he did there was a medallion likeness of his wife. In 1860 he came again to America, and went to pass the winter in Philadelphia. He devoted himself to his loved art as much as his failing strength would allow, and left the head of a cherub still unfinished when he died. His religious and sensitive character acquired for him from his young companions the nickname of S. Paul. By this name he " became endeared to his friends and known to fame." His love of Nature and of children was intense. " It makes no difference," he would say, " what happens to me, so long as I can hear sparrows sing and see children roll on the grass." His literary attainments were fine, as is proved by his paper on "Art-expression" and " The Artist Prisoner." Many of his writings have never been given to the public.

Alba, Macrino d' or Giangiacomo Fava. Lived mostly at Turin, and flourished about 1500. In the Stadel Institute at Frank- fort, there is a picture of the "Madonna," with the histories of Joachim and Anna on folding side panels, by this master. It is " dignified and full of character."

Albani, Francisco, born at Bologna (1578-1660). Son of a silk merchant. His father desired to bring him up to his own profession, but his decided art-genius so asserted itself that he was placed in the academy of Denys Calvert, where Guido Reni was a pupil. Albani and Guido became friends, and when the latter went to Rome and entered the school of the Caracci, Albani quickly followed. Here his talent soon brought him to notice and there are many of his works in Rome. When Annibale Caracci was employed on the


14


ALBANI.


frescoes of S. Giaeomo degli Spagnuoli, he fell sick, and by bis recommendation Albani was selected to finish them. He also painted the mythological frescoes in the Verospi (now Torlonia), palace. In the Borghese Gall., and at Turin, are his famous pictures of the "Four Elements." He also painted for the Duke of Mantua the stories of " Diana and Action," and " Venus and Cupid." Returning to Rome, he painted the large pictures in the Tribune of the Ma- donna delta Pace and the "Martyrdom of S. Sebastian" in the church of the same name. His best religious works at Bologna are the " Baptism of Christ " in S. Giorgio, the " Annunciation " in S. Barto- lomeo, and the " Resurrection " in S. Maria de Galeria. But his best pictures are those of mythological and fanciful subjects, in which both fioures and landscapes were well done. Beauty was his characteristic rather than power. Lanzi calls him the Anacreon of painting, and says, " Like that poet with his short odes, so Albani from his small pictures acquired great reputation, and as the one sings of Venus and the Loves, and maids and boys, so does the artist hold up to the eye the same delicate and graceful subjects." He had every advan- tage in his own home for the perfection of such pictures. His villa was well situated, and afforded him lovely views of nature. His wife was beautiful, and bore him twelve children, so lovely that not only he, but the sculptors Algardi and Fiammingo are said to have used them as models. The works of Albani are in almost every large gal-


^$^'T^ It




CUPIDS. BY ALBANI.


lery, for he either painted duplicates, or caused his scholars to paint those to which he put the finishing touches. The " Toilet of Venus,"


ALBAXI. 15

at the Louvre, and the "Landing of Venus at Cytherea," in the Chigi Palace at Rome, are among his finest works. One of his oft- repeated and pleasing subjects is the " Infant Christ " asleep on the cross.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF ALBANI.

Engraver, Aguila, Francisco Faraone. The Last Supper.

Engraver, Audran, John. Infant Saviour regarding the Cross presented by Angels.

Engraver, Aveline, Peter. The Wrath of Neptune. Inscribed, Quos ego.

Engraver, Avril, Jean Jacques. Diana and Actaeon ; The Bath- ers surprised.

Engraver, Bartoli, Pietro Santi. The Birth of the Virgin.

Engraver, Baudet, Stephen. The Virgin teaching the Infant Jesus to read ; The Woman of Samaria ; Four plates of the Loves of Venus and Adonis ; Four circular prints of the Four Elements.

Engraver, Bon a vera, Domenico Maria. The Baptism of our Saviour by S. John.

Engraver, Canale, Giuseppe. Adam and Eve driven from Par- adise.

Engraver, Chateau or Chasteau, William. The Baptism of Christ by S. John.

Engraver, Crepy or Crespy, John and Louis. The Nativity.

Engraver, Daulle, John. A Charity with Three Children.

Engraver, Duflos, Claude. The Annunciation.

Engraver, Fariat or Far j at, Benoit. The Holy Family with S. John.

Engraver, Frey, James. A Charity with Three Children ; The Rape of Europa.

Engraver, Frezza, Giovanni Girolamo. The Gallery of the Verospi Palace. Seventeen plates.

Engraver, Haixzelmann, Elias. Christ appearing to Magda- lene.

Engraver, Landry, Peter. Christ and the Woman of Samaria.

Engraver. Lasne, Michael. The Virgin in the Clouds, with a crescent; oval.

Engraver. Mola, Pietro Francisco. Holy Family with Angels presenting Flowers to the Infant Jesus.

Engraver,- Mola, John Baptist. Cupid in a Car, drawn by Loves.

Engraver, Pic art, Stephen. The Ecce Homo, with Three Angels. v

Engraver, Valet or Vallet, William. The Holy Family, called La Laveuse.

Engraver, Vouillemont, Sebastian. Marriage of S. Catherine.


1 6 ALBANI — ALBERTIXELLI.

Albani or Albano, Gio. Baptiste, died 1668. Brother of Fran- cisco, whom he imitated so closely that his pictures were sometimes mistaken for his.

Alberelli, Giacomo, born at Venice (1600-1650). Pupil of Ja- copo Palma, the younger, with whom he painted thirty-four years. Several pictures by Alberelli are in his native city, the most esteemed beino; the "Baptism of Christ " in the ch. of the Ognissanti.

Alberici, Enrico, born at Vilminore in Bergamo (1714-1775). Pupil of Ferdinando Cairo of Brescia. He had a good reputation, and painted his principal pictures for the ch. Dei Miracoli, at Brescia.

Albertinelli, Mariotto, born at Florence (1474-1515). His father placed him with a goldsmith, but he determined to be a painter, and entered the school of Cosimo Rosselli, where he was the intimate friend of Baccio della Porta, called Fra Bartolommeo. Mariotto imitated Baccio so closely as to render it difficult to distin- guish between the two, especially in some works which they did in companv. and he was called a second Bartolommeo. After they left Rosselli they dwelt together. Mariotto became the protege of the wife of Pietro dei Medici, and painted for her several pictures, besides her own portrait. When Pietro was banished, Mariotto returned to the house of Baccio. When the latter became a monk, Mariotto was almost insane with grief, and could interest himself in nothing. Baccio had left unfinished the " Last Judgment " for the Cemetery of S. Maria Nuova, and as he had received part pay- ment for it he desired Mariotto to complete it. He did this with great care. He could not equal Baccio, because not equally gifted by nature ; but the pictures of both had the same life in action, elegance in proportion, and sharpness and careful minuteness in finish. His earlier works were lost. One of the oldest known is No. 25 Louvre, " Christ appearing to the Magdalene." In 1503 he executed " The Salutation," now in the Uffizi, and generally consid- ered his master-piece. He next painted the fine "Nativity," No 365 Pitti Gall. Soon after this Fra Bartolommeo resumed his brush and became the head of the work-shop of S. Marco. Mariotto painted "The Crucifixion," No. 24 Louvre, and received many pupils. He spent much time attempting to imorove oil mediums, being espe- cially dissatisfied with the white, but his experiments amounted to little. He could not endure criticism, and became so disgusted with it that he forsook painting and kept a tavern. He declared himself then " where there was no embarrassment with perspective, fore- shortenings, or muscles, and no criticism or censure to dread ; " and that his former calling "was to imitate flesh and blood, whereas that he had adopted made both flesh and blood." But he soon hated this more than painting, which he resumed. Late in life he went to Rome, where he became ill. He was taken to Florence on a litter,


ALBERTINELLI — ALBERTI. 17

and died. The following are some of his works not vet mentioned : A "Trinity," No. 73. Florence Acad, of Arts; an "Annunciation" at Munich, Pinacothek, Saal. No. 545 ; "Marriage of S. Catherine," on wood. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 21; an " Assumption " in Berlin Mus., painted by Mariotto and Baccio; National Gall., London, No. G4.3, and many others in the Prince Gortschakoff Gall., St. Petersburg; the Ex-Pourtales Gall., Paris, etc.

Alberti, Iieon Battista, born at Venice (1404-1472). The name of Alberti is distinguished in all branches of Art. Leon was an architect and of a noble family of Florence ; at the time of his birth his parents were in Venice, in order to escape persecution at home. He was a man of superior literary talents and cultivation, a fine mathematician and geometrician. He wrote ten books upon architecture in Latin, three books on painting, and other smaller works. Under Nicholas V. and in connection with Bernardo Ros- sellino, he superintended numerous public works at Home. At Rimini, for Sigismondo Malatesta, he made a model for the ch. of S. Francisco. He was next employed by Gio. di Paolo Rucellai, who had determined to adorn the principal facade of S. Maria Novel- la at his own cost. This work was completed in 14 7 7, and was much admired. For the Rucellai family he also designed palaces, and a chapel in the ch. of S. Pancrazio. For Ludovico Gonzaga, Mar- quis of Mantua, he modelled the chapel which he built in the Nun- ziata at Florence. He went afterwards to Mantua in the service of the same nobleman, and made designs for the ch. of S. An- drea, and other works. Leon painted a few pictures, which have been destroyed ; they had no great merit, but served to show that he could express himself with brush or pencil. All writers who men- tion him agree that as a refined, elegant, and scholarly gentleman he had few equals.

Alberti, Michele, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro, 1527. Pupil of Daniello Ricciarelli, called da Volterra. His principal work was a picture of the ' ' Murder of the Innocents ' ' in the church of Trinita- di-Monti at Rome.

C C Alberti, Cherubino, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro

/ \3 AV-> (1^52-1615). Son of the preceding, by whom

J- XJ / J \5 he was instructed in painting. His principal pictures were in the church of S. Maria in Via at Rome. He is chiefly distinguished as an engraver. It is not known with whom he studied this art, but his plates are remarkable for his time. They seem to have been executed entirely with the graver, the point not being used. His figures were better than his draperies. His prints have preserved some of the friezes of Polidoro da Caravagsrio, which were upon the facades of public edifices, and have been destroyed. His plates number about 180, of which 75 are from his own designs. The following are some of the best designed by himself : —

2


18 ALBERTI — ALBIXI.

Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII; oval, with ornaments. Portrait of Pope Urban VII. ; oval, with ornaments. Portrait of Henry IV., of France ; oval, 1595. Portrait of Pietro Angelo Bargeo. Judith, with the head of Holofernes. The Nativity ; inscribed, Deus omnipotens, etc. The Flight into Egypt, 15 74.

Another Holy Family ; S. Joseph seated, with a Book. The- Body of Christ supported in the Clouds by an Angel, in- scribed. Magnum pietatis opus, etc.

The Virgin Mary and Infant in the Clouds ; inscribed, Reg'tna

codi.

Mary Magdalene Penitent, 1582.

S. Catherine receiving the Stigmata. 15 74.

S. Christian drawn out of the Sea.

S. Francis receiving the Stigmata, 1599.

S. Charles of Borromeo, kneeling before the Virgin and Infant, 1612.

Six of Children, for ceilings ; dedicated to Card. Visconti, 1G07.

Alberti, Giovanni, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro (1558-1601). Brother of Cherubino, and instructed by their father. He excelled in landscapes and perspective, and the figures in his pictures were often done by Cherubino. Pope Gregory XIII. employed him in the Vatican, and Clement VIII. in the Lateran. His portrait is in S. Luke's Acad.

Alberti, Durante, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro 1538. died at Rome 1613. Went to Rome when very young. Gregory XIII. was then Pope. He soon distinguished himself, and his pictures are in several places in Rome. He was buried with great distinction in the Chiesa del Popolo, and his portrait is in the Acad, of S. Luke. In the eh. of S. Maria de Monti he painted " The Annunciation," and in S. Girolamo della Carita, an entire chapel in fresco, and the altar- piece in oil, which last represented the Virgin and infant Saviour with SS. Bartolomeo and Alessandro.

Alberti. There were other artists of this name, whose works are not well denned. Antonio of Ferrara lived in 1450, and had a son of the same name. Pietro Francisco (1584-1638) was a son of Durante, and was a painter and engraver.

Albertoni, Paolo, died about 1695. This artist was a follower of Carlo Maratti, and painted in his style. Some of his pictures are in the churches of S. Carlo, S. Maria, and other churches in Rome.

Albertus, H. C, born in Saxony, died 1680. His portrait of John Seckendorff, rector and professor of Zwickau, is a fine work of art.

Albini, Alessandro. Zani says he was born in 1586 and died in 1646. Malvasia calls him a Bolognese, and a disciple of the school


ALBINI — ALDEGREVER. 19

of the Caracci. He made designs for the funeral ceremonies of Agostino Caracci, which greatly added to his reputation. At Bo- logna there is a picture by this master in the ch. of S. Michele in Bosco, representing the " Sepulture of SS. Valerian and Tiburtius," and another in S. Pietro Martire, representing SS. Peter, Cather- ine, and Cecilia.

Alcamenes, born at Athens, scholar of Phidias, perhaps of Critias also. Brass-caster, sculptor, toreutes, and cleruchos in Lem- nos. He flourished from 44-4 to 400 b. c. His chief productions were images of the gods. Among these were two statues of Athene, one of which, after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants by Thrasybu- lus, was placed in the temple of Hercules at Thebes, together with a colossal statue of Hercules by the same sculptor (403 b. c.) ; a three-formed Hecate (the first of its kind), and a Procne in the Acropolis at Athens ; a statue of Mars in the temple of that god at Athens ; the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae upon the western pediment of the temple at Olympia ; an iEsculapius at Mantineia ; a bronze statue of the victor in the Pentathlon ; and a statue of Hephaestus which represented his lameness without making it a deformity. But the most renowned of all his works was his " Venus," called from where it was set up, 'HeV k-tittois 'A<ppoMrri. The breasts, hands, and cheeks were particularly admired ; and it was said that Phidias put the finishing touches to this work. Some suppose that this was the statue which took the prize from that of Agoracritus. There is also a story that Alcamenes and Phidias contended in mak- ing a statue of Athene, and that before they were set up that of the pupil was most admired for its beautiful finish, but when they were in place the strong lines of that of the master were so effective that the Athenians gave him the preference.

l / Aldegrever, Heinrich, born at Soest in Westphalia, /qA (1502-1562). As a painter he is less important than as an

  • " engraver. His style so closely resembles that of Albert

Durer that he has been called Albert of Westphalia. His works show untiring labor, but his figures are often deformed and even hideous. In the Berlin Gall., a picture by him of the "Last Judgment" is very peculiar, especially in the upper part where Christ, the Virgin, and John the Baptist, are represented ; the trumpet-angels and the demons among the damned are worthy of notice, and in fact the whole picture is very striking. In the National Gall., London, there is a " Crucifixion " by Aldegrever. In the Berlin Mus. there is a por- trait of an old man, and in the Lichtenstein Gall, at Vienna one of a youth, which is clever. His prints are numerous. Among the por- traits, those of Luther, Melanchthon, John of Leyden, and Bernard Knipperdolling, deserve notice. Of historical and religious subjects there are no less than one hundred and thirty-nine well-known plates. In one of Titus Alanlius, ordering the execution of his son,


20 ALDEGREVER — ALDROVANDINI.

the instrument of death resembles the French guillotine ; this is dated 1533. Thirteen plates of the " Labors of Hercules " are fine and rare, and the etching of " Orpheus and Eurydiee," the only one of this master, is very rare.

Aldigliiero, 01 Altichiero da Zevio, a native of Zevio, near Verona, was a painter of the early Paduan School. He decorated the chapel of S. Felice in S. Antonio at Padua with wall paintings, about 1370. Liibke says he displayed in his works a lively concep- tion and richly finished coloring. The pictures in this chapel repre- sent scenes from the legend of S. James Major. That of the land- in"- of the body of the saint on the coast of Spain, is especially fine. He was associated with D'Avanzo Veronese, who was one of the worthiest of the followers of Giotto, and their pictures were equal to any of the school of that master. Aldigliiero was so much asso- ciated with other artists that there have arisen never-ending disputes as to what he did or did not do, but the records show that he painted the chapel of S. Felice. In the work of Crowe and Caval- caselle, it is said to be no exaggeration to call this chapel the noblest monument of the pictorial art of the fourteenth century, and that none but the greatest Florentines had done better.

" Aldobrandini Marriage." . This is one of the most valuable relics of ancient painting. It was discovered on the Esquiline Hill, near the arch of Gallienus, in the early part of the seventeenth cen- turv, during the time of Clement VIII. It was taken from the wall, and became the possession of Cardinal Aldobrandini, who after hav- ing it restored by Domenico del Frate, placed it in his villa on the Quirinal ; hence its name. It is a composition of ten figures, and represents three scenes arranged like an ordinary bas-relief. In the centre the bride is seated on a bed, while another female speaks to her ; the bridegroom is crowned with ivy, and seated on a stool at the end of the bed with his face turned to the bride. On one side the attendants make ready a bath ; on the other musicians sing the " Epithalamium " or wedding song. In 1818 Pius VII. paid 10,000 scudi, or about 2,000 guineas for this fresco, and placed it in the col- lection of the Vatican.

Aldrovandini, Mauro, born at Bologna (1649-1680). An eminent architect. As a painter he belonged to the School of Cignani, with whom he painted in the Palazzo Publico at Forli.

Aldrovandini, Tommaso, born at Bologna (1653-1736). Nephew of Mauro, by Avhom he was instructed. He excelled in perspective and architectural views, and worked much with Carlo Cignani and Antonio Franceschini, who executed figures. In conjunction with the latter, Tommaso painted the " Council Chamber of Genoa," his greatest work.

Aldrovandini, Pompeo Agostino (1677-1739). Cousin and pupil of Tommaso. One of the most celebrated Italian painters of


ALDRO VANDINI — ALFAXI. 21

his time. He worked in oil, fresco, and distemper, and was much employed on the public buildings of Vienna, Dresden, and Prague.

Aleman, Cristobal, introduced the art of glass-painting in Se- ville and painted a window for the Cath. in 1504.

Alen or Olen, Jan van, born at Amsterdam (1G51-1G98). A painter of landscapes and still-life. A good imitator of Melchior Hondekoetor.

Aleni, Tommaso, born at Cremona (1500-1560). Scholar of Galeazzo Campi. His works were so much like those of his master as to be distinguished with difficulty, as may be seen in the ch. of S. Doinenico at Cremona.

Alesio, Mateo Perez de, born at Rome. Flourished about 1585 ; died 1G00. He went to Spain, attracted by the generous love of art of King Philip IT. His chief works were fresco-paintings in the churches of Seville. Grandeur of design was his chief characteris- tic. In the Cath. of Seville he painted a S. Christopher, which is still preserved. The figure of the saint is thirty-three feet high, and his leg is three feet across the calf. This was done in 1581. He also painted in the ch. of S. Miguel, and other public edifices. Ale- sio was almost the first to acknowledge the superiority of Luis de Vargas, but it is said that he returned to Rome, because the pictures of Vargas were preferred to his own.

Alexander, Francis, born in Windham County, Conn., in 1800. At eighteen he was a school-teacher. He commenced his painting by attempting to reproduce in water-colors the beauties of some fish he had caught. His success was a surprise, both to himself and his mother, who encouraged his further use of the brush. In spite of scanty means he went to New York, and studied with the Scotchman, Alexander Robertson. He made friends, and received some com- missions in Providence. From there he went to Boston, and soon made a good reputation as a portrait painter. In 1831 he went to Italy, where he resided for many vears. In 1833, together with Harding, Fisher, and others, he exhibited a number of his pictures in Boston.

Alfani, Domenico di Paris, born at Perugia 1483, living, 1553 ; time of death not known. Scholar of Perugino. He was an ardent admirer of Raphael, whose style he imitated ; had little originality. In middle life he caused his family of natural children to be legiti- mized and made his son Orazio his partner. He was a registered master in Perugia in 1510. The earliest known picture of his is a - Madonna and Child with SS. Gre^orv and Nicholas " in the Collegio Gregoriano at Perugia. It is on wood, in oil, figures life-size, dated 1518. A fine picture, full of the beauties of Raphael. In the ch. of S. Francisco at Bettona is o fine fresco of the i; Virgin and Child " ' with four saints, which reminds one of the " Madonna di Foligno." At Diruta in the ch. of S. Antonio Abbate, there are


22 ALFANI — ALFARO. •

four pictures representing scenes in the life of S. Anthony ; much injured. In the Cath. of Citta della Pieve is an altar-piece by Domenico : wood, oil, figures life size, dated 1521. In the gallery at Peruoia a " Virgin and Child " with saints and angels : wood, oil. figures life size. In 1527 Rosso was at Perugia with Alfani, and from that time his style seems changed, which may be seen in the pictures at S. Giuliana at Perugia. In 1553 the father and son together painted a '• Crucifixion " for S. Francesco at Perugia, and as they painted much in conjunction, there are various pictures which cannot be assigned to either one. One of these is a graceful " Holy Family ' in the tribune of the Uffizi. In 1525 he painted frescoes at the villa of Prepo near Perugia. In 1527 he was commissioned to paint an altar-piece for Castel Rigone. In 1535 he painted the arms of Paul III. on the Pal. of Perugia ; in 1536 a " S. Louis " in S. Fran- cesco, and in this same year married the mother of his children. His will Avas made in 1549, and as before said, he was living in 1553.

Alfani, Orazio di Paris, born at Perugia 1510, died at Rome 1583. Also a pupil of Perugino and an admiring imitator of Ra- phael. His reputation more than equalled that of his father. In the transept of S.' Francesco at Perugia is a " Nativity " by this artist, singular for the introduction of " S. Anna " who has a basin of water ; said to have been dated 1536. Perugia Gall., No. 59, formerly in the Carmine, is a work of Orazio's, as are also Nos. 140, 142, 159, 132, 163, 144, 145, and 14G, in the same gallery. There are several of his works in S. Francesco and S. Pietro at Perugia. At the Louvre "The Marriage of S. Catherine," No. 26, dated 1548, is by this master. There are many more of his pictures, in Perugia men- tioned in the Guides. Orazio was registered in the guild of Perugia in 1545 ; elected architect of the town in 1576, but retained the office a very short time. He was first president of the Acad, of Perugia, founded in 1573.

Alfaro y Gamon, Don Juan de, born at Cordoba 1640, died at Madrid 1680. He studied first with Antonio de Castile, and then with Velasquez. His pictures imitate the latter, and also remind one of Vandyck in color. He is said to have been very vain, and to have copied some prints, and put on each of them, Alfaro pinxit. To punish him, Castillo painted one, and subscribed it Non pinxit Alfaro, which passed into a proverb. He Avas also a poet, and had good literary attainments, but his memory is stained by in- gratitude. The Admiral of Castille was his patron ; still when he was banished Alfaro forsook him, and yet did not hesitate to solicit his patronage when recalled. The rebuff' he received is said to have brought on melancholy and caused his death. In the eh. of the Carmelites is his "Incarnation," and at Madrid, in the ch. of the Imperial College his celebrated " Guardian Angel."


' ALFON — ALLAN. 23

Alfon, Juan, born at Toledo. In 1418 he painted several reliqua- ries lor the Cathedral which are still preserved. ^-^ Algardi, Alessandro, born at Bologna 1598. He was

r7-j\ an architect, sculptor, and engraver. A pupil of Giulio Cesare Conventi. His plates which remain are few : they are executed with a graver, in the free bold manner of Agostino Caracci, and are as follows : —

A large, upright plate of The Crucifixion.

The Souls delivered from Purgatorv ; oval.

The Blind Beggar and his Dog ; after Caracci.

Eighty plates of the Cries of Bologna ; after Caracci.

These were executed in conjunction with Simon Guillain. He is best known as a sculptor by a large rilievo in marble, over an altar in S. Peter's at Rome. It represents the appearance of SS. Peter and Paul to Attila and his hosts. While this work has some merit, it has great faults, especially those of confusion and want of breadth.

Aliamet, Jacques, born at Abbeville 1728, died in Paris 1788. An engraver who excelled in landscapes and sea-pieces.

Aliamet, Francois Germain, younger brother of Jacques. Born at Abbeville 1734. After studying; engraving in Paris, he went to London, where he was under Sir Robert Strange. His works were inferior to his brother's, and consisted of portraits and historical subjects.

Aliberti, Gio. Carlo, born at Asti (1680-1740). His prin- cipal works were frescoes in his native city. He painted the cupola of S. Agostino, and other pictures for the same church. Brvan says, " His style consists of a mixture of Maratta, of Gio. da S. Giovanni, and of Corregedo ; heads and feet that mio-ht be attrib- uted to Guido or Domenichino ; forms peculiar to the Caracci ; dra- pery of Paolo, and colors of Guercino."

Alibrandi, Girolamo, born at Messina (1470-1524). Pupil of Gio. Bellini, and a friend of Giorgione at Venice, where he spent many years. He then entered the school of Leonardo at Milan, lie has been called the Raphael of Messina. The clief-d' 'ceuvre of Messinian pictures is his "Purification" in the ch. of Candelora. It has perspective, grace, and pleasing color. Polidoro admired it so much that he painted a " Deposition from the Cross " in distemper, to serve as a cover and protection to it.

Aliense. See Vassilacchi.

Allan, David, born at Alloa, Scotland (1744-1796). After studying in the Academy at Glasgow, he went to Italy, and took the prize medal at the Acad, of S. Luke, for the best historical com- position. It is difficult to understand how he could have excelled, judging from his etchings, or the engravings from his pictures.

Allan, Sir William, born at Edinburgh (1782-1850). Studied


24 ALLAN — ALLEGE!

at the same time as Wilkie in the Trustees' Acad, in his native city. He went to London, where he met with no success, and in 1805 went to St. Petersburg, where he made a good name, as a portrait painter. He visited the interior of Russia, Tartary, and Turkey. He afterwards painted pictures illustrative of the scenes of those countries, such as the " Circassian Captives," " Prisoners conveyed by Cossacks to Siberia," etc. He returned to England in 1814. In 1830 visited the continent; in 1834 went to Spain; in 1838 became president of the Royal Academy of Scotland, was the successor of Sir David Wilkie, as Limner to the Queen in Scotland, and was knighted in 1842. In 1843 he exhibited the " Battle of Waterloo," now in the Coll. of the Duke of Wellington. In 1844 he went a<*ain to Russia, and after his return, painted the picture now in the winter palace of the Emperor, representing " Peter the Great teach- ing the Art of Ship-building to his Subjects." He died in his studio at Edinburgh, before an unfinished picture of the " Battle of Iian- nockburn."

Allegri, Antonio da Correggio, or Antonio Lieto da Correggio. Allcrri and Lieto are synonymous, and have the same meaning as the Latin Leatus (joyful). Born at Correggio (1494-1534). His father, Pellegrino Allegri, was a respectable merchant. Very little is known of the early life of Correggio, but it is thought that he was a pupil of Tonino Bartoletto of his native city. He probably studied the works of Leonardo da Vinci, and the painters of Mantua and Modena, for he fled to Mantua in 1511 on account of the plague at Correirnio. He appears, however, to have been largely the founder of his own style. He is the greatest master of light and dark, or chiaro-scuro, whether effected by color or shades. His management of light was wonderful ; he gave the most brilliant effect without dazzling, and his deepest shades were not dull. In all his subjects there is life and motion. He loved to depict the joyousness of child- hood, while his representation of earthly love was blissful, and that of heavenly love fervent. If sorrow was represented, it was deep- ened by the contrast with his usual joyousness. His passion seems to have been foreshortening and violent perspective. For his cupola paintings, this was a necessity, but he used it often apparently for the mere love of it. as in one instance he painted a " Madonna" sit- ting on her throne as if seen from below, and her knees appear almost to touch her breast. He was the first modern artist who excelled in chiaro-scuro, and is allowed to be still unequalled. When twenty-five years old, he was at Parma, and had an established reputation. In 1520 he contracted to paint the dome of S. Giovanni Evangelista, the payments for which extended through four years. He had pre- viously painted in Parma, some mythological designs for the convent of S. Paolo. We are amazed that these designs were chosen for a cloister; but Lanzi says, " Our wonder will cease, when Ave reflect,


ALLEGKI. 25

that the same place was once the residence of a lady abbess, at a time when the nuns of S. Paolo lived unguarded by grates, in which every abbess sought to enjoy herself, held jurisdiction over lands and castles, and independent of the bishop, lived altogether as a secular personage." At Correggio, before this time, Allegri had painted altar-pieces. The Madonna at Dresden, called " The Madonna del S. Francesco," is claimed to have been painted when he was but twenty-one, and the " S. George," also at Dresden, is another early work. At S. Giovanni he painted " The Ascension of Christ," who is represented as suspended in air, in the centre, while the Apos- tles are seated on the clouds below. In the pendentives are the Evan- gelists and four fathers of the church. This was the first instance of remarkably foreshortened figures, and was grand in arrangement and detail. But Correggio brought his style to perfection, in the cupola of the cathedral, at Parma.

This was done between 1526 and 1530. Here he represented " The Assumption of the Virgin." In the centre, high up, is Christ, who seems to precipitate Himself to meet his mother. The principal group, of the Virgin borne in triumph by angels, is much lower down, while between that and Christ are several saints, both male and female, which are wonderfully foreshortened. All the light pro- ceeds from the glory around Christ. This occupies but the upper half of the dome. Below are the Apostles between the oblong win- dows, which are in this part of the dome; above the windows are genii; the whole is avast throng of angels, saints, etc., for in the four pendentives beneath the cupola, are the patron saints of Parma, seated on clouds, and surrounded by angels. A pious rapture seems to be diffused through all, and the richness and boundlessness of the effect can scarcely be conveyed in language. Of course these fiorures are all much foreshortened, and the artist was told, " Ci avete fatto un guazzetto di rane " (you have given us a hash of frogs). Besides these wonderful frescoes, there are many altar-pieces and easel pictures by Corteggio. One of the most beautiful is the S. Jerome, at Parma, called " II Giorno," the day, in contrast with " La Notte," or " The Adoration of the Shepherds," at Dresden. " The Marriage of S. Catherine " is one of the most beautiful and oftenest repeated of his small pictures, and the best example is in the Louvre. In Kugler's " Handbook," the editor remarks in a foot- note (page 423), when speaking of this picture: •• This subject was comparatively late; S. Catherine of Siena died in the fourteenth centmy, and was not canonized till 1461. The painters appear to have improved on the legend." Here is a mistake. The picture illustrates the legend of S. Catherine of Alexandria, who died in the fourth century, and has no reference to S. Catherine of Siena. " La Zingarella " (the Gypsy), so called from the turban worn by the Virgin, is a picture of " The Repose during the Flight to Egypt,"


26


ALLEGKI.


and is very beautiful. Other important pictures in the Gall, at Parma are " The Madonna della Scodella," so called from the cup in the hand of the Virgin; " The Deposition from the Cross," and " The Martyrdom of SS. Placida and Flavia." At Dresden, besides those already mentioned, there are " The S. Sebastian," which has sometimes been called the most beautiful of all the figures of Correg- k The Reading Magdalene," and a portrait, said to be that of


£10



MAGDALENE. BY pORREGGIO.

Dresden Gall.

the physician to this master. The National Gall., London, has the " Ecce Homo," " Venus and Mercury teaching Cupid his Letters," and the " Vierge au Panier." In the Coll. of the Duke of Wellington is "The Agony of Christ upon the Mount of Olives." a remarkable cabinet picture ; it was presented by Ferdinand VII. of Spain to the first duke. The " Christ in the Garden with the Magdalene," is in the Madrid Gall. There are other works of this master of an entirely different character. At the Stafford House Gall, is one with a horse and mule, both laden, with their drivers, in the midst of a glowing landscape. This is said to have been painted for a sign to an inn. In the Berlin Mus. are " Leda and the Swan," and u Io embraced by Jupiter." These show the triumph of earthly love, as intensely as the religious pictures present that of the heavenly. The latter picture was once in the Orleans Gall, and the son of the duke cut out the head of Io because it was too voluptuous in expression! The present head was the work of Prud'hon. There is a copy of this picture in the Vienna Gall., which is universally believed to be also by Correggio. At the Borghese Gall, at Rome, is the picture of Danae. At the Paris Museum, k - Jupiter and Antiope." It is said that when Correggio saw the pictures of Raphael, his eyes brightened, and he exclaimed, " I also am a painter." When Titian saw the works of Correggio at Parma, he said, " Were I not Titian, I should desire to be Correggio." Annibale Carracci wrote from Parma in 1580, " Tibaldi, Niccolini, Raphael himself, are nothing to Correggio." The monks were very fond of Correggio, and in 1520 he was made a member of the Congregation Cassinensi, in the monastery of S. John the Evangelist at Parma. Tasso was also a member of this fraternity. This membership conveyed a participation in the masses, prayers, and alms of the community, and was accompanied with a promise to perform the same offices for the repose of his soul, and those of his family, that they would per- form for their own number. In 1520 he married Girolama Merlini, a lady of good family, very gentle and lovely. She was probably his model for " La Zingarella " after the birth of his first child. She bore him one son and three daughters, and died in 1529. He did not marry again, and died suddenly in 1534. The story of the great poverty of Correggio, set forth by Vasari, seems to have been unfounded ; it is certainly contradicted by the quantity and quality of the colors he lavished on his pictures. The prices which he received — such as 1,000 ducats, or 150Z. sterling for the Cath. of Parma, 11. 10s. for " La Notte," etc., — seem to us very small, but we must consider the value of money in those days, and these sums are not inconsiderable. It is not known whether Correo-oio ever visited

©©

Rome or not, and various arguments are brought to bear on both sides of the question; but Ortensio Landi, in a work published in 1552, says, "he died young, without being able to see Rome."

ENGRAVINGS AFTER CORREGGIO.

Engraver, Anderloni, Pietro. Magdalene.

Engraver, Audouin, Pierre. Jupiter and Antiope.

Engraver, Bazin, Nicholas. The Virgin Mary suckling the Infant.

Engraver, Beauvais, Nicholas Dauphin de. The Virgin with the Infant Jesus upon a pedestal, and several saints below.

Engraver, Berger, Daniel. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Bernard, Samuel. Mezzotinto, The Repose ; called La Zingarella.

Engraver, Bertelli, Cristofano. The Virgin and Infant, with SS. Sebastian, Francis, and Roch.

Engraver, Bonavera, Domenico Maria. The Cupola at Parma ; the Assumption. Dominico Bonavera, sc. 1697.


28 ALLEGRI.

Engraver, Brizzio or Briccio, Francesco. The Holy Family.

Engraver, Capitelei, Bernardo. The Marriage of S. Catherine.

Engraver, Caracci, Agostino. The Virgin and Infant with Mag- dalene; S. Jerome and an Ano-el ; 1586.

Engraver, Chateau or Chasteau, William. The Repose in Egypt.

Engraver, Cort, Cornelius. The Marriage of S. Catherine; S. Jerome.

Engraver, Cuxego, Domenico. The Virgin and Infant.

Engraver, Duchange, Gaspar. Jupiter and Io; Jupiter and Danae ; Jupiter and Leda.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. The Repose, called la Zlngara.

Engraver. Edelixck, Nicholas. The Virgin and Infant.

Engraver, Fessard, Stephen. S. John Baptist, with other saints.

Engraver, Frezza, Gio. Girolamo. The Repose, called la Zin- 7 ira.

Engraver, Jode, Arnold de. Mercury educating Cupid.

Engraver, Lorexzixi, Fra Antonio. S. John surrounded with angels.

Engraver. Mexageot. Robert. Friendship ; a circular print.

Engraver, Mercati, Gio. Batista. The Marriage of S. Cath- erine.

Engraver, Mitellt, Giuseppe Maria. The Adoration of the Shep- herds, called La Notte.

Enqraver. Mogalli, Como. The Holv Familv.

Engraver, Picart, Etienne. The Marriage of S. Catherine. Virtue triumphant over Vice ; The Sensualist.

Engraver, Porporati. Jupiter and Leda ; The Madonna with the Rabbit ; Leda and the Swan, and Leda bathing ; La Zingarella.

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo. The Virgin and Infant Jesus.

Engravt r, Sanuto or Saxttus, Giulio. Apollo and Marsyas.

Engraver, Smith, John. Venus standing in a Shell.

Engraver, Sorxique, Dominique. Diana and her Nymphs.

Engraver, Spierre, Francis. The Virgin suckling the infant Christ.

Engraver, Steex. Francis Vander. Cupid shaping his Bow ; Ju- piter and Io ; Ganymede.

Engraver, Strange, Sir Robert. The Magdalene.

Engraver, Surrugue, Peter Louis. The Adoration, called " La Notte."

Engraver, Troyen, John Van. Magdalene Penitent.

Engraver. Volpato, Gio. Christ praying on the Mount.

Engraver, Watson, Thomas. The Virgin with the infant Jesus and S. John.

Allegri, Fomponio Quirino, son of Antonio, born at Correggio 1521. He was but thirteen when his father died, therefore he could


ALLKGRI — ALLORI.


29


derive but small benefit from him, except in the study of his works. He had fair abilities, and was established at Parma, where he was constantly employed until 1593. In the Cath. of Parma there is a fresco by him representing Moses just after he received the Tables of the Law, and is showing them to the Israelites.

Allegrini, Francesco, born at Florence 1729. A designer and engraver In 1 762 he published one hundred portraits of the Medici family with a frontispiece, all engraved by himself. He made a print of S. Francesco d'Assisi, which is much esteemed in Florence. He also engraved other eminent poets, painters, and men of Florence.

Allegrini, Francesco, called da Gubbio (15S7-1663). A disciple of Giuseppe Cesari, called II Cavaliere d'Arpino. He painted in oil and fresco, but mostly in the latter. At Gubbio he painted the cupola of the Sacrament in the Cath., and another at the Madonna de' Bianchi. He lived at Rome and worked in the Casa Panfili Small pictures by this master are often seen in Rome and Gubbio, which merit praise. He also painted figures in the land- scapes of Claude ; two of these were in the Colonna Pal. He painted in the Cath. and Casa Gavotti at Savona, and in the Casa Durazzo at Genoa. His two sons, Flaminio and Angelo were histori- cal painters.

Allet, Jean Charles, born at Paris 1668; died at Rome 1732. Designer and engraver. He marked his plates sometimes Charles, and sometimes Jean Charles, which led to the opinion that there were two engravers of the name of Allet, but they are now believed to have been one person. His engravings are portraits and subjects from sacred history.

Alloisi. See Galanino.

Allori, Alessandro, born at Florence (1535-1607). A nephew of Bronzino, he was called by his name, which he sometimes affixed to his pictures. Vasari speaks of him as living most lovingly, even as a son, with his uncle. Before he was seventeen he had painted from his own design, an altar-piece representing the Crucifixion. At nineteen he went to Rome and remained two years. There he studied principally the works of Michael Angelo. Returning to Florence he was constantly occupied on public edifices, but painted some portraits. He wrote a book upon anatomy for the use of pain- ters, and was so much devoted to this, that he neglected some other branches of art. He was a great mannerist, and his portraits were his best pictures, though some of the horses which he painted in Rome were fine ; but on the whole he was little if any above medi- ocrity.

Allori, Cristoforo, born at Florence (157 7-1621). Son of Ales- sandro, and called also Bronzino. He was a pupil of his father, whom he afterwards called "a heretic in painting," and followed Ci«-oli and Pagani, whose works he admired. By some his execution


30 ALLORI — ALLSTON.

was considered better than that of any other artist of his time ; in- deed, he was so fastidious that he finished few pictures. He excelled in portraits, and in landscape painting surpassed the Florentines of his day. His best work is the " S. Julian/' in the Pitti Gall., but his " Judith " is more generally known. It is said that the head of 11 Holofernes " is his own portrait, " Judith " that of his mistress, and " Abra," that of her mother. He made copies of the " Magdalen ' of Correggio which passed for duplicates by the great master.

Allston, Washington, born at Waccamaw, South Carolina, 1779 ; died at Cambridge, Mass., 1843. He graduated from Harvard Col- lege in 1800, and went to London and studied in the Royal Acad. After three years of assiduous labor he went to Paris, and proceeded to Italy, where he remained four years, mostly in Rome. There he associated intimately with Coleridge and Thorwaldsen. In 1809 he came to America and married Miss Channing, and subsequently fixed his residence in London. lie there exhibited k " The Dead Man re- vived," which took the prize of two hundred guineas at the British Institution. He next painted " S. Peter liberated by an Angel," now in the ch. of Ashby-de-la-Zouch ; " Uriel in the Sun," also a prize picture, now belonging to the Duke of Sutherland; "Jacob's Dream," now at Pet worth ; and between these larger works, several smaller ones. He returned to America in 1818, and settled in Boston. He was elected to the Royal Acad, in England, Avhere his works were much esteemed. The only one he brought to America, " Elijah in the Wilderness," was sold to the lion. Mr. Labouchere, and taken to England. His next pictures were " The Prophet Jeremiah," now at Yale College ; " Saul and the Witch of Endor," which belonged to the late Colonel T.H.Perkins, of Boston; "Miriam singing the Song of Triumph," also owned in Boston, by the late Hon. David Sears; and the small pictures of "Dante's Beatrice " and "The Valentine." In 1830 he married Miss Dana, and removed to Cam- bridge, where he passed the remainder of his life in seclusion. He there painted " Spalatro " or the " Vision of the Bloody Hand," and " Rosalie' which belonged to the Hon. Nathan Appleton. " The Spalatro ' is in the Coll. of John Taylor Johnston, New York. Mr. William Page, President of the National Acad, of Design, New York, said in a recent lecture, that when he praised this work to Allston, he replied, " I think, perhaps, it is on the whole the best picture I ever painted." Mr. Page said, " In color it is not as good as the best of Titian's, yet few pictures of Titian's, of that size, are so good in color. In composition and chiaro-scuro it is one of the great pictures. It is the best picture in a gallery which contains the best pictures to be seen in America." Allston also painted some por- traits. Among them Avere that of Benjamin West, in the Boston Athenaeum, and one of Coleridge, in the National Portrait Gall, of England. Of the last, Wordsworth said, "It is the only likeness



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ALLSTON. 33

which ever gave me pleasure." In 1836, he was invited by Congress to paint a large picture for the Capitol, but his mind was fixed upon painting " Belshazzar's Feast," for which he had made a sketch in 1817. This was unfinished when he died, and is in the Boston Athe- nasum. Allston was remarkable for the versatility of his concep- tions. The beauty of Beatrice and Rosalie, the prophetic sternness of Jeremiah, the grace of Miriam, the moonlight effects, the forests and mountains of his landscapes, the horror of Spalatro, and the im- pressive mysteriousness of the reviving Dead Man, display a won- derful scope of thought and a surprising power of execution. His literary talents were good. In 1813 he published a poem, "The Sylphs of the Season," and later, " The Two Painters" and "The Paint King." In 1821, " Monaldi " was written, but not published until much later. This story gives his own life in Rome, mingled with a story of passion, the whole gracefully adorned with observations upon art, and descriptions of nature. A course of lec- tures which he wrote upon Art, but did not deliver, were published after his death. Tuckerman has well said, " Indeed, the writings and paintings of Allston exquisitely illustrate each other. By their mutual contemplation we perceive the individuality of the artist and the pure spirit of the man ; and realize that unity whereby genius harmonizes all expression to a common and universal principle, mak- ing form and color, words and rhyme, express vividly and truly what exists in the artist's nature. ' Rosalie,' for instance-, the poem, is the reflection of 'Rosalie,' the picture; and his letter describing a view among the Alps, breathes the identical feeling that pervades the landscape depicting the scene." Allston often related the follow- ing incident in his life. Not long after he went to Europe after his first marriage, his pecuniary wants became very pressing. One day while in his studio the thought came to him, that he merited his trials as a punishment for his want of gratitude in the past, when he had been more prosperous. Suddenly he felt a strong hope that God would answer his prayer ; he locked his door, threw himself on his knees, and prayed for a loaf of bread for his wife and himself. There was a knock at the door ; he opened it with a feeling of shame, and a fear that he had been observed. A stranger asked for Mr. Allston, and inquired if his picture of "Uriel" had been sold. When an- swered in the negative he asked where it could be found. " Here, in this very room," replied Allston, and he brushed the dust from the picture and brought it forward. "When the price was demanded, All- ston said he had done fixing a sum, for his price had, so far, exceeded his offers. "Will £400 be an adequate recompense?" asked the stranger. " It is more than I have ever asked," said All- ston. " Then it is mine," replied the Marquis of Stafford, for he it was. From this hour they were the warmest friends. By him All- ston was introduced into society, and soon became a favored guest in a circle which embraced many gifted minds.


34 ALMELOVEN — ALTDORFER.

Almeloven, John, born about 1614 or 1624. Dutch engraver and painter. Best known by some etchings of landscapes.

Alsloot, Daniel, born at Brussels (1550-1608). Landscape painter.

Alsloot, Denis van, flourished in early part of the seventeenth century. Painter of landscapes and portraits.

Altamonte, or Altamonti, Martin, born at Naples, some say in 1657, and others, in 1682; died, 1745. He was among the best painters of his time. His subjects were historical and architectural.

Altdorfer, Albrecht, born at Altdorf in Bavaria, 1488, died at Ratisbon, or Regensburg, 1538. He is said to have been a pupil of Albert Durer's, but this lacks confirmation. He was a painter, and an engraver on copper and wood. Kugler says, " He seized the fantastic tendency of the time with a poetic feeling at once rich and pleasing, and he developed it so as to attain a perfection in this sort of romantic painting, such as no other artist has ever realized." lie is one of the best of the "little painters " of Ger- many. The latter portion of his life was given to painting, as his last prints were dated 1525. Some of his works display wonderful patience when we compare their size and the number of figures. That of the " Victory of Alexander at Arbela," is purely Gothic in design, and the costumes such as were worn in 1529 when it was painted. It has been said to contain more figures than any other picture. Schlegel says, " It is, in truth, a little world on a few square feet of canvas ; the hosts of combatants, who advance on all sides against each other, are innumerable, and the view into the background appears interminable. In the distance is the ocean, with high rocks, and a rusrjjed island between them ; ships of Avar appear in the offing, and a whole fleet of vessels ; on the left, the moon is setting , on the right, the sun rising ; both shining through the opening clouds, a clear and strik- ing image of the events represented The armies are arranged in rank and column, without the strange attitudes, contrasts, and dis- tortions generally exhibited in so-called battle-pieces. How indeed would this have been possible with such a vast multitude of figures ? The whole is in the plain and severe, or it may be, the stiff manner of the old style. At the same time, the character and execution of these little figures is most masterly and profound. And what variety, what expression there is, not merely in the character of the single warriors and knights, but in the hosts themselves ! Here crowds of black archers rush down, troop after troop, from the mountain, with the rage of a foaming torrent ; on the other side, high upon the rocks in the far distance, a scattered crowd of flying men are turning round in a defile. The point of the greatest in- terest stands out brilliantly from the centre of the whole ; Alexan- der and Darius, both in armor of burnished gold : Alexander, on Bucephalus, with his lance in rest, advances far before his men, and


ALTDORFER. 35

presses on the flying Darius, whose charioteer has already fallen on his white horses, and who looks back upon his conqueror with all the despair of a vanquished monarch." This picture was in the Gall, of Sehleissheim, and was taken to Paris. Napoleon liked it so much, that he had it at S. Cloud, in his bath-room. It was returned to Bavaria in 1815, and is now in the Pinacothek. Munich, Cabinets, 169. In the same place, Cabinets, 138, is the " History of Susanna by Altdorfer. In the Augsburg Gall, there is an altar- piece with wings ; very fine. At Xuremburg, there is in the Lan- dauer Bruderhaus, Xo. 179, a Crucifixion, and in the chapel of S. Maurice a picture by this master, of S. Quirinus being drawn from the water. In the Coll. of the Historical Societv at Ratisbon, there is an " Adoration of the Shepherds." The Rev. J. Fuller Rus- sell has a picture of " Christ parting from the Virgin," which is un- doubtedly bv Altdorfer, although it is sometimes attributed to Durer. I find mention of no other picture by Altdorfer, in England. His en- gravings were not inferior to his paintings, and he executed, on copper and wood, more than one hundred and seventy prints. The following is a fist of a small portion of them.

Engraved on Cojiper.

Portrait of himself — with his cipher.

Portrait of Luther, with an oval of foliage.

S. Jerome with the Lion. One of the best.

Judith with the head of Holofernes.

Adam and Eve in Paradise.

Solomon's Idolatry.

Samson and Delilah.

Pvramus and Thisbe.

A naked Woman with wings, seated on a star, with a torch in one hand and an escutcheon in the other, called Lascivia.

S. George and the Dragon.

Mucius Scaevola.

Amphion saved from the Sea by a Dolphin. 1825.

The Death of Lucretia. Etching.

The Virgin and Child, dressed in the costume of Ratisbon, with a palm-tree.

A Man and Woman dancinc

Engraved on Wood.

Forty cuts of the Fall and Redemption of Man. Very fine. Paris dying on Mt. Ida with the three Goddesses. 1511. The beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon after the picture in the Cath. One of his best works.

S. Christopher, stooping to take up Jesus. 1513. The Purification.


36 ALTDORFER — ALUNNO.

The Murder of the Innocents. 1511.

The Resurrection of Christ. 1512.

The Annunciation. 1513.

S. Jerome before a Crucifix in a Grotto.

Abraham's Sacrifice.

Altham , flourished about 1660. A German painter of

marine subjects and landscapes.

Altissimo, Cristofano dell', flourished about 1568. Pupil of Bronzino. A food portrait painter. The Duke Cosmo dei Medici I., employed him to copy the portraits of illustrious persons in the Gall, of Count Giovio. Vasari says he finished more than 280 of these, which were hung around the Guardaroba of the Duke. Many more were finished later, and they were placed in the corridor of the Uffizi. His family name was Papi.

Alunno, Niccolo, born at Foligno about the middle of the fifteenth century. He painted in distemper, but his colors still endure. His principal works are, the " Annunciation" in S. Maria Nuova at Perugia, 1466 ; a " Crucifixion " in the Art Hall at Carls- ruhe, 1468; an enthroned "Madonna" in the Brera at Milan, 1465 ; portions of pictures originally at Assisi, which represented a " Pieta," much praised by Vasari ; portions of an altar-piece in the ch. of S. Niccolo, at Foligno, 1492 ; a " Madonna " in the Berlin Mus., etc., etc. Numbers of his works are dispersed in the March of Ancona. Many of them were in several pieces, although that manner of painting had almost passed away in his time. Alunno may be called the founder of a new style in the Umbrian school. Hitherto the Art of those quiet valleys had expressed the character of their inhabitants, and breathed forth the deep religious enthusi- asm of a people living in retirement, unfamiliar with classic studies, and filled with fervent spiritual longings : in short, a people who regarded Assisi with its Basilica as a holy place, and the lovely S. Francis as the most perfect earthly model that could be represented in Art, or imitated in life. But the tendency to represent mere beauty, the realistic mode, began now to be felt, even in Umbria, and it was first remarkable in the works of this painter. The blend- ing of the two styles resulted in that wonderful beauty which we find in the works of Raphael, where the richness of Italian painting is made perfect by the expression of tender feeling, purity of soul, and spiritual and devotional sentiment. It is the union of beauty in form and expression that imparts the charm to the works of s class of painters, who, without great power or scope of thought, agreeably portray pure spiritual feeling with grave and quiet dignity. To this class Niccolo Alunno belonged, and his mission seems to have been to prepare the way for others who possessed more genius than himself. In addition to the works already mentioned there are at Gualdo, Duomo, several saints, a Crucifixion, etc. ; a S. Paul


ALUNNO — AMAYA. 37

here is one of his best figures. At Nocera, Sacristy of Duomo, a " Nativity " and a " Coronation of the Virgin," with saints, doctors of the church, and half lengths of the Apostles. At Aquila, convent of S. Chiara, a " Crucifixion " surrounded by four scenes from the life of Christ. At La Bastia, in the ch. of the place, an altar-piece dated 1499. In the Bologna Gall, a standard. On one face is an

  • ' Annunciation," on the other an enthroned " Madonna." At the

Louvre, Musee Napoleon III. Ex. Campana Gall. No. 111., a standard; No. 88 the " Annunciation." London, National Gall. No. 247, bust of Christ. No trace of this master has been found later than 1499.

Amalteo, Pomponio, born at S. Tito 1505 ; died 1588. Son- in-law of Pordenone, and his successor in his school at Friuli. He painted historical subjects for the public edifices near Friuli. At Belluno in the Hall of the Notaries he painted scenes from Roman History. His chefs-oVozuvre were the three Judgments of Solomon, Daniel, and Trajan, painted in a Gall, where causes were decided at Ceneda, and a " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," in the ch. of that saint at Udine. The moment chosen was that of the sun's rising, and from its centre bright rays fell on the hands and feet of the saint. He not only colored in the splendid manner of the Vene- tians, but also designed with accuracy.

Amalteo, Girolamo, brother and pupil of Pomponio. He died young. Graziano, in the poem of Orlando, calls him, " Girolamo Amalteo de' vita santo."

Amato, Gio. Antonio d', called also II Vecchio, born at Na- ples 1475, where he lived until his death 1555. Said to have been a pupil of Silvestro Buono. He afterwards studied the style of Perugino, and seems to have largely educated himself. He painted in oil and fresco. He had many pupils. His favorite study was theology, and he gave expositions of the Scriptures, for which he was quite celebrated. His paintings may be seen in the churches of Naples. In S. Dominico Maggiore, there is a " Holy Family " in the chapel of the Caraffa.

Amato, Gio. Antonia d', born at Naples (1535-1597). A nephew of the preceding. In the ch. of the Banco de Poveri at Naples, is his best work — the altar-piece, a representation of the infant Christ.

Amato, Francesco, an engraver and painter. His pictures are little known, but his etchings are spirited and in the style of Bis- caino.

Amatrice, Cola dell". Flourished in 1533. Lived at Ascoli del Piceno. Distinguished there as an architect and painter. He painted a picture of the " Saviour dispensing the Eucharist to his Disciples," which is highly extolled in the Guida di Ascoli.

Amaya . Flourished 1682. Pupil of Vincenzio Carducho,

and painted in Segovia, with correctness of design, and good color- ing.


38 AMBERES — AMERIGHI.

Amberes, Francisco de, nourished in the early part of the six- teenth century. A painter and sculptor. In 1502 he ornamented the Cath. of Toledo ; in 1508-10 together with Jean de Bourgogne and Yilloldo he painted the arabesque chapel, which is still an inter- esting object.

Amberes, Miguel di, flourished about 1640. His pictures are seen in the religious houses of Spam. He was originally of Antwerp, and somewhat resembled Vandyck in his style of portrait painting.

Amberger, Christopher, born at Nuremberg 1490 (?); died at Augs- buro-, 1563 (?). Pupil of the elder Holbein, he imitated the younger. He painted in distemper and oil, and is said to have ornamented the exteriors of houses in Augsburg in the former method. His pictures are chiefly small portraits. They are not equal to those of Holbein in execution, but have been mistaken for his. In 1532, when Charles V. visited Augsburg, Amberger painted his portrait, with which he was so much pleased that he paid him thirty-six rix dollars, the price being but twelve, and presented him with a medal on a gold chain. Charles is said to have declared the picture as good as one for which he had paid Titian one hundred rix dollars. It is probably now in the Berlin Gall. Amberger' s best works are in the Franciscan ch. and convent of S. Martin at Amberg. There is also a fine portrait of Sebastian Miinster at Berlin, and one of Henry VIII. at Augs- burer, attributed to Amberger.

Ambrogi, Domenico degli, middle of 1 7th century. Native of Bologna. Called Meniehino del Brizio from having studied with Francesco Brizio. He painted in oil and distemper. He excelled in perspective, landscapes, and architectural views, and painted also historical subjects. He was employed in many churches and palaces of Bologna. In S. Giacomo Maggiore there is a " Guardian Angel," and in the Nunziata a " S. Francis " by this artist. He was the instruc- tor of Fumiani and Pierantonio Cerva. In 1653 he published some wood-cuts from his own designs, printed in chiaro-scuro.

Amelsfoort, Quirinus Van, born at Bois-le-duc (1760-1820). A painter of allegories, history, and portraits, which last were remark- able as likenesses.

Amerighi, Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1569-1609), called Caravaggio from the place of his birth. He was the chief master of the school called Naturalistic, from its direct representation of com- mon life. Kugler says its style may be called ' ' the poetry of the re- pulsive." When confined to scenes of common occurrence, and a somewhat low life, these pictures are often powerful and have their own peculiar charm ; but when this style is used to depict sacred sub- jects, although, in a sense, powerful, it becomes painful and offensive. Caravaowio was wild in his nature and life. He lived much in Rome, but went also to Naples, Malta, and Sicily. The contrasts of vivid and subdued lights ; his remarkably effective draperies, and his car-


AMKHIGIII — AMES.


39


nation tints, give great effect to his pictures. Some of his sacred pictures were taken away from the altars where they were placed, on account of their coarseness. One of his best works is the " Behead- ing of S. John," in the Cath. of Malta. In Rome, there is at the Vatican, the "• Entombing of Christ; " this is his most celebrated picture. It is impressive in its solemnity, but devoid of sacredness or sublimity. In S. Luigi de' Francesci there is a chapel painted by Caravaggio; in the Borghese Gall, an immense Holy Family;" in the Sciarra Pal., the " Cheating Gamester; " in the Spada Pal., " Geometry." as a ragged girl, playing with compasses; and in the Gall, of the Capitol, a " Fortune-teller," which is a chef-d'oeuvre.



THE FALSE PLAYERS. BY CARAVAGGIO.

These last are such subjects as he best represents. In the Berlin Mus. is " Earthly Love " and a portrait. At the Louvre is the por- trait of " Yignacourt," Grand Master of Malta.

Ames, Joseph, born in Roxbury, New Hampshire (1816-1872). This painter studied in America and Italy and finally settled in New York. His best fancy subjects are the " Old Stone Pitcher " and 11 Maud Muller." But his success was in portraits, of which he sometimes executed seventy-five in a year. Of course they could not be very carefully finished, but they were true to nature and his colors wen- fresh and bright. His picture of " Pope Pius IX." was much admired at Rome ; his portraits of Webster, Choate. Felton, Rachel,


40 AMES — AMMAN.

and Gazzaniga are well known. His "Death of Webster "has been engraved.

Amici, Francesco. A modern Italian engraver.

Amiconi or Amigoni, Jacopo, born at Venice in 1675; died at Madrid, 1 752. After painting in Venice he went to Rome and thence to Munich, where he acquired considerable fame. Going thence to England in 1729 his pictures were much in vogue, and he was employed by many noblemen in the decoration of staircases and similar works in the stvle of Ricci. He returned to Venice with £5,000. He was afterwards called to Spain and made painter to the kino-, Ferdinand VI. Two large pictures by him arc in the vestibule of the Queen of Spain's Gall., " The Finding of the Cup in Benja- min's sack " and " Joseph in the Palace of Pharaoh."

Amiconi or Amigoni, Ottavio, born at Brescia (1605-1661). Pupil of Antonio Gandini. He excelled in frescoes executed after the manner of Paul Veronese. The scenes from the life of S. Al- bert, in the Carmelite ch. of Brescia, were partly his work.

Amidano, Pomponeo, born at Parma. Flourished about 1595. He has been called a pupil of Parmigianino ; of this there is no proof, but he was a close imitator of that master. The altar-piece in the ch. of Madonna del Quartiere is his best work, and has been attrib- uted, even by good artists, to Parmigianino. Orlandi says that many of his pictures were sold to foreigners, but they have probably been assigned to Parmigianino, as the name of Amidano is not found in catalogues.

Amigazzi, Gio. Batista, a scholar of Claudio Ridolfi. He excelled as a copyist. In S. Carlo at Verona is a copy of a " Supper," by Paul Veronese, finely drawn and of good color even now.

Aiming, Carl Gustavus, born at Nuremberg (1651-1710). A designer and enoraver. The Elector of Bavaria sent him to Paris for instruction, and he studied with F. de Poilly. He was a respectable, but not eminent artist. He made many plates, and was more success- ful in portraits than in other subjects. He engraved some for the Acad, of Sandrart and also made prints after tapestry, the plates of which belonged to the Elector of Bavaria.

©

Amman, Justus, born at Zurich (1539-1591). Went to Nurem- berg in 1560, where he lived until he died. One of the " little art-

© 7

ists," Avho excelled in wood-cuts. It is said that he made more than a thousand, comprising almost every imaginable subject. His " TluvoTr\ia " is a remarkable work ; it contains a description of the artist's time, and has one hundred and fifteen wood-cuts of mechan- ics and tradesmen in their proper costumes. Amman himself is pre- sented as the engraver. The cuts from this book were used in that of Hans Sachs, " Eigentliche Beschreibung aller Stande auf Erden." He also made illustrations of Livy's Roman History. Nearly all his cuts were for books. Amman was also an author and w T rote a book on "Poetrv, Painting, and Sculpture."


AMMAN — AMSTEL. 41

Amman, John. An engraver who lived at Hanau in 1640.

Ammanati, Bartolomeo, born at Florence (1511-1589 ?). Stud- ied under Bandinelli at Florence, and afterwards at Venice with San- sovino, sculptor and architect. He was much employed in Padua, Ur- bino, Naples, Venice, Rome, and Florence. The principal buildings upon which he was employed as an architect were the Pal. of Bena- vides at Padua, the Pitti Pal. at Florence, the Pal. Rucellai and the facade of the Collegio Romano at Rome. He also rebuilt the Ponte S. Trinita at Florence in 15G9. This is his best work, a great ornament to the city, and one of the most graceful and beauti- ful bridges in the world. His most important work in sculpture was the fountain for the Piazza della Signoria. It consists of a colossal Neptune, in a car, surrounded by other figures, and is open to much criticism. He also erected a monument for Pope Julius III. which mav still bo seen at the eh. of San Pietro in Montorio. He married Laura Battiferri of Urbino, who was a poetess, and a member of the Society of the Intronati at Siena. She was a lady of wealth, and they lived at the Villa Caserotta, near Florence. His wife died three years sooner than himself. Ammanati was buried in the ch. of S. Giovanni, upon which he had lavished both time and money. His biographer says, " his friends wept at his death for the loss of a dear friend, the poor for a constant helper, the priests for a zealous pro- moter of the divine worship, the artists for a great master, and all the city of Florence for a distinguished architect." Before his death he wrote a letter to the Florentine Acad, of Design, regretting that he had sculptured undraped figures, and that their evil influence must survive him ; warns other artists against the same sin, especially that of placing inappropriate figures in churches.

Ammanati also wrote a large work called " La Citta." It con- tained designs for all the edifices necessary to a city. When Mich- ael Angelo died he was one of the four chosen to superintend the obsequies of the great master.

Ammon, Clement. Son-in-law of Theodore de Bry, the en- graver. Ammon added two volumes to the Coll. of portraits pub- lished by De Bry in six quarto vols, entitled " Bibliotheca Calco- graphica." Those of Ammon were published in 1650-1652. He was much superior to De Bry.

Ammon, Johann, born at Schaffhausen. An engraver of por- traits. Flourished in 1700.

Amorosi, Antonio, born at Communanza. Flourished about 1736. He painted some pictures for churches, one of which may be seen in S. Rocco at Rome, but he excelled in caricatures (bambocci- ate), and subjects from common life.

Amstel, Cornelius Ploos Van, born at Amsterdam, 1732. An amateur engraver who executed an interesting set of plates in imita- tion of the best masters.


42 ANCHILUS — ANDREA.

Anchilus, N'., born at Antwerp, 1688; died at Lyons, 1733. A painter of conversations in the manner of Teniers. He went to London and copied the pictures of Snyders for Sir R. Walpole.

Ancona, Andrea Lilio d', called also Andrea Anconitano, died 1610. This painter was employed by Sixtns V. in the ornamenta- tion of the library of the Vatican, and in the Pal. of S. John of Lateran. In the Scala Santa he painted, in fresco, " Moses striking the Rock ; " in S. Maria Maggiore, " Our Saviour Avashing the feet of the Disciples;" and in the Chiesa Xuova, "The Archangel Michael driving the Evil Spirits from Heaven." Ancona possessed some works of Lilio* s, both in oil and fresco.

Anderlini, Domenico, born at Pesaro, flourished about 1720. A landscape painter of some merit.

Anderloui, Faustino, born at Brescia. Flourished about 1786- 1794. An enoraver. He illustrated several scientific works and made portraits of Schiller, Herder, and Carlo Porta. He also en- graved '• The Dying Magdalene," after Correggio ; " The Repose in Eo-vpt," after N. Poussin ; and the "Mater Amabilis," after Sasso Ferrato.

Anderloni, Pietro, brother of Faustino, born 1784. He studied with P. Palazzi and Faustino, and was undecided between painting and engraving, but after deciding upon the latter, at the age of twenty he entered the school of Longhi, where he remained nine years. Under that master he became excellent in his art, and was allowed to put his name upon some plates in acknowledgment of his share in their execution. He went twice to Rome to make drawings after Raphael, and in 1831 he succeeded Longhi as superintendent of the Acad, of Engravers at Milan. He became a member of several academies and distinguished in his art.

Anderson, . An English painter of small marine pictures.

Anderton, Henry, flourished about 1660, died 1665. After studying under Streater he went to Italy. He painted some histori- cal pictures, but principally portraits; one of the latter which he made of Mrs. Stuart (later Duchess of Richmond) , so pleased Charles IL that he gave Anderton his patronage.

Andre, Jean, born in Paris (1662-1 753). He was a Dominican and went to Rome, where he studied the works of Michael Angelo and Raphael, and was a pupil of Carlo Maratti. He painted histori- cal subjects and portraits.

Andrea, Alessandro. An artist who flourished about 1578, when he engraved a portrait of the Abbe de S. Arnaud, the French ambas- sador at the court of Constantinople.

Andrea da Firenze. This artist was employed in painting the story of the Beato Rained, at the Campo Santo at Pisa, as is shown by his receipt for payment made the 13th of October, 137 7/1378 (Pisan style). It is not possible exactly to trace this artist, as at that


ANDREA — ANGE LI. 43

time there were seven Andreas on the roll of Florentine artists, either one of whom may have been the one employed at Pisa. There has also been a question as to whether he did not paint the Cap- pellone dei Spagnuoli, which Vasari ascribed to Simone.

Andrea da Firenze, who painted an altar-piece in a chapel of S. Margaret at Cortona, and a picture of the " Conversion of Constan- tine," flourished in 1437.

Andrea del Sarto. See Sarto.

, Andreani, Andrea, born at Mantua,

If \\ A/\ ^PS 1540 or 1560; died, 1G23. His paintings J J YY.Z* *>-t^ *■ are little known, but he was a very cel- ebrated engraver. Early in life he established himself in Rome, and devoted himself to wood-cuts, which were printed in chiaro-scuro. He excelled all who had preceded him. It is said that he procured the blocks of other engravers, retouched them and called them his own. The number of prints attributed to him is very large, and they are prized by good judges. From the similarity of his monogram to that of Albert Altdorfer, their works are sometimes confounded.

Andreasi, Ippolito, a native of Mantua. A pupil of Giulio Ro- mano, whom he assisted in his cartoons. Andreasi painted pic- tures of merit, in S. Barbara and other places.

Andriessen, Jnrriaan, born at Amsterdam (1742-1819). Pupil of A. Elliger and J. M. Quinkhart. He excelled in decorative paint- ing, and the new theatre at Amsterdam was decorated by this artist and Numan. He had several pupils who are distinguished.

Andriessen, Antony, born at Amsterdam (1746-1813). Painted landscapes and figures with his brother, Jurriaan.

Andriessen or Adrienses, Hendricks, called Mankenhein, corn at Antwerp, 1600 ; died at Zealand, 1655. A painter of still life.

Andrioli, Girolamo. A Veronese painter. His name, with the date 1606, is found on an altar-piece and other pictures in the ch. of S. Caterina di Siena, at Verona.

Andriot or Handeriot, Franz or Francois, born at Paris about 1655. An engraver who worked in Rome and Paris. He followed the style of Poilly, and although he did not equal that artist his plates are prized for their subjects and the masters after whom he engraved.

Aneda, Juan de, born at Burgos, where he painted, in 1565, sev- eral pictures, which are still in the Cath. He was associated in this work with Juan de Cea.

Anesi, Paolo. A native of Florence. Several of his works are in the palaces and private galleries of that city and at Rome. He painted ruins in the manner of P. Panini, as well as landscapes. Francesco Zuccherelli was one of his pupils.

Angeli or Angelis. There were many artists of this name, but the facts recorded of them scarcely serve to distinguish them from each other.


44 ANGELI — ANGUIER.

Angeli, Giulio Cesare, born about 1570 ; died 1630. A pupil of the Caracci. There is a large picture by hiin in the ch. of S. Agos- tino at Perugia.

Angeli, Giuseppe, born about 1615. Pupil of Piazzetta. He painted some altar-pieces, but principally cabinet pictures.

Angeli, Niccolo. An engraver who nourished about 1635.

Angelis, Peter, born at Dunkirk, 1685: died at Rennes, 1734. He went to Flanders, and passed some time there and at Dusseldorf. In 1712 he went to England, and met with such success that he re- mained sixteen years. In 1728 he went to Rome and remained three years. His pictures were much admired there, but his retiring dispo- sition and his devotion to his art prevented his pushing his fortune. He left Italy with the intention of returning to England, but stopped at Rennes, in Bretagne, where he found so much employment that he spent the remainder of his life there. He painted landscapes with small figures and conversations. He was fond of introducing fruit and fish into his pictures. His designs are graceful and natural, but his colors sometimes faint and wanting character.

Angelico, Fra Giovanni; da Fiesole. See Fiesole.

Angelini, Scipione, born at Perugia or Ascoli (1661-1729). A very skilful painter of flowers. Many of his works were exported from Rome, where he Avorked, to France, Holland, and England.

Angelo Pedro. Stirling calls him the first good engraver of Spain. He engraved several fine portraits for books, among which Averc those of Card. Ximenes de Cisneros and Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, the great cardinal of Spain.

Angelo, called Angeluccio. Flourished about 1680. A promis- ing pupil of Claude Lorraine who died young.

Angelo, Michael. See Buonarotti.

Angiers, Paul. An engraver of whom little is known. He re- sided in London. He was employed mostly by booksellers, but his best print is a " View of Tivoli," after Moucheron, and there is one of a " View of Roman Ruins," after Panini, dated 1749.

Angioletto, of Gubbio, was a mosaist who flourished about 1325. He worked at Orvieto and at Assisi, where he assisted in the win- dows of the lower church.

Anguier, Francois, born at Eu, in Normandy, 1604; died in Paris, 1669. A son of a carpenter who early taught him to carve in wood. He went afterwards to Paris to study sculpture, and later to Rome. He was one of the first artists of his time in France, and Louis XIII. made him keeper of the Gall, of Antiquities, and gave him apartments in the Louvre. At one time he was employed in England. One of his best works is a " Crucifix," in the ch. of the Sorbonne. His sculptures may also be seen in the ch. de L ? Ora- toire ; the ch. S. Andre-des-Arcs ; and at Moulins. He also exe- cuted four figures for the tomb of the Duke of Rohan, in the ch. of the Celestines, at Paris. His copies after the antique were fine.


ANGUIER — AXGUISCIOLA. 45

Anguier, Michel, born at Eu (1612-1686). Brother of the preceding, with whom he studied until they went to Rome. Michel became the pupil of Algardi and worked with him at S. Peter's and in several palaces. He remained ten years in Rome and was the friend of Algardi, Poussin, and Du Quesnoy. In 1651 he returned to Paris and assisted Francois in his greatest work, the tomb of the Duke de Montmorenci at Moulins. He made a statue of Louis XIII. which was cast in bronze. For Queen Anne of Austria he executed the principal sculptures in the ch. of Val de Grace, and adorned her own apartments in the Louvre. His " Nativity " in the last named ch. is considered his master-piece. He also executed sculptures for the high altar of S. Denis de la Chartre ; bas-reliefs for the Porte S. Denis ; the monument of the Duchess de Longueville ; the brazen vase in the garden of Versailles ; and the statues of Pluto, Ceres, Neptune, and Amphitrite. This artist was professor in the Acad, of Arts at Paris, and wrote lectures on Sculpture.

Anguisciola or Angosciola, Sophonisba, born at Cremona, 1530 or 1533 ; died about 1620. She was of a good family and one of six sisters. She was first taught by Bernardino Campi, then Bernardo Gatti, called Sojaro. She came to be considered one of the best por- trait painters of her age. She instructed her sisters also, four of whom, besides herself, were artists. Vasari praises her picture of three of her sisters playing chess with an old woman, and another group of family portraits, in which her father is introduced. Pier fame was so great that Philip II. invited her to Spain as court painter, whither she went in 1559. She was received with great honor and first painted the portrait of the king, with which he was so much pleased, that he gave her a diamond worth fifteen hundred ducats and a pension of two hundred ducats. She then painted the Queen Isabella, and a copy of this picture was sent by her to Pope Pius IV. with a letter written by her, which Yasari gives, together with the pope's reply. She painted various princes and persons of rank, and the whole court, in fact, desired to have her pictures. She at length married Don Fabrizzio di Moncada, a Sicilian nobleman, and resided at Palermo, while he lived. The king allowed her a handsome pension, and at her husband's death desired her to return to court, but she preferred to visit her native Italy and on her pas- sage to Genoa she fell in love with, and it is said, offered herself to Orazio Lomellino, the captain of the galley in which she sailed, and of a fine Genoese family. She continued to practice her art in Genoa, but late in life became blind. In 1620 Vandyck was often with her in Genoa, where her house was a favorite resort of all artists, and he was heard to sav that he had been more enlightened in paintinc by a blind woman than by his own master. When we consider that this master was Rubens, and Vandyck his favorite pupil, this is great praise. She painted two portraits of herself which were much ad-


46 ANGUISCIOLA — ANSELMI.

mired, and Lanzi says one of them was in the ducal Gall, of Florence, and the other in the possession of the Lomellini family at Genoa. At Althorpe, in Northampton shire, is a portrait of herself playing on a harpsichord. The picture of her sisters playing chess was in the Coll. of Lucien Bonaparte, and is somewhere in England ; and the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton, had the " Marriage of S. Catherine " by her. Her sisters Lucia, Europa, and Anna Maria all painted, but none of them equalled Sophonisba.

Angus, William. Flourished 1786-1820. An English designer and engraver of public buildings and landscapes. He made plates of many gentlemen's country seats, and was employed on various topo- graphical works. He also made engravings from the designs of others.

Anichini, Luigi, a Ferrarese engraver praised by Vasari.

Anichini, Pietro. An engraver of whom little is known. Some of his plates are dated 1655.

Anjou, Rene d', King of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Lorraine, and Count of Provence, was a painter. His life belongs, however, to history rather than art. He painted his own portrait, which was in the chapel of the Carmelites at Aix. There is a print from it in Montfaucon. He painted missals and miniatures on glass, and it is said that he also did a portrait of Charles VII. of France.

Anna, Baldassarc d\ Flemish by birth, but of the Venetian school, and a pupil of Corona of Murano. After his master's death in 1603, Anna completed several of his works. He also painted orig- inal pictures for the Servi, which surpass those of Corona in softness and the power of chiaro-scuro, but are inferior in design.

Ansaldo, Gio. Andrea, born at Voltre (1584-1638). Pupil of Orazio Cambiasi ; he also studied the works of Paul Veronese. He was an excellent colorist both in oil and fresco, especially in the lat- ter. His works are numerous in the churches and palaces of Genoa ; his chef-d* ceucre was the cupola of the Nunziata in that city.

Ansaloni, Vincenzio, born at Bologna. Flourished about 1615, and died young. A scholar of Ludovico Caracci, he became a painter of some merit. He left two altar-pieces in Bologna. One at S. Stefano, representing the death of S. Sebastian ; the other a Ma- donna, in the ch. of the Celestine monks, which is much admired.

Anselin, Jean Louis, born at Paris (1754-1823). An engraver. His chief works were from the pictures of French masters represent- ing historical and poetical subjects.

Anselmi, Giorgio, born at Verona (1722-1797). Pupil of Bales- tra. Painted the cupola of S. Andrea at Mantua.

Anselmi, Michael Angelo, called Michelangelo da Siena, born at Lucca and studied at Siena, but his family were of Parma (1491- 1554). Bazzi was his master. He became a follower and imitator of Correggio. When the ia^ter painted the Cath. of Parma, Anselmi


AXSELMI— ANTONELLO. 47

was one of the artists to whom the chapels were given. He painted much in Parma. There is a "Madonna" by him in the Louvre. His designs were weak ; his heads studied, and his colors gay. He died at Parma.

Ansiaux, Jean Joseph Eleonora Antoine, born at Lie^e (1 7G4 -1840). Pupil of Vincent. He painted historical and poetical sub- jects, and large numbers of portraits. He ranks among the first art- ists of his time. There are three pictures by him in the ch. of S. Paul at Liege. He painted portraits of many eminent statesmen and generals.

Antelami or Antelmi, Benedetto, born at Parma. Flourished about 1185. A basso-relievo of the " Crucifixion " by this sculptor is in the Cath. of Parma, and though rude when compared with an- cient or more modern sculpture, it is excellent for its time.

Anthemius, born at Tralles in Lydia. An eminent architect and mathematician. In 532 he was employed by Justinian in the build- ing of the ch. of S. Sophia at Constantinople. In 1777 a fragment of one of his mathematical works was published at Paris.

Antiquus, Jan, born at Groningen (1702-1 750). He commenced his artistic career as a glass painter ; he next studied with Jan Abel Wassenberg, after which he went to France and painted portraits. At length he went to Florence, where he was six years in the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. After his return to Holland he painted various large pictures in the Pal. of Loo, one of which was "Mars disarmed by the Graces." His design and color were good.

Antolinez, Don Josef, born at Seville (1G39-1676). Pupil of Don Francesco Rizi. His historical pictures were admired for their fine landscape backgrounds. He was a man of haughty temper and sarcastic humor. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, is his " Magdalene in Ecstasy upborne by angels." The design and coloring are good, but the saint is too sad for her triumphant position. In the ch. of La Magdalena at Madrid are the " Miraculous Conception" and the " Good Shepherd," by Antolinez.

Antolinez de Sarabia, Francisco, died 1 700. Xephew of Josef and pupil of Murillo. Although he made himself a good reputation as an historical painter, he gave up the profession to practice law, for which he had been educated at Seville. But not succeeding, he was obliged again to paint as a means of living. At this time he made a series of small pictures from the Bible and the life of the Virgin, which have been very greatly admired. After the death of his wife he determined to be a priest, but did not live long enough to take orders. Palomino says,*" in spite of his strange temper" and unsettled habits, a man of large erudition and great poAvers of mem- ory, and had an apposite quotation on his tongue for every incident that could occur."

Antonello da Messina. See Messina.


48 ANTONIO — AFOLLODORUS.

Antonio, Marc. See Raimondi.

Antonio, Pedro, born at Cordova (1614-1675). Pupil of Antonio del Castillo. A good colorist.

Antonisze, Cornelius, born at Amsterdam about 1500. He ex- celled in painting views of streets and towns. In the treasury of Amsterdam is his picture of that city in 1536 ; he also painted twelve views of its public buildings and engraved them on as many blocks of wood. These prints are now rare.

Apelles. The most celebrated Grecian painter. He studied under Ephorus at Ephesus, under Pamphilus at Amphipolis, and later in the school of Melanthius at Sicyon. He combined the ele- gance of the Ionic, with the accurate science of the Sicvonic school. The best part of his life was spent at the courts of Philip and Alex- ander the Great, and he was the only master whom the latter would allow to paint his portrait. His most famous work was the " Venus Anadvomene." This was painted for the temple of Asclepius at Cos. It was taken to Rome by Augustus and placed in the temple of Caesar, and when it had been injured no artist would attempt its res- toration. He painted Alexander with a thunderbolt in his hand, for the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and the monarch is said to have declared that there were two Alexanders ; the son of Philip who wis unconquerable, and the work of Apelles, which was inimitable. There are many anecdotes of Apelles, and he is said to have seen and admitted the excellences of other artists, but he claimed that he excelled all in grace. In order to test the accuracy of his works he was accustomed to expose them in some public place and conceal himself where he could hear the remarks of those who passed by. On one occasion a cobbler criticised a shoe ; Apelles corrected the fault; but when the same man found fault with the leg, the master rushed out and commanded him to stick to the shoes. Apelles went to Rhodes, and to the studio of Protogenes when that master was absent. A panel was there ready for use. Apelles took a pencil and drew a thin colored line in such a way that when Protogenes saw it he knew who must have done it; he then drew a thinner line of a different color upon that of Apelles. When the latter saw this he drew still another line which divided that of Protogenes as he had divided the first. This panel was carried to Rome, where it was con- sidered the most wonderful work of art in the Pal. of the Caesars. It was burned with that building. No work of Apelles' remains.

Apollodorus. 1. An Athenian painter who flourished about 408 B. C. He was the discoverer of chiaro-scuro. Pliny says he was the first artist whose pictures riveted the eyes. 2. A sculptor. He made bronze statues and then destroyed them, because they did not satisfy him. He was called the " mad-man," and was represented in that character by the sculptor Silanion. 3. An architect of Damas- cus. Trajan employed him to build the Forum, Odeum, and Gym-


APOLLODORUS — APPELMAN.


40


nasium at Rome. Hadrian, who took offence at some words of Apol- lodorus'. first banished him, and afterwards put him to death.

Apollonio, Agostino, born at S. Angelo in Vado. Nephew of Luzio Dolei, whom he assisted in the latter part of his life. Apollo- nio removed to Castel Durante and worked both in stucco and oils. He was the heir of Luzio.

Apollonio, Jacopo, born at Bassano (1584-1654). Grandson of Jacopo da Ponte, called Bassano, by whom he was instructed. He was the best imitator of his master among all Ms disciples. His finest work 'is the "Martyrdom of S. Sebastian" in the ch. of that saint at Bassano. In the dome of Bassano there is a " Magdalen," and at the Riformati a picture of " S. Francis," by Apollonio.

Apollonius 1. Born at Tralles and a brother of Tauriscus. These brothers were the sculptors of the


group called the " Farnese Bull," which represents the punishment of Dirce. This group, now at Naples, was taken from Rhodes to Rome by Asinus Pollio; it was found in the excavation of the Baths of Caracalla in the 16th century, and placed in the Far- nese Pal. Battista Bianca, of Mi- lan, undertook its restoration, but his work is very unlike the orig-


inal. It was originally made of a m01. single block of marble. It is be- lieved that these sculptors lived in the first century of the Chris- tian era. 2. An Athenian sculp- tor, son of Nestor, and the author of the " Torso of Hercules " in the Belvedere, one of the most splendid remains of Grecian art. There is also a statue of iEsculapius at Rome by this master. 3. Another Athenian sculptor, son of Archias. He executed the bronze head of a young hero, found at Herculaneum. 4. A sculptor, whose name is on a beautiful statue of a young satyr in the Coll. of the Earl of Egre- mont at Petworth. Sussex, England.

Appelius, Jean, born at Middlebourg. Flourished about 1778. Painted history, portraits, and landscapes. His pictures are mostly largre. He had more than ordinarv talent.

Appelman, Bernard or Barent, born at the Hague (1640-1686). It is not known where he studied, but the fact that many of his pic- tures arc of Italian scenery indicates that he visited Italy. The Prince of Orange employed him a long time. The landscapes which he painted in the Pal. at Soesdyk are good in style and color. He



DIRCE. (NAPLES.)


50 APPELMAN — ARALDI.

painted landscape backgrounds to the portraits of other artists, and also painted portraits himself.

Appiani, Andrea (1754-1818). An Italian, who painted in oil and fresco, in an original and graceful style. His frescoes in the imperial pal. at Milan are simple and grand. The portrait which he made of Napoleon, who had appointed him his painter, is in Eng- land. He was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a member of the Legion of Honor, but when the Bourbons were restored his pen- sion was taken away. In 1813 he had a stroke of apoplexy, and be- came so poor that he was forced to sell his drawings, and everything of value that he possessed.

Appiani, Francesco, born at Ancona, 1702. Pupil of Magatta. In S. Sisto Vecehio at Rome, he painted in fresco, for Benedict XI II., a picture of the " Death of S. Benedict." The pope gave him a gold medal. He settled in Perugia, was presented with the freedom of the city, and labored until he was ninety years old with a vigor equalled only by that of Titian. Perugia is full of his pictures, and there are many of them in England.

Aquila, Francesco Faraone, born at Palermo, 1676. A designer and engraver. A brother of the celebrated Pietro Aquila. In 1700 he established himself in Rome. Some of his engravings are highly esteemed. Besides detached pieces, he made twenty-two plates, called " Picturae Raphaelis Urbinatis ex aula et conclavibus Palatii Vaticani, etc., Franc. Aquilo, del. et incid. 1722."

Aquila, Giorgio, called Maestro Giorgio da Firenzi, flourished from 1314 to 1325. Said to have been the first Italian artist who used nut oil.

Aquila, Pietro, born at Marzalla. The early part of his life was passed in a seminary preparing for the priesthood. He went to Rome in 1700 with his brother Francesco, and became a monk, but in his seclusion he was devoted to art. He painted only tolerably, but excelled as an engraver. His best prints arc after the Caracci, and these are highly esteemed. The number of his works is very large, and some of them are after his own designs. His drawing is correct and his etching bold and free. The " Farnese Gallery " with the statues and ornaments, is one of his best works.

Aquila, Pompeo dell'. Flourished in the last part of the lGth century. A painter of history in oil and fresco. Several of his frescoes are in his native city, Aquila. At Rome, in the ch. of S. Spirito in Sassia, there is a fine " Deposition from the Cross " by this master.

Araldi, Alessandro, born at Parma (1405-1528). Painted his- tory. Lanzi says, " was indisputably a good artist in the mixed manner, that is now called antico moderno." His pictures are con- fined to Parma. He had little originality. The following is a list of his works : Duomo, fresco, on the wall to the right as vou


ARALDI — ARDELL. 51

enter; "Virgin and Child" with S. Joseph and a kneeling man; Parma Gall., an "Annunciation" on wood, painted in oil; ch. of S. Paolo, a room painted in various designs ; ch. of S. Sepolcro, pic- ture of " S. Ubaldus, between the archangels Michael and Ra- phael ; " with an " Annunciation" and "Pieta" in the pediment.

Arbasia, Cesare, born at Saluzzo. Flourished 1 583-1 G 14. A pupil of Federigo Zucchero. Painted in oil and fresco, but excelled in the latter. He went to Spain and worked in Cordova and Ma- laga. In 1583 he painted the " Martyrs " of the former city in the Cath. For a picture of the "Incarnation," in the Cath. of Malaga, he received three thousand ducats. About 1588 he went to Rome with his former master. He was one of the founders of the Acad, of S. Luke, of which Federigo was the first president.

Arce, Josef de. A pupil of Martinez Montanes. He executed eight colossal stone statues, representing the four Evangelists and four doctors of the Church, which were placed on the balustrades of the Sagrario of the Cath. of Seville. He also carved in wood the saints which adorned the high altar of the Carthusians at Xeres.

Archer, Wykeham, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1806-1864). He studied engraving with John Scott of London. He made etch- ings of places of interest at Newcastle and Hexham. At Edinburgh, he made drawings of the streets and edifices of the town, and re- turned to London to perfect himself in etching upon steel. He was a member of the new society of painters in water-colors. Mr. Ar- cher was author of " Vestiges of Old London," illustrated by etch- ings ; and a contributor to different journals. He claimed to have revived the practice of engraving in monumental brass, and executed works of that description. He also painted a little in oil.

Arcimboldi, Giuseppe, born at Milan, 1533; died at Prague, 1593. Hs was court painter to Maximilian II. and the Emperor Rodolph. He excelled in painting interiors, kitchens, fruits, vege- tables, utensils, etc. He also painted capricci, or pictures which looked like figures in the distance, but fell into heaps of flowers and leaves as one approached them.

Arco, Alonso del, born at Madrid (1625-1700). Called El Sor- dillo de Pereda, and a disciple of Antonio de Pereda. He was deaf and dumb from his birth. Palomino praises him. Stirling says his pictures were mostly painted for public occasions, such as triumphal processions, etc. Many of his Avorks were in the public buildings of Madrid and throughout Spain.

Ardell, James Mc, born about 1710. A native of Ireland, or the son of Irish parents. One of the best mezzotinto engravers. The number of his plates is large. Many of them are portraits of dis- tinguished men of his time. He left a few plates of historical sub- jects after Vandyck, Murillo, Rembrandt, etc., some of which are extremely fine.


52 ARDEMANS — ARETUSL

Ardemans, Teodoro, born at Madrid, 1664. An eminent archi- tect, sculptor, and painter. He studied in the school of Coello. His attention was so given to his other pursuits that his pictures were few. That in the vault of the sacristy of S. Francis at Madrid is a chef-d'oeuvre. In 1689 he was master of works to the Cath. of Gra- nada, where he distinguished himself as a civil engineer. In 1691 he went to Madrid, and filled the place of master of works to the muni- cipality while that functionary was sick. In 1694 he was appointed to the same post at Toledo, and in 1 700 at Madrid. In 1 702 Philip V. made him superintendent of works at the Alcazar. In 1 704 he was made painter-in-ordinary, and received a key as deputy- Aposen- tador. He made designs for various public occasions, funerals, etc.; the plans for the collegiate church and high altar; for a large part of the Pal. and gardens of S. Ildefonso; and for the ch. of S. Millan at Madrid. It is said he also made some engravings. He wrote and published works on engineering and architecture, and a eulogy upon Palomino.

Ardente, Alessandro. Flourished 1565-1595. He was a Pied- montese, but the exact place of his birth is not known. Many of his works are at Lucca. At Turin, at the Monte della Pieta, there is a picture of the " Conversion of S. Paul," which indicates by its style that he studied at Rome. At the time of his death he was painter to the court of France.

Aregio, Pablo de. Flourished 1506. He is classed among Span- ish painters, but it is probable that he was an Italian, and of the school of Leonardo da Vinci. He painted, together with F. Neapoli, the doors of the great altar in the Cath. of Valencia. Long afterwards Philip IV. said of them, " the altar was silver, but its doors were

gold."

Arellano, Juan de, born at Santorcaz (1614-1676). A pupil of Juan de Solis. He did not succeed at first, and began to copy the pictures of Mario dei Fiori. He studied nature closely, and at length excelled in flowers and fruits. His pictures are seen in most Spanish collections and are highly esteemed.

Aretino, Spinello, born at Arezzo (1328-1400). He painted at Arezzo, Florence, Siena, and in the Campo Santo at Pisa. In S. Angelo at Arezzo he painted the " Fall of the Angels," in which Lucifer was so terrible that the remembrance of it affected the mind of Spinello, haunted his dreams, and, in truth, hastened his death. In general Spinello was sketchy and unequal in execution, but showed great talent in the vehemence of his conceptions. He painted the history of S. Benedict in the Sacristy of S. Miniato at Florence. These pictures are well preserved, and some of them are among the most spirited conceptions of all the pictures of the school of Giotto.

Aretusi, or Munari degli Aretusi, Cesare. Called by some Mo- denese, because born at Modena, by others Bolognese, since he lived


ARETUSI — ARIAS. 53

and took up his citizenship at Bologna ; died at Parma about 1612. Ho formed his style after Bagnacavallo. He was the intimate friend of Gio. Batista Fiorini, and they painted much together. Aretusi excelled in color and Fiorini was full of fine conceptions. Lanzi be- lieved that in every work attributed to Aretusi we should look for assistance from some other artist. But he excelled in portraits with- out the aid of any one, and surpassed in imitation. He could assume the style of almost any artist with Avonderful exactness. He made a copy of the - Xotte " of Correggio for the ch. of S. Gio. di Parma, which Mensjs declared would be a good substitute for the orioinal. The excellence of this performance obtained for Aretusi the honor of restoring the picture which Correggio had painted for the tribune of the same church, and this last work was so well done that many believed it to be the original of Allejnri.

Arevalo, Juan Cano de, born at Yaldemoro (1 Go 6-1 696). Scholar of Francisco Camilo. He excelled in designing small fionres, and at length painted most exquisite fans. But the Spanish ladies thought the French fans exceeded all others, and would not buy those made at home. Arevalo shut himself up and finished a great many very beautiful ones, and then displayed them, pretending that they were French. Before his deceit was detected his fans were so much ad- mired that he was appointed abaniquero or fan-painter to the queen. He did some pictures in distemper in the ch. of Yaldemoro. When the queen, Maria Louisa, died, he designed a strange allegorical pic- ture which represented her as a glorious spirit within a halo of ravs, each ray containing a text which alluded to one of her many virtues. He went to Alcala to assist in painting some altar-pieces for the Jesuit college and the ch. of S. Maria. While there he died of a wound received in a duel. His fans were his best works, and so fine that they were preserved in cabinets after they were no longer used.

Arfian, Antonio de. Flourished 1551. He studied with Murillo and L. de Vargas. He did several important works, and together with Antonio Ruiz painted the great altar-piece of the Cath. of Se- ville. This artist first introduced at Seville the painting of landscape and perspective backgrounds for bas-reliefs. He added to them painted figures which appeared to be carved like the rest. He also introduced improvements in the coloring of draperies on statues.

Arias, Fernandez Antonio, born at Madrid; died 1680 or 1684. Studied with Pedro de las Cuevas. When but fourteen he painted the large altar-piece of the Carmelites at Toledo. This was much admired, and he was incited to greater application to his studies by the praises he received. At twenty-five he was one of the best painters at Madrid. The Duke d'Olivarez employed him to paint the portraits of the kings of Spain. After all his success, and his favors at court, he died in a hospital, although his life had been be- yond reproach. His daughter, who survived him, was a painter of


54 ARIAS — ARTEAGA.

some merit. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a picture by Arias of " The Pharisees asking Christ concerning the Tribute Money."

Aristeides. 1. Lived about 360 b. c. One of the most celebrated Greek painters. A native of Thebes, son of Aristodemus, and pupil of Euxenidas and Nicomachus. He excelled in depicting the passions and feelings which are observed in common life. It is said that the first foreign painting ever displayed in Rome was by this artist, and represented " Bacchus." It was brought to Rome by Mummius, and placed in the temple of Ceres. 2. A sculptor celebrated for his statues of two and four-horsed chariots.

Arland, James Anthony, born at Geneva (16G8-1743). He first painted small miniatures for the jewellers, but at length did some portraits, which were so successful as to induce him to go to Paris. Here he was patronized by the Duke of Orleans, who gave him apartments at St. Cloud, and took lessons in painting from him. He devoted himself to his profession, in order to merit his good fortune, and became a favorite of the Princess Palatine. She gave him her portrait set with diamonds, and when he would go to England, she erave him a letter recommending him to the Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Catherine. Arland painted her portrait, and was patronized by many of the nobility. He returned to Paris, and a few years after, having acquired an ample fortune, he settled in his native city, in which he remained until his death.

Armanno, Vincenzio (1598-1G49). A Fleming by birth. He painted landscapes and lived at Rome. His pictures are praised for their truthfulness, color, and shading. His figures are good and his invention copious. It is said that he was imprisoned in Rome for eating meat on fast days, and that on his liberation he left the city in disgust and went to Venice, where he died.

Amolfo, erroneously called di Lapo, was the son of Cambio of Colle de Val d'Elsa "(1232-1310). A disciple of Niccola, under whom he worked at Sienna. When he died he held the office of chief architect and sculptor of S. Reparata at Florence. Many archi- tectural monuments were assigned to him, but most of them have perished. The tomb of Card, de Brave, in S. Domenico at Orvieto, was executed by him in 1280. This is a mixture of mosaic, sculp- ture, and architecture, and affords but small opportunity for judging of his merits.

Arpino, il Cavalierc d'. See Cesari.

Arredondo, Don Isidoro, born at Colemar de Oreja (1G53-1702). A pupil of Josef Garcia, and later of Francesco Rizi. He painted history with great success, and at the death of Rizi was appointed court painter by Charles II. Palomino mentions a large and very grand picture of the " Incarnation " by Arredondo.

Arteaga y Alfaro, Matias, born at Seville; died, 1704. Pupil


ARTEAGA — ASPERTINI. 55

of Juan de Valdes. An eminent painter and engraver. He painted many perspective views, into which he introduced the stories illustra- tive of the legends of the Virgin. He was secretary of the Acad, of Seville, at the time of his death.

Artois, Jacob van, born at Brussels (1613-1665). Probably studied with Lodewyck de Vadder. Many of his pictures are very large. He painted only landscapes, and the figures in his pictures were done by Teniers, Tan Herp, Gerard Zegers, and Gaspard de Craeyer. They sometimes represented Scripture stories, and are seen in the churches of Belgium. The pictures of Artois faithfully rep- resent the scenery of his native country. His pencil was light and free; some of his works are grandly poetic, and his foliage so per- fect that it seems to be in motion. His coloring is not of the best.

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His pictures are numerous, and very unequal in merit and value. The Dresden Gall, has a fine small picture by this master, No. 956. The Gall, at Brussels has four; Nos. 37, 1, and 4 are the best. The figures in the first are by Van Herp. In No. 4, they are by Gaspard de Craeyer and Peter Snayers, and represent " S. Hubert adoring the Crucifix." In the Vienna Gall, are two large pictures with fig- ures by Gerard Zegers. In private galleries in England there are good pictures by Artois.

Asper, Hans, born at Zurich (1499-1571). He painted portraits in the style of Holbein, and gained a reputation which has been in- jured by his pictures being sold for those of Holbein. The portraits of Zuinglius and his wife, in the library at Zurich, are by Asper. His drawings of game, flowers, and birds, were much esteemed. A medal was given him to record his merit, and yet he lived and died in poverty.

Aspertini, Amico, born at Bologna (1475-1532). Scholar of Francis Francia. Very peculiar in character all his life, and insane before his death, according to Vasari, who says that he studied art by going through all Italy and making copies of all that pleased him. He could paint with both hands at the same time, and was called Amico da due Penelli. His earliest works are in S. Cecilia at Bo- logna, and are much injured. At S. Frediano in Lucca, there are nine pictures by this master, in the chapel of S. Agostino. They are much injured. His other works are, Berlin Mus., No. 119, "Nativity;" Bologna Gall., No. 297, "Virgin and Child," with several saints and the portraits of two patrons ; Madrid Mus., No. 885. " Rape of the Sabines ;" Bologna, ch. of S. Martino Maggiore, "Virgin and Child" with saints, among which is S. Nicholas giv- ing their dowrv to three young girls. At Ferrara, in the Strozzi Pal., a " Predella " with four scenes from the life of Mary.

Aspertini, Guido, born at Bologna, about 1460. Scholar of Er- cole di Ferrara. Died young. His principal work was an " Adora- tion of the Magi," now in the Gall, of Bologna (No. 9). It is some- what fantastic, but a pleasing picture.


«. U t»jv^u. i" ,V,,1V ****** v* «'v "p u


Assen, Jan Waltln

rii r 3i — ^Zl^i Deen born in Holland, i

l*-7l A ^>^ -/T* fej earliest engravers on w<

^^"^ ^""^ prized by collectors.


56 ASSCHE — ATHANASIO.

Assche, Henri van, born at Brussels (1775-1841). Studied first with his father, and then with De Roi of Brussels. His pictures, which are landscapes, may be seen at Ghent, Lille, Haerlem, and Brussels. In some there are figures and animals by Ommeganck.

Asselyn, Jan, born at Diessen, near terdam. Scholar of Esaias van de and Jan Miel. He went to Italy in 1G30, and remained fifteen years. He painted landscapes which are remarkable for tender coloring, good drawing, and poetic concep- tion. His works are highly esteemed. In the Louvre there are four. In the Van der Hoop Coll. at Amsterdam, a fine one, with a massive ruin in the foreground and blue mountains in the distance. Jn the Munich Gall. Cabinets, No. 445 has a fine effect of chiaro-scuro. It represents a ruined castle on a rock. In the Coll. of T. Baring, Esq., England, a picture of a Woman and Cattle reflected in the water, at the entrance of a cave, is one of the best works of Asselyn.

Assen, Jan Walther van. Said to have "I . been born in Holland, about 1490. One of the

•ood. His cuts are highly prized by collectors. A contemporary of Lu- cas von Leyden, he seems to have had the same rank in wood en- graving that Lucas held in engraving on copper. Little is known of his life. He was living in Amsterdam in 1517. His works are as follows : —

A set of six prints, circular, representing the Passion of Christ, marked with his cipher, and dated 1513 and 1514.

A set of six large prints of different subjects in architectural com- partments. In the middle of each the words: 1. Superbia ; 2. Lux- uria; 3. Invidia ; 4. Ira; 5. Gula ; 6. Avaricia; and their opposite virtues.

A small print of an armed Figure on Horseback; inscribed St* Hadrianus Amstelodamus in yEdibus Donardi Petri, etc.

Asserreto, Giovacchino, born at Genoa (1G00-1G49) Studied under Borzone and Ansaldo. When but sixteen he painted a "Temptation of S. Anthony." There are altar-pieces painted by Asserreto in several convents and churches at Genoa.

Asta, Andrea dell', born at Naples (1673-1721). Scholar of Francesco Solimene. He went to Rome, where he studied the works of Raphael. His best pictures are the " Nativity," and the " Ado- ration of the Magi," painted, after his return to Naples, for the ch. of S. Agostino.

Astley, John, born at Wemm, Shropshire, England. A portrait painter, who studied under Hudson. He visited Italy. His portraits were fine, and he was rapidly acquiring great reputation, Avhen a wealthy lady, whose portrait he had painted, offered him her hand. After his marriage he relinquished his profession. Died 1787.

Athanasio, Don Pedro. See Boccanegra.


ATIIEXODORUS — AU13IX. o /

Athenodorus. See Agesander.

Attavante or Vante. Living in 1487. This artist was a celebrated illuminator of MSS. Lanzi says, the excellence of this artist ought to confer on him " greater celebrity than he enjoys." He orna- mented many books for Matthias Corvinus. kino; of Hungary. These afterwards remained in "the Medicean and Esteusean libraries. A magnificent Missal which Attavante illuminated for Matthias is now in the Library at Brussels. It was probably brought to Brussels by Maria, sister of Charles V., and wife of Ludwig II. of Hungary. After the death of her husband she obtained the government of the

©

Netherlands. The regents of Belgium formerly took their oaths upon this volume. The first to do so were Archduke Albert and Isabella, in 1599 ; the last was the Prince of Saxen-Teschen, in the name of Joseph II., in 1781.

Attiret, Jean Denis, called Frere Attiret, born at Dole, 1 702 ; died at Pekin, 1768. After studying at Rome, and distinguishing

i J © ' © ©

himself by his pictures at Lyons, he became a Jesuit at Avignon. About this time the Jesuit missionary at Pekin sent to France for a painter. Attiret was chosen to make this journey, and left France in 1737. A picture which he presented the emperor, soon after his arrival, so pleased his majesty, that he wished to employ Attiret con- tinually. He wished him to work in water-colors, for he did not like the gloss of oil. His commissions were so numerous that he was

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obliged to employ Chinese assistants, who had at first been jealous of him, but at length became reconciled to his supremacy. He became a great favorite, even among the painters, and was able to establish a drawing-school. About 1760 the emperor obtained victories over Tartar tribes with whom he was at war. Attiret was ordered to pro- ceed to the northwest part of the empire, where he made accurate sketches of triumphal processions, festivals, etc. From these he painted pictures which so pleased the emperor that he desired to make him a mandarin, which honor Attiret declined. All the princi- pal men of the empire sat to him for their portraits — some of them travelling eight hundred leagues for the purpose. Sixteen of these portraits were sent to Paris to be engraved at the expense of the em- peror. Very few impressions of these plates were reserved in France, and they are extremely rare. They were of immense size. When the artist died the emperor ordered two hundred ounces of silver to be given towards the expense of his funeral.

Aubert, Augustine, born at Marseilles, 1781. Painted history and landscapes. The latter are principally from scenery about Marseilles, and the former represent sacred subjects, and are often very large.

Aubert, Michel, born at Paris (1700^1757). An engraver of por- traits and historical subjects. He seems to have imitated Gerard Audran, but with small success.

Aubjn, Augustine de St., born at Paris (1736-1807). A skilful


58 AUBIN — AUDRAN.

engraver. He engraved the works of several French and Italian masters.

Aubin, Augustine de St., born at Paris, 1720. An engraver of merit. Scholar of Laurent Cars. He engraved the coll. of nearly three thousand medals belonging to M. Pellerin, and the gems of the Duke of Orleans, besides an immense number of portraits, historical subjects, vignettes, ornaments for bocks, etc.

Aubin, Charles Germain de St., born at Paris, 1721. Brother of the preceding, and an engraver.

Aubin, Gabriel Jaques dc St., born at Paris, 1724. Brother of the preceding. He painted historical subjects, and also engraved a few plates from his own designs.

Aubriet, Claude, born at Chalons-sur-Marne (1651-1743). A pupil of Joubert. He distinguished himself first as a miniature painter. He was appointed to make drawings of objects of natural history at the Jardin des Plantes. He accompanied Tournefort to the Levant, and the plates which afterwards illustrated the "Ele- ments de Botanique " were after the designs of Aubriet. At the death of Joubert he was appointed painter to the king in the Jardin des Plantes, and many of his drawings are now in the library of the Jardin. There are also five folio volumes of his designs in the Royal Library at Paris. He was a botanist, and the plates in " Tourne- fort's Vova^c to the Levant " were after his designs.

^^ _ . Audenaerde or Oudenaerde,

A/D "\£A f /VV Robert van ' born at Ghent ./V1.VJV 1-J^/ * (1663-1743). A good painter,

and celebrated engraver. A scholar of Francis van Mierhop and John van Cleef. At twenty-two years of age he went to Rome, and there studied under Carlo Maratti. He became a reputable painter of historical pictures. In leisure moments he amused himself by making plates, and when these were seen by Maratti he advised his pupil to devote himself to engraving. The plates in which he used the point are much finer than those done entirely with the graver. The principal part of his prints were after the pictures of his Italian master. His drawing is very correct and shows perfect knowledge of the human figure. His paintings are quite in the style of Maratti. His chef-d'oeuvre is the altar-piece in the eh. of the Carthusians at Ghent. It represents the appearance of S. Peter to a number of monks. In the ch. of S. James is his picture of " S. Cath- erine refusing to worship the False Gods." Other churches and convents of his native city possess works of this artist.

Audouin, Pierre, born at Paris (1768-1822). An eminent en- graver and a pupil of Beauvarlet. He engraved several of the finest paintings of the Italian and Dutch masters for the coll. of the Mus. published by Laurent.

Audran, Benoit, born at Lyons (1661-1721). Son of Germain



AUDRAX. 59

Audran, with whom he first studied, but later he became the pupil of the celebrated Gerard, his uncle. Although he did not equal the latter, he was an excellent artist. He was a member of the Acad, and engraver to the king. He engraved many portraits and his- torical subjects. His style was, like his uncle's, clear and bold, his drawing correct, and his heads full of expression.

Audran, Charles, born at Paris (1594-1674). This name was eminent among French engravers for more than a century. Charles was the first to make it so. His disposition for the art was shown very early, and he was still quite young when his plates attracted atten- tion in Rome, where he had gone to study. He imitated the style of Cornelius Bloemaert, and used only the graver. His works were finished with great care. His earlier plates were marked with a C, but when his brother Claude used the same letter, he changed to K. , the initial of Karl.

Audran, Claude, born at Lyons (1639-1684). After studying drawing at Paris under his uncle, he went to Rome. He drew well and had great facility in execution. He returned to Paris, and was engaged as an assistant by Le Brun. Under the direction of the latter he painted the grand staircase at Versailles, the Gall, of the Tuileries, and the Chapel of Colbert's Chateau de Sceaux, all in fresco. He became an imitator of Le Brun, whom he also assisted in his " Battles of Alexander," and many other works.

Audran, Gerard, born at Lyons (1640-1703). Son of Claude and nepheAv cf Charles. This artist may be said to have reached perfec- tion in engraving. He studied first with his father, then with his uncle, and finally at Rome, it is believed under Maratti. He was in Rome three years, and made a portrait of Clement IX. and other plates, which gave him such a reputation that he was recalled to Paris by Colbert. He was soon appointed engraver to the king, with a generous pension and apartments at the Gobelins. He became in- timate with Le Brun, and some of his finest plates are after the paintings of that master. The " Battles of Alexander" cannot be too highly praised. His plates were very numerous.

Audran, Germain, born at Lyons (1631-1710). Xephew of Charles and Claude, and inferior to some members of his family in artistic merit. He engraved portraits, ceilings, ornaments, vases, etc.

Audran, John, born at Lyons (1667-1756). Son of Germain, and brother of Benoit. After studying with his father, he too was placed under the famous Gerard, and became a celebrated artist. He was made engraver to the king, and had a pension and apartments at the Gobelins, in 1707. His prints are numerous, and he continued to labor after he was eighty years old.

Audran, Louis, born at Lyons (1670-1712). Youngest son of Germain. He also studied under Gerard. He assisted his brothers in their plates, and did not execute many of his own. He also en- graved copies of the large historical plates of his relatives.


CO AUDUBON — AVELINE.

Audubon, John James, born in Louisiana (1782-1851). As an artist, distinguished for his drawings of the "Birds of America." lie studied painting in Paris under the celebrated David. His plates are very perfect, of the size and color of life, and the beaks, talons, and leo-s are of accurate dimensions. The book was thirteen years in preparation and was published in Edinburgh; this time does not include the making of a large portion of Audubon's pictures. It has 435 plates, containing 1,065 figures. Cuvier pronounced it "the most <nTantic and most magnificent monument that had ever been erected to Nature." Audubon was also the author of " Ornitholog- ical Biooraphy," and at the time of his death was at work upon the " Quadrupeds of America."

Augur, Hezekiah, son of a carpenter, born in New Hampshire (1791-1858). He was first a shoemaker's apprentice, then a trades- man in New Haven, where he failed. He partly paid his debts by carving ornamental furniture, and invented a machine for weaving worsted lace. Gradually he turned his attention to sculpture. He copied a "Head of Apollo," and in 1827 executed a "Washing- ton " and a " Sappho," which established his local fame. His best work was the group of " Jephtha and his Daughter," still preserved in Yale College Gall. This obtained for him several commissions for busts and monuments.

Austin, William, bora in London about 1740. An engrave/ an 1 a pupil of George Bickham. He engraved some landscapes after Ruysdael and other artists, but his principal work Avas a set of plates, of views of Palmyra and its Ruins, and of Ancient Rome.

Auzon, Madame, born in Paris, 17 75. She studied under Reg- nault. Painted portraits and familiar subjects. Several of her pic- tures have been engraved.

Avanzii or Avanzi, Jacopo degli. An ancient painter of Bo- logna, of whom little is known. He flourished about the middle of the 14th century- In the Colonna Gall, at Rome, there is a " Cruci- fixion " by this master, and Nos. 159, 160, 161, of the Bologna Acad, are also his. In the ch. of Mezzarata he painted pictures which Malvasia asserts were praised by Michael Angelo and the Ca- racci. These have been whitewashed, and restored, and are very imperfect.

Avanzi, Giuseppe, born at Ferrara (1655-1718). School of Co- stanzio Cattanio. He is noted for the numbers of his works, rather than for excellence. Most of them were for the convents and churches of his native city.

Aved, Jacques Antoine Joseph, born at Douay (1702-1766). Pupil of Picard and a portrait painter of merit.

Aveline, Anthony, born at Paris, 1662. Designer and engraver. His principal works were views of the palaces and chateaux of Eu- rope.


AVELINE — AZZOLINI. 61

Aveline, Pierre, born at Paris, 1710. Designer and engraver. Scholar of John Baptist Poilly. His subjects were often trifling and insignificant, his drawing stiff, though not incorrect.

Aveline, Francis Anthony, born at Paris, 1718. Cousin of the preceding. An engraver of small reputation, and worked mostly for booksellers.

Avellino, Giulio, called II Messinese, born at Messina (1645- 1700). A landscape painter, said to have studied with Salvator Rosa. He settled at Ferrara, and was much employed by the nobil- itv of Ferrara and Cremona. He painted in the grand style of Rosa, and introduced ruins, architecture, and figures into his pictures. His pictures are valued, and are in many collections.

Avellino, Onofrio, born at Naples (16 74-1741). Said to have been a pupil of Francesco Solimene. In Rome he painted an altar- piece in the ch. of S. Maria di Montesanto, and the vault of the ch. of S. Francesco di Paola, which last is considered his best work.

Avibus, Gaspar Ab or Patavinus, born at Padua, 1530. An engraver whose principal work was a large volume containing the portraits of the Royal House of Austria, full-lengths, signed Gaspar Patavinus, incisor. 1569.

Avogadro, Pietro, called Bresciano, born at Brescia. Flourished abcnt 1730. A scholar of Pompeo Ghiti. His coloring was Venetian, especially in the carnations The whole style of bis composition and painting is pleasing. By some he is said to rank as the fourth among the artists of Brescia, that is, after Bonvicino, Gambara, and Savoldo. His " Martyrdom of SS. Crispino and Crispiano," is his principal work, and is in the ch. of S. Joseph at Brescia.

Avont, Peter van der, born at Antwerp

"l ^l ~\J C\ about 1619 A fine landscape painter, and an

  • ■ eminent engraver. He often painted figures in

the landscapes of Vinckenboom.

Avril, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1744-1832). An engraver whose works are much admired. Scholar of J. G. Wille. He left about 540 plates, some of them large.

Avril, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1771-1831). Son of the pre- ceding. One of the engravers employed by Laurent. His plates of many of the pictures and statues of the Louvre are excellent.

Axtmann, Leopold, born at Fulneck ; died at Prague (1700- 1748). An animal painter. He rivalled his master, John George Hamilton, in reputation. His pictures are in Bohemia. He painted dogs and horses excellently.

Ayala, Barnabi de. Painter of history at Seville. Scholar of Zurbaran. He so well imitated his master that it is believed that the pictures of Ayala are sold as those of Zurbaran. He was one of the founders of the Acad, of Seville.

Azzolini or Mazzolini, Gio. Bernardino, born at Naples.


62 AZZOLIXI — BACHELIER.

Flourished 1510. He resided chiefly at Genoa, and his pictures are in the churches and convents of that city. He excelled in wax-work, and formed heads with a wonderful expression of life.

B,

Baader, Amalie, born in Erding, Bavaria, 1763. An amateur en- graver. She studied under J. Dorner. Her mark is an A and B interlaced, and is found on copies after Rembrandt, Schmidt, and some Italian masters.

Baak, Hattigh Jan. An artist of Utrecht about the middle of the 1 7th century. In the hospital of S. Job of Utrecht there is a work of his dated 1642. It is a landscape, with figures, and from its style he was probably a pupil of Poelemburg.

Baan, John de, born at Haerlem, 1633 ; died at the Hague, 1702. An eminent portrait painter. Instructed first by an uncle named Piemans, he then studied under Jacob de Backer. He succeeded so well in portrait painting, that he confined himself almost entirely to that branch of art. He was an admirer and worthy imitator of Van- dyck. Charles II. of England was anxious to be painted by De Baan, and invited him to his court for that purpose, where he also painted many of the nobility. When Louis XIV. had conquered a part of Holland, he sent to Utrecht for this artist to come and paint his portrait. But he received a refusal, the excuse being, that when his country was in the midst of mourning, he could not trace the features of her conqueror. One of the best works of De Baan is his portrait of Prince Maurice of Xassau-Ziegen.

Baccarini, Jacopo, born at Reggio (1630-1682). Painter of his- tory and a pupil of Orazio Talami. Two of his best works are in the ch. of S. Filippo at Reggio, and represent the "Death of S. Alessio " and the u Repose in Egypt."

Baccicio. See Gaulli.

Baccio. See Delia Porta.

Bacheley, Jacques, born at Pont l'Eveque in Normandy (1712- 1781). An eno-raver and designer. Member of the Acad, of Rouen. We have prints of landscapes after Dutch masters by this artist.

Bachelier, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1724-1805). As an ar- tist he is unimportant, but he gained a fortune of 60,000 francs, which he devoted to the establishment of a free school of drawing for artists. He was director of the porcelain manufactory at Sevres, and greatly improved its taste. Bachelier assisted Count de Caylus in his attempts to discover the ancient method of en- caustic painting, and invented a kind of encaustic varnish to pre- serve marbles from the action of the weather. He also wrote two books entitled " Le Conseil de Famille," and a " Memoire sur l'Education des Filles/'


BACHELIER — BAERSE. 63

Bachelier, Nicholas, born at Toulouse (1496-1554). An unim- portant sculptor and architect.

Bachiaca. See Ubertino.

Backereel, Giles. An artist who adorned many of the churches of the Low Countries. A contemporary of Rubens, and like him in style. One of the best artists of his country, when art was at its best. An altar-piece of his in the Cath. of Bruges, represents ' ; S, Charles Borromeo administering the Sacrament to those stricken with the Plague. " A grand and striking composition, with fine coloring. In the ch. of the Augustines at Antwerp, there is a fine " Crucifixion " by Backereel, and at the Franciscan ch. at Brussels, a picture of the " Virgin and Child," with S. Beatrice and other saints.

Backhuysen, Ludolf, born at Embden, 1631; died at Amsterdam, 1709. Until he was eighteen years old, he was employed in mercan- tile pursuits; but constantly sought the company of painters, and at that age became the pupil of Aldert van Everdingen. He went con- stantly amongst the shipping, and made sketches in Indian ink and bistre, which were purchased by collectors, at large prices. He at length began to paint with good success, and became, in time, the most noted painter of rough seas. He often exposed himself and his boatmen to great danger, by going out in storms, to study the waves and clouds, when in their wildest state. In coloring he cannot com- pare with Willem van der Velde, but the pictures of the latter rep- resent mostly smooth waters. The pictures of Backhuysen were in great demand, not only in his own country, but in others. Smith enumerates one hundred and eighty-four of his works, and many of them of considerable size. It is not possible to give a full list of them and the places they are in, but the following are some of the best. One in the Van der Hoop Coll. at Amsterdam, a coast scene, sea and sky agitated with coloring or lighting, of great beauty. No. 5, Amsterdam Mus., dated 1673, view of the River Y; clear and brilliant. No. 6, same place, stormy scene. Louvre, No. 7, rough sea at the mouth of the Maas; a fishing boat is trying to run in. No. 5 of the Louvre gives ten men-of-war at the mouth of the Texel. A view of the last river in the Bridgewater Gail., No. 122, with seven vessels, and dated 1670, is very fine. In the Mus. at the Hague, No. 6 is fine in the sunshine and shadow upon the water, but No. 7 is heavy and hard. Many of his pictures are in England, in the Na- tional Gall., colls, of Lord Ashburton, Mr. Baring, and others. Peter the Great was a pupil of Backhuysen, who made for the Czar numerous drawings for the construction of vessels.

Backhuysen, Ludolf, grandson of the preceding, born at Amster- dam (1717-1 782). Good painter of horses and battles.

Baerse, Jacques de la. A sculptor of Dendermonde, who la- bored in 1391. He did the carving of the remarkable shrines, de- signed and painted by Melchior Broederlain, for the Cath. of Dijon, which are now preserved in the Mus. of that city.


64 BAGLIONI — BAILLIE.

Baglioni, Cesare, born at Bologna. A contemporary of the Ca- raeci, he profited by their style, though not of their school. He was an artist of considerable merit, and painted landscapes, history, ani- mals, fruit, etc. His principal works are at Bologna and Parma, and are much esteemed. Jn the ch. of the Madonna del' Soccorso at Bo- logna there is an " Ascension," and in the ch. of S. Gicrgio, an altar- piece, representing " S. Anthony and S. Martha," by this master. He was living in 1610.

Baglioni, Cavaliere Gio., born at Rome. A pupil of Francesco Morelli. He was much employed during the time of Clement VIII. and Paul V. In S. Niccolo in Carcere, there is a fine picture of his of the " Last Supper." In S. Peter's there is a picture of that saint raisins Tabitha from the dead, for which he was made a Knight of the Order of Christ, by Paul V. This artist was the author of the " Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects who flourished at Rome from 1572 to 1642."

Bagnacavallo, II. The real name of this artist was Bartolommeo Ramenghi. He was called II Bagnacavallo from his birthplace. Born 1484; died at Bologna, 1542. He studied under Francia at Bologna, before he went to Rome, where he was a pupil in the school of Raphael, and afterwards assisted that great master in some impor- tant works. Bagnacavallo worshipped Raphael, and felt that to imi- itate him, was an aim worthy of his ambition. Upon his return to Bologna he brought the Roman style of painting to that city.

The works of this artist are not common in galleries. It is said that his pictures were admired by the Caracci. He distinguished himself at Bologna by a " Crucifixion " which he painted for the ch. of S. Pietro. It is dated 1522. In the Dresden Gall, there is a " Madonna and Child " in a glory, with four male saints, which is, by some, considered his masterpiece. It is " a picture of great and energetic expression." A " Holy Family " with saints, in the Gall, at Bologna is pleasing, but not powerful. In S. Maria della Pace at Rome, there are frescoes of a Saint and a Prophet in armor, colossal in size. There are also works of his in the Berlin Mus., the Colonna Pal., and in the Solly Coll. There are others in different churches of Bologna.

Bagnacavallo, Gio. Batista. Son of Bartolommeo Ramenghi. He went to France as an assistant to Primaticcio, when he undertook his work at Fontainebleau. When he returned to Bologna, he was made chief of the Acad, of that city.

Baillie, Captain William. An amateur engraver. Born in Ireland about 1736. His early life was passed in the army, from which he retired with the rank of captain of cavalry. He devoted the remainder of his life to art. He was one of the most intelligent connoisseurs of his time. We have about a hundred plates of his, engraved in different manners.



BAILLIE — BALDOVINETTI. 65

His copies after Rembrandt, and his plates after the style of that master, are his choicest works. The following are a few of his plates . —

Christ Healing the Sick, called the Hundred Guilder Print. Orig- inal plate by Rembrandt, and admirably retouched by Baillie.

Beggars at the Door of a House; after Rembrandt's print.

The Gold- weigher ; finely copied from Rembrandt's print.

Three Trees; landscape; after same.

Old Man, half-length, with a Cap and Beard; 1765; after Rem- brandt.

Landscape, with a Horse; after Rembrandt's print.

The Pen-cutter; after Ger. Douw.

Interior of an Ale-house, with figures regaling; after Teniers ; fine.

Another Interior with Peasants Smoking and Drinking ; after A. Ostade. 1765.

Bailii, David, born at Leyden (1584-1638). Painter of portraits and perspective church interiors. The latter works of his are much admired.

Baillu or Bailliu, born at Antwerp, 1614. An engraver, whose principal plates are after Rubens and Vandyck. Although not the best, his prints are well esteemed.

Baillu or Bailliu or Baleau, Bernhard, born in the Netherlands about 1625. An engraver of portraits and a few historical subjects. He executed entirelv with the graver.

Bajardo, Gio. Batista, born at Genoa (1620-1657). A painter of history whose pictures are esteemed in Genoa. The best are in the portico of S. Pietro and the cloister of S. Agostino.

Bakker, Jacob, born at Harlingen (1608-1641). Lived chiefly at Amsterdam, and painted history and portraits with great rapidity. His works arc praised by the poet Yondel. Many of them are in Spain. An altar-piece in a chapel of the Antwerp Cath. represent- ing the "Last Judgment" is by Bakker, and is a fine picture. Another of his works is a large archery piece, No. 34, in the new Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam.

Bakker, Adrian, born at Amsterdam (1643-1686). Nephew of Jacob. Studied at Rome. Excelled most of his countrymen in cor- rectness of design. His chef-d'oeuvre is a picture of the ' ' Judgment of Solomon," in the Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam.

Baldi, Lazzaro, born at Pistoja (1623-1703). A scholar of Pietro da Cortona, in Rome. He became an eminent painter of his time. In the Pontifical Pal. at Monte Cavallo, there is an esteemed work of his representing "David and Goliath." The "Martyrdom of S. Lazzaro " is in the eh. of S. Luke.

Baldovinetti, Alessio, born at Florence (1422-1499). He is believed to have been a pupil of Paolo Uccelli. His works are few,

5


66 BALDOVINETTI — BALDUNG.

and are distinguished for minuteness in detail. He is said to have painted straws so that their stems and joints could be seen. He ex- ecuted portraits and historical subjects, both in oils and fresco. His remaining works are much injured by scaling or the abrasion of the colors. Those best known are a fresco in the cloister of the Annun- ziata at Florence; No. 24, Uffizi Gall.; and a " Trinity" with Saints, painted for a chapel in S. Trinita at Florence. He was interested in mosaic work, and studied much to learn the best manner in which it could be done. In 1481 he repaired the mosaic over the portal at S. Miniato al Monte. He was a chemist, as well as an artist. He claims to have been the teacher of Ghirlandaio. He was buried in S. Lorenzo at Florence.

Baldrighi, Giuseppe, born at Pavia (1722-1802). A pupil of Yincenzio Meucci. He was invited to the court of Parma, and ap- pointed painter to the Duke. He painted portraits of the ducal family, which were much admired. One of his finest pictures is in the saloon of the Acad, of Parma, and represents " Prometheus."

Balducci, Gio., called Cosci, died 1600. Said to have been a native of Florence and a pupil of Batista Naldini. He was employed at Rome bv Leo XL, when Card. De' Medici. His works may be seen at Rome, at Florence, and at Naples, which he visited towards the close of his life.

Baldung, Hans, called Griin. Born at Gemund, 1470; died at Strasbourg, 1552. A contemporary, and perhaps a pupil of Albert Dlirer. but inferior to him in beauty of design and color. A number of his pictures may be seen in the Cath. of Freiburg. An altar-piece dated 1516 is considered his chef-d'oeuvre. One of his best portraits is in the Vienna Gall. Xo. 148, Munich Gall. Cabinets, is a por- trait of the Margrave of Baden. Berlin Mus., Xos. 603 and 623 are his works. He was an engraver, and worked chieflv on wood. Bartsch assigns to him two engravings on copper, and mentions fifty- nine wood-cuts. His drawing was sometimes incorrect ; but the expression of the heads was good. The following are some of his prints : —

Adam and Eve plucking the apple.

The Fall of Adam; inscribed on a tablet, " Lapsus humanis gen- eris. 1511.

Christ and the Apostles. 1514. Thirteen plates.

The Crucifixion, with S. John, the Virgin, and Mary Magdalene; in chiaro-scuro; fine.

Two landscapes; very scarce.

Four small upright prints : Solomon's Idolatry, Samson and Deli- lah, David and Bathsheba, and Aristotle and Phryne; very fine.

An Incantation ; in chiaro-scuro. 1510.

The Holy Family, with SS. Elizabeth and Catherine ; half-length. 1512.


BALDUXG — BANDIXELLI. 67

Two prints of Horses in a Forest; marked " Baldung. 1534."

A Man with a Horse; large upright ; no date.

Balechou, Jean Jacques, born at Aries, 1715 ; died at Avignon, 1 764. Very celebrated engraver. He excelled all French engravers who preceded him in the clearness of his strokes and brilliancy of color. In neatness of execution he has rarely been surpassed. There is, however, a deficiency in his drawing, especially in portraits, which detracts from the effect of his works. His three plates after Vernet, representing the " Storm," the " Calm," and the "Bathers," are among his finest plates.

Balen, Ileinrich van, born at Antwerp (1560-1632). Pupil of Adam van Oort. He went to Italy, and returned to Antwerp, where the demand for his pictures was greater than he could supply. In purity of color he excelled the older Flemish artists, but was cold in feeling, and mannered in design. The backgrounds of his pictures were often painted by Jan Breughel, and sometimes by Kierings. These works were found in the best collections. His nude no-ures, were the most pleasing, and exquisite in finish. In the Antwerp Cath. are two altar-pieces, and in the ch. of S. Jacques an " Ascen- sion " by Balen. He was the first instructor of Vandvck.

Balestra, Antonio, born at Verona (1666-1740). Pupil of Carlo Maratti at Rome, where he was employed to paint in several churches and palaces. He gained the prize at the Acad, of S. Luke in 1694. He was not a great master, but his works are held in good estima- tion. One of his finest pictures is in the ch. of S. Ignatius at Bo- logna. He was also an engraver, and his plates from his own designs are etched in a free and masterly manner.

Baltz, J. Georges, born at Strasbourg, 1 760. Painted miniature portraits and landscapes on porcelain, many of which are seen in the cabinets of Europe.

Bambini, Giacomo, born at Ferrara ; died 1622. Pupil of Do- menico Mona. There are many of his works in the churches and public edifices of Ferrara.

Bambini, Niccolo, born at Venice (1651-1736). Pupil of Giulio Mazzoni and Carlo Maratti. He imitated Liberi, and like him was distinguished for his beautiful women. He was a reformer in Vene- tian art. Many of his works are in the churches cf Venice. Bam- bini was the master of Zanetti.

Bamboccio. See Peter de Laer.

Banck, Peter van der, of Flemish extraction, but born at Paris (1649-1697). Pupil of Francis de Poilly, and an eminent engraver. In 1674 he went to England with Henry Gascar. He painted por- traits of many eminent persons of his time, which are much esteemed for their historical value, as well as for their merit as engravings.

Bandinelli, Baccio, born at Florence (1487-1559). Sculptor and painter. Scholar of Rustici, and friend of Leonardo da Vinci.


68 BANDINELLI — BARBARIS.

His designs were powerful, and his treatment bold, but he had mueh mannerism. He hated Michael Angelo, whom he never could equal. He was envious, false, and calumnious, full of silly vanity, his only virtue being- that of industry. But all that has passed away, and his works remain to claim for him his due distinction. The best of these are a bas-relief on the screen of the choir (or the high altar) of the Florence Cath., which represents the Prophets, the Apostles, the Virtues, etc. ; a bas-relief on a pedestal in the Piazza of S. Lorenzo, at Florence ; and a group representing " Nicodemus supporting Christ," which he intended for his own monument. This last is in the ch. of the Annunziata, at Florence, and the Nicodemus is a portrait of Bandinelli himself.

Banks, Thomas, born at Lambeth (1738-1805). He served his apprenticeship to a wood carver. He obtained several premiums from the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, for models in sculpture. He then entered himself a student of the Royal Acad., and obtained their gold medal. This entitled him to study in Rome three years. He applied himself closely to the study of the antique, and there executed two of his best works in marble : " Cupid catch- ing a Butterfly," purchased by Catherine II. of Russia ; and " Ca- ractacus brought Prisoner to Rome." He returned to England, and attempted to indulge his fancy in works of a lofty and heroic style, but he was compelled to adopt the more lucrative employment of monumental sculpture. He was invited to Russia by the Empress, and remained two years. Monuments executed by him are in several churches in England; and in the Hall of the British Institution is the model of " Achilles mourning the Loss of Briseis," never executed in marble. His life was one of disappointment. His poetic groups were received with coldness, and he lacked that encouragement which stimulates to the highest attainment.

Baptiste. See Monnoyer.

Barabbino, Simone, born near Genoa about 1585. Pupil of Ber- nardo Castello, who became jealous of his talent, and expelled him from Ins Acad. He then painted a picture for the Annunziata del Guastato, representing S. Diego, which has been much praised. He removed to Milan, where he received the honor due to his ability. One of his finest works is a "Madonna," with the dead Christ, and Saints, in the ch. of S. Girolamo. Lanzi says he became a mer- chant, and died in jail.

Barbalunga. See Ricci.

Barbarelli. See Giorgione.

Barbaris, Jacopo de (1504). Little can be told of this painter; indeed, it is doubtful by what name he should be called, for he is thought to be identical with Jacomo Barberino Veneziano, and with Jacob Walch, an artist alluded to by Diirer in his correspondence. His signature and emblem (a wand of Mercury), are on a panel in



BARBARIS — BARBIANL 69

the Gall, of Augsburg, dated 1504, and on a head of Christ in the Mas. of Weimar. There are also pictures of his in Paris, Ratisbon, and in Dresden Mus. If he be the same as Jacomo Barberino Vene- ziano, he went, according to the Anonimo, to Burgundy and Ger- many, and adopted the style of those countries. He was in the ser- vice of John of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht, at the same time with Mabuse, and excelled in painting and engraving.

Barbary, Jacob da. An engraver, and the true "Master of the Caduceus," avIio has been called until recently Francis de Babylone. The reason of the name is found in the fact that he marked his plates with a cadnceus. One of his plates mentioned by Brulliot is dated 1504. His nationality is a matter of doubt. Different authors enumerate, altogether, twenty-nine plates by this artist. They are highly esteemed for their rarity. The following are among those known to be his : —

Apollo and Diana ; small upright plate.

A Holy Family, with the Virgin resting on the stump of a tree, and S. Joseph leaning his head on his hand ; square plate ; half- length figures.

A Holy Family, with S. Elizabeth, and an Angel playing a musical instrument.

The Offering of the Wise Men ; small upright plate.

S. Jerome writing, with a Crucifix before him.

Two small upright plates; in one a woman carries a child in her arms, and in the other a man carries a boat.

A Sacrifice to Priapus ; a free subject; after Marc Antonio.

Barbatelli, Bernardino, better known as Poccetti, and also called Bernardino delle facceati, or delle grotesche. Born at Florence (1548-1612). Pupil of Michele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio. At first he painted only grotesques and the fronts of buildings, and was little known, but later he went to Rome, where he studied the works of Raphael, and also made a reputation as an architect. Few of his pictures on wood or canvas remain, but many of his frescoes are still in Florence, and compare well with those of many Italian masters. Mengs always studied him when in Florence, and Pietro da Cortona admired his works. He sometimes painted hastily, and again would prepare his drawings with the greatest care, but his pencil was always firm, and his works displayed facility and freedom. He adorned his historical pictures with fine landscapes, sea-views, fruits and flowers, and his draperies were admirable.

Barbello, Gio. Giacomo, born at Cremona (1590-165C). Best known by his pictures in the churches of Bergamo.

Barbiani, Andrea, born at Ravenna (1G80-1754). Believed to have studied under P. Cesare Pronti, whose style he imitated in his-


70 BARBIANI — BAROCCIO.

torical paintings. Tlie churches and public buildings of Ravenna and Rimini are adorned with his works, one of the best being in the vault of the Cath. of Ravenna, and representing the "Four Evange- lists." He was an artist of considerable merit.

Barbiani, G-io. Batista, born at Ravenna. Flourished about 1635. Probably studied under Bartolommeo Cesi. His best fresco is the " Assumption of the Virgin,'* in the dome of the chapel of X. Signora del Sudore, in the Cathedral. Some of his best pictures were at Bologna.

Barbier-Walbonne, Jacques Luc, born at Nisines, 17G9. Pupil of David. He painted historical pictures, and portraits of the dis- tinguished generals of France.

Barbiere, Domenico del, born at Florence about 1506. A pupil of II Rosso, whom he accompanied to France, when he came by in- vitation of Francis I. to ornament the palaces of Fontainebleau and Meudom After the death of Primaticcio, Barbiere executed some frescoes after the designs of that master. He was also an engraver, but his works possess little merit. They are valued, however, on account of their scarcity, and are found in curious collections.

Barbieri, Gio. Francesco. See Guercino.

Barbieri, Paolo Antonio, brother of Gio. Francesco, called Guer- cino, born at Cento (1596-1640), A painter of still-life. lie es- pecially excelled in pictures of fish.

Barca, Don Vicente Calderon do la, born at Guadalaxara (1762-1794). Pupil of Don Francisco Goya. Painted history and portraits, and excelled in the latter. His finest historical work is in a college at Avila, and represents the " Birth of S. Norbert."

Bardin, Jean, born at Montbar (1732-1809). Pupil of the elder Lagrenee. Studied also at Rome. He was a popular artist in France and was admitted to the Acad, in 1795. His subjects were religious, poetical, and historical. David and Regnault were instructed in the elements of painting by Bardin.

Barker, Robert (1739-1806). Inventor of panoramic painting. His first picture of this kind was a view of Edinburgh, which was exhibited in that city in 1788, and in London a year later. At first this kind of exhibition attracted but little attention, but soon its use- fulness was appreciated, and it became popular.

Barnuevo, Don Sebastian de Herrera, born at Madrid (1611- 1671). Architect, sculptor, and painter. Studied first with his father who was a sculptor, then became a pupil in painting under Alonso Cano. He gained reputation in the three branches of art to which he gave his attention. Many of his works are in Madrid. The " Nativity," in the ch. of S. Geronimo, and the " Beatification of S. Augustine," in the great chapel of the Augustine Recollets, were his principal pictures.

Baroccio, Federigo, born at TJrbino (1528-1612). Studied de-


BAROCCIO. 71

sign with, his father, who was an engraver. Became the pupil of Battista Franco of Venice. Went to Pesaro, where he saw the art- treasures of the Dukes of Urbino, and when twenty years old, to Rome. He was hindered by his modesty, but Michael Angelo chanced to see some of his drawings, which he praised, and Gio. da Udine became his friend. He also became known to Card. Giulio della Rovere, who gave him his patronage. He returned, after four years, to Urbino, and executed some church paintings which gained him great reputation, and when, in 1560, he returned to Rome, Pius IV. employed him in the Vatican, with Federigo Zucchero. Here he was poisoned by some rival, and although the potion was not fatal, it induced a stomachic disorder, which prevented him from working more than two hours a day during the fifty-two remaining years of his life, which years, with the exception of three at Perugia, and a visit to Florence, were passed at Urbino. Some of his best works were, the " Pardon of S. Francis of Assisi," for the Franciscans of Urbino, on which he spent six years; a " Deposition from the Cross," for the Cath. of Perugia, three years, now in the Vatican; the "Calling of S. Andrew;" the "Annunciation," now in the Vatican; " Santa Michelina," the " Presentation of the Madonna," and the "Visitation," in the Chiesa Nuova, at Rome; the "Insti- tution of the Sacrament," according to the Romish rite, in the ch. of the Minerva, at Rome; the " Cenacolo," and a " S. Sebastian," in the Cath. of Urbino; a portrait of Duke Francesco Maria, in rich armor, in the Tribune at Florence; and a " Madonna del Gatto," in the National Gall. This is by no means a list of his pictures, for the amount of work which he accomplished was wonderful, when we consider his sufferings. Baroccio lived when the art of Italy was declining, and although he avoided, very considerably, the prevalent mannerism in form, his coloring was imperfect. He admired Michael Angelo, but he imitated Correggio in color. Mengs finds his pictures wanting in yellow; Reynolds criticises his flesh colors; and Bellori, his biographer, thought he used vermilion and ultramarine too freely. His design was correct. Bellori says he always made two cartoons, and two colored sketches; made all ljis drawings from life, and dressed models in the required costumes. In spite of his faults he acquired a great name in his day, and merits the reputation of intro- ducing harmonious application of light and shade into Lower Italy — in which management of light, added to variety and novelty of conception, his merit consists. Excepting his health, his life Avas fortunate. For he was in good circumstances, happy in his temper, had many pupils, and more orders than he could execute. Duke Francesco Maria often visited him in his house in Urbino, and on the 1st of October, 1612, made this entry in his diary : " Federigo Ba- roccio of Urbino died, aged 77; an excellent painter, whose eye and hand served him as well as in his youth." He was, in truth, eighty-


72 BAROCCIO — BARRET.

four years old, and painted without spectacles, but not as well as earlier in life. He was buried in S. Francesco, where, in the corridor, the tablet to his memory remains. At his funeral a standard painted by himself, representing the Crucifixion, was placed at the foot of his bier. Baroccio was also an engraver, and left several plates, cor- rect in design and good in expression, though not especially delicate in their execution.

Baron, Bernard, born at Paris, 1700; died in London, 1762. An eminent engraver, and a pupil of Nicholas Henry Tardieu. He en- graved several plates for the Crozat Coll. He resided in England some years before his death. His works have considerable merit, although coarse in their execution.

Baron, John, or Baronius, called Tolosano, born at Toulouse 1631. Passed most of his life at Rome. An engraver of portraits and historical subjects.

Barozzo, Jacopo, called Vignola, from his birthplace, in the ter- ritory of Modena (1507-1575). An illustrious architect. He com- menced to study painting in the school of Passarotti at Bologna, but became so enamored of the study of perspective, that by that means (as he himself said) he was led to devote himself to architecture. He became a law-giver in that art in Italy. He was employed in Rome bv a society of nobles and gentlemen to make accurate meas- urements of the greater part of the Roman antiquities. These meas- ures or moulds were sent to France to be cast in bronze. Vignola then accompanied Priniaticcio to France, where he was employed in architectural works as well as in the casting of the above named statues. In 1550 Julius III. was made Pope, and Vignola, by the recommendation of friends, was appointed architect to His Holiness. Soon he became known to Card. Farnese, who employed him to de- sign his magnificent Pal. of Caprarola, and would have everything about it done according to his decision. In this palace some pictures by Vignola were seen. After the death of Michael Angelo Pius V. employed Vignola to superintend the work at S. Peter's. This mas- ter also published valuable works on architecture, in one of which he gave definite rules for the increase or decrease of every part in all the five orders of architecture. This was illustrated bv engravings and proved a very useful book. Milizia called it " L'Abbicci dell' Architettura. ' '

Barret, George, born at Dublin, 1728; died at Paddington, 1784. First studied in the drawing Acad, of his native city under Mr. West. The Earl of Powerscourt became his patron, and he painted many views around Powerscourt Park. In the Dublin Society he took the premium for the finest landscape. In 1762 he went to England, and there took prizes also. He greatly assisted in the establishment of the Royal Acad. He was a good painter of English landscape. His works are in the possession of the nobility, the principal ones belong-


BARRET — BARTHOLOMEW. t 3


ing to the Dukes of Portland and Buccleugh. He also left several spirited etchings.

Barry, James, born at Cork (1741-1806). Son of a coasting trader. Commenced to paint as a boy. His picture of " S. Patrick baptizing the King of Cashel," obtained for him the notice of Burke, •who gave him the means to go to London, and later, defrayed his expenses in Rome. He returned to London in 17 71. In the great room of the Society of Arts, at the Adelphi, he painted six large pic- tures, illustrating the " Civilization and Regeneration of Man." In 1782 he was made Professor of Painting to the Roval Acad. In 1 799 he was expelled the Acad, on account of a letter which he had pub- lished, and other disagreements with his academicians. He died poor and alone. He was laid in state in the Adelphi, in the midst of his works, and was buried in S. Paul's Cath. His other pictures were an " Adam and Eve; ' " Venus Anadyomene; " " Pandora; " and " King Lear." His works are not great, and his unlovely char- acter prevented his being treated with charity, although by many he is regarded as a martyr to his appreciation and love of high art. Grandeur seemed to mean vastness in his mind. The " Harvest Home," at the Adelphi, is the best of the six in composition and finish. He overesteemed his own pictures, and could see no beauty in those of other artists.

Bartholomew, Edward Sheffield, born at Colchester, Conn., 1822. After trying various employments he abandoned ail in disgust, spent his time in drawing, and studying any pictures which were within his reach. After a time, he read the life of Cellini. This, to use his own words, " put the devil into him." He abandoned all employment, and his friends regarded him as good for nothing, prac- tically. By some means he studied a year at the life school of the Acad, in Xew York, and did some drawings which revealed his talents to a few friends. He was the intimate friend of Church. He obtained the appointment of Curator of the Wadsworth Gall, at Hartford. He made careful copies and studies, but when he attempted to paint in oil found that he was color-blind. He then determined to attempt sculpture. His " Flora " was his first work, and from its execution may be dated his artistic career. By his own exertions and the aid of friends he obtained the means to visit Italy. When in Xew York he was attacked with small-pox, which left him lame for life, with a weakened constitution. When, at length, he sailed, it was in an ill provided vessel, and he suffered much on the voyage. He requested to be landed on the coast of France, and made his way thence to Rome. So great was his energy that, in spite of all his hindrances, within three days after his arrival he was enframed in modelling the " Blind Homer led by his Daughter." From that time his life was prosperous. His chef-d'oeuvre, the " Re- pentant Eve," belongs to Joseph Harrison Xil Philadelphia. His


74 BARTHOLOMEW — BARTOLO.

" Shepherd Boy " to E. Pratt of the same city. In Hartford there is a laro-e collection of figures, busts, and bas-reliefs by this artist. He also executed several monumental works, and visited America to superintend the erection of a monument to Charles Carrol. His home was always in Rome. On a second visit to America he renewed his friendship with Church, and the citizens of Hartford complimented him by a public dinner. He returned to Italy with fresh zeal and aspirations, but it was only to die. In a few months, on account of his health, he went from Rome to Naples, where he lived but a short time.

Bartoli, Pietro Saute, sometimes called II Perugino, born at Pe- rugia, lG.'Jo. He first practised painting, but gave it up for engrav- ing, in which he became eminent. He left a great variety and num- ber of plates, which are chiefly etched in a free and masterly manner. He sometimes marked his plates with his initials, and added an F. for fecit : thus, P. B. F., but more frequently he used the following : Petr. Ss. Bart. sc. Romce.

Bartolin of Piacenza. Little is known of this old painter. In the Baptistery of Parma, and in the ch. of S. Antonio at Piacenza there are several pictures attributed to him. They are believed to belong to the close of the 14th, and rise of the 15th century, and are very rude.

Bartolini, Gioseffo Maria, born at Imola, 1G57. Pupil of Lorenzo Pasinelli, at Bologna, ilis pictures were historical, and some which still remain in the public edifices at Imola are much esteemed, espe- cially one in the ch. of S. Domenico, representing a miracle by S. Bia«;io. This artist was living in 1718.

Bartolini, Lorenzo, born in Florence (1777-1850). He studied first in Paris ; visited Rome, and settled in Florence. He left many works — some of considerable merit, but others bear the impress of French affectation. He executed many statues and monuments, and was considered a leading master of his time. At the Esterhazy Mus. in Vienna are three * ' Genii ' ' by this master, remarkable for their elegance and truthfulness.

Bartolo, Taddeo di. A Sienese painter of the early part of the 15th century. His earliest pictures are at Perugia, There is an altar-piece, dated 1403. It represents the " Virgin and Child," with two angels and S. Bernard. This is now in the Acad., where there are two other works of this master. In the ch. of S. Agostino, Pe- rugia, a " Descent of the Holy Ghost," by Taddeo, is admirable. The Acad, of Siena has an " Annunciation," and the Louvre at Paris several pictures not important in considering Taddeo, but those of the " Life of the Virgin," on the walls of the chapel of the Palazzo della Signoria at Siena, are worthy of note. They were done in 1407, and are peculiarly impressive from their refinement and true feeling. In 1414 he painted a hall joining the chapel which is much inferior, and represents ancient orators, poets, and statesmen.


BAETOLO — BASAITI. 75

Bartolo, Domenico di. Flourished 1440. The brother or nephew of Taddeo, but much inferior to him. An " Assumption " in the Berlin Mus. is somewhat effective in arrangement, but coarse in the manner of execution. In 1440 he represented the t; Works of Mercy " in the Hospital della Scala at Siena, but they are pictures of no merit.

Bartolommeo, Fra. See Porta, Baccio della.

Bartolozzi, Francesco, born at Florence (1730-1813). This eminent designer and engraver studied drawing under Hu"fort Fer- retti at Florence, and engraving with Joseph Wagner at Venice. He went to England in 1764 and became eminently distinguished. He practised every kind of engraving. The number of his plates is enormous and their finish exquisite. His etchings are remarkable for the truthfulness with which he reproduced the spirit and expression of the works he copied.

Bartsch, Adam, born at Vienna (1757-1820). Engraver and author. He was principal keeper of the Imperial and Royal Gall, at Vienna, and published " Le Peintre Graveur," which is the best account of prints yet published. Besides this he published a " Cata- logue of the Etchings of Rembrandt and his Pupils," which like the former book is wonderful for its accuracy. For the first he made fac- simile* of rare etchings, in which the spirit of the originals is per- fectly reproduced. In 1818, his son Frederic published a " Cata- logue Raisonne " of the works of the father, which numbered 505.

Bas, Jacques Philippe Le, born at Paris (1708-1782). Cele- brated engraver. Studied with N. Tardieu. The number of plates which he left is very large. He had many pupils, was an ingenious artist, and Brvan savs, " availed himself much of the freedom and facility of etching, which he harmonized in an admirable manner with the graver and dry point." He made more than one hundred prints after Teniers, and copied that master most successfully.

Basaiti, Marco. It is not known whether this artist was born at Friuli or Venice. He was of Greek parentage. Flourished from 1470 to 1520. He is believed to have been the assistant of Luigi Vivarini, and Gio. Bellini. He acquired much of the manner of both these masters, and imitated besides, at different periods, Palma, Lotto, and Carpaccio. He probably survived Raphael, but a wider difference could scarcely be imagined than exists between the pic- tures of the two. Basaiti' s colors are brilliant, and his pictures fin- ished with the greatest care, even in the most minute details, which results in a dry realism. His figures have character, and a peculiar dignity, but his draperies are stiff and his heads have a tiresome sameness. His works are almost numberless, and there are few col- lections without them. The following arc some of the more impor- tant : National Gall., S. Jerome reading, and the Virgin seated in a meadow with the Child asleep on her lap; Munich Gall., i% De-


76 BASAITI — BASSANO.

position from the Cross; " Venetian Acad., " Christ -with the Disci- ples in the Garden," and the " Calling of SS. Peter and Andrew," 1511; Vienna, Belvedere Gall., " Calling of James and John," with fine landscape, signed, 1515, Marcus Baxaitj, F.

Basili, Pier Angiolo, lx>rn at Gubbio (1550-1604). Studied first under Felice Damiani, and then with Christofano Roncalli. His style resembled that of the latter master, but was more delicate. In the ch. of S. Mazziale is a picture of " Christ Preaching," with a great number of figures. His frescoes in the cloister of S. Ubaldo are much esteemed.

Bassano, Francisco da Ponte, born at Vicenza, 1475 ; died at Bassano, 1530. This was the founder of the family of Bassano, six of whom were painters. Francisco, the elder, probably studied under Gio. Bellini, and imitated that master in his youth, but later in life he worked with more freedom and spirit. His " S. Bartholomew " in the Cath. of Bassano, shows his early manner ; and the " Descent of the Holy Spirit." at the village of Oliero, i> grand in composition, good in color and expression, and displays his later excellence.

Bassano, Jacopo da Ponte, born at Bassano (1510-1592). Son of the preceding. He studied with his father, and afterwards with Bonifazio Veneziano. But he gained much of his knowledge from studvin'_ r the works of Titian, and copying the designs of Parmigiano. lie excelled in painting landscape and animals, and introduced the latter into almost cwry picture, sometimes with marked impropriety. He was, perhaps, the earliest Italian genre painter. His coloring was good, and also his use of light and shade. He distinguished himself as a portrait painter, and painted many eminent persons, among them the Doge of Venice, Ariosto, and Tasso. He had four sons, who all painted with him, and many other scholars, so the amount of work completed in his atelier was very large. His latest pictures are by far the best. He had the habit of concealing the hands and feet, which injured his pictures very much. His works are to be seen almost everywhere. " The Entombing of Christ," in the ch. of S. Maria in Vanzo, at Padua ; " A Family Concert," in the Uilizi ; portrait of an old man, Berlin Mus.; portrait of a richly dressed woman, in Studj Gall., at Naples ; '• The Mourning Maries," at Chiswick, and a " Nativity," at the Louvre, are some of his larger works. His cabinet pictures are very numerous.

Bassano, Francisco da Ponte, the younger, son of the preceding, born at Bassano (1548-1591). Trained in the school of his father. He established himself in Venice. Was employed to paint a series of pictures representing the history of the Republic, on the walls of the public palace, and one of his best works is on a ceiling there. Fie also painted for the churches of Venice. He became melancholy, and this trouble was increased by his over application. He at last jumped from a window, and killed himself.


BASSANO — BASSI. 77

Bassano, Gio. Batista da Ponte, born at Bassano (1553-1613). Second son of Jacopo. Spent most of his time in copying the works of his father, which he did with surprising skill.

Bassano, Leandro da Ponte, born at Bassano (1558-1623). Third son of Jacopo. Excelled in portrait painting, to which he confined himself during his later years. lie painted, among other distinguished men, the Doge Grimani, who made him a knight. The " Raising of Lazarus," in the Louvre, and the " Birth of the Virgin," in the ch. of S. Sophia, at Venice, are his best historical works.

Bassano, Girolamo da Ponte, fourth son of Jacopo, born at Bassano (1560-1622). He spent much of his life in copying the pictures of his father, which he did so well that the copies passed at the time, and since then, as the originals. In the ch. of S. Giovanni, at Bassano, there is an original picture by Girolamo, of "S. Barbara kneeling before the Virgin."

Bassen, Bartholomew van. A Flemish artist who flourished from 1610 to 1630. He painted interiors of churches, and other pub- lic buildings. The figures in his pictures were done by other artists, and he in turn painted the architectural portions of their works. When called by his name they attract little notice, but are sometimes attributed to the painter of the figures. He was exact in perspective, and good in coloring. There are pictures of his in the Berlin Mas.

Basseporte, Frances Magdalene, died about 1 780. She painted subjects from natural history, in water colors. She did three books of flowers, which were engraved by Avril. She also engraved some plates for the Crozat Coll., and others, among which are, —

The Martyrdom of S. Fidelio de Sigmaringa; after P. A. Robert

Diana and Endymion ; after a design by Sebastiano Conca.

Bassetti, Marc Antonio, born at Verona (1588-1630). There were but few pictures left by this master, for he believed that much time should be given to each one. Those he finished were highly prized. He was a scholar of Felice Riccio, called Brusasorci. He also studied the works of the masters in Venice and Rome. After his return to Verona he painted for the churches and public edifices of the city, but was cut otf suddenly by the plague.

Bassi, Antonio. The name of this, painter occurs in the history of art in Ferrara, and some of his works may still be seen in the churches of that city.

Bassi, Francesco, the elder, born at Cremona (1642-1700). From his landscape painting he was called " II Cremonese da Paesi.*' Many of his works are in the private collections of Venice.

Bassi, Francesco, the younger, born at Bologna (1664-1693). Scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli. He left pictures of merit in the churches of Bologna. One of " S. Antonio taken to Heaven by An- gels," in the ch. of that saint, is much admired. He was distin- guished for his copies after Guercino.


78 BAST — BAUR.

Bast, Dominic de, born at Ghent, 1782. An amateur painter of landscapes, cattle, and marine subjects, in the last of which he was said to excel. His works are mostly in the private collections of Ghent, but one was purchased in 1822 by the Commissioners for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, in that city.

Bastaro, Giuseppe del, born at Rome. Flourished in the time of Urban VIII. His pictures may be seen in several Roman churches. In S. Maria Maggiore is his " Assumption of the Virgin," and in S. Girolamo, a " Descent from the Cross," and ik The Death of S. Jerome."

Bastaruolo, II. See Mazzuoli Filippo, or Giuseppe.

Batoni, oi Battoni, Pompeo, born at Lucca, 1702 ; died at Rome, 1787. Pupil of Francesco Fernandi. He was a contemporary of Raphael Mengs, who painted mostly in Spain. Batoni excelled most in portrait painting. He bestowed much labor upon the hands, and finished cravats, laces, etc., etc., with exquisite care. He lived after the decline of Italian art, and showed a desire for severer study than was usual with artists of his time. Of his historical pictures, the " Fall of Simon Magus," in the ch. of S. Maria degli Angeli, at Rome, deserves to be mentioned. In the ch. of S. Maria Magjnore there is an altar-piece representing the " Annunciation; ' in the ch. of S. Girolamo, a " Madonna," with saints and angels ; in the pa- vilion at Monte Cavallo there are five pictures by this artist, one of which represents " Christ giving Peter the Keys," and is sometimes called his best work. Being the best artist of his day in Rome, he was constantly employed, and his works were well esteemed all over Europe. At Hampton Court there is a portrait of Gregory XIV. by Batoni, and in the Dresden Gall, a "Magdalene," and a " S. John in the Wilderness." These last are good specimens of his works, and display pure academic art, as if they were painted but to show color and design.

Baudet, Stephen, born at Blois, 1620; died at Paris, 1691. An eminent engraver. After studying in Paris he went to Rome. He used only the graver, at this time, and seems to have imitated Corne- lius Bloemart. Upon his return to Paris he greatly improved his style by using the point also. He was a member of the Royal Acad. His choice of pictures from which to make plates was excellent, and were those of some of the best painters of Italy.

Bauduins, Anthony Francis, born at Dixmude, in Flanders, 1640 ; died at Paris, 1700. He first studied painting under F. A. Vandermeulen, but afterwards became an engraver. Most of his plates were from the designs of Vandermeulen, and were etched in a bold and effective style.

__ Baur, John William, born at Strasbourg (1600-1640).

YX/) Pupil of Frederick Brentel, whom he soon surpassed.

He went to Rome, where his views of the environs of the

city were much admired. In 1637 he went to Venice, and then to


BAUR — BAZZI. 79

Vienna, where he was employed by Ferdinand III. His color was superior to his design. He acquired some celebrity as an engraver.

Baur, Nicholas, born at Harlingen (1767-1820). One of the best modern Dutch painters of marine views. He also painted landscapes and views of cities, and frequently represented winter and moonlight scenes. Many of his works are in pi'ivate houses in Holland, and the King of Holland purchased two of his marine views for the Mus. at the Hague.

Bausa, Gregorio, born at Mallorca, near Valencia (1596-1656). Pupil of Francisco Eibalta. His pictures had considerable merit. At Valencia, in the ch. of S. Philippe of the Carmelites, there is an altar-piece representing the Martyrdom of the Saint, and in the monastery of Los Trinitarios Calzados there are several works of his.

Bayeu y Subias, Don Francisco, born at Saragossa (1734-1795). He first studied and gained the prize at the Acad, in his native city. Then, a pension being granted him, he was able to ^o to Madrid, where he studied with Antonio Gonzales Velasquez. He painted for the churches, and was employed by Charles III. in the Prado, and the palaces at Aranjuez, and Madrid. He became a member of the Acad, in 1765, and three years later was made painter to the king. Some pictures of the life of S. Bruno, at the Carthusians, are anions his best works.

Bayeu, Don Raymon, born at Saragossa (1746-1793). Brother and assistant of the preceding.

Bazin, Nicholas, born at Troves, 1636. Pupil of Claude Mellan. He executed plates of historical subjects and portraits in a stiff, dry manner.

Bazzani, Giuseppe, born at Reggio (1701-1769). Pupil of Gio. Canti, whom he surpassed. Many works of his are in the churches and convents of Mantua and vicinity, and have considerable merit. At the time of his death he was director of the Acad, at Mantua.

Bazziacaluve or Bezziacaluva, Ercole. An eminent engraver of Pisa or Florence, who flourished about 1640.

Bazzi or Razzi, Gianantonio, called II Soddoma (1474-1549). Born at Vercelli, he seems rather to belong to Siena, for he settled there and became one of the best painters of the Sienese school. His mode of life was free and easv. He was fond of animals, and had a collection of them always about him. Queer birds, magpies, monkevs, etc., were always in his house. A raven who imitated him perfectly in voice, and manner of speech, was his especial pet. His dress and whole appearance was such that he attracted all sorts of odd people about nim, and was not over fastidious about their character. He was married to a young wife, who left him soon after the birth of a daughter. "When we consider his peculiarities it is a surprise that he could have painted such women as he did, for they are often of a remarkably pure and noble type. His conception of beauty was ex- traordinary, and his expression of deep enthusiastic feeling not less


80 BAZZI — BEATEICI.

so. His women resemble those of Leonardo, under whose influence he probably came in youth; he was also familiar with the Florentine art, and studied the works of Raphael in Rome. He became vain and careless after attaining a good degree of fame, and painted only from the force of whims, or need; and yet, in spite of his careless life, and unequal temperament, his genius made him great. In 1505 he painted twenty-six frescoes in the convent of S. Uliveto Mao-oiore,

X » Co '

near Siena, which are still well preserved. They represent scenes in the life of S. Benedict, and are full of able characterization and indi- vidualism. Soon after this, Pope Julius II. called him to Rome to paint in the Vatican, where but little of his work remains. At the Villa Farnesina there are two fine frescoes which he did for the banker Chigi. They represent the "Marriage of Alexander and Roxana," and " Alexander in the Tent of Darius." The first is es- pecially beautiful; warm in color, exquisite in softness, the head of Roxana compares well with some of Raphael's. After his return to Siena he put new life into its art, and produced some of his best pictures. Among them are the frescoes which he did in connection with Beccafumi and Girolamo del Pacchia in the Oratorium of S. Bernardino; figures of saints in a chapel of S. Spirito; and pictures of S. Caterina, both in the oratory of S. Caterina and in the chapel of S. Caterina in S. Domenico. There are also frescoes of his in the Palazzo Pubblico. In the Uffizi there is a panel painting of S. Sebastian which is one of the best works of this time. There are also a few other fine panel pictures. There is a " Resurrection " in the Studj Gall., at Naples; a " Scourging of Christ" in the Acad, of Siena, which has been transposed from the wall to canvas; the " Sacrifice of Abraham " in the Campo Santo at Pisa; a very beauti- ful portrait of " Lucrezia " which belongs to M. Comthur v. Kestner; and lastly, a " Dead Christ " in the Berlin Mus., and a " Madonna'* in the Borghese Pal., which are attributed to him. The " Ecstasy of S. Caterina " at S. Domenico is especially fine; the saint is repre- sented in a swoon, Liibke says, "with the deepest feeling and the noblest expression of pain." Razzi is sometimes called the pride of the Sienese school.

Beale, Mary, born in Suffolk (1632-1 GO 7). A good portrait painter. Pupil of Sir Peter Lely. She studied the works of Van- dyck, whom she resembled in color. Her pictures were much sought by the distinguished persons of her time.

Beale, Charles. Husband of the preceding, and a painter, but of no celebrity.

-jy-p ) "JV"P> T Beatrici, Niccolo, born at Thionville about

±\J) J Yj J 1500. Early in life he went to Rome, and his

plates show that he was there from 1532 to 1562. He is supposed to have studied under Agostino Veneziano, called De Musis. The works of Beatrici are not equal to those of the master.



HEAD OF ROXANA, FROM THE FRESCO OF "ALEXANDER'S MARRIAGE," BY IL SODDOMA, IX THE FABXESIXA, ROME-

6


BEATRICI — BECCAFUMI. 83

His subjects, however, were excellent, and his plates have been valued on that account. His prints are somewhat numerous.

Beaumont, Claudio, born at Turin (1694-1766). After studying at Turin he went to Rome and spent some time in copying the works of Raphael, the Caracci and Guido. He admired Trevisani and imitated him in execution and color. Returning; to Turin, he became distinguished, was employed by the King of Sardinia, and by him knighted. He decorated several apartments in the roval palace. A fine " Descent from the Cross," by Beaumont, is in the Chiesa della Croce. His pictures should be judged in comparison with others of his own time. Many other eminent foreign artists were employed by the court in competition with Beaumont. He re- modelled the Turin Acad, and extended it to all branches of art, under the name of the Royal Acad., and from that time the cultiva- tion of the fine arts increased. The name of Beaumont is deservedly respected in his native city.

Beaumont, George Howland (1 753-1827). An English baronet, an amateur painter and a pupil of Wilson. He painted landscapes respectably. He liked richly glazed foregrounds, but light and silvery skies. His wood scenes resemble those of Ruysdael. Beaumont was a liberal patron of artists, and was much associated with them.

Beauvais, Nicholas Dauphin de, born at Paris about 1687. Pupil of John Auclran. His engravings are held in good estimation.

Beauvarlet, James Firmin, born at Abbeville, 1733. Cele- brated engraver. Pupil of Charles Dupuis and Lawrence Cars at Paris. His earlier plates are bold and free, while the later ones are finished with great neatness and delicacy.

Beccafumi, Domenico, called Meccherino, born at

  • I / , Siena (1484-1549). He was a shepherd boy, and

J J accustomed to sketch upon stones while watching his flock. This attracted the attention of one Meccherino, who obtained his father's consent that he should study under a master in Siena. Capanna was his instructor. He copied the de- signs of various masters, and, at first, adopted the manner of Perugino. He afterwards went to Rome, and studied antiques, as well as the works of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Returning to Siena, he competed with Razzi, next to whom he was ranked by the Sienese. His earlier works had more beauty and grace than those of his later years. His color was cheerful and pleasing, and of such a body that his pictures have endured the test of time better than many others. He used to say that he could not paint out of Siena, and his works are numerous there both in public and private collec- tions. He painted better in distemper than in oils. His frescoes in the oratory of S. Bernardino were fine. In the Acad, of Siena there is a picture by him of " S. Catherine receiving the Stigmata," which is one of his best easel pictures. He also did some works in sculpture and engraving, and we have a number of prints by him. One of his


84 BECCAFUMI — BEECHEY.

most interesting: later works was the pavement of the Cath. of Siena executed in mosaic. This has been engraved by Andrea Andreani. One of his points of excellence was the power to suit his compo ; - tions well to the style of the architecture by which they were sur- rounded, and to ornament them with grotesque designs, so that they required no gilt stucco, etc., etc. He loved the reflections of fins, and other lights, and was more learned in the principles of art than most artists of his time. lie also understood foreshortening, espe- ciallv on ceilings. He sought strength and dignity in his figures, and even his small pictures appear larger than they are for this reason. He was an upright man of solitary habits. His memory was cher- ished by the Sienese, and honored by their poets.

Beccaruzzi, Francesco, born at Conigliano in the Frioul. Scholar of Pordenone. He painted reputably both in oil and fresco. Many of his pictures are in the churches and convents of Trevigi. One of his best works was a"S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," painted for the Franciscans of Conigliano.

Becerra, Gaspar, born at Baiza in Andalusia, 1520 ; died at Madrid, 1570. One of the great fresco painters of Spain; also an architect and sculptor. It is difficult to say whether he was most celebrated for hi- pictures or his figures. He was a close student of anatomy and made plates for a work on that subject, and also de- signed anatomical figures for the use of artists lie studied in Rome, and returning to Spain, was made sculptor and painter in ordinary to Philip II. Perhaps his most celebrated production was an image of the Virgin made tor Queen Isabel de la Paz. He had already made two which did not please the Queen, when, as he sat one night over his work, befell asleep, and was awakened suddenly by a voice, sa vinir, " Awake, and arise, and out of that log of wood blazing on the hearth, shape the thought within thee, and thou shalt obtain the desired inia^e." He did so, and having quenched the burning stick, began at dawn to work. The statue grew rapidly, and became a miraculous image, and, draped in widow's weeds, was placed in a chapel devoted to her by the Minim Fathers at their convent in Madrid, to whom she brought much gain. This image is known as •• Nuestra Senora de la Soledad." It disappeared during the war of independence. The most important work of this master was the high altar in the Cath. of Astorga, which was composed of many bas-reliefs and figures. It cost 30,000 ducats, 11,000 of which made the share of Becerra. Many works of this master are in the public edifices of Madrid, Astoria, and Zamora.

Beechey, Sir William, born at Burford in Oxfordshire, 1772; died at Hampstead, 1839. Portrait painter to the Queen, appointed in 1793. He was made a knight by George III. for his picture, now at Hampton Court, which represents the king reviewing troops. In sixty-four years he exhibited 362 portraits at the exhibitions of the Royal Acad.


BEECK — BEG A. 85

Beeck, Jan, born at Looz ; died, 1516. A monk who became abbot of the convent of S. Lawrence near Liege. He painted the largest part of the pictures of his convent, and is considered next to the brothers Van Eyck, among the old painters of Liege.

Beek, David, born at Arnheim (1621-1656). One of the ablest pupils of Vandyck, whom he assisted until his death, painting an im- portant part in some pictures, and the whole of others, after the designs of the master. He went to England, where he was patron- ized by Charles I. , and instructed the Prince of Wales and Duke of York in drawing. After some vears in England he went to Sweden, and was appointed principal painter and chamberlain to Queen Christina. In spite of his honors he longed for Holland, and, at length obtained permission to go there under promise to return to Sweden ; but his love for his home prevented his keeping this prom- ise, and he died at the Hague.

Beeldemaker, John, born at the Hague, 1636. A painter of hunting scenes. Many of his pictures are in England. lie handled his subjects with much spirit.

Beeldemaker, Francis, born at the Hague (1669-1717). Son of the preceding, with whom he first studied. He next painted with William Doudyns, and at length went to Rome. After some years spent in Italy he returned to Holland, and painted portraits and his- torical pieces which were much admired. He was a member of the Acad, at the Ha^ue.

Beerstraaten, Alexander. This artist lived in the 17th century, but there is nothing known of his life. One of his pictures is in the New York Metropolitan Mus. of Art, and represents " De Schreyer- storen " at Amsterdam.

Bega, Cornelius, born at Haerlem (1620-1664). A pupil of Adrian Ostade. He painted the same class of pictures as his mas- ter, though in a different manner. He excelled Ostade in drawino- but fell below him in feeling for color, and management of liaht. No. 1 7, Amsterdam Mus., is one of his best works, and represents a village fete, with music and drinking. No. 13, Louvre, representing a peasant and wife at table, is cooler in color than the former, and more in his usual manner. His pictures are found in the choicest collections. He also left more than thirty etchings, executed with much ingenuity and spirit, with a coarse, but firm, graver. His real name is said to have been Begeyn, but in youth he so displeased his father by his reckless mode of life, that he was disowned, and as- sumed the name by which he is now known. At the time of his death he was about to marry a young girl to whom he was devotedly attached. She was seized with the plague which visited Holland in 1664. Every one abandoned her, fearing infection, but Bega would' not leave her, and gave her the most devoted attention to the last, when, having taken the disease, he also died.


86 BEGARELLI — BEHAM.

Begarelli, Antonio, called Antonio da Modena, born at Modena (1409-1565). A modeller in clay. A pupil of Gio. Abati. He was associated with Correggio in the decoration of the cupola at Parma, and made many models from which that artist painted his floating figures. These artists were the best of friends, and resembled each other in their conceptions of the grand and beautiful. In 1529 Michael Angelo met Begarelli in Modena, and saw his works. It is said that he exclaimed, " Alas for the statues of the ancients, if this clay were changed into marble!" Begarelli was an instructor in design and modelling, and greatly influenced the painting of the Lombard school. To him may be traced in a measure its excellence in design, especially its art of foreshortening, and its relief and grace, which often approaches that of Raphael. The works of Be- garelli are in the Berlin Mus.

Eegas, Charles, born at Heinsberg (1794-1854). While at the University of Bonn he received some instruction in painting. He went to Paris and studied under Gros. He attracted the attention of the King of Prussia in 1815, and received an allowance with which to visit Italy. In 1825 he went to Berlin and became a professor in the Acad, of Arts. He painted portraits of Schelling, Humboldt, etc.; and various religious subjects, among which are the "Descent of the Holy Spirit ;" the "Transfiguration;' " Christ bearing his Cross." etc.

Begyn, Abraham, Dutch painter, born in 1650. Painted land- scapes and cattle in the style of Nicholas Berghem. His pictures are justly admired. He painted in a light, free manner, and his coloring is agreeable.

Beham, Bartel, born at Nuremberg, 1496 ;

t-x f^gl <ne( l m Italy, 1540. A painter, but more cele- ► I \ i [ 13 $ r brated as an engraver. Pupil of Albert Diirer.

He gave so much promise of excellence that Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria sent him to study in Italy. His early pictures were much in the style of Diirer, realistic, broad and crude in color. A " Christ bearing his Cross," in the chapel of S. Maurice, and " Christ on the Mt. of Olives " in the Berlin Gall, are of this time. When in Italy he attempted to change his manner, but without much success. No. 2, Munich Gall., representing "A Woman raised from the Dead by the True Cross," is a remarkable picture. No. 98, same Gall., represents " Marcus Curtius leaping into the Gulf," and is injured by too much antique architecture. In the Gad. at Schleissheim, a number of portraits show his excellence in that department of painting. He studied engraving under Marc Antonio Raimondi, and was one of the most successful imitators of that artist. His drawing was that of a master, and his heads are fine in expression. Many of his plates have no mark, and this has occasioned some difficulty in designating them. His signature was BB, and the prints that have it are dated from 1520


BEHAM. 87

to 1533. His portraits of the Emperors Charles V. and Ferdinand I. are well known for their masterly conception and execution. The following are a part of his prints : —

Portrait of William, Duke of Bavaria.

Bust of Erasmus Balderman. 1535.

Bust of Leonard Van Eck.

Adam, Eve, and Death before a Tree.

Judith sitting on the body of Holofernes. 1525.

The Virgin suckling the Child: very fine.

A Sibyl reading and a Boy holding a Torch. BB.

Susanna before the Elders; after Giulio Romano.

Lucretia.

Cleopatra. 1520.

The Judgment of Paris.

The following prints are marked with a B. on a die, thus; and have sometimes been attributed to N. Beatrici, but are j 13 now called those of Beham.

Apollo causing Marsyas to be flayed; after Raphael.

Christ giving his charge to S. Peter; after the same.

A Naval Combat.

A Landscape, with animals about a tree, at the top of which a Phoenix is burning her nest.

Four Friezes, with Boys playing and Festoons of Flowers; Raph. VRB. IN. Ant. Laferii formis.

The two following have the die without the letter B.

Apollo and the Python.

Apollo and Daphne. — —- Beham, Hans Sebald, born at Nurem-

I V I < TKfR ber g> 150 ° ! died at Frankfort, 1550. Nephew J. kJ 1 — / j 1L 1L-^ of the preceding, from whom he received his earliest instruction. He afterwards studied with Albert Diirer. His bad habits compelled him to leave Nuremberg in 1540, when he settled in Frankfort. He often painted humorous subjects, and sometimes those that were vulgar and indecorous. He was a good draughtsman, had singular powers of invention, and was not wanting in feeling for beauty and grace. His only oil picture now known is in the Louvre. It represents scenes from the life of David, and was executed for Albrecht, Archbishop of Mayence, in the form of a table, in 1534. He also executed five miniatures in a prayer-book for the same ecclesiastic. These are in the royal library at Aschaflen- burg, and prove his skill in this line of art. He was more important as an engraver than painter, and belonged to what are called " the little masters." We have no better examples of the manners and customs of his time than his " Triumphal Entry of Charles V. into Munich," and two processions of soldiers by him. His wood-cuts were free and spirited. His copper-plates are executed entirely


83 BEHAM — BEICH.

with the oraver, and are neatly done. From 1519 to 1530 he marked his plates with the letters H. S. P. From 1531 to 1549 he used H. S. B. His copper-plates are very numerous. The follow- ing are a few of them : —

Plates with the first cipher which were engraved at Nuremberg from 1510 to 1530 : —

Portraits of Hans Sebald and his wife : the cipher with a wreath of laurel in the middle ; engraved also by Hollar.

Adam and Eve in Paradise ; two small plates. 1519.

S. Jen niic with a cardinal's hat, and a Lion. 1519.

The Virgin suckling the Child. 1520.

The Virgin with a Glory, standing-, holding the Child. 1520.

The death of Dido; Regince Didonis imago. 1520.

S. Anthony, Hermit, writing. 1521.

Plates with the second cipher which were engraved at Frankfort. 1531 to 1549: —

Adam and Eve. a Stag behind them. 153G.

Adam and Eve in Paradise ; the Serpent presenting the Apple ; very fine

The Emperor Trajan listening to the Mother's complaint against his Son. 15:5 7.

Melancholy : inscribed, Melancolia : 1539 ; after Albert Diirer.

Fortuna ; a woman holding a Wheel. 1541.

A Man trying to pull up a Tret- ; inscribed. Impossible, 1549.

Twelve small plates of the labors of Hercules; inscribed, JErumnce Herculis. 1542 to 1548.

The Judgment of Paris ; Judicium Paridis ; 154(i ; fine.

Death seizing a young Woman; Omnem in homine, etc.; 1547; fine.

Wood-cuts, marked sometimes with one, and again with the other of his two ciphers : —

Portrait of Behani with a Cap.

Eight prints of the Passion of Christ.

S. Jerome with a Book and Crucifix.

A Village Fair. Avith a Steeple and Clock ; large frieze; very scarce.

A March of Soldiers ; large frieze, in four sheets ; very scarce.

Biblicse Historias, 348 prints; most of them with figures on both sides.

The Baptism of the Anabaptists ; circular, scarce.

The same subject : large, four sheets; very scarce.

Behnes, William (1. so 1-1 864). An English sculptor, distin- guished particularly for his busts. In 1820 he gained the silver medal for the best model from life.

Beich or Beisch, Franz Joachim, born at Munich (1663-1748). He was first a pupil of his father. Wilhelm Beich, then went to Italy, where he became an imitator of Gaspar Poussin. But he is not



BEICH — BELLINI. 89

an imitator merely, for he was himself inspired by nature. Kugler savs : "He takes the first place among the painters of ideal ten- dency." He -was court painter to the Elector of Bavaria, and his best works are in the electoral palaces. He excelled in landscapes and battle scenes. While some of his pictures have the darkness and heaviness of color, which was the fault of his time, others are transparent and warm in tone. Two landscapes in the Vienna Gall., which are excellent in many ways, fail in color ; but in the Munich Gall, the opposite is true of Nos. 138, 162, and 171. We have also four sets of plates, twenty-six in all, etched by Beich. They are of landscapes, with figures and buildings, and are executed with facility and spirit.

Beinaschi. See Benaschi.

Belcamp or Belkamp, Jan Van. A Dutch painter who was much employed in England in copying the pictures in the royal college.

Bella, Stefano Delia, born at Florence, >s/>fc (1610-1664). Son of a goldsmith, and in- tended for his father's profession, he showed such a talent for drawing, that he was placed with Cesare Dandini to learn painting. But he had so great a preference for engraving that he was allowed to study with Canta Gallina, master of Callot. Per- haps no one has handled the point with more facility than Bella. The number of his prints exceeded 1,400, so it is not strange that some of them are slightly etched ; but he designed with great taste, and his plates are brilliant in effect. In 1642 he went to Paris. Card. Richelieu employed him to make plates of the siege and taking of Arras. He also made some plates for Henrich, the uncle of Israel Silvestre. When he returned to Florence he was appointed to in- struct the son of the Grand Duke in drawing, and received a pension.

Belle, Clement-Louis-Marie- Anne, born at Paris (1722-1806). Studied under Lemoyne, and later in Italy. His subjects were religious and poetical. He was an academician, and inspector of the royal manufactories at the Gobelins.

Belle, Augustine-Louis, born at Paris (17.57-1831). Son of the preceding, and his assistant at the Gobelinf. He painted many pictures of subjects from sacred and profane history, and the ancient poets.

Belle, Nicholas-Simon- Alexis (16 74-1734). Scholar of F. de Troy. An eminent portrait painter.

Bellevois, died at Hamburg, 1684. A painter of marine subjects. His works are in many collections in Flanders, and have considerable merit.

Bellini, Jacopo, born at Venice (about 1405-1470). A pupil of Gentile Fabriano, with whom he went to Florence in 1422. At that time all strangers who settled in Florence were observed jealously and reo-arded as intruders. One day a company surrounded the


90 BELLINI.

shop of Fabriano and threw in stones. Jacopo was sent ont to drive them off, and came to blows with one Bernardo di ser Silvestri, a son of a notary. This young man was determined on revenge, and Jacopo, fearing trouble, left Fabriano, and ' 4 took service on board of the galleys of the Florentine States." Bernardo went before a judge and preferred charges against Jacopo, and he was summoned to appear, which failing to do, he was sentenced to a fine. After a year he returned to Florence, ignorant of what had been done. In a few days he was seized for contempt of the court, and sent to the Stinche. While there he compromised with Bernardo, and promised to pay him twenty-five small florins, and to submit to an act of pen- ance. This was performed on the 8th of April, 1425, when he marched bareheaded, surrounded by a guard, to the Baptistery of San Giovanni, where it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet, that Jacopo had come to do penance, for having shown contempt of Florentine law. This oeremony ended, he was set at liberty. From this time there is much uncertainty respecting Jacopo. His master gave him no assistance in the time of his trial. We know that Jacopo painted the portrait of Fabriano, and that Fabriano held the first child of Jacopo at the font ; but the dates of these occurrences are not known. The only certain thing is, that Jacopo was in Venice in 1430, as is proved by his sketch-book. This book, after passing through many hands, is now in the British Mus. It has 99 pages, 1 7 bv 13 inches. The drawings are done in pencil, tinted with green earth in water-colors, and sometimes retouched with pen and ink. Many of the sketches are very imperfect. In this book we are intro- duced to the very innermost artistic life of Jacopo. It has sketches of almost everything. Still and animal life, nature, ancient sculp- ture, buildings, and human figures are all there. Nothing seemed too small for his study. Some subjects are several times repainted, rear- ranged, and brought to the perfection of his manner. The stories of Judith and Holofernes, of David and Goliath, many New Testament histories, the wonders of the hagiology and those of mythology all find a place. In contrast with these are studies of apes, eagles, dogs, cats, village scenes, hawking parties, etc., etc. The student of art delights in this book, and understands the feeling which led Gentile Bellini to leave it an heir-loom in his family, in order to perpetuate, as noth- ing else could, the remembrance of his father. In his time artists were not masters of anatomy and motion, and for that reason the drawing of Bellini is the more admirable. He attained a middle place between the conventionalism of art which preceded him, and the naturalistic art which followed him. He worthily commenced what his son Giovanni, and Titian perfected. It is scarcely possible to judge of Jacopo Bellini as a colorist, for the two panel pictures which remain to us are greatly injured. One of these is a small half-length of the " Madonna and Child," at Lovere, in the Coll.


BELLINI. 91

of the Counts Tadini. The other, Xo. 443, Aead. of Venice, repre- sents the same subject. These are injured by scaling and blackened by time. Of his wall pictures, it is believed that some remain at Venice, but those of Verona are better known. That of the " Cru- cifixion," in the Arch-episcopal Pal., fully illustrates the style of this master. A copy of another ki Crucifixion," in the Cath. of Verona, is in the Casa Albrizzi at Venice. The arrangement is little changed from that in his sketch-book, and these works served as models to the artists who followed him, especially Antonello of Messina, Carpaccio. and Mantegna. Of his other works, there is a small

  • ' Christ in Limbus," in the Communal Gall, of Padua, much in-

jured ; at S. Zaccaria, Venice, some frescoes in the dome of the Chapel of S. Terasio, much abraded and blackened ; and a picture of a Dominican Friar, preaching in a Square," in the Oxford Mus. This last was probably the work of some one in his atelier, and is a panel on gold ground. It is known that Jacopo dwelt for a time in Padua, and there had a work-shop in which his sons assisted him ; that his daughter Nicolosia married Andrea Mantegna, and that he painted pictures and frescoes in that city, one of which was done in 1459. It is believed that he induced Mantegna to studv Donatello and Uccelli, and thus greatly influenced the style of the gifted Paduan, and that he himself was affected bv contact with that of Donatello. Jacopo also painted portraits, one of which Ridolfi noticed especially, that of the King of Cyprus, who was beheaded at Venice. Although Jacopo was greatly surpassed by his sons, he was a re- markable man for his time, and deserves to be remembered for pre- paring the way, and making it easier to those who followed.

Bellini, Gentile, eldest son of the preceding, born at Venice (1421 ?-1507). After laboring with his brother Giovanni in the atelier of their father, at his death they declared their perfect inde- pendence of each other, but continued to labor together, and shared the respect of their countrymen and the laurels which they won. The study of Jacopo and of his master, Fabriano, was of great value to them, but they progressed far beyond both, and, together, laid the foundation for the perfect style of Titian and his followers. Giovanni was the most excellent, and Gentile was called " clumsy " by later Venetians. But he did a noble work in teaching them the value of a thoughtful imitation of nature. In 1464 Gentile painted the doors of the great organ of S. Marco. He represented four gigantic saints. These are now in a Gall, leading from S. Mark's to the Ducal Pal. Gentile was often employed as a portrait painter. Of his works of this kind I shall only mention Xo. 136, Gall, of the Capitol, Rome; one in the University Gall., Oxford, of two boys in profile ; Correr Mus., Venice, Xo. 14, and one of Lorenzo Giustiniani, now in the lumber room of the Acad, of Venice. In 14 74 he was appointed to restore the old, and paint new pictures in the great council-chamber of


92


BELLINI.


Venice. His works there gained him much reputation. In 14 79 Sul- tan Mehemet, the conqueror of Constantinople, sent to the Signo- ria of Venice for a good painter. The Doge decided to send Gentile Bellini, and he was dispatched with two "journeymen, in galleys belonging to the state. In Con- stantinople Gentile was treated with great consideration, and made many portraits of notable person- ages. At one time he presented the Sultan with a picture of the head, of John the Baptist in a charger. The Sultan criticised the painting of the neck, and when he saw that Gentile did not under- stand his mistake, he called in a slaye, and had his head instantly struck off, to prove to the artist what was the true action of the muscles under such circumstances. Such an act did not tend to make Bellini enjoy his residence in the domains of Mehemet II. He re- mained there a year, was made a knight, and received many pres- ents at parting. The Sultan of- fered him anv gift he would name, but he only demanded a letter of praise to the Signoria of Venice. He carried to Venice many sketches, and a portrait of Mehemet. He also brought a picture, Louvre No. G8, which represents the reception of a Venetian embassy bv the grand vizier and other officers. When Gentile left Venice, Giovanni was appointed to his place in the counril- chamber, and when he returned, they continued the work in com- pany. The pictures painted there were partly legendary, and partly historical, and represented events in the Venetian wars in 1177 ; the combats on the Adriatic; and the reconciliation of the Emperor with Pope Alexander III. These were done in fourteen compartments. They were almost destroyed by fire in 1.3 7 7, but enough remains to make their loss a subject of regret. The other great Avork in which this artist was engaged was the decoration of the school of S. Giovanni Eyangelista, at Venice. Two of these pictures, one representing a miracle by means of a relic of the holy cross, the other a procession in which the same relic is borne, are in the Venetian Acad. Of his



S. LOKEXZO GIUSTLNIANI.

(Venice. S. Maria dell Orta. Gentile Bellini.)


BELLINI. 93

other works I shall only mention No. 90, in the Brera, at Milan, representing " S. Mark preaching at Alexandria ; " and a portrait of Mehemet, said to be in England. In the former of these he intro- duced the costumes he had seen in the East. The picture was not finished at his death, and in his will, he provided that his brother, Giovanni, should not receive the sketch-book of his father until he had finished the picture of S. Mark. This painting, in spite of the injuries it has received, has a brilliant effect, and is valuable as the last work of the elder, combined with the mature perfection of the younger brother. There are other pictures ascribed to Gentile which lack proof of having been painted by him. Such are No. 69, Louvre; No. 13, Correr Mus. ; and No. 12, Berlin Mus. He was also a mosaist, and left a " Virgin and Child " to the company of S. Marco. It is believed that he had a school, and that Titian became his pupil in 1486, when but nine years of age. His time was constantly occu- pied, and in 1506 he refused an order from the Marquis of Mantua, asserting that he was engaged for a loinx time in advance. He was married, but had no children, and worked until the day of his death, at which time he was more than eighty years old.

Bellini, Giovanni, the younger brother of Gentile, was born at Venice (1422-1512). The most excellent of this celebrated family. His works maybe divided into two periods : those which he executed before he learned to paint in oil, and those done afterwards. The first have sweetness and elegance, but are also dry and timid; the last are a rich foretaste of the Venetian coloring which was perfected later, while they lose nothing of the charms of the former. His chejs-d'eeuvre, which can still be seen in the Acad., and churches of Venice, were painted after he was sixty-five years old. We cannot appreciate this man unless we take into account the state of Venetian art in his day. It had been greatly influenced by Mantegna, the Paduan, but Gio. Bellini must stand as the founder of true Venetian painting. Even earlier than this its coloring had been softer, and more richly blended than that of other schools. The very atmos- phere resulting from its situation must have produced this, for it habituated the artist to Avonderful effects of color. Then the spirit of the life there, the pomp, the cheerfulness, the oft-recurring fetes, engendered a love of the rich and deep tones of color which so enhance beauty. Then, too, about the time when Giovanni could be said to be an artist, Van Evck was introducing oil colors into Flanders, and Antonello da Messina brought them to Italy. There is a storv that Giovanni Avent to the studio of Antonello in disguise, and thus learned the secret of the new color mixing, but this is not verified, and does not accord with his character. But, however he may have learned, it is true that he employed oils with great success and judgment. His compositions are not especially varied or poetical. His powers were not versatile, but there is a moral beauty in his


94


BELLINI.


figures, rather than a spiritual one, and he seems to stop just on the

line which separates the highest earthly type from the heavenly. Kugler says: " His Madonnas are amiable beings, imbued with a lofty grace ; his saints are powerful and noble forms ; his angels cheerful boys in the full bloom of youth." His representations of Christ are full of moral power, such as has rarely been equalled. His draperies are peculiar in the crystal-like clearness of their deep, rich colors. His authentic works do not belong to his youth. "We have seen how he labored with Gentile in the treat council-chamber, in which place he continued to paint, at times, dur- ing all his life. His earliest dated work is of 1487, and represents a " Madonna and Child " standing on a parapet. It is in the Acad, of Venice, and there is a similar one in the Berlin Mus. It is interesting to see previous works of this master, and study the changes through which his style has passed. In this way one can comprehend, in a measure, the struggles through which he reached his later style, and his grop- ing after the proper handling of the new oil mediums, which was an art in itself. To 1488 belongs a large altar-piece in the Sacristy of S. Maria de' Frari ; two angels in this are especially beautiful. The whole picture is a fine piece of color, and nicely finished. There is also a large altar-piece in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which is one of his earlier pictures ; and another, very similar, in the Acad. In the ch. of S. Zaccaria is a v< Madonna" with saints and an angel, dated 1505, and at S. Salvatore, " Christ at Emmaus," belonging to the same period. This last is especially fine. A similar picture, but not as good, is in the Manfrini Gall. Perhaps his latest work of this kind is in S. Gio. Crisostomo, dated 1515. In this he painted SS. Jerome, Augustine, and Christopher. The shades of moral contrasts are finely and powerfully drawn. It is a picture that compels one to study it. Other works of his are in the ch. del Redentore, the Man- frini Gall., and the Acad. Some of them are allegorical represen- tations, full of naivete and cheerfulness. One of his latest works was a " Bacchanalian," with a landscape by Titian. He often painted the single figure of the Redeemer. Liibke says of these representations: " By grand nobleness of expression, solemn bearing, and the excellent arrangement of the drapery, he reached a dignity which has been



CHRIST. BY GIO. BELLINI.


BELLINI — BELLOTTI. 95

rarely surpassed." The pictures of Giovanni are very numerous in Venice, and found in all large collections elsewhere Space will not allow description. The following are some of the more important ones : National Gall., Nos. 726 and 280 ; No. 27, Correr Gall. ; No.

4, Lochis Carrara Gall., Bergamo ; a " Pieta," No. 188, in the Brera ; " Pieta" in the Cath. of Toledo, Stuttgart Mus., No. 4-; Berlin Mus., Nos. 4, 6, and 36; Padua Gall., No. 48; Uffizi, No. 581; Castle Howard, No. 125 \ Leuchtenberg Gall., No. 68; Mus. of Rovigo, No. 80 ; Doria Gall., Rome, No. 5-; Belvedere, Room 2, Nos. 63 and 65; Naples Mus., No. 378; Stadel Gall., Frankfort, No. 17; Madrid Mus., No. 665; Brera, No. 209; Louvre, No. 69 bis; and many, many others. His very last work was a " Madonna " in S. Giustina, Padua, dated 1516, It is a singular truth that some of his latest pictures are much more like those of a youthful artist than were his earlier ones. For in 1514, almost at the close of his life, he painted a feast of the o-ods, which represents the gay and sensual with the happiness of the bright days of Titian. This picture is now at Alnwick Castle. In 1515 he painted the " Venus of the Belvedere," Room 2, No. 43 His last works were thus in marked contrast with his first. He is believed to have instructed Giorgione and Titian. It is said that Albert Diirer visited him in the last year of his life, and pro- nounced him the best artist of that time. His death occurred on the 29th of November, and he was buried in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, by the side of his brother Gentile.

Bellini, Filippo, born at Urbino, 1594. A good painter, and an imitator of Federigo Baroccio. One of his most important works is a series of fourteen representations of the Works of Charity, in the Chiesa della Carita at Fabriano. In the Basilica of Loretto there is a " Circumcision," and in the dome at Ancona a " Marriage of the Virgin," by this master.

' Bellini, G-iacinto, Cavaliere, born at Bologna, was living in 1660. Pupil of Francesco Albano. Later he studied with Francesco Caracci in Rome. There he attracted the attention of Card. Tonti, who employed him a long time, and procured him the knighthood of the Order of Loretto. His pictures possess much of the gracefulness of Albano.

Belliniano, Vittore, born at Venice. Flourished about 1526. A painter of history. Several of his works are in the Confraternity of

5. Mark's, and the neighboring churches of Venice.

Eellotti, Bernardo, born at Venice, 1724; died at Warsaw, 1780. A painter and engraver. Nephew and pupil of Antonio Canal, called Canaletto. Bellotti painted perspective and architectural views in a pleasing manner. He lived much in Germany, and etched, from his own designs, views of Vienna, Dresden, and Warsaw. He was a member of the Acad, of Dresden, and many of his pictures are in the Gall, of that city. They are called by the name of Canaletto,


96 BELLOTTI — BENASCHI.

which he assumed. He signed some of his works Bernardo Belotto detto Canaletto. The fine views of Dresden were ordered by Count Briilil. at 200 thalers each. The figures were the work of Stefano Torelli of Bologna.

Beltraffio, Gio. Antonio (14G7-151G). A Milanese gentleman, and a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. His characteristic is gentleness. In the Louvre is an altar-piece painted for a eh. in Bologna, It represents the " Madonna and Child " with John the Baptist and S. Sebastian; the donors are kneeling. It was painted in 1500. In the Berlin Mus. there is a li S. Barbara" by Beltraffio. " A figure of peculiarly grand, statue-like dignity." In the National Gall, there is a " Madonna and Child " ascribed to him ; his works are

scarce.

Bellucci, Antonio, born at Pieve di Sohgo (1654-1726). A painter who excelled in small figures. He painted these in many of the landscapes of Tempesta. In color he belonged to the Tenebrosi, but used shadow so judiciously as not to spoil his color He is said to have painted altar-pieces in Venice and Verona. There are pictures of his in the Dusseldorf Gall., and a " Nativity " in the ch. of the Ascension at Venice,

Beltrano, Agostino, and his wife. Amelia. Neapolitan painters who flourished about the middle of the 17th century. They were the pupils of Massimo, and Aniella was his niece. Beltrano was a good fresco painter, and more than ordinary in his coloring in oil. This is proved by numerous cabinet pictures, and a few large fres- coes. Aniella painted in the same style, and worked with her husband. She bad talent and beauty. The pictures which are called hers are praised, especially that of the " Birth and Death of the Virgin," in the Chiesa della Pieta de' Turchini. But it is not unlikely that she was assisted by Massimo. In 1649, when thirty-six years old, she was murdered by her husband, in a fit of jealousy. She survived her wounds long enough to pardon Beltrano. He fled to France, and wandered, an outcast, till 1659, when he returned to Naples and resumed his work. He lived, tormented by remorse, till 1665.

Bemmell, William van, born at Utrecht (1630-1703). Pupil of Herman Sachtleeven, and, like him, an excellent landscape painter. He went to Italy and made many studies of scenery about Rjme. He settled, at length, in Nuremberg. His pictures were much admired, and are mostly in German collections.

Bemmell, Peter Van, born at Nuremberg (1689-1723). Grand- son of the preceding, and a landscape painter. His pictures are scarcely known outside his native city

Benaschi or Beinaschi, Gio. Batista, Cavaliere (1636-1688). An imitator, and probably a pupil of Lanfranco. Most of his works i.A3 in Naples, where he painted ceilings and other frescoes.


BENASCHI — BENCOVICH.


1)7


Benaschi, Angela. Daughter of the preceding, and a good portrait painter.

Benazech (Benasech, Benezech, Benezeck, Benazec), Charles. English engraver and painter. Studied at Paris under Greuze. Went to Rome in 1782. Returned to Paris, and, at the time of the French Revolution, revisited London, where he died. He especially devoted himself to historical painting, and his best works are a series of four pictures of the last days of Louis XVI. He also left a few engravings.

Bencovich, Federigo, called also Federighetto di Dalmazia. Flourished about 1753. A native of Dalmatia, but educated in Bologna. He studied the style of Carlo Cignani. His works were good, and he painted pictures of merit in Milan, Venice, and



BEWKF, BY BENEDETTO PA MAJANO, PROM THE MAKBL.E iTWIT K? STA. CKOCE,

FLORENCE,

7


98 BENCOVICH — BENEFIAL.


Bologna. In the latter city, in the eh. of La Madonna del Piombo, is an altar-piece by tliis master, representing the " Crucifixion of S. Andrew." Many of his easel pictures are in Germany, where he resided for a time.

Benedetto, da Majano, born at Florence (1442-1498). An eminent architect and sculptor. He commenced life as a worker in wooden mosaic or intarsiatore. His brother, Giuliano, was also a celebrated artist, and a younger one, Giovanni, was of less impor- tance. Together thev executed the " Madonna dell Ulivo," in terra cotta, and a '• Pieta " in bas-relief. They stand at a wayside shrine, a mile outside the grate of Prato, towards Florence. We have onlv to compare the relief of the brothers with the "Madonna' of Benedetto, to perceive his excellence. His greatest work as an architect was the Palazzo Strozzi, which was commenced in 1489. After the death of Filippo Strozzi the work was suspended, and the building W as finished under the direction of Cronaca. In 1490 he made busts of Giotto and Squarcilupo in the Duomo at Florence. In the same year he went to Naples, where he remained two years, and was constantly occupied by the Duke of Calabria. He also executed the bas-reliefs of the " Annunciation " in the ch. of Monte Oliveto, and, in 1491, the monument to Filippo Strozzi was erected in Santa Maria Novella, which he had commissioned Benedetto to make before his death. It is the chef-cV ceuvre of Majano, and one of the finest works of the loth century. He also made the beautiful altar of S. Savino for the Cath. at Faenza ; a marble pulpit at Santa Croce, Florence ; and some works at S. Simignano. The pulpit at Santa Croce was very fine ; he supported it against a column, through which he carried the staircase ; the reliefs repre- sent scenes from the life of S. Francis. In the Uffizi there is a bust of Pietro Mellini, who commissioned Benedetto to execute the pulpit, and in the same Gall, a figure of S. John.

Benedetto. See Castiglione.

Benedicto, Roque, died at Valencia, 1735. His pictures arc sometimes taken for those of his master, Gaspar de la Huerta. His best work represents S. Francis de Paula feeding three thousand people with a little bread.

Benfatto, Luigi, born at Verona (1551-1611). Nephew and pupil of Paul Veronese. He was distinguished for his works in the public places in Venice. In the Chiesa di S. Marta are several of his pictures illustrating the life of the saint, and in the ch. of S. Nicholas a grand composition representing the Ascension of that saint.

Benefial, Cavaliere Marco, born at Rome (1G84-1764). In the Palazzo Spada, Rome, there is a saloon painted entirely by this artist ; in the Acad, of S. Luke a picture of " Christ and the Samar- itan Woman," and in the Stimulate a " Flagellation." His merits


BENEFIAL — BERCHEM. 99

have been much discussed, and his admirers give him unqualified approbation, while others call him feeble in all points. His monu- ment is in the Pantheon.

Benso, Giulio, born at Genoa (1601-1 G68). Pupil of Gio. Batista Paggi. Soprani calls him an architect also. He painted history and perspective. He was a protege of the house of Doria, and some of his works were in their Palace. Several of his oil pic- tures are in the churches of Genoa. That of " S. Domenico " is much admired, and the " Crowning of the Virgin,"' in the Nunziata, is a fine production.

Bent, John van der, born at Amsterdam (1650-1690). Land- scape painter. Scholar of Peter Wouvermans and Adrian van de Velde. While he is not equal to his masters, his works are deserv- ing of esteem. Many of them are in England. They bear a strong resemblance to those of Nicholas Berchem.

Benvenuto, Gio. Batista, called L'Ortolano, or market gardener, from the occupation of his father, born at Ferrara (about 1490- 1525). A contemporary of Garofalo. the prince of Ferrarese paint- ers. L'Ortolano studied in Bologna under II Bagnacavallo. His style was severe, and his pictures curiously finished. His heads are weak, but his landscapes and backgrounds good, and his figures well brought out. His works are in S. Xiccolo, S. Maria de Servi, and S. Lorenzo at Ferrara.

Berchem, Nicholas, born at Haei-lem 1624-1683). Son of Pieter Klaasze. The reason for his being called Berchem, or ) f \-/*s\s,i. j. J> er gh em) is not known, but he usually signed his works with that name. He studied with his father, Van Goyen, J. B. Weenix, and Jan Wils, and married the daughter of the latter. It is evident from his works that he went to Italy, although no ac- count of his having done so is given. He painted genre, battles, land- scapes, cattle, and portraits. His best works are his small landscapes with figures and cattle. He painted with great facility, and his wife was so avaricious that she constantlv excited him to work. She also saw to it that his money was saved, as he liked to spend it for Italian drawings. Berchem is the most celebrated of the group of painters to which he belongs. Smith describes 417 of his works, and he left besides more than 50 etchings, some of which show a better feeling: for nature than is found in his oil pictures. By their dates it is seen that he handled the point when but ten years of age. The galleries of Munich, Dresden, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburgh, and the Louvre contain the largest number of his works. Some are also in England, in the National Gall, and at Dulwich ; and Lord Ashbur- ton has one of his best productions, called " Le Fagot. '" from a bundle of wood carried by a man in the foreground. He seldom made large pictures, but in 1648 he painted an Italian landscape, now



502766 A


100


BERCHEM.


at the Hague, in which the figures are life-size. It was sold in 1827 for £500, but it is cold and unsatisfactory, though well drawn and



•J.

c


< C




lighted. In addition to his other work he often painted figures and animals in the landscapes of other artists, such as Ruysdael, Hobbema, Jan Wils, Abraham Verboom, and Isaac Moucheron.


BERCHEM — BERCHET. 101

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF BERCHEM.

Engraver, Aliamkt, Jacques. Landscape, with Figures and Cattle. The Port of Genoa. Landscape with a Stag Hunt. The Female Villagers. Village Pleasures.

Engraver, Amstel, Cornelius Ploos Van. A Landscape with a Woman riding on an Ass, with Cattle by the side of a Canal ; N. Berghem. fecit, 1764; P. Van Amstel, fecit, 1769.

Engraver, Aveline, Peter. A Landscape; fine.

Engraver, Avril, Jean Jacques. The Passage of the Rhine.

Engraver, Bas, James Philippe le. Four Plates of the Times of the Day. The Embarkation.

Engraver, Canot, Peter Charles. Returning from Market.

Engraver, Charpentier, Pierre Francois. The Shepherdess. The Shepherd reposing.

Engraver, Coulet, Amne Philibert. The " Rendezvous a la Colonne."

Engraver, Danckekt or Danckers, Dancker. Four plates of Landscapes and Figures, in one of which a man is passing a Bridge. The best prints of Danckert.

Engraver, Daudet, John Baptist. Two Landscapes, with Figures and Cattle.

Engraver, Dequevauviller, Francois. Noon; a Landscape with Figures. Evening; the etching by Weisbrod.

Engraver, Groensvelt, John. A Set of Six Landscapes. A Set of Four Landscapes; Berghem, del. Groensvelt, fee. Cle. de Jonghe, exc: fine.

Engraver, Kobell, William. Two Landscapes, with Figures and Cattle.

Engraver, Laurent, Peter. The Passage of the Ferry Boat. The Shepherdess. The Fortune Teller.

Engraver, Major, Thomas. The Travellers. Two Landscapes; morning and evening

Engraver, Martknasie, Peter. The Watering Place.

Engraver, Non, Richard Abbe de St. A Landscape with a Figure.

Engraver, Pelletier, Jean. The Watering Place. Ruins and Figures.

Engraver, Schlicht, Abel. A Landscape, with Figures and Animals.

Engraver, Veau, Jean Le. The Village Blacksmith.

Engraver, Visscher, Cornelius. Two Sets of Landscapes; four plates each. Several Peasants dancing in a Cottage, called Bero-- hem's Ball. His finest plate. A Set of four Landscapes, the four times of the Day. Several sets of Landscapes, with Figures and Animals.

Eerchet, Peter, French school (1659-1720). Pupil of Charles


102 BERCHET — BERGMULLER.


de la Fosse. Went to England in 1681. His best work is the ceiling of the chapel at Trinity College, Oxford, representing the " Ascension."

Berg, Mathias Van den, horn at Ypres (1615-1647). It is said that his father had the care, of the estates of Rubens, and that master took the son into his Academy. He is known only by his excellent copies of the works of his master.

Bergen, Dirk Van, born at Haerlem (1645-1689). Pupil of Adrian Van de Velde, and one of his most successful imitators. His earliest works are the best, and are warm and sunny in color; in his later ones the cattle become crude in tone, and hard in execution. Nos. 15 and 16, Louvre, are among his best pictures, as are also Nos. 28 and 29, Amsterdam Mus. He established himself in Lon- don in 1673.

Berger, Daniel, born at Berlin, 1744. Pupil of his father. He became a good engraver, made a number of portraits of the royal family and many plates after different artists, principally those of his own country. In 1787 he was appointed Rector and Professor of Engraving at the Acad, of Berlin.

Bergeret, Pierre-Nolasque, born at Bordeaux (1780-1828?). A pupil of* David, and a distinguished painter of history and land- scapes. He was happy in the choice of interesting subjects. Many of his works were placed in the Gall, of the Luxembourg, and other royal collections. He also painted four portraits for the Hall of the Chancellors. He designed bas-reliefs, among which may be men- tioned those on the column of the Place Yendome. Many of his pictures have been engraved and some of them used as illustrations of splendid editions of "La Fontaine," " Boileau," etc., etc.

Bergler, Joseph, born at Salzberg, 1753; died at Prague, 1829. When twenty years old he had made himself so good a name that Prince Firmian of Passau sent him to Italy, with a pension. He went first to Milan, where he was the pupil of Martin Enoller. He remained five years in Milan, copying works of the masters, and executing frescoes with his teacher. From Milan he went to Rome, and in 1 784 gained the prize of the Acad, in Parma. From this time he received as many commissions as he could execute. He remained in Rome until 1786, when he returned to Passau. In 1800 he went to Prague to assume the place of director of the Acad.; the number of his oil pictures is very large. They are almost without exception representations of religious subjects, and may be seen in the churches of his own country.

Bergmuller, John George, born at Dirkheim in Bavaria (1688- 1762). Pupil of Andrew Wolff. Painter of history and portraits, but best known bv his eno-ravin^s, which were from his own designs.

■'DO* ^~

Some of his pictures are in the churches of Augsburg, where he resided.


BERINGEROTH — BERNA. 103

Beringeroth, Martin, born at Ramelsbourg, 1670; died in Leipsic, 1733. An engraver who executed a great number of portraits.

Beringeroth, John Martin, born at Leipsic (1713-1767). Son of the preceding, and an engraver of portraits.

Berkheiden, Job, born at Haerlem (1628-1 60S). He is not known to have had any teacher, but when young, made sketches which were so much praised that he determined to become an artist. His pictures are landscapes with small figures, and sometimes represent village fetes, etc.. with some success. He travelled with his younger brother Gent, and. when he returned to Holland, was well patronized. He was employed by the Elector Palatine, when in Germany, and re- ceived from him a gold medal and chain. Entire pictures by him are rare. He painted some portraits. Xo. 845, Berlin Mus., a landscape, has his signature. He was drowned in a canal at Amsterdam.

Berkheiden, Gerit, born at Haerlem (1645-1693). His pictures chiefly represent the exteriors of buildings in his own country, and Italy. They are good, but not equal to those of Van der Heyden. His works are rare in public galleries. There is a fine series in the Hope Coll.; Amsterdam Mus., No. 26 is one of his best. The same is true of Dresden Gall., Xo. 1470. Louvre Xo. 28, is a view of Tra- jan's Column. Mr. Baring has an excellent view of a Dutch town, with numerous figures.

Berkmans, Henry, born at Clunder, 1629: died at Middlebourg, 1690. His last instructor was J. Jordaens. At first he painted his- tory, but his portraits were so good, and in such demand, that he could not fulfil his commissions. He painted many of the most distin- guished men of his time. His best work is a large picture of the Company of Archers, in the Town Hall of Middlebourg.

Berlinghieri, Marco, Barone, and Bonaventura. These are three artists of this name mentioned as signing a treaty of peace with Pisa, in 1228. The works of Bonaventura alone remain. They con- sist of a series illustrative of the Life of S. Francis, in the ch. of that saint at Pescia; and Xo. 28, a " Crucifixion," in the Acad, of Fine Arts at Florence. These pictures are characterized by childish simplicity. The angels are merely motionless half-figares, with embroidered dresses, and the resoluteness with which the different occurrences in the life of the saint are crudelv indicated, is ludicrous iii the extreme. The sparrows to which he talks are huge birds, perched on trees rising from a conical hill; and those persons whom he freed from evil spirits have little devils flying out of their mouths.

Berlinghieri, Camillo, called II Ferraresino, born at Ferrara (about 1596-1635). Pupil of Carlo Bononi. Painter of history. His works are chiefly at Ferrara and Venice. A picture of the " Miracle of the Manna," in the ch. of S. Xiccolo at Ferrara, is a fine work, also that of the " Annunciation " in S. Antonio Abate.

Berna or Barna. True name thought to have been Barna Bertini.


104 BERNA — BERNINI.

Sienese painter (died 1381 ?). In the capitular eh. of S. Gimignano, in the Valdelsa, there still may be seen some remains of the frescoes of this old artist. They represent stories from the New Testament, and have been injured by retouching. As far as can be judged, Barna combined the peculiarities of Simone and Ugolirio — minute drawing, abundant ornament, muscular limbs, stiffened action, close-fitting draperies, and a general flatness in effect. Vasari claimed praise for Barna on account 5 of his having been the first to depict animals well. In the Berlin Mus. are three pictures, Nos. 1067, 1072, and 114 2, which may be the works of Barna; the latter especially has his char- acteristics, and in the Chapel del Rosario at S. Dominico in Siena, there is a " Virgin and Child " attributed to him. He was killed by a fall from his scaffold.

Bernabei, Pier Antonio, called della Casa, born at Parma. Flourished 1 550. An imitator of Correggio. The Cupola of La Ma- donna del Quartiere proves him to have been a good fresco painter. Lanzi says, equal to any of that time in Lombardy, and perhaps in Italy. There are also considerable works of his at the Carmelites, and in other places in Parma.

Bernaerts, Nicaise, born at Antwerp (1608-1678). Pupil of Francis Snyders. His pictures so nearly resemble those of his master that they have been sold as genuine Snyders.

Bernard, Jan (1765-1833). A copyist of Paul Potter and Ber<diem. A member of the Institute, and of the Acad, of Fine Arts at Amsterdam.

Bernard of Brussels. See Van Orley.

Bernard, Solomon, or Little Bernard. An engraver, born at Lyons, 1512. His best prints are those for a Bible published at Lyons from 1550 to 1580.

Bernard, Samuel, born at Paris, 1615. A miniature painter and engraver. Pupil of Simon Vouet. He attempted frescoes, but failed. He succeeded better in miniatures, but at last became an engraver.

Bernini, Gio. Lorenzo, born at Naples, 1598; died at Rome, 1680. As early as his tenth year he had become known as a prodigy in art. At this time his father took him to Rome. Pope Paul V. became interested in him, and also Card. Barberini, who assisted him in his studies. Good fortune ever attended his steps, and, although he lived during nine pontificates, the favor of the reigning Pope was always his. His fame extended to other countries, and he was invited to France, to which country he went when sixty-eight years old, accompanied by one of his sons and a numerous retinue. He was loaded with favors, and received large sums of money and valuable presents. He held several benefices at Rome, and his son was Canon of Santa Maria Maggiore. He was buried with great magnificence in the last named ch., and left the immense fortune of


BERNINI.


105


400,000 Roman crowns. He had versatility of talent, remarkable imagination and perceptive power, and marvellous facility of execu- tion. It has been said that marble was like clay, or wax, beneath his hand. He believed and constantly said that one must be above rules in order to excel. There is a fascination in the sound of this maxim, but Bernini's own works prove that its practical application is hurtful, and his extraordinary executive ability often failed to atone for the bad taste in which he treated his subjects. In short, his desire for picturesque and unusual effect made him an injury rather than a benefit to the art he practised. Westmacott says it would have been better for sculpture had Bernini never lived.

His " Apollo and Daphne " was executed when he was but eighteen years old ; yet he himself declared, near the close of his life, that he had made little progress since it was produced. Some of his most important works were exe- cuted in the time of Urban VIII., among which are the great altar of S. Peter's, in bronze and gilt, beneath the centre of the dome ; the pulpit and canopy of S. Peter's ; colossal statues of the Four Doctors of the

Church supporting the chair of S. Peter; the Campanile; the circular piazza before

the Basilica, and the Pal.

Barberini. The beautiful

colonnade of S. Peter's was

executed according to his

plans, and under his direc- tion. He also built the

Chapel of S. Teresa, in the

eh. of Santa Maria della

Yittoria; the ch. and high

altar of S. Bibiano; a large

part of the ch. of S. Anas-

tasia; the celebrated Chigi

Pal. ; the Collegio Urbano

di Propaganda Fide, besides

portions of other churches

and palaces. For Charles

I. of England he executed a statue. For this purpose the king sent

him three portraits by Vandyck, and the likeness was so satisfactory

that, in addition to the 6,000 crowns paid for the statue, Charles sent

him a rino- worth as much more. The colossal equestrian statue of



APOLLO AND DArHXE. BY BERXIXI.

In the Villa Borghese, Rome.


106 BERSIXI — BERTHELEMY.

Louis XIV., executed by Bernini, was afterwards converted into Marcus Curtius, and was sent to Versailles. Bernini also executed the monuments of Urban VIII. and Alexander VII. in S. Peter's, and the decorations of the Bridge of S. Angelo. Among his charac- teristic and exaggerated works are the fountain in the Piazza Navona ; the " Ecstasy of S. Teresa," and the " Apollo and Daphne " before mentioned.

Berre, Jean Baptiste, born at Antwerp, 1777: died in Paris, about 1830. A painter of subjects in the manner of Weenix. His pictures were highly finished, are much sought for by amateurs, and bring laro-e prices. He lived mostly in Paris. His works are in several rich collections.

Berreguette, Alonso, born at Parades de Xava, in Castile, about 1480. The most eminent Spanish artist of his time. He is called the Michael Angelo of Spain, for he was painter, sculptor, and architect. He studied with his father Pedro, and was painter to Philip I. He was in Florence in 1503, and went with Michael Angelo to Rome in 1505. He devoted many years to study in Italy, returning to Spain in 1520. He was appointed painter and sculptor to Charles V. He received 4400 ducats for the high altar of the ch. of S. Benito el Ileal, in Valladolid, where he settled. "When almost ei'ditv years old he went to Toledo, to construct a monument to Card. Tavera in the Hospital of S. John Baptist. He was lodged in the hospital, and there died in 15G1. He left a large fortune, and was buried with magnificent ceremonies at the expense of the emperor.

Berrestyn, C. V., flourished about 1650. A German engraver. There is one plate of a woody landscape, signed with his name and the above date, which is very scarce.

Berretoni, Pietro. See Cortona.

Berretoni, Niccolo, born at Montefeltro, 1627. He was the best scholar of Carlo Maratti. In the ch. of Montesanto, at Rome, there is an altar-piece representing a scene in the life of S. Francis, which is his best work. He became a member of the Acad, at Rome in 1675, and died in 1682.

Bertaud, Marie Rosalie, born at Paris, about 1700. An en- o-raver, whose best works are after the pictures of Vernet. She was instructed by S. Aubin and Choffard.

Bertelli, Cristofano, born at Rimini, 1525. We have a few plates by him, stiffly executed with the graver.

Bertelli, Ferrando, born at Venice, 1525. He engraved mostly after the Venetian painters.

Bertelli, Lucas. A relative of the preceding, who engraved after the Italian masters. Some of his prints are very scarce.

Berthelemy, Jean Simon, born at Laon, 1743; died in Paris, 1811. Pupil of X. Halle. His subjects were historical and poetical.


BERTHELEMY — BETTELINI. 107

He painted ceilings in the Pal. of Fontainebleau, the Luxembourg, and at the Museum. He was a member of the Acad, and Director of the School of Design.

Eertin, Nicholas, born at Paris (1667-1736). Son of a sculptor, who died while he was a bov. He studied with John Jouvenet, and later with the elder Boulogne. So much talent had he, that he gained the first prize at the Acad, when eighteen years old, and was sent to Rome with a pension from the king. He remained three years. Returning to Paris, he so distinguished himself, that he was made a Royal Academician in 1 703. He was employed by Louis XIV. at the Trianon. He painted in Normandy, and in the Abbey of S. Germain des Pres is a representation of the " Baptism of the Eunuch of Queen Candace," which is fine.

Bertucci, Jacopo, called Jacopone da Faenza, flourished about 1530. Was best known as a copyist of Raphael, and also executed some good pictures at Faenza.

Bertucci or Eertusio, Gio. Batista, born at Faenza, died 1G44. Studied under Denys Calvart, and afterwards in the school of the Caracci. He painted history and imitated Guido. His drawing was good, but his color chalky and cold. Many of his works are in the churches of Bologna.

Bervic, Charles Clement, born at Paris (1756-1822). A pupil of J. G. Wille. A fine engraver. A plate of the " Laocobn," made by him for the Musee Francais, Bryan calls the best representation of that group ever engraved. It has been sold as high as £30.

Beschey, Balthasar, born at Antwerp (1708-1776). A weak painter of history and portraits. Antwerp Mus. Nos. 496 and 497 are his, and seem to imitate Gaspard de Craeyer. They represent scenes in the life of Joseph. His own portrait is No. 498 Antwerp Gall.

Beschey, J. F., born at Antwerp (1739-1799). A copyist of Dutch and Flemish painters.

Besenzi, Paolo Emilio, born at Reggio (1624-1666). An imitator of Albano. His best pictures are in the ch. of S. Pietro, at Reggio, and are worthy of commendation.

Bestard. A Spanish artist who lived at Palma at the end of the 17th century. He ornamented several public buildings there, and painted a picture for the convent of Monte Sion, which was 24 palms wide, and 15 palms high. It represents " Christ in the Desert attended bv Angels, " and is the wonder of Palma. He had good knowledge of drawing, color, and chiaro-scuro.

Bettelini, Pietro, born at Lugano, 1763. A very eminent en- graver. Thorwaldsen so esteemed him that he employed him to engrave his finest works. His plate of the " Entombment," after Andrea del Sarto, is called his chef-d'oeuvre, and is a magnificent work of art.


1 08 BETTI — BIGAKI.

Betti, Padre Biagio, born at Pistoja (1545-1615). Pupil of Daniele da Volterra. After the death of his master Betti became a monk of the Theatine order. His works are principally in the monastery of Ins order at Rome.

Betto, Bernardino di. See Pinturieehio.

Bewick, Thomas, born at Cherry Burn, 1753; died at Gateshead, 1828. This artist is distinguished as the reviver of wood-engraving. He was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby at Newcastle, an excellent and painstaking master, who pointed out to him in what he could excel. His first considerable work was the illustration of Dr. Hutton's book on mensuration. He at length became a partner of Beilby and, in 1790, published his " History of Quadrupeds.** From this time his lame was established. He afterwards made the illustrations for many fine books, among which were "British Birds," "British Water Birds," Goldsmith's " Deserted Village " and " Traveller," etc. He had many distinguished pupils, such as Harvey, Nesbitt, Hole, Ransom, and Clennell.

Bianchi, Cavaliere Isidoro, born at Milan. Flourished about 1626. Pupil of Morazzone, and one of his best followers. His fres- coes were his best works, and may be seen in the churches of Como, and in S. Ambrogio, at Milan.

Bianchi, Pietro, born at Rome, 1G94. Pupil of Benedetto Luti. One of his best works is a picture of the " Conception" in the ch. of S. Maria degli Angeli.

Biancucci, Paolo, born at Lucca (1583-1653), Pupil of Guide His works resemble those of Sassoferrato. A representation of "Purgatory" in the ch. of the Suffragio, and an altar-piece in S. Francisco are among his best works.

Bicci. There were three artists of this name, and there has been much confusion regarding their individuality. It now seems to be established that Lorenzo di Bicci married Madonna Lucia d'Angelo da Panzano. Their son Bicci was born in 1373, married in 1418, and was father of Neri di Bicci. Thus we have Lorenzo di Bicci, Bicci di Lorenzo his son, and Neri di Bicci his grandson. No pictures now remaining are positively known to be those of Lorenzo. Of the works of Bicci, a few remain. No. 14, first corridor, Uffizi Gall., representing " SS. Cosmo and Damian," was formerly in the ch. of S. Maria del Fiore, executed about 1429. Some other works still remain in S. Maria del Fiore, and a terra cotta above the portal of S. Maria Nuova; the drawing of these was better than the color. Neri di Bicci was little more, than a house-painter, but he filled half Tuscany with pictures. Many of these still remain in churches, and there are four " Annunciations" by him in the Acad, of Arts in Florence. These artists were among the last of the weak imita- tors of Giotto.

Bigari, Vittorio, born at Bologna. His works may be seen in


BIGARI — BISCAINO. 109

almost every ehurch in Bologna, and are well spoken of. In the eh. of the Madonna del Soccorso, there is a " Madonna and Child," with S. Petronio and other saints, which is much admired.

Biliverti, Gio., born at Florence (1576-1644). Pupil of Cigoli. He united, in a degree, certain elements of his master, of S. di Tito, and of P. Veronese. A picture of the "Chastity of Joseph" by him is in the Florence Gall. It is much admired, and has been so often copied, that amateurs should be on their guard concerning it. Several of his works are in S. Gaetano and S. Marco.

Biltius, Francis. An artist of the Netherlands, who flourished about 1650. He painted dead game, hunting-horns, pouches, nets, etc., in such a manner that they were often mistaken for the real articles. He use-d white backgrounds.

IT* w Binck, James, born at Cologne, about 1504. A dis-

^ J ^ tinguished old engraver whose plates are highly prized. He is believed to have studied first with Albert Diirer, and some of his plates resemble those of that master. He went to Rome, and, it is said, studied with Marc Antonio, and engraved after the works of Raphael under his guidance. From the size of his plates he is called a little master. His drawing is correct, his style neat, and he had facility of execution. He usually marked his plates I. B., or with those letters with C. between, forming a cipher.

Birch, Thomas. An Englishman who settled in Philadelphia, where he died in 1851. He painted marine views. His pictures of the engagements between the U. S. Frigate Constitution and the British Frigate Guerriere, and between the United States and the Macedonian, have much historical value, and are in the Gall, of Joseph Harrison in Philadelphia.

Bird, Edward, born at Wolverhampton, 1762; died at Bristol, 1819. Son of a carpenter, he was apprenticed to a tin and japan- ware maker. "When he became his own master he removed to Bristol, where he was first a drawing teacher and at length an artist. He succeeded in gaining a reputation rapidly, and his pictures had a ready sale. In 1814 he was appointed painter to the Princess Charlotte, and the next year was made a member of the Royal Acad. His genre pictures were the best, and he made a mistake in attempt- ing historical representations. Although not equal to TVilkie, he painted in his style. His best works are, the " Results of the Battle of Chevy Chace," and the " Surrender of Calais." He was much respected, and was buried with honors in the Bristol Cath.

Biscaino, Bartolommeo, born at Genoa (1632-1657). Studied first with his father, Gio. Andrea Biscaino, and later with Yalerio Castelli. His earlv works showed o-reat irenius, and his future was full of promise. Although but twenty-five, he had painted several important pictures when the plague devastated Genoa, to which both Bartolommeo and his father were victims. There are three


1 1 BISCAINO — BLACHERXITA.

pictures by this artist in the Dresden Gall. He also etched some plates in a free, bold manner, with good drawing and high finish.

Biset, Charles Emanuel, born at Antwerp, 1G33. This artist went to Paris, where his pictures, which were conversations, or representations of gallant assemblies, were much in vogue. He met with o-ood success, but his love of Antwerp caused him to return there, and he was made director of the Acad, in 1674. In the hall of the Society of Archers there is a picture of " Tell compelled to shoot the Apple from his Son's Head,"' which is the work of this artist.

Bisi, Michael. A celebrated engraver of Milan. He gained his first reputation by the " Pinacoteca del Palazzo Reale, della Scienze delle Arti," etc., which he published. He commenced a set of engravings after the works of Andrea Appiani in 1819, in which he was assisted by the best pupils of Longhi. Later he made plates after various masters, all of which were good. He also painted land- scapes with some success.

Bissolo, Pier Francesco. A Venetian artist, who painted from 1500 to 1528. He was brought up in the school of the Bellini. His heads arc beautiful and full of expression. His characteristics are gentleness, and delicacy of execution. In the Berlin Mus. there is a fine work of his, representing the "Resurrection of Christ;" in the Manfrini Gall., an Annunciation," and in the Venetian Acad. " S. Catherine of Siena, exchanging the crown of thorns for a crown of gold: " signed Franciscus Bissolo.

Bissuccio, Leonardo di. But one work of this artist is known to remain. It is the decoration of the monumental chapel to Sergiani Carracciolo, in the ch. of S. Giovanni a Carbonara, at Naples. It was built in 1433. The style of the pictures is Giottesque, but the heads are more like those of Fiesole. Carracciolo was the lover and seneschal of the younger Queen Johanna, and one of these pictures represents him naked, as he was found after his murder. There are also scenes from the " Life of the Virgin," and pictures of several members of the Carracciolo family. There is an inscription which clearly tells the name and origin of the painter.

Blaceo, Bernardino. An artist of Udine, in the Frioul, who flourished about 1550. His works are in several churches in Udine.

Blachernita, Michael and Simeon. These artists were painters of miniature, or the illuminations of MSS. Their names are upon the miniatures in the celebrated Menologduin or Calendar of the Emperor Basilius II. It was executed about 1000 A. D., and is now in the Vatican, Xo. 1613, Vaticana. It is supposed that Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, procured it from Constantinople. There remain at present but five months, but these contain 430 miniatures on gold grounds, representing scenes in the " Life of Christ," and in the lives of those saints whose days occur in these months. This


BLACHERXITA — BLAXSERI. ] 1 1

MS. was presented to Paul V. who placed it in the Vatican in 1G15.

Blackmore, John. An English mezzotinto engraver, who has left some well-scraped plates of portraits. Flourished 17 70.

Blake, William, born in London (1757-1828). Poet and painter, a man of wonderful, rather than practical genius. He was appren- ticed to an engraver. He lived in a sort of dream-land, and took what he called portraits of Moses, Homer, Milton, etc. He said of himself, that his business was " not to gather gold, but to make glorious shapes, expressing godlike sentiments." He painted but little. He married Catherine Boutcher, wiig was a devoted wife. He also possessed the strong friendship of the sculptor Flaxman. He loved the antique, and the works of Raphael and Michael Angelo. His illustrations of the Book of Job, Young's " Xio-ht Thoughts," Blair's " Grave," etc., are astonishing conceptions, but his published works are too well known to need description or criticism.

Blanchard, Jacques, born at Paris (1600-1638). When twenty- four he went to Italy, and lived two years in Rome and two in Venice. He perfected himself in the coloring of the Venetian masters, for which he was much admired after his return to Paris. He has been called the French Titian. His pictures are agreeable, and his flesh tints are very good. In the eh. of Notre Dame are two pictures by this master, representing the "Descent of the Holy Ghost," and " S. Andrew kneeling before the Cross." Several of his works are in the Louvre. He also etched plates from his own designs and those of other masters.

Blanchet, Thomas, born at Paris, 1617; died at Lyons, 1689. At first he studied sculpture under Sarrazin, but abandoned it on ac- count of his delicate health. He went to Rome and studied under Andrea Sacchi. He was a friend of Algardi and Nicholas Poussin, both of whom advised and encouraged him. Returning to Paris, he painted the " Vision of S. Philip," and the "Baptism of the Eu- nuch," for the Cath. of Notre Dame, and was then employed to execute various works for the Hotel de Ville at Lyons. These last earned him a reputation as an historical painter. When admitted to the Acad, at Paris, he painted for his picture of reception, " Cadmus killing the Dragon."

Blankhof, John Teunisz, born at Alkmaer (1628-1670). Pupil of Caesar van Everdingen. He spent some time in Italy. He ex- celled in marine views, and some of his best pictures represent storms on the Mediterranean coast, in which he imitated the scenery of Italy with Dutch truthfulness.

Blanseri, Vittorio, born in Venice (1735-1775). Educated in the school of Cavaliere Beaumont, he was his best scholar, and his successor in the office of painter at the court of Turin. His principal works are in that city, one of which, representing " S. Luigi faint- ing," is in the eh. of S. Pelagio, and is much admired.




1 1 2 BLECK — BLOEMEN.

Bleck or Bleeck, Peter Van. A Flemish engraver, who went to England about 1730. He engraved in mezzotinto, and his plates have considerable merit.

Bles, Henri de, born at Bouvignes, 1480 ; died probably 1550 at Liege. A painter of landscapes who belonged to one of the last branches of the Van Eyck school. He adopted an owl for his monogram, and was called Cicetta in Italy. His manner was stiff and dry, resembling that of Jacob Patinier in color. He often introduced a Scripture subject in a Landscape. No. 624, Berlin Mus., is one of his earlier works, and is a male portrait with a landscape background. No. 91, Munich Gall. Cabinets, represents the "Adoration of the Kings." In the Coll. of the Prince Consort at Kensington there is a u Crucifixion" by this master. His works are rarely for sale, and are much esteemed.

Bloemaert, Abraham, born at Gorcum about 1564; died at fyiA/g/fh J.B\ Utrecht, 1647. Painter and en- graver, a contemporary of Ru- bens, and the son of Cornelius Bloemaert, an eminent architect. He painted history. Landscape, and animals. His drawing was very bad. "The Wise Men's Offering," in the Jesuit ch. at Brussels; a " Nativity " at Leliendael; also Nos. 745 and 722, Berlin Gall.; No. 1!):;, Munich Gall.; the " Feast of the Gods," in the Hague Gall., and a *« Madonna" in the Mechlin Cath. are by Bloemaert. He de- serves the most attention as an engraver, for his etchings are good, his plates in chiaro-scuro are spirited and effective, and the outlines are not cut on blocks of wood, as is customary, but etched on copper.

Bloemaert, Cornelius, son of the preceding. Born at Utrecht, 160,'}; died at Rome, 1680. A very distinguished engraver. He studied first under his father, then with Crispin de Passe. In 1630 he went to Paris, where he distinguished himself . He went to Rome where he passed the remainder of his life. His engravings were fine, but he effected a change in his art, which added to his fame more than his works. Before his time there was an inattention to har- mony, and the lights were left indiscriminately clear, which had an incongruous and spotted effect. Bloemaert effected a gradual or insensible gradation from light to shade, and made a variety of tints in the distances. Thus he may be called the originator of the style followed by Poilly, Audran, Picart, and the great French engravers. His works are much prized, and several of them have become scarce. He marked 'his plates C. Bl. or Corn. Blq. or C. Blo.

Bloemen, John Francis Van, called Orizonti, born at Antwerp. 1656; died at Rome, 1740, He painted like an Italian, for he went


BLOEMEN — BLONDE EL. 1 13

to Italy when very young, and there passed his life. His works are in the Colonna, Doria, and Rospigliosi palaces in Rome, and also in the pontifical Pal. at Monte Cavallo. He painted landscapes and received his sobriquet from the Soc. of Flemings at Rome, on account of the delicate beauty with which he painted his distances. His pictures are very unequal. He made choice of good subjects, and some of his best are almost equal to those of Gaspar Poussin, and although inferior to the latter he merits a rank among the best land- scape painters. His works are well known in England, and there are six in the Louvre, Xos. 33 to 38, also three landscapes in the Vienna Gall.

Bloemeu, Peter Van, called Standard, born at Antwerp (1649- 1719). Brother of the preceding. He went also to Rome, but re- turned to Flanders, with numerous studies made in Italy. He painted attacks of cavalrv, from which he received the name of Standard; also battles, fairs, caravans, etc. His figures and animals were drawn with great freedom and spirit, and his landscapes were adorned with ruins of statues, and architectural ruins. In 1699 he was appointed director of the Acad, of Antwerp. In the Dresden Gall, there are six pictures by this artist. No. 993, " The Vagrant Family," is the best; next to it is one of Fishermen and an old gray Horse, and Travellers with Horses before an Inn.

Blond or Blon, James Christopher Le, born at Frankfort, 1670; died at Paris, 1741. He went early to Italy, where he studied under Carlo Maratti. He next went to Amsterdam with B. van Overbeck. There he painted miniature portraits which were much esteemed. He went at length to England, and attempted the printing of mezzotinto plates in colors, so as to represent perfectly the pictures from which they were made. He disposed of the prints which he made by a kind of lottery, and published a book upon the Harmony of Coloring in Painting. He also conceived the idea of making tapestries from the cartoons of Raphael. Houses were purchased, drawings made, and much money expended, but the scheme failed, and Le Blon went to Paris, and, it is said, died in a hospital. His prints, aside from their novelty, have some merit.

Blondeel, Lancelot. Flourished at Bruges about 1520 to 1574. His pictures have rich architectural backgrounds, often in Renais- sance stvle; executed on a gold ground. The effect is brilliant. His figures are in the Italian style. His flesh tones are cold, and his whole execution mannered. In the ch. of S. Jacques, Bruges, is a picture representing SS. Cosmo and Damian, dated 1523; his earliest known work ; in the Cath. a " Madonna " with Saints, dated 1545 ; and the Berlin Mus. has two of his works, Nos. 641 and 656. The mantelpiece in the council-hall of Bruges was designed by Blondeel, and is adorned with statues of Charles V. and other princes. He was originally a mason, hence his monogram of a trowel.

8


114 BLOOT— BOCCACCINO.

Bloot, Peter. A painter of Holland. Flourished about 1650, died 166 7. He represented scenes from low life; drunken frolics, quarrels, etc. His characters are uncomely, grotesque, and even disonstino". Unlike some other artists, such as Ostade and Teniers, he has not attempted to reconcile us to vulgarity by ingenious arrangement or beautiful colors. His works are very rare and highly prized in Holland.

Blooteling or Bloteling, Abraham, born at Amsterdam,

/\ <w 1634. His style indicates that he studied under the

  • ~^ Yisschers. He became a very eminent designer and en-

graver, and produced a large number of etchings; some plates in mezzotinto, and some executed with the graver. He went to Eng- land in 1672, and remained two years. He etched plates of the Coll. of gems of Leonardo Augostini, and published them in 1685.

Blot, Maurice, born at Paris (1754-1818). Pupil of Aug. S. Aubin. Pie engraved in a neat style, and has left some plates of portraits and fancy subjects.

Bobadilla, Geronimo, born at Antequerra ; died, 1680. Pupil of Zurbaran at Seville. He thoroughly understood perspective, and arranged the figures in his pictures well, but his designs were not good. His color was better. Murillo compared the varnish he used to crystal. He was one of the founders of the Acad, at Seville. He

made a large Coll. of drawings, models, sketches after celebrated artists, etc.

Bocanegra, Don Pedro Atanasio, born at Granada (1638-1688). A pupil of Alonso Cano, he also studied color from the works of Pedro de Moya and Yandyek. lie was a boaster, vain and arro- gant, disliked by all who knew him, and when he was challenged to prove his skill he stole away from Madrid to avoid the test. But his works were much esteemed, and no Coll. was thought complete without them. At the college of the Jesuits, Granada, is the " Con- version of S. Paul," one of his finest works j and in the Cloister of Nuestra Sefiora de Gracia a " Conception."

Boccaccino, Boccaccio, born at Cremona (1460-1518). Few facts are known in the life of this old painter. In 1497 he had painted a series of frescoes in S. Agostino, and had a school at Cremona, from which Garofalo ran away in 1499. His compositions are scattered ; his perspective bad ; but there is a certain grace and spirit in his figures. His remaining works are frescoes in the Cath. of Cremona ; at S. Quirico in Cremona, a panel much in the Vene- tian style of painting ; an early tempera on canvas in the Bishop's Pal. at Cremona; Xo. 132, Venice Acad., and an altar-piece at S. Giuliano at Venice. There are others that are supposed to be his in various collections, which are attributed to Perugino, Pinturicchio, etc.

Boccaccino, Camillo, born at Cremona (1511-1546). Son of


BOCCACCINO — BOEYERMAXXS. 115

the preceding. At the time of his early death he was the most promising artist of the Cremonese school. The " Raising of Laz- arus," and the " Adulteress before Christ," at Cremona, are "well esteemed, and he painted the " Four Evangelists," in S. Sigismondi, in a style which shoAved great knowledge of perspective and fore- shortening.

Bocciardo, Clemente, called Clementone, born at Genoa (1620- 16.38). His principal works are at Pisa, and a '• Martyrdom of S. Sebastian," in the ch. of the Carthusians, is one of the best.

Bocciardo, Domenico, born at Genoa, 1686. In the ch. of S. Paolo, Genoa, there is a picture by him of S. John baptizing several persons.

Bockhorst, John Van, called Langen Jan, born at Monster, 1610. His family removed to Antwerp, and he became a pupil of Jacob Jordaens. He painted much in the style of Yandyck. His portraits were excellent, and his historical pictures rank among the best productions of the Flemish school. They are in many Flemish churches. In the ch. of S. James, at Ghendt, there is an altar-piece representing the Martyrdom of the Saint, and in the ch. of the Beguines, at Antwerp, a "Resurrection;" both fine Avorks by this master.

Boedas. Third son of Lysippus, the great sculptor of Sicyon. Nothing is known of Boedas but that he made a statue of a praying figure. Many believe the " Praying Boy " in bronze, in the Mus. of Berlin, to be his work. Of course there is no way of proving this, but the whole style points to the school of Lysippus.

Boece, C. F. See Boetius.

Boehm. See Beham.

Boel, Pieter, born at Antwerp (1625-1680). He studied under Francis Snyders, but completed his education under his uncle, Cor- nelius de Wael, at Genoa. He was very nearly allied to the manner and excellence of Snyders, and considered a fine painter. His pictures are rare. At Antwerp there is a series called the "Four Elements." Munich Gall., No. 32 7, represents two sporting dogs sniarding dead same ; very fine. His etchings were also fine, and

COO'*/ O /

^ake place among the rarest works of the kind. A series of six plates of Birds, and a " Wild Boar Hunt," merit special notice.

Boethus of Chalcedon. We have an account of three statues of boys by this sculptor. The "Boy with a Goose," in the Louvre, is copied from one of them.

Boetius or Boece, Christian Frederick, born at Leipsic, 1706. Lived chiefly in Dresden, and was made professor of the Electoral Acad, in 1764. He engraved several plates from the pictures in the Dresden Gall., for the volumes published in 1753 and 17.3 7. He also engraved some portraits, and other subjects.

Boeyermamis, Theodor, born at Antwerp (1620-1678.) An


116 BOEYERMANXS — BOL.

excellent painter, and imitator of Yandyck. AVas made a member of the Antwerp Guild in 1654. His pictures are scarce. Either be did not put his name on them, or it has been removed in order to pass them as Yandyek's. The Antwerp Mus. has two of his pictures : No. 403, called " L'Ambassadeur," and No. 404, <• The Pool of Bethesda." a large composition dated 1675. His works are also in the ch. of S. James, and the Convent of the Jacobins at Antwerp, but his ch "f-fV 'ceuvre is a representation of " S. Francis Xavier con- verting an Indian prince " in the Jesuit ch. at Ipres.

Boissieu, Jean Jacques de (1736-1810). An


2R>,


wm ^ eminent engraver, who has left about sixtv charm- ing plates. They are of landscapes and other subjects, both from his own designs and those of other artists. He marked his plates I). B., with the date. He also painted some por- traits, and a few pictures of subjects similar to those of Ostade.

Boizot, Louis Simon (1 743-1809). French sculptor. His father was a designer, and at the age of nineteen Louis had grained the grand prize of the Royal Acad., and was sent to Rome by the king. The group of allegorical figures in the Place du Chatelet is his best work. There are two busts executed by him in the Gall, of Fontaine- bleau.

Boizot, Marie Louise Adelaide, born at Paris, 1 748. She was instructed by J. J. Flipart, and engraved with neatness both por- traits and other subjects.

Bol, Ferdinand, born at Dortrecht, 1609 ; died at Amsterdam, 1681. A pupil of Rembrandt, whose style he followed but for a time. His historical subjects are not skilful in composition, and his heads have a tiresome sameness, while his color was too yellow. The force of his pictures is astonishing, and yet they lack refine- ment. His portraits were his best efforts; they were painted in full lights, and his flesh tones were truthful, while the expression was animated and life-like. One of his fine early works is a portrait painted in 163:2, Berlin Mils., No. 810. His best work is probably that in the " Leprosenhuys," at Amsterdam, in which a doctor is recommending an infected boy to the Regents. The heads are masterly, and the hands are finely painted. In the " Huyssitten- huys " there is a picture of the same kind. Mr. Baring has a scene from Guarini's " Pastor Fido," and a couple of fine portraits. No. 42, Louvre, is also a portrait. In the town-house at Leyden there is an allegory of ; ' Peace," and in the Dresden Gall., No. 1203 repre- sents " Joseph presenting Jacob to Pharaoh," and No. 1205, " David's Letter concerning Uriah." These last are of the best of his later works. Bol was also an engraver, and his etchings, though not equal to those of his master, are highly esteemed. His lights and shadows are good, and his style with the point is bold and free, rather than light and tasteful, like that of Rembrandt.


EOL — BOLOGXIXI. 117

1 — *_^ Bol, Hans, born at Mechlin, 1535; died at Amsterdam, I * / < 1593. An engraver and painter. At first he attempted large pictures in size colors, but afterwards confined him- self to miniatures. His execution was good, as was his drawing also, and his animals, flowers, etc., are truthfully represented, as well as his portraits. He used his pictures for the decoration of books, an example of which may be seen in the Imperial Library at Paris, No. 708. His pictures are also in the cabinet of engravings at Berlin, and the cabinet of miniatures at Munich. He etched some plates too, from his own designs, which have considerable merit.

•p^ Boldrini, Joseph Nicolas. A wood engraver.

  • » I ^ A ff There is much difference in the accounts of this artist,

■"-** but his plates are mostly after Titian, and it is thought

that he studied under that great master. His plates are rare.

Bologna, Gio. or Gian, born at Douai (1530 ?-1608). Called II Fiammingo. His father wished him to be a notary, but his taste for sculpture was early so decided, that he placed him with an artist named Beuch, who had studied in Italy. From this master he went to Borne, and at length settled in Florence. He founded his stvle upon the study of Michael Angelo, and was undoubtedly the best sculptor of his time ; but his works show the decline of art, when compared with those of the fifteenth century. He most excelled in the representation of abstract ideas, which gave an opportunity for the display of his great technical skill. In the treatment of religious subjects, which he rarely attempted, he was less successful. Among his best works may be mentioned the group of the " Rape of the Sabines;" the equestrian statue of Cosmo I., in the Piazza della Signoria ; and a Mercury, in the Uffizi. A group of "Hercules and Xessus," which stands near that of the Sabines, in the Loo-o-ia de' Lanzi, is good, but not equal to the latter. A fountain in the Boboli gardens; a Venus, at the Villa of Petraca; a S. Luke, at Or S. Michele, and a representation of Victory in the Palazzo Vecchio, are all works of more than ordinary merit. These are but a small portion of the works of Bologna. The " Rape of the Sabines " is considered his chef-d'oeuvre, and copies of the Mercury are to be seen in many galleries and museums of art. Flaxman says that his " Venus coming from the Bath," both standing and kneeling, " are remarkable for delicacy and irrace."

Bolognese, II. See Grimaldi.

Bolognini, Gio. Batista, born at Bologna (1612-1689). One of the best pupils of Guido Reni. His works are in several churches of Bologna. He also etched 6ome plates after the works of Guido, which are done in a slight and spirited manner.

Bolognini, Giacomo, born at Bologna (1664-1734). A nephew and pupil of the preceding, he became a painter of history. His pictures are in some Bolognese churches, and have considerable merit.



118 BOLSWERT — BOXCUORE.

Eolswert or Bolsuerd, Boetius Adam,

born at Bolswert in Friesland, 1580. Where

he studied engraving is not known, but he

became eminent in that branch of Art. He

followed the manner of Cornelius Bloemaert.

lie settled with his brother Scheltius in Antwerp, as a print-seller

and enoraver. He used the graver only. His finest plates are

after Rubens, and have more color and finish than his others.

Bolswert or Bolsuerd, Scheltius A.,

aff~C\ born at Bolswert, 1586. A very eminent

(oTji Uj! engraver; in truth, one of the most so of ^~ his country. His plates embrace all classes

of subjects, but he was especially happy in representing the finest works of Rubens and Vandyek. It is said that Rubens often re- touched his proofs with chalk, and he made the corrections with the graver. He never used the point. Some of these proofs are in the portfolios of lovers of the curious.

Bombelli, Sebastian, born at Udina (1G35-1G85). Pupil of Guer- cino. Especially distinguished as a portrait painter and a copyist of Paul Veronese. Boschini says that in his imitation of Veronese, he could not be excelled. In early life he painted some historical pictures which gave promise of excellence, but portrait painting promised him greater rewards, and he confined himself largely to that branch of painting. He travelled through Germany and painted portraits of many eminent persons at different courts.

Bonacina, Gio. Batista, born at Milan, 1G20. An engraver who imitated Cornelius Bloemaert, without equalling him. His style is neat, but dry and stiff.

Bonasoni, Giulio, born at Bologna about 1498. A

/I 7~) P amtx ' r and very emiment engraver. Some of his \£5 pictures are in the churches of Bologna, but it is as an engraver that he demands attention. He was instructed by Marc Antonio, and although he did not equal him, he executed plates after the works of some of the best masters with great facility and elegance. He used the "-raver almost entirely. The distribution of lights and shadows, and breadth in the masses are especial points of excellence in his plates. He engraved after M. Angelo, Raphael, Giulio Romano, Parme^iano, etc., and also several plates from his own designs.

Bonatti, Gio., born at Ferrara, 1635; died at Rome, 1681. Pupil of Guercino, and a protege of Card. Carlo Pio. Later, in Rome, he studied with P. Francesco Mola. In the Gall, at the Capitol there are works of his, and in the churches of Santa Croce in Gerusa- lemme, and Chiesa Nuova.

Boncuore, Gio. Batista, born at Abruzzo (1 643-1699). Pupil of Francesco Albano. His best characteristic is force and vigor of effect. One of his best works is in the Chiesa degli Orfanelli at Rome.


BONE — BOXIFAZIO. 119

Bone, Henry, horn at Truro in Cornwall (1755-1834), He was a manufacturer of china, but became an eminent enameller. He was first distinguished by his copies of the " Sleeping Girl " by Sir Joshua Reynolds, but his greatest work was the u Portraits of the Illustrious Men and Women of England," which he reproduced in enamel. Since his death they have been bought by collectors of the beautiful. He was a member of the Roval Acad.

Eonesi, Gio. Girolamo, born at Bologna (1653-1725). Scholar of Gio. Viani. He imitated Carlo Cignani. His works may be seen in the churches of S. Marino, S. Biagio, the Certosa, and other public edifices of Bologna.

Bonfanti, Antonio. An artist of Ferrara, called II Torricella. His pictures are in the public edifices of that city. The most esteemed are the " Holy Family," in the ch. of La Santissima Trinita, and " Christ in the Temple," at S. Francesco.

Bonfigli, or di Buonfiglio, Benedetto, born at Perugia (1420?- 1496?). He was superior to all the Umbrians of his time, except Piero della Francesca, and must have been acquainted with the classic art of Florence. His works were considered the oreatest ornament of Perugia. His largest work was the Hall of the Palazzo Comunale, which he decorated with scenes from the lives of S. Louis of Toulouse and S. Ercolano. Thev were commenced in 1454, and were not finished in 1496. The progress of painting in his time is well illustrated in the works of Bonfigli, and they prepare the way for the excellence of Perugino. Besides the Hall already mentioned he undertook the chapel of the " Magistrate," and a Brutus in the refectory of the Priori in the Palazzo Comunale. For S. Domenico he painted an " Adoration of the Magi," now No. 18, Perugia Gall. ; for the company of S. Bernardino, a banner, 1465 ; a " Virgin of Mercy," 1478, and manv works which testify to his great industry. Vasari says that Pinturicchio was the assistant and friend of Bonfigli, and Lanzi says that Perugino was his pupil. Whether these artists were associated with him or not, they undoubtedly profited by his example, and were indebted to him for giving a consideration to Perugian art, which had not before belonged to it.

Boni, Giacomo, born at Bologna (1688-1766). Pupil and as- sistant of Marc Antonio Franceschini. Said also to have studied under Carlo Cignani, whose style is imitated in some of his frescoes, such as the ceilings of S. Pietro Celestini at Bologna, and S. Maria della Costa at S. Remo. A picture of the " Infant Jupiter," and a 6aloon at the Palazzo Pallavicino, by this master, are much admired.

Bonifaccio, Francesco, born at Viterbo, 1637. Pupil of Pietro da Cortona. His works were in the public edifices of Viterbo, and possessed considerable merit. In the Palazzo Braschi is his picture of the " Woman taken in Adultery."

Bonifazio, Venezituio (1494-1563). A pupil of the elder


1 20 BONIFAZIO — BON VICINO.

Palma, and an imitator of Titian. In color he approaches the last- named master, and is altogether an eminent example of what patient application can do even when great talent is wanting. There are many works of his in Venice. His most pleasing pictures are those of simple arrangement, such as Saints and Holy Families. " The Rich Man's Supper," in the Acad, at Venice, is one of his best worlTs. His latest pictures are weak and mannered.

Bonington, Richard Parkes, born at Arnold, Nottingham (1801- 1828). A fine landscape and marine painter. He copied in the Louvre, was a student in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and occasionally attended the studio of Baron Gros. He visited Italy, and painted some pictures in Venice. He exhibited a few pictures at the Royal Acad, before his death, but since the International Exhibition of 1862, he has been more appreciated in England.

Bonone, Carlo, born at Ferrara (1569-1632). Pupil of Giuseppe Mazzuoli. He visited Bologna, and so admired the works of the Caracci, that he copied some of their principal pictures ; he went to Venice, and to Parma, where he studied the excellences of Paul Veronese and Correggio. His small pictures are in the style of the Caracci, but his larger works are more akin to those of Paul Veronese. Many of his works are in the public edifices of Ferrara, and some of the best Ferrarese painters were his pupils.

Bonsignori, Francesco, born at Verona (1455-1519). Little is positively known of this old master, although many of his works remain in Verona and Mantua, and specimens are to be seen in many of the laro-e galleries of Europe. Vasari calls him a pupil of Man- teo-na, but this seems improbable, upon a careful examination of his works, as a change in his manner about 1481 indicates that he came under the influence of Mantegna at that time. He was patronized by the Marquis Francesco Gonzaga, who gave him a salary and a house in 1487.

Bonvicino, Alessandro, called II Moretto di Brescia, born at Brescia (1500-154 7). At first he imitated Titian, but afterwards studied the Roman school, and produced a manner full of grace, stateliness, and simple dignity. His oil pictures were better than his frescoes, and his best works were quiet altar-pieces, for he did not succeed in the action necessary to historical painting. He has left fine works in his native city, and his pictures are to be seen in Vienna, Frankfort, Berlin, the Louvre, etc. A large altar-piece, representing "The Virgin between SS. Anthony and Sebastian," in the St'adel Institute, Frankfort, is worthy of notice. A colossal " Adoration of the Shepherds," Berlin Mus., is excellent. In the Imp. Gall., Vienna, there is a fine picture of S. Justina, with the Duke of Ferrara (called a Pordenone) kneeling beside her, which has been engraved by Rahl. His portraits have been likened to those of Titian, and he was the master of Moroni. The National


BONVICIXO — BOOXEX.


121



A GLOIUFIED MADONNA, BY IL MOKETTO.

Beili . Mus. Gall, has a portrait, and a picture of S. Bernardino and other saints, which is very fine. His works are numerous.

Boonen, Arnold Van, born at Dortrecht (1669-1729). Pupil ot Schalken. He painted portraits and genre pictures. He is not equal to his master, whom lie closely imitated. His pictures are taken frequently by candle-light. In the Dresden Gall. No. 1579, two young; men, one smoking, is truthful and full of feeling. Nos. 1570 to 1582 are also by Boonen. He executed some large pictures for the different companies of Dort and Amsterdam, and the portrait* of many distinguished personages.


122


BORDONE.



S. JU3TINA AND ALPHOXSO I. OF FERRARA. BY IL MORETTO.

Be vedere, Vienna.

Bordone, Paris, born at Trevigi (1500-1570). His portraits were his best works, and for them he is distinguished. He was of noble family, and well educated before he entered the school of Titian. Many of his female portraits are in the Uffizi; the Manfrini Coll., Venice; the Belvedere and Esterhazy galleries, Vienna; and in other places. All his heads are fine, and some of them closely resemble Titian. Two of his larger works are in the Berlin Mas., but the best of this class is in the Acad, of Venice, and represents the fisherman presenting the ring of S. Mark to the Doge; it is


BORDOXE — BORGIAXI.


123


splendidly executed. Bordone was invited to France by Francis I., and painted the portraits of the king and many of the nobility.

Borgaui, Francesco, born at Mantua. Flourished in the middle of the 17th century. Scholar of Domenico Feti. Lanzi says this artist merits more attention than he receives. His works are in the churches of Mantua.

Borgiani, Orazio, born at Rome (1577-1615). Studied with his brother called Scalzo. Copied the works of the masters of Rome. A man of violent temper. Riding one day in a coach, at Rome, he saw some artists, among whom was Caravaggio, laughing at him; he sprang from the carriage, seized a bottle of varnish from the shop of a druggist, and threw it at the heads of the offenders. He passed some years in Spain, where he was well received and patronized, and on his return to Rome was employed by the Spanish ambassador.


^=-v- -



CORONATION OK Tllli VIRGIN. BY BORGOGNOXE.

lu S. Simpliciano, Milan.


124 BORGIANI - BORZOXE.

His works may be seen in some churches of his native city, and he also left a few plates etched in a free, bold manner.

Borgognone, Ambrogio. Flourished about 1500, born at Milan. His pictures are by no means excellent, but his heads are gentle and meek in expression; and sometimes they have a peculiarly austere and mournful look. His works may be see in Milan, especially in the ch. of S. Ambrogio; in Pavia the frescoes in the Carthusian Convent, formerlv ascribed to Bramante, are by Borgognone. In the Berlin Mus. there are two works by this artist, one of which, an " Enthroned Madonna," has a high reputation.

Borras, Nicholas, born at Cocentayna, 1530; died at Gandia, 1610. A priest, monk, and painter. He studied with Joanes at Valencia, and was his most eminent disciple. He took orders and lived as a priest in his native town, continuing to paint meanwhile. At length he went to the convent of the Jeronymites at Gandia, to paint some pictures for their high-altar. When his work was ended he refused all payment, and desired that the habit of their order should be given him. This was done and he remained in the convent three years, but hoping to find a stricter discipline, he went to a Franciscan monastery near Valencia. He did not remain long, and returning to Gandia, passed the rest of his life there. His industry was wonder- ful, and the number of his works immense. He not only gave his time and skill to his convent, but also devoted goodly sums of money for the comfort and elegance of its appointments. He hired sculptors and decorators at his own expense, and came to be considered a benefactor to his community. While he lived fifty masses were said yearly for his soul. The Mus. of Valencia has more of the pictures of Borras than of anv other artist. There are about fiftv of them, mostly on panel. His style is similar to that of his master; his heads are often striking, and his accessories finished with great care and minuteness. His coloring is colder than that of Joanes.

Borrekens, John Peter Francis, born at Antwerp (1747-1827). A painter of landscapes, which were often ornamented with figures and cattle by other masters.

Borrekens, Matthew, born at Antwerp, 1615. An engraver, who was chiefly employed in copying the plates of eminent engravers for print-sellers. He worked entirely with the graver, and imitated Pontius without equalling him.

Borsum, Abraham van. A painter of landscapes, birds, animals, etc. His pictures resemble Rembrandt's in color. His drawings are highly esteemed in Holland, and sell for large sums.

Borsum, Adam van. Flourished 1666. A painter of animals who imitated A. Vandermeer and Paul Potter. His color is good, and his drawing free and spirited.

Borzone, Luciano, born at Genoa (1590-1645). Pupil of his uncle, Filippo Bertolotti. Painted history, but excelled most in por-


BORZOXE — BOSCH. 125

traits. In the eh. of S. Spirito, Genoa, there is a "Baptism of Christ," and in S. Domenico a "Presentation in the Temple," by this master. He fell from his scaffolding in the Chiesa della Xunzi- ata, and was killed. Soprani says his house was the resort of culti- vated people, and he himself a man of great attainments. He left a few plates etched from his own designs. His three sons, Gio. Ba- tista, Carlo and Francesco Maria, were all painters, and the latter excelled in landscapes.

Bos or Bosche, Jerome, born ^> ( c^- >ajr at Bois le Due, 1470. A painter

"\ rt /T v )l v$> _> D O ? anc ^ engraver. He represented

) \>j \~ U^^ vA' ' ^ '_ very singular and grotesque sub-

( - — ^^^P^ jects, such as devils, spectres, etc.

These are treated with wonderful ingenuity. He sometimes painted more serious subjects, such as the " Flight into Egypt," and " Christ bearing his Cross." A very singular picture of his represents " Christ delivering the ancient Patriarchs from Hell."' Judas attempts to escape also, and is seized by devils, who suspend him in the air. There are so many works by this artist in Spain, that it has been thought he must have gone there. At the Roval Gall., Madrid, there are the " Fall of Lucifer and the Angels ; " " Adam and Eve driven from Eden; " and the " Triumphs of Death," which is a very singu- lar picture. Death, scythe in hand, gallops on his white horse, driv- ing multitudes to the land of shades. The entrance is fortified by coffins, and guarded by skeletons. Behind Death follows a sort of dead-cart, to take up the slain. In the foreground there is a com- pany of revellers, and a king falls dead. The plates of this artist represent the same fantastic subjects. They are in the stiff Gothic style, and are much prized by collectors.

Bos, Lewis Janssen or John, born at Bois le Due (1450-1507). A painter of small portraits, flowers, fruits, etc. He finished with extreme nicety, and the insects on his plants were painted with surprising truth.

Bos, Gaspar van den, born at Hoorn (1634-1666). A painter of marine subjects. His storms and calms, with ships, have consider- able merit in color and finish.

Bosch, Hieronymus. His real name was Agnen, but he was called Bosch, from his birthplace, Herzogenbusch. Died 1518. He represented fantastic ideas with a demoniacal manner. He founded a style which was followed by others. His execution was careful and sharp. Berlin Mus., No. 563, " The Last Judgment; " Antwerp Mus., No. 41, " Temptation of S. Anthony."

Bosch or Bossche, Balthasar van den, born at Antwerp (1681- 1715). Painted interiors with great success. His pictures Avere very popular. He also succeeded in small portraits. The Duke of Marlborough was attracted by his fame, and sat to him for his


126 BOSCH — BOSIO.

picture. He was represented on horseback, and the horse was done by Peter van Bloemen. His pictures were well arranged, his heads had life and expression, and his color was warm. Antwerp Mus., No. 448, " Reception of a Burgomaster of Antwerp in the younger Guild of Cross-bow Shooters."

Boschaert, Nicholas, born at Antwerp, 169G. A fine painter of flowers and fruits.

Boschi, Fabrizio, born at Florence (1570-1642). A pupil of Domenieo Passignani. At nineteen he surprised the artists of his day by his excellence. The " Martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul." painted for the Certosa at Florence, and an ;i Assumption of the Virgin " in the eh. of the Convent of S. Lucia, are among his best works.

Boschi, Francesco, born at Florence (1619-1G75). An excellent portrait painter.

Boschini, Marco, born at Florence. 1613. Pupil of Palma, and an imitator of II Tintoretto. His •■ Last Supper," in the Sacristy of S. Girolamo, at Venice, is one of his best works. He was a dis- tinguished engraver, ami wrote a book called " La Carta del Xavcgar Pittoresco." He signed his plates Marcus Boschinius.

Boscoli, Andrea, born in Florence (1550 V-1606). Scholar of Santo de Titi. Painted history with some merit, also portraits with crood sncce>s: that of himself is in the Florentine (Jail.

Boselli, Antonio, flourished about 1500. Little is known of his life. He was ;i sculptor and painter. At Bergamo, believed to have been his native place, in the eh. of S. Cristoforo, there is a picture of " SS. Peter. Paul, and Luke." inscribed, Hoc opus Antonium scito pinxisse Bosellum, dit 23 Februarii, 1500. In the ch. of the Augus- tine- there are other works of his.

Boselli, Felice, born at Piacenza (1650-1732). He copied the old masters to perfection, and his copies are numerous, but are seldom attributed to him, as they pass for originals. He attempted historical painting, but afterwards painted birds, animals, etc. These pictures are much esteemed in Piacenza, and are in the best collections.

Bosio, Francis Joseph, born at Monaco (1 769-1845). Pupil of Pajou, but he formed his style by the study of the antique. He was chief sculptor of the King of France, and his most beautiful works are in Paris. He executed many busts of the royal family and men of note. The bas-reliefs of the column in the Place Venddme were from his designs. 1 Hercules stranding with Achelous transformed into a serpent, in the Garden of the Tuileries (bronze) ; the eques- trian statue in the Place des Victoires; the statues of France and Truth, at the grave of Malesherbes; the figure of the King of Rome; and the triumphal chariot of the arch in the Place du Carrousel; the nymph Salmacis, and a Hyacinth, in the Gall, of the Luxembourg* 1 A portion by Basio; others by Ber^eret.


BOSIO — BOTTICELLI. 127

arc some of his best works. In 1830 Bosio completed the monument of the Countess Demidoff. He was also engaged on tin- monument of Louis XVI. Bosio was a Knight of the Legion of Honor, and the Order of S. Michael; and a member of the French Institute and Royal Acad, of Fine Arts at Berlin.

Bosschaert, Thomas Willeborts, born at Bergen-op-Zoom, 1G13; died at Antwerp, 1656. Pupil of Gerard Segers. He went to Italy and remained four years. His pictures were fine and bear comparison with those of the first masters of his country. His picture of the " Martyrdom of S. Basil " is in the ch. of the Capu- chins at Brussels; the " Martyrdom of S. James " in the ch. of that saint at Bruges; and in the House in the Wood at the Hague is his emblematical picture of " Peace and War." He was a member of the Antwerp Acad.

Bosse, Abraham, born at Tours, 1610. He wrote a treatise cailen " La Maniere de Graver a l'eau forte, et au Burin." He left a good number of plates, principally from his own designs. They are bold and masterly, etched with unusual spirit and freedom.

Both, Jan and Andries. These brothers were so united in life that no separate story can be told of them. They were born at Utrecht about 1609-1610. Their father painted glass; they were pupils of Abraham Bloemaert, and went to Italy, where Jan, charmed by the scenery, gave himself to landscape painting, while Andries ornamented his pictures by figures, and painted some other subjects by himself. Of these last, Xo. 1214, Dresden Gall., is a good example. He also left etchings (ten), which are especially good. Jan succeeded in both large and small pictures ; the most apparent fault in them is their sameness. So much in harmony did the brothers paint, that one would not imagine their works not done by one hand. The Xational Gall., Xo. 71; the Louvre, Xo. 43; Amsterdam Mus., Xos. 37 and 38; and Xos. 17 and 18 at the Hague, are all good examples of their style. The ten landscapes etched by Jan are equally as good as his pictures. He also well engraved the " Five Senses," designed by Andries. Andries was drowned in a canal in Venice in 1645 ; and Jan returned to Utrecht, but did not survive his brother more than five years.

Bottala, Gio. Maria, born at Savona, 1613; died at Milan, 1644. Went to Rome and studied under Pietro da Cortona, whom he always imitated, although he was called Raflfaellino, from his love for the works of the great master. His works are principally in the churches of Xaples and Genoa. One of his best pictures, the " Meeting of Jacob and Esau," was placed in the capitol by Bene- dict XIV. Card. Sachetti was the friend and patron of Bottala.

Botticelli, Sandro. Real name Alessandro Filipepi, called Botticelli from his first master, a goldsmith. Born in Florence (1447-1515). Scholar of Fra Filippo Lippi, and twenty-two years


1 28 BOTTICELLI — BOUCHER.

old at the deatli of that master. Vasari says that at that time Botticelli was the best artist in Florence. His religious pictures are wanting in deep feeling, but have a certain sweetness and warmth which appeal to the heart more than the colder works of other artists, and even those of Ghirlandaio may be included in the list. In historical works he displayed his fanciful conception of his sub- ject, united with the impetuous energy of Filippo. He endeavored to raise his subjects above the ordinary mode, and also represented myths and allegories. About 1-474 he was emploved in the Sistine Chapel, and painted three large pictures, besides twenty-eight figures of Popes between the windows. The large works are full of action, the figures are expressive, and the landscapes beautiful. Of his allegories, that of " Calumny," at the Uffizi, is most remarkable. The " Birth of Venn-.** in same Gall., is naively sweet. These works prove him to have been a student of ancient architecture, and antique, classical statuary. His later works were finer than his earlier ones, and he received many honorable commissions. Lorenzo de' Medici was his employer ; he was of the number consulted re- garding the placing of Michael Angelo's " David," and his name is frequently met in Florentine papers of his time. During the very last of his life he degenerated, and his pictures of that period are poor and weak. He died in comparative poverty. His works are very numerous. There are many in Florence, some in Rome and other Italian cities, and they are to be seen in the Louvre, the National Gall., the galleries of Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, Munich, etc., and in private collections. Botticelli also engraved a number of plates.

Bouchardon, Edme, born at Chaumont, 1698; died at Paris, 1762. Studied first with his father, and then at Paris, under Cous- ton. He obtained the first prize of the Acad, and went to Rome, where he diligently copied from the antique and executed a bust of Pope Clement XII. He made a copy of the " Barberini Faun," now in the Gall, at Munich. His most celebrated works were the " Foun- tain of Grenelle," and the equestrian statue of Louis XV. in the Garden of the Tuileries, upon which Bouchardon labored for twelve years, and which was destroyed in 1 792. Some of his works may be seen in the gardens of Versailles and Choisy, and in the choir of the ch. of S. Sulpice. We have also a few etchings by this artist.

Boucher, Francois, born at Paris (1704-1770). One of the most mannered of French painters. AVornum says he appeared " to have discovered a new race of human beings." He went to Italy, was a member and director of the French Acad., and ap- pointed principal painter to Louis XV. in 1765. He was also super- intendent of the tapestry manufactory at Beauvais. His pictures are of a decorative type. He painted all subjects in one manner. In his own style he could scarcely be equalled, not to say surpassed, and


BOUCHER — BOURDON. 129

his influence was bad, on account of the numbers who became his imitators. His form and color were at fault, and yet, for decoration on tapestry, his works have much beauty. His pastoral subjects. were his best, and he thoroughly mastered the mechanism of art. He left several slight etchings.

Boucquet, Victor, born at Furnes (1619-1677). His works are- found in many Flemish towns. He painted history, and his pictures- are well composed and well colored. The best altar-piece in the chi at Ostend represents the " Descent from the Cross," and is by Boucquet; and in the great ch. and Town Hall of Newport are some of his best works.

Boulanger, John, born at Troves, 1613. Ait engraver who adopted and improved upon the manner of John Morin, in finishing flesh with dots, which gave a very soft appearance. The draperies and background were harsh in contrast with the other parts, but his plates are well esteemed and have a good degree of merit.

Boullongne, Louis, the Elder, born at Paris (1609-1674). A painter of history, professor of the Acad., and painter to the king. His best works are in the Cath. of Xotre Dame, at Paris. He etched three plates: the "Miracle of S. Paul at Ephesus; " the " Martyrdom of S. Paul ;" and the " Rape of Helen," after Guido.

Boullongne, Bon, born at Paris (1640?-1717). Son of the preceding. He gained a prize at the Paris Acad., and received a pension from the king with which to go to Rome, where he re- mained five years, and then visited other parts of Italy. Louis XIV. employed him at Versailles, where he worked under Le Brum He also painted in several churches in Paris. He excelled in Pastici, or the imitation of other artists, without being actually a copyist. He left several etchings.

Boullongne, Louis, the Younger, born at Paris; died 1734. Son of Louis the Elder. Having taken a prize, was sent to Rome. On his return was made painter to Louis XIV., and was employed at Fontainebleau and in the Chateau of Meudon. Some of his best works are in Xotre Dame. His pictures are correct in drawing, vigorous in color, and his heads have character and expression. He used the point also, and left eight etchings of religious subjects.

Bouman, P., born at Dort, about 1 764. A painter of landscapes and similar subjects whose works are much esteemed.

Bourdon, Sebastian, born at Montpelier (1616-1671). After studying in Italy, he established his reputation by a picture of the " Crucifixion of S. Peter." now in the Louvre; he was one of the original twelve anciens of the Acad.; he went to Sweden for several years, but returned to Paris, and was Rector of the Acad, of Painting when he died. His landscapes were his best works, and resembled those of Salvator Rosa. He also painted a few genre pictures, and two portraits of himself, which are in the Louvre, in one of which

9


130 BOURDON — BOYDELL.

he was assisted by Rigaud. The National Gall, has a fine picture bv Bourdon. He was skilful in handling the point, and his plates are valued by collectors.

Bourgeois, Sir Francis, born in London (1756-1811). His family were Swiss. Pupil of De Loutherbourg, whom he did not perfectly imitate. He was a close student of nature, and painted very exactly from his subjects. This is especially seen in his halt- dead trees and gnarled roots. His cottages are very good, similar to those of Barker, and his pastoral scenes well arranged. His gypsies, cattle, etc., are grouped in the manner of Gainsborough. He was invited to Poland, and although he did not accept the invitation, was appointed painter to the king, and made a knight of the Order of Merit. He was a friend of Mr. Desenfans, who bequeathed him valuable paintings, which he gave at his death to Dulwich College.

Bousseau, Jacques, born at Chavaignes-en-Poitou, 1671; died at Madrid. 1740. Pupil of Nicolas Couston. He rapidly rose to the rank of professor of sculpture in the Royal Acad. There are several statues by him in the Cath. of Notre Dame; and he executed the grand altar of the Cath. at Rouen, and the Tomb of Cardinal Dubois in S. Honore. He was invited to Spain and appointed principal sculptor to the king. He lived many years at Madrid, and executed several fine works.

Bout, Pieter and Nicholas, or Anton Frans Boudewyns. Natives of Brussels who nourished about 1700. They executed to- gether a great number of pictures which are midway between land- scapes and genre subjects. Boudewyns painted the landscapes, and Bout the figures, which were o;enerallv about an inch and a half high, dressed in gay colors, and full of character. Their compo- sitions were small, the skies bright, and the colors, which were doubt- less brilliant at first, are now dark and brown, especially in the landscapes. Bout also painted alone, and chose fairs, Flemish wakes, merry-makings on the ice, etc., for his subjects. In the Dresden Gall, there are six pictures by these artists, and at Vienna, two.

Boydell, John, called Alderman Boydell, born at Darrington (1719-1804). An engraver, and pupil of Toms. He deserves especial praise for what he did for art. He not oniy so raised the works of British engravers that they were sought by all Europe, but he undertook the illustration of Shakespeare, by plates from pictures painted by English artists. In his efforts he spent £350,000, and in 1789 his Shakespeare Gall, was opened to the public. There were 170 pictures, all by English painters. In 1805 it was necessary to dispose of these, on account of the pecuniary embarrassment which had resulted from his endeavors to relieve the artists of his own country, from the rivalry of others. They were sold by lottery. By the plates which he published, he also gave much employment to engravers. Boydell was, in addition to all this, a designer and painter


BO YDELL — BR AM ANTE. 1 3 1

in water-colors, and made a good sketch of the interior of his Gall., which is now known as the British Institution. In 17 74 he was elected alderman, and in 1791 held the high office of lord mayor. In 1789 at the dinner of the Royal Acad., Sir Joshua Reynolds pro- posed his health as " The commercial Maecenas of England." The company, including the Prince of Wales, joined heartily in the

toast.

Braccioli, Gio. Francesco, born at Ferrara (1698-1762). His works were done for the churches and convents of his native city.

Brakenburg, Regnier, born at Haerlem (1650-1702). Pupil of Hendrik Mommers. He represented scenes from low life, usually in the open air. He resembles Adrian van Ostade in color. His greatest fault is his incorrect drawing of the figure. He had great facility in execution, and understood chiaro-scuro; his pictures appear to be highly finished. At Windsor Castle there are two pictures of the Studios of Artists, by Brakenburg. His works are in the galleries of Berlin and Vienna.

Bramante d'Urbino. The real name of this great architect was Donato Lomazzo. The place and time of his birth are disputed, but his family were of Castel Durante in the Duchy of Urbino, and he died in 1514, about seventy years old. He first studied painting, and executed portraits and other subjects in a style resembling that of Andrea Mantegna. A few of his frescoes remain in Milan and Pavia. But it is as an architect that he was important. He was employed on the following works in Rome: the cloister of the monks della Pace; the fountain of Trastevere; a large portion of the Palazzo della Cancellaria; the arrangement of the space between the Vatican and the Belvedere; and the Basilica of S. Peter. He was appointed pontifical architect by Alexander VI. and Julius II. After his death the plan of S. Peter's was changed and the only remnants of his workmanship are the four great arches, supporting the tower of the dome. At first his style was cold and stiff, but it became majestic and elegant. He had great fertility of invention and undoubted genius. The work on S. Peter's advanced with wonderful rapidity under his superintendence. He had little regard for the works of antiquity, and his destruction of some such at Rome was notorious. He was a bitter opponent of Michael Angelo, both for himself and on account of Raphael, who was his nephew, and for whom he was jealous of Buonarotti as a painter, as he was for him- self as an architect. The dislike of Michael Angelo for Bramante was also most cordial, and at one time they had a violent scene in the presence of the Pope. Julius appreciated them all, and retained all in his service. In a letter written long after Bramante's death, Michael Angelo used the following words, which are valuable when we know the feeling which existed between them: " Bramante Avas, if any one deserves the name, one of the most able architects since the


132 BRAMANTE — BRAUWER.

days of the ancients. And, as it is evident now, whatever the stand- ard of beauty, whoever departs from his idea, as San Gallo did, de- parts from the very rules of art." Bramante was interred in S. Peter's with great honors. In 1756 his writings in prose and verse were discovered, and published in the coll. of Opusculi, at Milan.

Bramantino. See Suardi.

Brambilla, Gio. Batista. A Piedmontese painter who flourished about 17 70. He acquired a good reputation. Some of his best works are in the churches of Turin.

Bramer, Leonhard, born at Delft, it is said, in 1596. Kuwler says he has reason to believe that he was born much later. His works are poor imitations of those of Rembrandt, although, as they are very unequal in their excellence, some are well esteemed. Nos. 1067, 1068, and 1060, Dresden Gall., are by Bramer. Bryan praises this artist, and says that his works were much esteemed at Florence and Venice.

Brauwer or Brower, Adrian, born at Haerlem, 1608; died at Antwerp, 16-40. Pupil of Frank Hals, of whom we are reminded in his laughing or grinning pictures, such as those of " Avaritia " and "Invidia." Most of his pictures were small interiors, although he painted some landscapes. It is said that Rubens praised Brower, and his works are excellent enough to warrant the fact. He espe- cially excelled in painting hideous faces. Like Hals he was dissi- pated, and in consequence died young. His pictures are scarce and valuable. The Munich Gall, has nine, six of which are among his best. No. 114 7, Dresden Gall., is by him. He also left a few etch- ings, full of spirit and character. There are various anecdotes con- nected with this artist. He was the son of a woman who sold bonnets and handkerchiefs to the peasants, and it was the designs he drew for these, which brought him to the notice of Hals, who offered to employ him. When the master knew the full power of the pupil, he locked him up by himself, made him work hard, and sold his paintings for good prices. Adrian van Ostade, another pupil of Hals, advised Brower to run away. He did so, but the large price he received in Amsterdam for his first picture was a mis- fortune, for he immediately plunged into dissipation and only worked when necessity required it. When the States-General were at war with Spain he attempted to go to Antwerp without a passport. He was seized and imprisoned in the citadel where the Duke of Arem- berg was a eaptive. Through his interference Brower was furnished with colors, etc., and made a picture which was shown to Rubens. He recognized it as the work of Brower, whose fame had preceded him, and succeeded in getting him liberated. Rubens took him to his own house, but its order did not please Brower. He went away, fell into his disorderly habits, and died in a hospital and was ob- scurely buried. Rubens had him removed to the ch. of the Carmelites, and interred with respect and solemnity.


BREA — BREEXBERG. 1 33

Brea, Ludovico, born at Nice. Flourished from 1485 to 1513. Is considered one of the founders of the Genoese school. Some of his works remain in the churches of Genoa, and are remarkable for their freshness. He painted small pictures principally.

Brebiette, Peter, born at Mante, 1596. A painter and engraver, but best known as the latter. He engraved, in a spirited and masterly manner, some plates from his own designs, and some after Italian masters.

Breda, John Van, born at Antwerp (1683-1750). Son of Alex- ander Van Breda, also an artist, and student of the works of Philip Wouvermans, which he copied industriously. His pictures became the fashion; but he never apppoached the excellence of the master he imitated. He visited England with Rysbrack, the sculptor. When Louis XV. visited Antwerp in 1746, he bought four of Breda's pictures, and his courtiers engaged all he could finish, at good prices.

Bredael, Jan Peters, born at Antwerp, 1630. Painted landscapes with figures in the manner of Jan Breughel. He introduced Italian architecture in his backgrounds. His color is heavy and dark, but his composition and execution are good.

Bredael, Jan Frans Van, born at Antwerp (1683-1750). An inferior imitator of Wouvermans. Nos. 1707 and 1681, Dresden Gall., are by Bredael.

Bree, Matthew Ignatius Van, born at Antwerp (1773-1839). Pupil of W. Schalken. He painted large historical subjects, and acquired a high reputation in Flanders. He was first professor at the Acad, of Fine Arts in Antwerp, and was teacher of some of the most eminent Flemish painters of his time.

Bree, Philippe Jacques Van, born at Antwerp (1786-1840). Brother and pupil of Matthew, he also studied at Paris and Rome. The government of Belgium purchased his view of the interior of S. Peter's at Rome, and in addition to the price gave him a gold medal.

Breenberg, Bartholomaeus, born at Utrecht (1620-1663?). Lived for some years in Italy. His pictures are mostly small, and he was fond of painting on copper. Some of his works will bear to be examined with the irlass, and the figures are finished with delicate dots or touches. He succeeded in his historical subjects. That of " Joseph selling Bread during the Famine in Egypt," No. 1326, Dresden Gall., is a specimen, and the same subject is repeated life-size in the Emmaus ch. at Prague. He often enlivened his land- scapes with groups of figures illustrative of Scripture, mythology, or Boccaccio. The greatness of this artist was lessened by the cold- ness of his tones; his drawing, perspective, and execution were good. His works are in the National Gall., No. 208; Louvre, Nos. 50-55;



134 BREENBERG — BREYDEL.

Munich Gall. Cabinets, No. 508, and in the Vienna Gall. His etchings were even better than his paintings, and he left thirty-one, most of which represent Roman ruins in landscapes. These plates are much esteemed, and good impressions of them are scarce.

Brekelenkamp or Breckeleucamp, Quirin Van. Flourished about 1650. A good painter of home scenes. His best works are finished with great delicacy. He was a pupil of Gerard Douw, but his style is a mixture of Rembrandt's with that of his master. His works are much esteemed in Holland, where they are found in the

best collections.

Bresang, Hans. A German engraver who flourished about 1504- 1519. A contemporary of Hans Baldung, and believed by Zani to be the same artist. His works are mostly wood-cuts; he left but few copper-plates. The following are attributed to Bresang : — Christ bound to the Pillar, with the cipher, 1504. The Dead Christ, with the Maries.

The Dead Christ, stretched on a linen, supported by Angels. Christ and the Apostles, 1519. The Three Fates; 1513; very scarce.

Breughel, Pieter, the Elder, called Peasant Breughel, born at Breughel, 1520 (?). Visited Rome, 1553; and died at Antwerp, 1569 (?). He represented scenes from peasant life, and was the first to apply himself especially to those subjects. His mode was coarse, and sometimes vulgar. lie also painted Scriptural scenes, and some- times incantations and ghosts, like Jerome Bosch. He made skilful sketches when travelling. He also etched, and there are some wood-cuts from his designs. The Gall, at Vienna has a fine Coll. of his pictures.

Breughel, Pieter, the Younger, called Hell Breughel, from the nature of his subjects. Very inferior to his father. Antwerp Mus., No. 255. Berlin Mus., No. 721.

Breughel, Jan, called Velvet Breughel, born at Antwerp (1568- 1625). The most gifted of his family. He had versatility of talent, and painted landscapes, peasants, Scriptural scenes, and hellish or demoniacal subjects. His coloring was clear and strong, his finish good, and his effects of light well arranged. There are numbers of his works in the galleries of Dresden, Munich, and Berlin. We have four small etchings of his, marked, J. Sadeler, exc.

Breukelaar, Henri, Junior, born at Amsterdam (1809-1839). His works are feAv, but were of great excellence for his age. His picture of " Van Spyck at the Tomb of De Ruiter" is much admired by his countrymen.

Breydel, Karel, born at Antwerp 1677 (?) ; died at Ghent, 1744 (?). Pupil of Peter Rysbrack. Painted views on the Rhine, and military subjects. One of his pictures is in the Gall, of the Duke of Aremberg at Brussels.


BKIDELL — BKO5KH0RST. 135

Bridell, Frederick Lee, born at Southampton (1831—1803). A painter of landscapes of great excellence. He painted much in the style of Turner's second period. He failed most in his skies. Four of his pictures were sold at Christie's at prices ranging from 200 to 6 70 guineas.

Briggs, Henry Perronet, R. A., born at Norfolk, 1792; died at London, l.*>44. He painted historical subjects, but at length devoted himself to portrait painting, in which he had great success. His chief excellence was in color.

Bril, Matthew, born at Antwerp, 1554; died at Rome, 1580. He was employed in the Vatican in the time of Gregory XIII., and had a pension. His early death prevented the perfection of his talents.

Bril, Paul, born at Antwerp, 1556 ; died at Rome, 1626. Brother of Matthew, whom he joined in Rome, and with whom he studied. A new era in his branch of art may be dated from the time of this artist, and he influenced beneficially Rubens, Annibale Caracci, and Claude Lorraine. He left many works in oil and fresco. After the death of Matthew, Paul was continued in the Vatican with his brother's pension. He was much patronized by Clement VIII., and painted in several Roman churches. For Sixtus V., too, he had done many works, in the Sistine Chapel, in the Seals Santa, and S. Maria Massiore. His "Building of the Tower of Babel," Berlin Mus., No. 731, displays his power to represent the fantastic. Xo. 744, same Mus., is a fine landscape of his later style. The Louvre has some of his best works, especially Xos. 67, 71, and 73.

Bri nek man, Philip Jerome, born at Spires, 1 709. Pupil of J. G. Dathan. Painter to the court, and keeper of the Gall, at Mentz. He painted landscapes, history, and portraits ; in some of the latter he imitated Rembrandt. He also left some plates etched in a pleas- ing style, with spirit.

Briosco. See Riccio.

Broederlain, Melchior. An old Flemisli painter who flourished about 1400. There are some very curious works of his in the Mus. of Dijon. The pictures were on the wings of an altar-chest, and painted at the command of Philip the Bold. This work combined painting, sculpture, and architecture. The carving was done by Jacques de la Baerse. A description of it would require too much space, but it is very interesting in its relation to the art of itg time, of which we have comparatively few such examples,

Brompton, Richard, died 1790. Pupil of Raphael Mengs and Benjamin Wilson. The Earl of Xorthainpton wag his patron, and took him to Venice when ambassador to that republic. After his return to England, Brompton di4 not receive the encouragement which he depjred, and went to St. Petergburgh, where he wag well received and fully employed as long as he lived.

Bronkhe-rst, John Van, born at Utrecht (1603-1680?). He was


136 BRONKHORST — BR UN.

first a painter on glass, and studied under John Verburg. He exe- cuted the fine windows in the new ch. at Amsterdam. When thirty- six years old he became acquainted with Cornelius Poelemberg, and abandoned o-lass painting. He did some pictures in imitation of Poelemberg, which were much admired, and also etched landscapes from his own designs and those of Poelemberg.

Bronkhorst, Peter Van, born at Delft (1588-1661). Excelled in painting interiors, into which he was accustomed to introduce groups of small figures illustrating historical subjects. In the town-house at Delft there are two of these works, large, and representing the " Judgment of Solomon," and " Christ driving the Money-changers from the Temple."

Bronzino, Angiolo, born at Monticelli, 1502; died at Florence, 1572. Pupil of Pontormo, friend of Vasari, and the devoted ad- mirer of Michael Angelo. His works were very unequal, and some- times almost disgusting from their bad taste, but he had remarkable ability in drawing and painting. He was employed in many impor- tant works, and after the death of Pontormo, finished the Chapel of S. Lorenzo at Florence. His frescoes which remain are much in- jured, but he was most important as a portrait painter, and painted many illustrious persons of his time. His portraits have green back- grounds, and in style might be called Italian Holbeins. He was fond of rich garments, furs, etc., but managed them so as not to interfere with the dignity of the portrait. He was much in the habit of throwing a strong light and a golden tone on the face, while he kept the rest dark. In the Berlin Mus. is his portrait of Bianca Capella, and others. In the National Gall, are " Sensual Love," and a "Knight of S. Stephen." His most celebrated oil picture is the " Limbo," in the Uffizi. The larger part of his works are in Florence and Pisa, although there are a few of his pictures in most large collections in Europe.

Brown, Mather, died 1810. A portrait painter who was well patronized by English families of distinction. His works are not above mediocrity. He sometimes painted historical subjects; one of these, the "Marriage of Henry YIL," was sold in 1828 for £21.

Browne, John, born at Oxford, 1719. An eminent engraver of landscapes. He copied the works of great masters, and his plates were executed in a masterlv manner.

Bruges, John of. An old painter of 1371. He was patronized by Charles V. of France, for whom he decorated a translation of the Vulgate, now in the Westrenen Mus. at the Hague. He is designated as " Pic tor," which would indicate that he executed larger works, as " Illuminator " was the title used for the miniature painters.

Brim, Charles Le, born at Paris (1619-1690). Son of a sculptor


BRUN — BRUNELLESCI1I. 13 ^

who was employed by Chancellor Seguier, he attracted the attention of that nobleman, who placed him under the instruction of Simon Vouet. When only fifteen he painted his picture of >k Hercules destroying the Horses of Diomedes." When he was twenty-two his patron sent him to Italy and recommended him to Nicolas Poussin. He spent six years in Italy and returned to Paris with but one com- petitor to fear, Le Sueur. Le Brun, from the favor of the chancellor, became the favorite of the court, and was employed in large and important public works. He was made painter to the king and received the Order of S. Michael. He used his opportunities for a good purpose; no less a one than that of persuading his patrons and the king to the founding of the Royal Acad, at Paris in 1648. His pictures of the battles, etc., of Alexander rendered him very famous in his own country. He was especially successful in his pictures of the Holy Family. He could paint a round arm, a bit of delicate lace, or express a dimple wonderfully well. He succeeded as a portrait painter. In the Louvre there are twenty-six pic- tures by Le Brun, including the battles of Alexander. In Notre Dame, his " Stoning of S. Stephen," and "Martyrdom of S. An- drew."

Brunelleschi, Filippo, born at Florence (1377-1446). A great architect. He may be called the father of the Renaissance. His father, Filippo Lapi, intended him for a lawyer or physician, but his love for mechanical pursuits was so great that he was placed with a goldsmith. He gradually came to be an architect, and was the first Florentine who applied geometrical rules to that branch of art, according to the usage of the ancient Greeks. Masaccio and Bene- detto da Majano profited by his example in the application of the rules of perspective to their pictures and mosaics. It is said that Brunelleschi spent much time in Rome studying the remains of ancient architecture and making drawings from them. In 1420 the Signoria of Florence called together the architects of all coun- tries, to consider the completion of the dome of the Cathedral. Bru- nelleschi presented himself, armed with well-digested plans, and, although sneered at, and opposed, the work was at length committed to him. He completed it, and, in spite of great trials and hindrances of every possible kind, he produced one of the greatest and boldest masterpieces of the world in any age. The ch. of S. Lorenzo (1425) is a specimen of his designs, where he commenced from the begin- ning; and the Capella Pazzi, in the courts of Santa Croce, is a proof of his ability to design the graceful and elegant. The Badia of Fiesole, and the Hospital of the Innocenti, are also fine. In secular archi- tecture he excelled, as may be seen in the Palazzo Pitti, which has not been surpassed, but has served as a model to the present day. Grimm says: " As an architect, he was not exactly the originator of the new style which supplanted the Gothic ; but he was certainly the


138 BRUNELLESCHI — BRUYN.

master who, by his great power, stamped its superiority as a fact." Bnmelleschi was also a sculptor and a worker iu bronze. It is said that at one time Donatello had made a crucifix for the ch. of Santa Crocc with great care, and yet, when he showed it to Brunelleschi, the latter did not express his admiration. Donatello begged him to tell him his real thought of it, Brunelleschi replied that the figure on the cross was like a day-laborer, whereas Christ was of the greatest possible beauty. Donatello answered : " It is easier to criticise than to execute; do you take a piece of wood and make a better crucifix." Brunelleschi proceeded to the work, and when it waa done invited Donatello to dine with him. He had placed the crucifix in a con- spicuous place in his house, and after buying various eatables he gave them to Donatello, and asked him to go on to his house, where he would soon join him. When Donatello entered he saw the carving, and was so overcome with admiration that he allowed the parcels of eggs, cheese, etc., to fall on the floor. When Brunelleschi came and found him still standing before it he said : " You have spoiled everything; on what are we now to dine ? " "I," answered Donatello, " have had quite dinner enough for this day. You, per- haps, may dine with better appetite. To you, I confess, belongs the power of carving the figure of Christ; to me, that of representing dav-laborers." This crucifix is now on the altar in the Chapel of

the Gondi.

Brussel, Paul Theodore Van, born at Zuid, Polsbrock ; died early in the present century. One of the best fruit and flower painters of his time. He studied under Jean Augustine and H. Meyer, and was first employed in a tapestry manufactory. His latest works are much the best, and are found in the finest collec- tions.

- c= ===-\ Bruyn or Bruin, Abraham, born

/ tt ^ \ f^\ /^^TN\ at Antwerp, 1540. An engraver,


JHJ) \\j) ; / -^\)) and one of the little masters. His portraits and small friezes of hunting and hawking are his best works, and are esteemed for their neatness. He worked with the graver only.

Bruyn or Bruin, Nicholas, born at Ant- werp, 1570. Son of the preceding, under whom he studied. He is an imitator of Lucas von Leyden. His plates possess con- siderable merit for the times in which he Avorked.

Bruyn, Bartholomew de f flourished at Cologne from 1520 to 1560. He executed the wings of the large shrine on the high-altar of the ch. at Xanten in 1534° His portraits, No. 588, Berlin Mus., and one in the Cologne Mus., painted 1535, so much resemble those of Holbein as to be generally attributed to him. Nos. 112/113, and 114, Munich Gall., representing the " Descent from the Cross,"


W>M$)


BRUYX — BUGIARDINI. VVJ

with wings, is a good work. Berlin Mus., Xo. 639, is a work of his later time, in which he deteriorated; it is a "Madonna and Child," adored by the Duke of Cleves. He attempted in his last works to adopt an Italian style, greatly to his disadvantage. Some of these pictures are in the Cologne and Munich galleries, and are often attributed to Martin Van Hemskerk.

Bry or Brie, Theodore de, born at Liege, 1528 ; died at Frank- fort, 1598. An eminent engraver. He imitated Sebald Beham. He worked almost entirely with the graver. His stvle was neat and free, and especially suited to subjects in which there are many figures, such as he frequently chose. He gave great spirit and ex- pression to his heads. He engraved the plates for the first four volumes of Boissard's '"Roman Antiquities;" the two others were finished by his sons, John Theodore and John Israel. In Frankfort

Bry was a print and book seller.

Bucklaer, Joachim, flourished 1550-1570. Pupil of Pieter Aerts- zen, whom he imitated closely. His kitchen and market scenes Avere very popular. " Christ before Pilate," No. 78, Munich Gall., is by Bucklaer.

Buffalmacco, real name Buonamico Christofani. Vasari says he was born in 12G2 and died in 1340; that he was a pupil of Andrea Tafi : and Ghiberti bears out his statement that he was an excellent painter and able to outdo all others when he set his mind to it. Vasari' s account of him is very interesting. He seems to have been the wit and practical joker among the artists of his day. His fame has outlasted his works, for it is a matter of great doubt if any of these remain. Kugler says his existence is doubtful, and his life by Vasari a mere tissue of whimsical stories. Lord Lindsay, in his ' Sketches of the History of Christian Art," says: " A merry wao-, a careless spendthrift, living for the day without a thought of the morrow, and (as the phrase is) 'nobody's enemy but his own,' he drained the cup of pleasure to the lees and found misery at the bot- tom, dying, at the age of seventy-eight, a beggar, in the Misericordia, without a paul in his pocket to buy a coffin for his corpse or a mass for his soul, the type and mirror of a whole class of artists, whose follies and vagaries throw discredit on genius, while a certain kindliness of heart renders it impossible not to pity while we blame them."

Bugiardini, G-iuliano, born near Florence (1471-1554). Pupil of Mariotto Albertinelli. Michael Angelo formed a friendship for him in the gardens of S. Marco, and he is one of those whom the great master attempted to employ as assistants in the Sistine Chapel. Bugiardini worked so long in an humble capacity, copying the drawings of others on panels, that when he came to work indepen- dently his powers of composition were dwarfed, and he could only master the simplest subjects. He sometimes seemed to imitate


1 40 BUGI ARDINI — BUONAROTTI.

Leonardo. His portraits were as good as any of his works, and it is said Michael Angelo once sat to him. The Portrait is supposed to be in the Louvre, No. 526. Many of his works remain. The fol- lowing are some of them: Uffizi, No. 220; Leipzig Mus., No. 143; Bologna Pinacoteca, No. 26; Berlin Mus., Nos. 248 and 285, etc. There are many of his panels in Bologna; in the Colon na Pal., Rome, there are some, and a few in England, besides many in Italy not mentioned.

Buister, Philip, born at Brussels (1595-1688). After studying in his native city he went to Paris, where he was somewhat distin- guished. He executed several sculptures for the park at Versailles, and the tomb of Cardinal De Rochefoucauld. This last was his principal work, and has been placed in the Musee des Monuments Francais.

Bulliuger, John Balthasar, born at Zurich (1713-1793). Pupil of John Simler, and later at Venice he studied with Tiepolo. He became an eminent landscape painter. He spent some time in Am- sterdam, and studied the best works there. He also executed several plates of considerable merit.

Bunel, Jacques, born at Blois, 1558. Studied under Federigo Zucchero at Rome. One of the best French painters of his time. Some of his best works Avere for the churches of Paris.

Buonacorsi. See Vaga.

Buonamici. See Tassi.

Buonarotti, Michael Angelo, born in the castle of Caprese, March 6, 14 75. His father was Ludovico Buonarotti, and his home was in Florence, but at the time of the birth of this son he held the office of podesta or governor of the towns of Caprese and Chiusi. His mother, also of good family, was called Francesca; and his grandmother, so well known as Madonna Alessandra, was still living at the time of his birth. When Ludovico Buonarotti returned to Florence, the child, Michael Angelo, was left at Settignano, upon an estate belon^im* to his family. His nurse was the wife of a stone- mason, and, for many years, pictures were shown on the walls of the house in which he had grown up which he had drawn as soon as he could use his hands. At the proper age he was placed in a grammar-school at Florence, where he became acquainted with Francesco Granacci, a noble youth, five years older than himself, and a pupil of Ghirlandajo. Granacci became his most intimate friend. Ludovico had desired this son to be a scholar, and, to- gether with his uncles, harshly opposed his inclination to become an artist. But Michael Angelo was so determined that he carried his point, and, in 1488, was engaged to the Ghirlandaji for three years. At this time Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was one of the best mas- ters of Florence, was engaged in the restoration of the Choir of S. Maria Novella. Michael Angelo came, therefore, at the first, into


BUOXAROTTI. 141

the midst of <n*eat work. One day at the dinner hour Michael Angelo drew a picture of the scaffolding and all that belonged to it, with the painters at work on it. When Domenico saw the paper

he was so astonished that he exclaimed, " He understands more than I do myself." His rapid progress soon excited the jealousy, not only of his fellow-pupils, but of Ghirlandajo himself. Michael Angelo's first picture was an enlarged copy of Schongauer's plate of the " Temptation of S. Anthony." This plate is well known. In order to perfect himself in the representation of the fishy parts he constantly visited the fish-market, and made drawings there. He produced an excellent work, of which Ghirlandajo claimed the merit, as it was painted in his atelier. This picture is said to still exist in the Gall, of the Bianconi family at Bologna. Others believe that it is in the possession of M. de Triqueti, at Paris. The scholar soon proved that he knew more than his master, for it was the cus- tom for the pupils to copy the drawings which Ghirlandajo had made. Michael Anselo, one day, took one of these from the hands of a fellow-pupil, and with thick strokes corrected the lines of the master, in a manner which could not be objected to; after this he was refused the plates when he asked for them. About this time Michael Angelo made the acquaintance of Lorenzo dei Medici, then at the head of the government in Florence, and admittance was soon obtained for himself and Granacci to the gardens of S. Marco. In these gardens the art-treasures of the Medici were placed. There works of sculpture were arranged, and cartoons and pictures were hung, in buildings erected for the purpose. Numbers of young people were instructed there, and the old sculptor Bertoldo was their master. Michael Angelo's attention was now diverted from painting, and, making friends with the stone-masons, he obtained a piece of marble and some instruments. He first copied the mask of a Faun, but did not adhere closely to the original, for he opened its mouth so much, that the teeth could be seen. When Lorenzo visited the garden he praised Michael Angelo, but he also said, " You have made your Faun so old, and yet you have left him all his teeth ; you should have known that, at such an advanced age, there are generally some wanting." The next time he came, he found a gap in the teeth of the Faun, so well done that he was delighted with the work. (Now in the Uffizi Gall.) He sent immediately for the father of Michael Angelo. Ludovico, who had felt it a sufficient trial that his son would be a painter, was in despair at the thought that he might become a stone-mason. He refused to see the Duke. Granacci at length prevailed upon him to go to Lorenzo, but it was with the determination to agree to nothing. The manner of Lorenzo soon overcame him, and he returned home declaring that not only his son, but he himself, and all that he had, was at the service of the Duke. Michael Angelo was at once taken into the palace : he was


142 BUONAROTTL

properly clothed, and had an allowance of five ducats a month for pocket-money. It was the custom of the Duke to give each day an entertainment. He himself took the head of the table. Whoever came first sat next him, and it often happened that Michael Angelo had this place. He was beloved by all the household, and Lorenzo often sent for him to show him stones, coins, and other valuable thino-s, and to talk with him of his own studies. Poliziano also advised him, and gave him the marble for his bas-relief of the '•Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs." This work surprised every one, and is still to be seen in the palace of the Buonarotti family. Bertoldo, for his part, instructed him in casting in bronze. He executed a "Madonna" in the style of Donatello, and made drawings in the Brancacci chapel after the works of Filippo Lippi. Life in Florence, at this time, was almost the perfection of life. " Whatever great things happened in the world were known, dis- cussed, and estimated there. What was indifferent was crushed under the abundance of what was excellent. Excellence itself was not blindly accepted according to outward signs, but it was tested by understanding before it was admired. Stirring social life mingled uninterruptedly with the most serious tasks, and, as a wholesome contrast to the sweetness of this existence, came the keen, critical judgment of the Florentine public, who allowed themselves neither to be deceived nor bribed in matters of culture. This state of society was only to be met with in Florence, and chained the Florentines to their native city, where alone they found the true, healthful recog- nition of their own refined minds." Lorenzo was the head of Florence, and Florence the head of art, poetry, philosophy, and religious movements. Thus, in the house of the Medici, Michael Angelo, when his mind was pliant, and his character still to be formed, received an education than which, for an artist, none could have been better; and, at that time, among the Romanic nations, young people were free from the embarrassment which often attends that ao-e, and were accustomed to conduct themselves with ease under all circumstances, knowing nothing of the awkward, silent manner of the youth of more northern nations. The morals of Florentine society were as low as its cultivation was high, and in the same year in which Michael Angelo was admitted to the palace, Savonarola came to preach his crusade against the crimes of this wonderful city, and in the Lent of 1492 Lorenzo became suddenly ill. It was at this time that the effect of the preaching of Savonarola had reached its height, and even the great Duke felt that he could not die until he had seen this mighty preacher. It is probable that Michael Angelo was one of those who surrounded the bed of Lorenzo in his last hours. He was astounded by the death of his patron. He left the palace and arranged an atelier for himself in his father's house. At this time he executed a " Hercules " which is now lost,


BUONAROTTI. 143

After a time he was taken again by Piero Medici into the palace, his old rooms were assigned to him, and he was received at his table. But Florence was no longer what it had been, and before lono- Michael Angelo, in the midst of political troubles, made his escape to Venice. There he met Gianfrancesco Aldovrandi, the head of a noble house of Bologna, who, when he heard that Michael Ano-elo was a sculptor, invited him to that city. He remained there nearly a year, during which time he executed the figures on a sarcophagus which contains the bones of S. Domenico in the ch. of S. Petronio. This commission, given to a foreign artist, but twenty years of ao-e, so aroused the hatred of the Bolognese artists, that they threatened vengeance on him. Michael Angelo returned to Florence. Dur- ing his absence everything had been changed. The name of the Medici was only heard coupled with curses. The pictures and statues of the garden of S. Marco had been scattered over the world. Many artists had left, and those who remained were struo-o-lino- to decide whether their exquisite works were the results of a God-o-iven genius or of the power of the Devil. Michael Angelo was depressed by all this, but Florence was his home. He prepared to remain there, and again found a Medici, called Lorenzo also, who became his patron. He was one who, having been persecuted by Piero, had fled to France, and returned in the train of Charles VIII. Condivi says that at this time Michael Angelo worked upon some statues for Lorenzo, and also executed for himself a Cupid in marble. This statue led him in an unexpected manner to Rome, for, when it was finished, Lorenzo advised him to give it the appearance of an antique, and said he would himself send it to Rome, and obtain a large price for it. Michael Angelo did this and received thirty ducats. The secret of its origin, however, was not kept. The Cardinal who had purchased it sent a nobleman of his household to Florence, to investigate the matter. This man pretended to be in need of a sculptor, and invited Michael Angelo, among others, to visit him. He came, and when asked what work he had done, enumerated among others a "Sleeping Cupid." It was now ex- plained to him that in place of the thirty ducats which he had received, the Cardinal had paid two hundred for the work. Finding himself deceived, as well as a deceiver, he went with the nobleman to Rome. The latter promised to receive him into his own house, and assured him that he would find a large field for his labor, and one in which much money could be obtained. The oldest writing in the hand of Michael Angelo is the letter which he wrote to inform Lorenzo dei Medici of his arrival in Rome. At this time he was twenty-one years old. In this letter he speaks of the beau- tiful things he has seen, but what these were we can scarcely tell, for the Rome of that day was not the city which we know. The first important work which he executed in Rome was the statue of


144 BUONAROTTI.

the " Drunken Bacchus," now in the Uffizi Gall. It was executed for Jacopo Galli, for whom he also made the Cupid now in the Kensington Mus. But the work by which he passed from the standino- of a food artist, to that of the most famous sculptor in Italy, was " La Pieta." It is almost impossible to judge of this where it now stands, in a chapel of S. Peter's. It is placed so high, and the light is so bad, that no satisfactory judgment of it can be formed. But Condivi says that from the time it was finished he was the first master in the world. This was done when he was twenty-four years old. In the same year, or the following one, he returned to Florence. During his absence other great changes had taken place. Florence had joined with Venice, and matters seemed to be prosperous. Michael Angelo's first work after his return was a " Madonna," now in the ch. of Notre Dame at Bruges. It is life size, and one of his finest works. Another work of this period is a painting now in the Tribune at Florence, representing the " Holy Family." There was in Florence, at this time, an immense block of marble, which had been intended for a statue of a Prophet, to be placed outside the dome of S. Maria del Fiore. It had lain many years in the court-yard of the work-shops of the Cathedral. It had been offered to Donatello, but neither he nor any other sculptor had wished to undertake to make anything of it. Now Sansovino, lately returned from Portugal to Florence, desired to have this marble, and intended to join other pieces to it. The consuls would not consent until they had asked Michael Angelo if he would not make something good out of the block. He had just undertaken to execute fifteen marble statues for the funeral vault of the Piccolomini family in Siena. But when he saw the magnifi- cent block at Florence he left the work for Siena, and declared him- self ready to undertake it without any addition. Accordingly the order was issued on the lGth of August, 1501. He was allowed two years for his work, and was to receive six gold florins a month, while the additional sum to be paid was left to the decision of those who had ordered the statue when it should be finished. On Mon- day the 13th of September, furnished with a little wax model which he had moulded, now in the Uffizi, very early in the morning, he commenced his work. From first to last he executed the entire work, and in February, 1503, it was half completed. In the mean time another important political movement had taken place, which had thrown another work in the hands of Michael Angelo, for the Republic had received additional favors from France, on account of which they felt obliged to comply with the request of the Duke de Nemours, to have a bronze copy of the " David," by Donatello, which stood in the court of the Palace of the Government, and in the summer of 1502, Michael Angelo undertook the work. One hindrance after another prevented its completion for years, and


BUONAROTTI.


140


when it -was finished it was presented to another French noble, and at the present day nothing is known of it. In the spring of 1503 he also contracted with the consuls of the wool-weavers guild for twelve Apostles, each eight and a half feet high. It had been found by this time that the master was not to be depended on, in regard to the time when his work should be finished. Therefore it was stipu- lated that one Apostle should be finished every year; that he should go himself to Carrara and choose the blocks, at the expense of the consuls; and that the price to be paid for the statue should be settled by arbitration. They also completed an atelier especially for him ; and on the completion of each statue he was to receive a twelfth part of this house; so that, when the whole were done, it should fail entirely into his possession. Although no contract could have been more promising, nothing was ever accomplished but the coarse sketch of Matthias, now in the court of the Acad, in Florence. With regard to the ' ; David," he was enthusiastic, and so devoted to his work, that at the beginning of 1504 it was done. ' A meeting was called of the first artists of Florence, to consider where it should be placed. They met in the atelier before the statue, un- veiled for the first time. After much discussion, it was decided that the statue should stand wherever Michael Angelo himself desired.

©

He chose the place next the gate of the palace, where the " Judith' 1 of Donatello then stood. The statue weighed 18,000 pounds. The scaffolding to remove it was devised by Cronaca, and consisted of a wooden frame-work within which the statue was suspended. The whole thing was laid upon oiled beams and drawn along by pulleys. On the 14th of May, at evening, the wall of the atelier was broken doAvn, and the statue drawn into the open air. It took three days to move it, and during the night a watch was required, because stones were thrown at it, and there seemed to be a determination to destroy the work. Even the, watch was attacked, and eight persons were arrested and thrown into prison. On the 18th of May it was successfully lodged in its place. The question of its removal has sometimes arisen because it has been thought that it should be pre- served bv having; a roof over it. But the Florentines consider it a g;ood irenius of their city, and would regard its removal as an evil

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omen. Grimm says, " The erection of this David was like an occur- rence in nature from which people are accustomed to reckon. We find events dated so many years after the erection of the Giant. It was mentioned in records in which there was not a line besides respect- ing; art." At this time the rivalrv between Michael Ang;elo and Leo-

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nardo da Vinci commenced. Nothing; could be more dissimilar than

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these two men. Michael Angelo was so temperate that he truly said of himself in his old ag;e, " Rich as I am, I have always lived like a poor man." Leonardo loved to surround himself with lux- ury. Michael Ang;elo was bitter, ironical, and inclined to solitude.

10


146 BUONAROTTI.

Although unwilling to injure the feelings of others, and even gentle in some aspects of his character, he was determined to be acknowl- edged as the first where he felt it to be due to him, and in matters of art^ would allow none to interfere with his rights. Leonardo loved admiration, and kept a retinue of flatterers about him. He was not less self-willed, but seemed to play with his talents, and to seek for something- which would entice him to exert his powers. In personal appearance Leonardo was very handsome. His fine and expressive eyes and magnificent beard gave him an imposing presence. The head of Michael Angelo was broad, with projecting forehead, while the lower part of his face seemed too small for the upper portion. His eves were small and light, and his nose, which had been crushed by Torrigiano in the gardens of the Medici, seriously disfigured him. It has been said concerning this occurrence that Michael Angelo provoked him, but others regarded it as the result of mere envy. Torrigiano fled from Florence, for Michael Angelo was carried home for dead. In February, 1504, Leonardo had received the order to paint one wall of the hall of the Consiglio Grande. In spite of the fact that he had painted almost nothing, Michael Angelo deter- mined to compete with Leonardo, and secure the commission for the second wall. It was in this year that Raphael, attracted, it is said, by what he had heard of Leonardo and Michael Angelo, came to Florence. Thus the three greatest artists of modern times were met together. Rooms were assigned to Michael Angelo and Leo- nardo in which to prepare their cartoons, but in the midst of his work, the former was summoned by Julius II. to Rome. This was probably at the beginning of 1505. The Pope's attention had been called to Michael Angelo by Giuliano di Sangallo. But although he had commanded him with haste, it was some time before Julius gave him his first commission. This was for a colossal mausoleum to be built for himself. Michael Angelo sketched a design. Julius ap- proved it, and the Pope commanded him to select a place for its erection in the Basilica of S. Peter. A new Tribune had been com- menced, and he advised that it should be finished and the monument placed within it. The order was given to Sangallo, and Michael Angelo sent to Carrara to secure the marble for his great work. After many difficulties the marble was brought to the square and the whole city was amazed at the blocks. The Pope was delighted, and had a passage made by which he could pass from the palace to the atelier of the sculptor without being seen. Just at this time, in 1506, the "Laocoon " was found and occupied the minds of all Rome. Michael Angelo was now considered the first sculptor in Rome, and other artists began to be jealous of him. During his second absence in Carrara, Bramante influenced the Pope against him, and declared it to be an evil omen for him to build his tomb while living. It had been the custom for Michael Angelo to be admitted, unannounced,


BUOXAROTTI. 147

to the Pope at any time. He now found a change. His new marble had arrived, also the workmen whom he had hired in Florence. The Pope urged him no longer, neither would he give him money which he greatly needed. The master determined to understand matters, and to enter the palace. He was refused admission, and told by the servant that he had express commands that he should not come in. He went home, and wrote thus to the Pope: " Most Holy Father, I was this morning driven from the palace by the order of your Holi- ness. If you require me in future, you can seek me elsewhere than in Rome." He gave this letter to the cup-bearer of the Pope. He commanded one of his workmen to find a Jew to sell all he possessed, and to follow him with the money to Florence, while he mounted his horse, and rode without stopping until he was on Florentine ground. The Pope sent quickly for him, and commanded that he should be brought back by force. But he was a Florentine citizen, and he threatened to have the messengers slaughtered if they touched him. They used every means to induce him to return, but he replied that he would neither return then, nor ever; that he had not deserved to be treated as a criminal; that he considered himself released from his former engagements with his Holiness, and that he would make no others. When he reached Florence he returned to his work upon the cartoon. The Pope immediately wrote to the Signiory, urging the return of Michael Angelo, and promising that he should be received into full favor. But the master doubted the truth of the Pope, and waited until another letter came. Then the gonfalonier sent for him and insisted that he should return to Rome, saying, " You have treated the Pope in a manner such as the King of France would not have done," and declaring that they would not risk a war, and the safety of the state, on his account. Michael Angelo, mean- time, had received offers from the Sultan to go to Constantinople, and was inclined to accept. A third letter came from Julius, and at last it was arranged that he should go in the capacity of an am- bassador, for then he would be protected by the Florentine Republic. Just at this time, however, Julius left Rome to begin a Avar, during which Michael Angelo completed his cartoon in Florence. It was the well-known representation of the "Bathing Soldiers," and fur- nished studies for a generation of artists, although it was never painted. There is, at the present day, but a small copy; and an engraving, by Marc Anton, giving a group of the figures; and another, bv AgostinoVeneziano, representing a still larger part of the whole. As for Leonardo's painting, it had perished before it was finished, for he. had used oils, instead of painting alfresco. He had disagreed regarding the price that should be paid him, and had entered the service of the King of France. Michael Angelo remained victor in this conflict. In November, 1506, upon the taking of Bologna, there came a letter requesting that Michael Angelo should be sent at once


148 BUONAKOTTI.

to the Pope. Arriving at Bologna, he went first to the ch. of S. Petronio, to hear mass. A servant of the Pope recognized him and took him immediately to his Holiness. Julius was at table, but ordered that he should be admitted. When he saw him he could not entirely control his anger, and said, harshly, " You have waited thus lon<r, it seems, till we should ourselves come to seek vou." Michael Angelo kneeled down and begged his pardon, but added that he had remained away from no evil intention, but because he had been offended. Julius looked doubtful, and one of the ecclesiastics, fear- ing the result, interposed. He said the Pope must not judge the artist too severely, for that he was, like all of his profession, a man of no education, and ignorant of everything excepting art. The Pope now turned furiously upon him, exclaiming, " Do you venture to say things to this man which I would not have said to him myself? You are yourself a man of no education, a miserable fellow, and this he is not; out of my sight with your awkwardness." The poor man was so stunned that the servants were obliged to carry him from the hall, and the anger of the Pope being satisfied, he beckoned gra- ciouslv to Michael Angelo, and commanded him not to leave Bologna without his instructions. He soon gave him an order for a colossal statue in bronze to be erected in Bologna. Some of the letters which he wrote at this time, now in the British Mus., give much informa- tion regarding his nu> - He seems to be the centre of his family, to be depended upon for advice, and the upholder of all the others. He said his dwelling was mean, and had but a single bed in it, in which four people slept. In February, 1507, the Pope saw the model and approved it. It was at this time that he left Bologna for Rome. The first cast of the statue failed, and it was not ready to be placed in its position, before the portal of S. Petronio, until the 21st of February, 1508. The Pope was represented in a sitting attitude three times as large as life; the right hand was raised, and in the left were the keys of S. Peter. The work being finished, Michael Angelo returned to Florence. In considering his more private life, he seems to have been especially alone. Other artists shunned him, not only from jealousy, but because they disliked his reproofs. He asked the son of Francia, a beautiful boy, to tell his father that his livino- fiorires succeeded better than those he put in his pictures. One reason for this severity was, that he so exalted the mission of an artist, and so faithfully adhered to his idea of duty, that he despised those who accepted an order for what they could not worthily fulfil. He assisted most cordially those who claimed his help, and it is possible that he wounded, without intending it, those whom he considered unfaithful in their art. At Florence he had much to do : the cartoon should be painted, the bronze " David," and the " Apostles " finished, and it was desired that he should make a colossal statue for the square before the Palace of the Government.


BUOXAROTTI. 1 49

But Julius summoned him to Rome in March, 1508, and insisted that he should paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The task did not please- him. He said he had painted nothing in colors, and must have other work. But the Pope only became more obstinate, and the master undertook the work. The first difficulty to be overcome was the arrangement of a scaffolding. This was done by Michael Angelo himself, and then came another obstacle, in the choice of assistants. After some time he selected a half dozen, and commenced his work. He soon found that he could not employ them. He had not the heart to tell them so, and so he went suddenly away, and when they came to work they found the chapel closed. They understood what he meant, and returned to Florence. He destroyed all they had done, and for the future arranged that no one but his color-grinder and the Pope should come upon the scaffolding. Julius soon became impatient, and tormented him with his haste. Between the spring and autumn of 1509, half the ceiling was completed. The Pope insisted that the scaffolding should come down, and what was done should be shown to the Romans. In order to ascend the scaffolding, the Pope was obliged to climb on ladders, and to take the hand of the artist for the last step. He came one day and said, "When will you come to an end?" "When I can," replied the master. "You seem indeed desirous," thundered the Pope, "that I should have you thrown down from this scaffolding." The master took the hint, and consented that his work should be shown. Even in the dust which filled the chapel, when the beams were removed, the Pope remained, admiring the work; and on All Saint's Day the whole of Rome crowded there to gaze upon the painting which had grown like magic. The ceiling of this chapel may be called the beginning of modern painting. Before this, arched ceilings had been divided into different compartments, but Michael Angelo ig- nored the dome; arranged his pictures as if the space were open above, and built an architecture out into the air, all by means of perspective delusion; and united the imaginary walls, to which he had £iven a magnificent cornice, bv airv arches, extending from one marble breastwork to another. The spaces between the arches were filled with paintings drawn in perspective. The figures, which only serve to decorate the architectural part of the painting, are almost endless. Colossal slaves are seated by the arches at the edge of the cornice; bronze medallions appear inserted in the marble; figures like caryatides seem to support the edge of the cornice, etc. There is not a spot left unpainted. To describe the paintings, or even to enumerate their subjects, would require more space than we can allow ourselves. The Creation of the World, of Adam and Eve, the Expulsion from Paradise, the Sacrifices of Cain and Abel, the Deluge, Sibyls and Prophets, the Death of Haman, the Serpent in the Wilderness, the Death of Goliath, and Judith and Holof ernes,


150


BUONAROTTI.


are but a part of the subjects represented. At this time Michael

Angelo stood alone in Rome. Raphael was also painting in the Vatican, and they appeared as the heads of parties. The Pope was on the side of Michael Angelo; the artists flocked around Raphael. The differ- ence between these two masters was as oreat as that between Leonardo and Michael Angelo. We can only think of Raphael as young, beau- tiful, and happy, with an inexhaustible power enabling him to work always; a power ap- parently unaffected by change of time or cir- cumstance. Michael An- gelo, on the other hand, was animated or re- tarded by the course of events. He could not forget the interests of his family or those of his country; and if his life is considered in its whole, he seems involved in evervthinjT of importance that occurred about him; while the life of Raphael can be told as a separate tale, scarcely including any but himself, and the mistress whom he loved. Yet we know that the works which Raphael produced in Rome are wonderfully above his former ones. May not the fact that here he was opposed to Michael Angelo have developed his strength to the utmost ? Bramante, too, now appeared as an opponent of Michael Angelo, and there were many attempts made to dislodge the great master from his favor with the Pope, and his employment in the iSistine Chapel. He now began the paintings of the second half, which were the most magnificent of his works. When the Pope had insisted upon removing the scaffolding, the pic- tures lacked retouching and o-old. Julius now wished these wants to be supplied, but Michael Angelo dissuaded him from this, from his anxiety to commence his new works at once. " But it looks so poor," objected Julius. " They are only poor people," replied Michael



THE PliOPHET ISAIAH. 15Y M. ANGELO.


From the Sistine Chapel.


BUOXAKOTTI. 151

Angelo, " whom I have painted there, and did not wear gold on their garments." This satisfied the Pope, who urged him on as of old, and would nut allow him to go to Florence, although his presence was necessary there. His bronze " David " was finished by another sculp- tor, and many other affairs required his attention. At midsummer, 1510, he insisted upon leave of absence. The Pope demanded when he could be ready, in that case, with his chapel. " When I can," replied he. "When I can! When I can!" repeated the Pope an^rilv. and struck the artist with his stick. Michael Angelo went home, and the Pope sent his favorite page after him with money. His stav in Florence was short, and after his return the painting Avent rapidly on ; and the second half of the chapel was finished in the same time that the first had required, only twenty months beinn; given to the whole work. Grimm says, " It needed the meet- in" - of these two men ; in the one such perseverance in requiring, and in the other such power of fulfilling, to produce this monument of human art." In 1512, another revolution took place by which Flor- ence came a^ain under the dominion of the Medici. Michael Angelo was in Rome, but his letters show how much he and his family suf- fered ; and his father writes him that he is thought to be opposed to the Medici. His position in Rome was not a happy one. He could not obtain the money which the Pope owed him, and Raphael's influ- ence was increased, while his own was lessened. A separation seemed to have come between himself and the Pope, and he went for a time to Florence. On the 21st of February, 1513, Julius died. Almost immediately Michael Angelo resumed his work upon the mau- soleum. The Pope had mentioned this in his will, and his heirs were anxious that it should be completed. A new plan and contract were made. It was at this time that he worked upon the "Moses," and probably, also, upon the two chained youths now in the Mus. of the Louvre. For three years he worked continually at the mausoleum. He resided a part of this time in Florence, but he had been released from all his eno;ao;ements there. The twelve Apostles had been dis- tributed among younger sculptors, and his cartoon had been mali- ciously destroyed in 1512. Leo X. had succeeded Julius, and the first matter in which he employed Michael Angelo was in the erection of a facade to the ch. of S. Lorenzo in Florence. This was a great work, and he raised many objections against undertaking it; the principal one being that he was bound by contract to work upon the mausoleum, and had already received money for it. But the Pope overcame all difficulties, promised to satisfy his employers, and also to allow him to go on with the mausoleum ; and, for this purpose, promised that the marble should be conveyed to Florence at his own expense, which promise was not fulfilled. During the winter of 151 7- 18, while Michael Angelo was breaking up his home in Rome, in order to remove to Florence, he executed a painting. It is not positively


152 BUOXAROTTI.

known what this work was, but there is good reason for believing it to have been one from which Sebastian del Piombo painted the " Scour"-ino- of Christ," in a chapel of S. Pietro, in Montorio. On the 25th of February, 1518, Michael Angelo was again in Carrara for the purpose of obtaining marble, which he needed in Florence. Upon his arrival he found that the contracts which he had made had not been carried out. He had much trouble, and at length, in order to show the people of Carrara that he could do without them, he opened quarries at Seravezza and Pietrasanta, situated on the Flor- entine territory. But these things involved him in great difficulty, and several months after, he writes that he is tempted to leave every- thing and return to Carrara, for they had called him back with as many entreaties as if he were Christ himself. At length he went and ordered his blocks sent to Florence, and afterward divided his time between Carrara, the new quarries, and Florence, where they were laving the foundation for the facade. In August he bought the land on which to build a house. All this year he had nothing but trouble. In the new quarries there was much sickness, and the men were idle and unfaithful in every way. In October he was himself ill ; but at last, during the winter, he succeeded in conveying a num- ber of pillars and blocks to the sea-shore, to be shipped to Florence, when, in the spring, a command came from Rome to leave every- thing. The building was postponed, and no payment! Although Michael Angelo complained to the Medici in this matter, the circum- stances by which they were surrounded compelled them to this course of action. For a time Michael Angelo was much disheartened. At last he commenced again upon the mausoleum. Card. Medici now wished to erect a monument to his family in the form of a chapel, in the ch. of S. Lorenzo. This was commenced in 1520. In 1520 also, Raphael died ; Leonardo had died in France a year before ; and soon after came the sudden death of the Pope. The Medici had little money, and their work progressed slowly ; and Michael Ano-elo was left free for the mausoleum and some incidental labors. Adrian, who had succeeded Leo, did not live a year in the Vatican. His simplicity, and his mode of life, had not suited the people, and he died unlamented. Card. Medici now became Pope, and the building of the Sacristy was resumed, besides which it was resolved to erect a library of S. Lorenzo. Michael Angelo received fifty ducats monthly, and commenced his work upon the statues of the Dukes of Nemours and Urbino, two of the noblest monuments that sculpture has produced. In the spring of 1524, the Card, of Cortona made his entrance into Florence as regent, and two months later Ippolito and Alessandro, in whose name he reigned, followed him. In 1525, Clement VII. summoned Michael Angelo to Rome. The heirs of Julius II. complained of the delay in the completion of the mausoleum, but it was agreed that the matter


BUOXAROTTI. 153

should be left to the Pope, and he decided that, on account of his own need of Michael Angelo, the other work should be given up. Bandinelli was at this time the favorite of Clement VII. He hated Michael Angelo, and desired to obtain the commission for a statue to be placed at the gate of the Palace, opposite the " David." With the new Pope he succeeded, and the marble for the statue arrived at Florence in 1525. The citizens felt that Michael Angelo had been unjustly treated; and when the marble fell from the vessel into the Arno, a lampoon, written in rhyme, was circulated, in which it was said that the marble, sorry to have been taken from Michael Angelo, would have drowned itself in order to escape Bandinelli. The dis- grace was all the greater when we consider that Bandinelli was nothing. Had he been a great master, the trial would have been lessened, both for the citizens and their sculptor. The cupola of the new Sacristy was completed in 1525. This year and the two following ones were times of great political agitation, both in Florence and Rome; and, at length, on the 17th of May, 1527, the Medici had departed from Florence, and the Consiglio Grande was to assemble on the following day. Michael Angelo was in Florence. Little progress had been made in the Sacristy, which was now, of course, given up. There is no doubt but Michael Angelo sat in the Consig- lio. Capponi was elected gonfalonier. At this time Clement was imprisoned in the Castle of S. Angelo. In December he obtained his freedom, and went to Orvieto, where he opened negotiations with Capponi. Little is known of Michael Angelo at this time ; but in August, 1527, the new government transferred the block of marble to him. With the year 1529, a fierce strife of parties began in Flor- ence. Capponi was forbidden by the state to communicate with the Medici. It was discovered that he did so, and his office was imme- diately taken from him. Carducci was appointed in his place. In 1529, Michael Angelo was appointed superintendent of the fortifi- cations of Florence and the Florentine territory, and the govern- ment of Carducci demanded an activity that his power for labor could scarcely satisfy. He first turned his attention to the fortifica- tion of S. Miniato, and the works went on with wonderful rapidity. Pisa, Livorno, Cortona, and Arezzo were to be made defensible, and in the early part of 1529 Michael Angelo was sometimes in Florence, and sometimes in these other cities. Ferrara was at this time the real military state in Italy, and its duke was regarded as the best soldier and politician of the time. Michael Angelo was sent by the government to confer with him, and to see the fortifications, and arrived at Ferrara the 2d of August. He remained more than a week, and was awaited at Florence with great anxiety. During his absence tidings arrived of the peace at Cambray, and it was plain that Florence must now depend upon herself alone. On the 8th of September Michael Angelo had been required to give his advice at


154 BUOXAROTTL

Arezzo. He soon after this became suspicious of Malatesta, to whom the height of S. Miniato had been assigned. He went to the palace to express his apprehensions. He was sure that Malatesta was a traitor. At the palace they listened with scorn, and were offended. Leaving it in great agitation he met a friend, Rinaldo Corsini. who assured him that the following day the Medici would be in the city. They decided to fly. They tried one gate after another which they found closed. At length they came to the Porta di Prato. Michael Angelo gave his name as superintendent of fortifica- tions, and they were allowed to pass. Nothing can free him from reproach in this matter; but justice requires that the motives by which he was influenced should be considered. He saw plainly what must occur. He was unable to arouse those in authority to the truth. He would not witness the destruction of Florence. His aged father and his family depended upon him, and he must preserve his life. After many adventures he arrived in Venice, Corsini having been separated from him. It was thirty years since he had seen that city, and during that time its art had been perfected. The nobles wished to take advantage of this opportunity to retain Michael Angelo in Venice, but he declined. He contemplated going to France. While he remained, he lived quietly in a hired house. The 30th of September, 1529. a proclamation of proscription was pub- lished in Florence against thirteen citizens, who were declared to be rebels unless they returned before the 6th of October. The name of Michael Angelo was the eighth upon the list. The great master had always admired Dante, and it was natural that at this time he should think of him. For he, too, had gone into exile, on account of politi- cal views. Grimm thinks that his sonnets on Dante must have been written at this time. I give a single quotation : —

" I speak of Dante, — him whose mighty mind "Was ill-conceived by that ungrateful race With whom the great no recognition find. Oh! were I he, then the same fate were mine, His exile and his power alike to share; Happiest of all that earth could me assign."

Soon letters began to come which showed him how much they wanted him in Florence. At length he was summoned to Ferrara, to meet the Florentine ambassador there, and after much negotiation, in the middle of November he returned once more to his native city. It was on this journey that, in Modena, he met Begarelli. This artist knew not how to use marble ; but his statues in clay were won- derful, and Michael Angelo is said to have exclaimed, " Alas for the statues of the ancients, if this clay were changed into marble M The winter which followed his return was one of fearful suffering in Florence. In January the supreme command was given to Malatesta Baglioni. The imperialists kept up a close siege, and between the


BUOXAROTTI. 155

15th of March and the loth of April. 5,800 persons perished. Great scarcity prevailed. Meat almost disappeared, and sickness was in- creasing. Hope and fear alternately swayed the city. The history of the city must be the history of Michael Angelo. He was much occupied upon the fortifieations, especially those of S. Miniato. There were, however, days when the danger seemed less, which he spent in quiet among his marbles. He took up his brush, neglected for nearly twenty years, and commenced the " Leda with the -Swan," for the Duke of Ferrara. This picture has disappeared, but engrav- ings and copies remain. That in the Dresden Gall, gives a good idea of the design and painting. At length a gleam of hope passed over the city. Francesco Ferrucci appeared without the walls. He demanded reinforcements from Florence. They went to him, and from the 24th of March until the 3d of August he was enlaced in brave attempts to deliver the city. On that day he was killed. Hope and courage seemed dead, and on the 8th of August, 1530, the freedom of Florence was ended, and the followers of the Medici ruled. Many of the citizens fled, others were concealed. Michael Angelo was among the latter. But his name was too great for any harm to come to him; and at length, freedom, and the continuance of his old commissions were offered him. if he would come forward. He did so, and resumed his labors in the Sacristy. He seemed to endeavor to kill himself with work, and within a few months, the four colossal figures, which lie on the coffins at the foot of the stat- ues of Lorenzo and Giuliano, were placed in niches. They repre- sent Morning, Evening, Day, and Night ; and, although none are fin- ished, they have excited wonder and admiration, and are considered by many as the greatest works of this great man. These statues and those of the two Dukes seem to have been carried on equally. The artist was treated with consideration, and money was paid when- ever it was required. This expressed to him that his political past was to be forgotten. But he never denied his views. When the statue of Night was first exhibited, verses were affixed to it ac- cording to the custom of the time. Amono; these was the following : " Night, whom you see slumbering here so charmingly, has been carved by an angel, in marble. She sleeps, she lives ; waken her, if you will not believe it, and she will speak." The word angel, here, referred to the Angelo of the sculptor's name. He made the statue reply thus : " Sleep is dear to me, and still more that I am stone, so long as dishonor and shame last among us ; the happiest fate is to see, to hear nothing ; for this reason waken me not — I pray you speak gently." The anger expressed in these lines is as great as the courage, which dared thus publicly to utter them. This Avas probably written in the spring of 1531. In September, 1531, the first notice of Michael Angelo after the conquest of the city occurs. It is a letter addressed to Baccio Yalori, in Rome, written by an uncle


156 BUOXAROTTI.

of Antonio Mini, who was in Michael Angelo's service. His friends had become alarmed, and they desired that the Pope should know of his situation. He was now almost sixty, and the letter pictures him sick and sorrowful, unable to sleep, having no appetite, and wilfully working in a cold, damp place. And in the midst of all this wretchedness he had produced his wonderful "Aurora." His mind was tormented, too, about the mausoleum of Julius. He had received money, but had not completed the work. He feared that he should die, and that his heirs would be entangled in a lawsuit ; and he begged the Pope, as well as the Duke of Urbino, that a set- tlement should be made. His friends and the Pope undertook to assist him, and he went to Rome where the matter was satisfactorily arranged. On the 30th of April, 1532, he returned to Florence to continue his work at the Sacristy ; and now, for the first time, he employed assistants. He worked steadily until September, when he went a<nrin to Rome, and made the drawing, according to which the mausoleum was at length finished. We have no information of him from this time until September, 1534, when Clement VII. died. Michael Angelo then left his work at S. Lorenzo, never to resume it. He had incurred the displeasure of Alessandro, who reigned in Florence ; but the protection of the Pope had sufficed to preserve him from insult. Now Clement was dead he would return to Florence upon no condition. Other things in Florence had pained him. A citadel had been built by Antonio di San Gallo, and Bandinelli's group had been placed opposite the "David." Just thirty years elapsed be- tween the erection of the two statues, and those years may be said to have witnessed the rise, progress, and early decline of Italian art. The world had almost ceased to reckon Michael Angelo among its painters, when he again entered the Sistine Chapel, and commenced his " Last Judgment." When first this task was proposed to him he declined it. After this a discussion arose between himself and Se- bastian del Piombo as to whether oil or fresco painting should be used. Michael Angelo declared oil painting was for women, and men should paint in fresco. Paul III., the new Pope, thoroughly appreciated Michael Angelo, and in his intercourse with that master his character appears in its best light. In 1513, when Card. Far- nese, the master had made for him the designs for two candelabra which still remain in the Sacristy of S. Peter's. When he first sent for the sculptor, and requested him to enter his service, he was told that it was impossible, on account of his engagement with the Duke of Urbino. The Pope answered angrily, " It is now thirty years that I have had this desire ; and, now that I am Pope, shall I not be able to effect it V Where is the contract, that I may tear it ! " But Michael Angelo remained firm, and even contemplated removing into the territory of Genoa, in order to escape the Pope. One day, Paul appeared in his atelier with eight cardinals, and desired to see


BUOXAROTTI.


157


his sketches of the " Last Judgment." The sculptor was at work on the " Moses," and they declared that that one statue was sufficient



STATUE OF KOSES. BY M. ANGEEO.

S. Pietro in Yincoli, Rom c .


158 BUONAROTTI.

for a monument to Pope Julius. The end of all was, that, the Pope satisfied the Duke of Urbino, and Michael Angelo began to paint the chapel. He worked at this six years without assistance. Of all the frescoes of the sixteenth century, perhaps none has suffered more from the ravages of time, and at the hands of men, than this paint- ing. Copies and engravings make it possible to imagine what was once there. But the overpowering effect which its first sight should produce is lost. The sentiments of the world, too, are so changed that such a representation cannot appeal to us as it must have done to those to whom Michael Angelo preached with his brush. In this work he gave form, and presented to the sight what Dante had pictured to the imagination. Like everything else which is symbolic, it is meaningless if we cannot supply its meaning from our own souls. " As we look, however, at the ' Last Judgment,' on the wall of the Sistine Chapel, it is no longer a similitude to us, but a monument to the imaginative spirit of a past age, and a strange people, whose ideas are no longer ours." Much of importance to the world occurred during the painting of this picture. The Flor- entines in Rome endeavored to regain their old liberty. The Refor- mation was at work in Germany, and a circle of distinguished men surrounded the Pope, and conferred unusual lustre upon the society of the Vatican. Among these men was Michael Angelo; not that he mingled constantly with them, for he gave himself no rest, but lie knew their thoughts and hopes, and sympathized with those who would have brought about a reconciliation between the Lutherans and the Church. In 1537 or 1538, the old Ludovic died, and Mi- chael Angelo was shaken in his very soul by this sorrow. It was on this occasion that he wrote his beautiful sonnet commencing, —

"Already had I wept and sighed so much I thought all grief forever at an end, Exhaled in sighs, shed forth in bitter tears."

This poem gives us an insight into the religious belief of Michael Angelo. He makes no reference to purgatory, but urges the grace of God (la grazia Dirina), and speaks of the certainty of the perfect happiness of his father. This involved the question which was agitating the Christian world, yet in his thought he seems not to recognize the possibility of a doubt. Before this, when his brother had died, he wrote, " Although all those sacraments which the Church enjoins were not administered to him, yet if he showed true repent- ance and resignation to the will of God, that is sufficient for his eternal blessedness." At another time he wrote to his brother to inquire out some case where he could do good secretly; for he wished $o do something for the welfare of his own soul, but desired that it should be known to no one. From all this the healthiness of his nature appears. There was no sentimentality or overstraining, but a trustful and obedient dependence upon God. The Sistine Chapel


BUONAROTTI. 150

was opened and the ' ; Last Judgment" exposed to the view of the people at the Christmas festival of 1541. During the summer before the Inquisition had been established in Rome, and a panic had spread throughout Italy. Michael Angelo had given the face of the master- of-ceremonies to the infernal judge, Minos. The Pope jestingly said that he could do nothing, as even Popes could not release others from eternal suffering. It had been proposed to represent the Fall of the Angels upon the opposite wall. This was now spoken of no more, and soon the " Last Judgment " was abused from the pulpits. During the time between 1536 and 1541, Michael Angelo had been especially happy in the friendship of Vittoria Colonna. All his life he had loved children, and his poems show that he had loved women. But he had kept himself so much alone that he had seemed as if he had wished for no friends. He was more than sixty years old when he met Vittoria. Descended from Fabrizio Colonna, and the widow of Pescara, she was equal to the first nobles in Europe. She was received by the Pope with great honors, and the Emperor visited her. Her most intimate friends were the Cardinals Pole and Contarina. It is not known how Michael Angelo made her acquaint- ance. Francesco d'Ollanda, a miniature painter, sent by the King of Portugal to Italy, describes two Sundays which he passed with Vittoria and Michael Angelo. The meeting was in the little church of S. Silvcstro, opposite the Quirinal, on Monte Cavallo. The description of these meetings is of extreme interest, and presents the friendship of the sculptor and the lady in a charming light. Vittoria, though no longer young, was beautiful, cheerful, and en- dowed with the highest intelligence. She exercised over Michael Angelo a gentle authority. For the first time he experienced the happiness of yielding to love and respect for a woman, and there is little doubt that these years were the happiest of his life. But even she fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition, and left Rome in 1541. To the two following years belong the letters and poems which passed between herself and Michael Angelo. It is said that he wrote her so often that she asked him to restrict himself a little. She feared that he could not go to his work at a proper time in the morning if he wrote so much at night, and she was prevented by his letters from passing her evenings with the nuns in whose convent she lived. But one letter of hers is known, which was written to thank him for the design for a crucifix. He had sent it for her approbation, intending to execute it if it pleased her. This it did so perfectly that she de- clined to return it, saying that nothing more perfect had ever pre- sented itself to her, and with graceful tact declares " I would rather that he who did this drawing should execute something else for me." The poems written by Michael Angelo to Vittoria contain most beautiful testimony to her influence over him. The sonnets of Vit- toria were at this time read by all Italy, and she was accustomed to


1 60 BUONAROTTL

send them, when written, to Michael Angelo. In the autumn of 1542 they again met. She had been ill, her family was ruined, and not one remained in Rome. She withdrew to a convent where she spent her few remaining years. To this time her portrait by Marcello Venusti probably belongs. Many believe this to have been sketched by Michael Angelo. In 1547, she died. He was with her to the last, and years afterward declared, that he repented nothing so much, as that he had only kissed her hand, and not her forehead and cheeks in that last hour. The loss which he sustained can scarcely be conceived. He was seventy years old, his own strength was failing, and he anticipated no joy but that of death. When the " Last Judg- ment " was completed he had desired to return to the mausoleum. But Paul III. would not yield him. He had added a new chapel to the Vatican which was named for himself, and he was determined that Michael Angelo should adorn it with frescoes. The Duke of Urbino hated the Pope, and insisted upon his rights. But it was at length decided that the painting should be done. It consisted of two large pictures representing the " Crucifixion of Peter" and the " Conver- sion of Paul." The v were finished within eight or nine vears. In the cleaning and restoration they have undergone, most of the original work has disappeared, and their first appearance can be best imag- ined from old engravings. These were his last paintings. The affair of the mausoleum caused him great suffering, for reports were circu- lated against him. and Aretino, a powerful writer of that time, ac- cused him of ingratitude to Pope Julius, and represented him as a thief and a foe to Christianity. Great as Michael Angelo Avas, and insignificant as was Aretino in comparison, this had cast a stain upon him of which he could not rid himself. In the year which followed the death of Vittoria, the hope which he had always cherished for the freedom of Florence was crushed. Cosmo, secure in his power, endeavored to induce Michael Angelo to return to Florence, and even offered to make him one of the forty-eight, the highest honor for a Florentine. He declined this Avith v courtesy, for he remembered his relatives in Florence, and did not wish to injure them with the Duke. His health continually failed, his sadness increased, and his poems show how the thought of Vittoria was ever with him. It would seem that he had done enough to render his fame above rivalry; but there were nearly twenty years, and much work before him, when at the end of 1546, he was made director of the building of S. Peter's, the only condition of his acceptance being, that he should receive no salary. S. Peter's had been commenced in 1506, by Bramante, who had been followed by Raphael, Fra Giocondo, Giuliano di San Gallo, Peruzzi, and Antonio di San Gallo; and yet when Michael Angelo undertook the work, he was able to construct it as he pleased, and his plans were so far carried out that he may be considered as the real architect of the church. San Gallo's model, and Michael Angelo's


BUONABOTTX 16*1

plan may now be compared, for they remain almost side by side. Although he was its architect, he saw nothing of the S. Peter's of our day, for the facade, the colonnades, the obelisk and fountains have been added by subsequent architects. And yet he had before his mental eye a S. Peter's more mighty than we have seen, and one that was never completed. He also superintended the erection of the statue of Marcus Aurelius, and completed the Farnese Pal. He had in mind many improvements which he wished to make in Rome, but it would seem, as we review his life, that it had been decreed that he should finish nothing. He acquired the name even among his con- temporaries, of " II gran Michel Angelo," but when his unfinished works are compared with his original designs, how insignificant they appear in comparison with what he might have done. We have a single instance of the restoration of an antique statue by Michael Angelo, and it is not positively known that this was his work. It is credited to him only because no other could have done it. It is the risdit arm of the " Dying Gladiator." In his old age Michael Angelo came to be authority in Rome. He had rivals no longer. If any- thing important was to be undertaken his advice was sought, and his decision respected. He sat like a Pope, and to him the artists came as for a blessing. His household was small and simple. His servant Urbino, and a maid, served him. He dined alone, and at noon. Anatomy was his passion. He dissected animals of every kind, and was happy when a human subject could be obtained. He always had vouno- men working in his house. Condivi was one of these. In his old age, like a child, he formed many friendships, and Tommaso dei Cavalieri was especially dear to him. To him he addressed a flattering sonnet. Although his great works had ceased he still amused himself with brush and chisel. He drew a life-sized portrait of his young friend, and had in his atelier a marble group of Christ lying dead on his mother's lap, and Joseph of Arimathea standing by, upon which he continued to work. But he wished no one to see this, and when Vasari once came to him in the evening he let fall his lantern so that he should not see the work, and said, "lam so old that death often pulls me by the coat to come to him, and some day I shall fall down like this lantern, and my last spark of life will be extin- guished." When he could not sleep he would work on this statue, and had a pasteboard cap in which a candle was fixed, that he mi<dit have a srood light. But he discovered a flaw in the marble, and intended to break it in pieces. He gave it, instead, to one of his young men, and it is now under the dome of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence. After his appointment to the control of S. Peter's his authority there was supreme. From his age his death was constantly expected, and there were some who anticipated succeeding him in his office. While Paul III. lived, the rights of Michael Angelo were unquestioned. The Pope died in the autumn of 1548. In the spring

11


162 BUONAROTTI.

of the same year Michael Angelo had been very ill, and after his re- covery had devoted himself with eagerness to his office. Julius III., the new Pope, projected many new works. Artists of every kind had full employment, Michael Angelo was wanted everywhere. He undertook no commission, but he drew designs, and was consulted on every plan. A new trouble arose in regard to S. Peter's. Under the other architects this building had been a source of wealth to many. Michael Angelo dismissed some and reduced the wages of others. He could do this the more easily because he received no pay himself. Paul III. once sent him a sum of money, which was imme- diately returned. Complaints were made against him, and at length Julius III. called a council and required the sculptor to defend him- self. Many accusations were brought, and a special one was that in a certain part there would be too little light . Michael Ano-elo de-

it or?

manded that those who originated the reproof should come forward. Two Cardinals presented themselves, to whom he said, " I intend plac- ing three other windows above those already there." " You never gave a hint of that," answered the Cardinals. " Nor was I bound to do so," replied the sculptor, " nor will I bind myself to give your lordships or any one else information of my intentions. Your office is to furnish money, and to take care that it is not stolen ; as regards the building plan, that concerns me alone." He then said to the Pope, " Holy Father, you know what I get for my money, and that if my work does not tend to the saving of my soul, I shall have expended time and trouble in vain upon it." Julius placed his hand on his shoulder and said, "Your eternal and temporal welfare shall not suffer from it; there is no fear of that." Thus the matter was ended, and while Julius lived the sculptor was not again disturbed. From time to time Michael Ano-elo was urged to return to Florence, and when Julius III. died, in 1555, the request was again repeated. One of the Cardinals whom he had so severely reproved now ascended the Papal chair. He at once deprived Michael Angelo of his pension, and sent him each month a salary, which he each month returned. There were plots against him, and it was reported that he had become childish, old, and weak. At this time the Florentine offers became more honorable and urgent, but he would not go. Paul IV. appears monstrous in history. He cared nothing for art, but he wished S. Peter's church to be finished. He therefore continued Michael Angelo in office. When the Spaniards approached Rome, his faith- ful Urbino had just died. It would have seemed the time for him to go to Florence, but instead, he went to the mountains of Spoleto. It was almost the first time that he had thoroughly enjoyed nature, and he afterwards wrote, " I have left more than half my soul there, for truly there is no peace but in the woods." From this time he answered the urgent requests from Florence by saying that it would be a sin for him to go, that he must persevere in the work which he had begun in


BUONAROTTI. 163

God's name. At length they ceased to urge him, and in the last year of his life the Duke visited him in Rome and showed his reverence for him. In 1558 the Pope died, and Pius IV., his successor, was be- sieged by new attacks upon Michael Angelo. But he listened to noth- ing, and restored his pension to him. He knew he should not live to see the dome completed, and he made a model in clay, so accurate in its proportions, that when the dome was commenced many years later it was only necessary to copy it on a colossal scale. Pius IV. was a friend to the arts and to Michael Angelo. Paul IV. had wished to destroy the " Last Judgment," and had employed Daniele da Volterra to cover the figures with drapery. It seems that Michael Angelo was asked to do the work, and had answered ironically, " That is soon done. The Pope has to put the world in order ; it is but a small trouble as regards pictures, for they keep still. " When in his eighty- sixth year he wrote a letter to Cardinal di Carpi which proves how little his mind had failed. Soon after, the committee appointed to inspect, the building dismissed a young man whom he had employed. Upon this he declared that he would visit the building no more. That was just what his enemies desired. Nanni Bigio had long wanted his position, and it was given him. At first Michael Angelo took the matter easily, but when they began to change his plans, he roused himself. The Pope was on the square of the Capitol. Michael Angelo went to him and made so much noise that they were obliged to take him into the palace, and the end of all was that the Pope issued a brief decreeing that for the future they should not depart from the plans of Michael Angelo in the smallest particular. This does not seem like the act of a dying man. At this time, too, he made plans and was consulted respecting important works in Florence. His last work in Rome was to make a church from an immense hall in the baths of Diocletian. A year before his death Michael Angelo was appointed to the honorary directorship of the Acad, of Arts in Florence. In the beginning of 1564 it was apparent that his end was near, and on the 18th of February he died, in the ninetieth year of his age. He had desired that his body should be carried to Florence. Opposition from the Romans was feared. Funeral services were held in the ch. of S. Apostoli, and afterwards the coffin was con- veyed as merchandise out of the gates. It arrived in Florence on the 11th of March, and was carried privately to S. Piero Maggiore. The following day was Sunday. The Duke seems to have desired that he should be buried silently. Towards evening the artists as- sembled in the church, the body was covered with a black velvet pall, embroidered with gold, and a gold crucifix placed upon it. A pro- cession was formed. The older artists carried torches, and the younger ones took the bier upon their shoulders, and proceeded to Santa Croce. A rumor had spread through Florence of what was occurring, and a great multitude quietly followed the procession. In


164 BUONAROTTI.

the Sacristy the coffin was opened, and though he had been dead three weeks he appeared as if he had just died. The crowd became so treat that it was impossible to close the tomb. But it was night and at length they were dispersed. The Duke evidently feared that a public funeral might create a political commotion ; but it was thirty years since he had left Florence, and those who stood around him scarcely remembered his connection with their city. In July magnifi- cent funeral ceremonies were held. The ch. of S. Lorenzo was splendidly decorated, and Varchi delivered the oration. His nephew Leonardo had a monument erected in Santa Croce, and the Duke gave the marble. In the same church are the monuments of Dante, Alfieri, and Macchiavelli. In the court of the Uffizi his statue stands with those of other great Florentines, with no especial prominence. His house in the Ghibelline Street still remains, but his paintings and other works are not there ; they are in the possession of his family. " All Italians feel that he occupies the third place by the side of Dante and Raphael, and forms with them a triumvirate of the greatest men produced by their country, — a poet, a painter, and one who was great in all arts. Who would place a general or a statesman by their side as equal to them ? It is art alone which marks the prime of nations."

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF MICHAEL ANGELO.

Engraver, Alberti, Cherulrino. The Crucifixion. S. Jerome meditating on the Crucifix; 1575. S. Andrew bearing his Cross; 1580. Two Figures from the Last Judgment; 1591. Charon, with two other Figures; 1575. Prometheus devoured by the Vulture; 1580. The famous Pieta.

Engraver, Bartolozzi, Francesco. Prometheus devoured by the Vulture.

Engraver, Beatrici, Niccolo. The Annunciation, with the names of Michael Angelo and Beatrici. The Good Samaritan ; Michele Angelo, inv. The Mater Dolorosa, N. B.; Romae; 1547. The Conversion of S. Paul; M. Angelo, pinx., etc. ; N. B. The Prophet Jeremiah, with names of painter and engraver. The Last Judgment; 1562 ; in nine sheets. Ganymede, inscribed, Ganimedes juvenis, etc. The Fall of Phaethon. Titius devoured by a Vulture; Ant. Salamancha, ex. Silenus carried by Children ; N. Beatrice, fee.

Engraver, Bonasoni, Giulio. The Creation of Eve. The Last Judgment; inscribed, Julius Bonasonius Bonone propria Michcelis Angeli, etc. Solomon, David, and Jesse, from Sistine Chapel; Julio Bonasone imitando, etc. The Fall of Phaethon. Three Female Figures with Veils.

Engraver, Capkllani, Antonio. The Creation of Eve; from Sistine Chapel. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise.


BUONAROTTI — BUONI. 165

Engraver, Caracci, Agostino. The Pieta, after the sculpture of M. Angelo.

Engraver, Caraglio or Caralius, Gio. Giacomo. The Carry- ing up of Ganymede.

Engraver, Cavalleriis, Gio. Batista. The Virgin, called " The Silence." The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin. The Con- version of S. Paul. The Martyrdom of S. Peter.

Engraver, Cort, Cornelius. The two Tombs of the Medici.

Engraver, Cuxkgo, Domenico. Three Subjects from the Crea- tion; Sistine Chapel, engraved for the Schola Italica of G. Ham- ilton.

Engraver, Fulcarus or Furck, Sebastian. The Last Judgment.

Engraver, Ghisi, Giorgio. The Prophets and Sibyls of the Sis- tine Chapel; six large plates. The Last Judgment; ten large plates.

Engraver, Ghisi, Adamo. Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin,- after celebrated sculpture of M. Angelo; 1566.

Engraver, Jode, Gerard de. The Crucifixion; a large print in three sheets, marked, G. de Jode.

Engraver, Kartarius, Marias. The Last Judgment.

Engraver, Kiliax, Lucas. The Pieta.

Engraver, Musis, Agostino de, called Agostino Veneziano. Hercules strangling Antaeus.

Engraver, Perac, ^tienne du. The Last Judgment. The

Capitol.

Engraver, Potrelle, Jean Louis. Portrait of Michael Angelo.

Engraver, Raimoxdi, Marc Antonio. The Holy Family, in the Sistine Chapel. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise, from the Sistine Chapel. Hercules strangling Antaeus.

Engraver, Schiavoxetti, Luigi. The Cartoon representing the Surprise of Soldiers on the banks of the Arno.

Engraver, Sericcus, So ye or Sytius, Philip. The Virgin with the infant Christ sleeping; 1566. Philippus Sericcus. The Cruci- fixion. A Pieta.

Engraver, Steex, Francis van der. Michael Angelo's Dream.

Engrave)', Vico, Vicus or Vighi, Enea. Jupiter and Leda. A Baccha&ilian subject.

Engraver, Zuccherelli or Zuccarelli, Francesco. Etching of the Statue of Victory, after the Sculpture.

Buoni, Buono de, born at Naples; died 1465. One of the best painters of his time. Some of his works are still in the churches of Naples.

Buoni, Silvestro de', born at Naples (1420-1480). Son and pupil of the preceding. He afterwards studied under Solario, called Zingaro. Buoni was an attractive painter. His pictures are in the Mus. and churches of Naples. The best, which is a very interesting work, is in the old basilica of S. Restituta. It represents that saint


166 BUONI— CABEZALERO.

with the Virgin and the Archangel Michael. A warm, beautiful tone pervades the whole; the figures are dignified and not mannered; it seems to unite the style of the Umbrian with the animated cheer- fulness of the Venetian school. ^ »-^ Burghers, Michael. A Dutch engraver who settled at

^D 0xford after the takin g of Utrecht by Louis XIV. Al- though his plates were not especially good, he is esteemed for having preserved many remains of antiquity which would other- wise have been lost.

Burgkmair, Thoman. Kugler says the family of this name are next important to the Holbeins in the history of art in Augs- burg, where some of Burgkmair' s works still remain in the Cath. and Gall. The former were presented in 1480. He is inferior to the Holbeins.

~ Burgkmair, Hans, born at Augsburg (1473-1559).

V, f^y Son of the preceding, and in his day the most im-

il A L 1 A P ortant artist of Augsburg. He was realistic, and V *ir succeeded in actual representations of common life and portraits, and yet was not without feeling for beauty. He had great versatility of talent; he painted religious subjects, and knightly or courtly representations in addition to the subjects before men- tioned. He also made many designs for wood-cuts, which are full of spirit. He imitated no one master, but rather formed a style of his own. Many of his works remain and are in Augsburg, Dresden Gall., Nuremburg, Munich, Vienna, etc. He had two distinct periods; the first extended to 1508, and in it he was German en- tirelv; later, his tendency is to the Italian order, and is characterized by fuller forms, changed draperies, and more delicacy of treatment. That he painted landscapes well may be seen in No. 65, Munich Gall., a " S. John at Patmos."

Byzes of Xaxos, invented the cutting of marble tiles about the 50th Olympiad, or 580 B. c.

c.

Cabel or Kabel, Adrian van der, born at Ryswick, 1631 ; died at Lyons, 1695. Pupil of Van Goyen, whom he left with the intention of visiting Italy. When he reached Lyons his works were so much admired, that it is said he remained there until his death. But we are also told that the associated painters at Rome called him Corydon and Geestigkeit, which would prove that he studied there. He painted landscapes with cattle and figures, and seaports. Some of these were fine, but his habits were irregular, and his pictures consequently very unequal.

Cabezalero, Juan Martin de, born near Cordova (1633-1673). Pupil of Don Juan Carreno. He had great reputation as a painter of history. His principal works are in the churches of Madrid.


CACCIA — CAGLIARI. 1 67

Caccia, Guglielmo, born at Montabone (1568-1625). Called II Moncalvo, from his long residence in that place. He painted in fresco and oil. His coloring was gay, his style of form taken from Raphael; he especially studied his landscape backgrounds. The Chiesa de' Conventual!, at Moncalvo, has a full coll. of his works. They were also known and prized in Milan, Pavia, Turin, Novara, and other cities. He had five daughters, two of whom were painters, Ursula and Francesca. The works of the latter were mistaken for those of her father. He or the daughter Ursula founded a convent, into which the sisters retired. In this convent there are many pictures by Ursula, who died in 1678. Francesca died when fifty- seven, but the year is not known.

Caccinoli, Gio. Batista, born at Castle Budrio (1635 ?-1675). Pupil of Domenico Maria Canuti. A painter of history of good reputation. Many of his works were for the churches of Bologna.

Caffa, Melchiore, born at Malta, 1631; died at Rome, 1687. Studied under Bernini, and is said by some to have equalled his master. He executed various works for the Roman churches. The most esteemed is a marble group of " S. Thomas distributing Alms," in the Chapel of S. Agostino.

Caffieri, Filippo, born at Rome (1634-1716). His family were from Naples, and were allied with many noble houses of Italy. Caffieri went to Paris, at the request of Card. Mazarin, in 1660. He was employed in works for the royal palaces, and Colbert gave him apartments at the Gobelins. He was afterwards made sculptor and naval-architect to the king, and inspector of the marine at Dun- kirk.

Caffieri, Jacques (1678-1755). Son of the preceding. His best

works were busts in bronze.

Caffieri, Jean Jacques (1723-1792). Son of the preceding, whom he much excelled. He executed many fine works. Among his larger ones may be mentioned a group of "Melpomene and Thalia," and a S. Silvia at the Invalides. His busts were better than his statues. Those of Corneille and Piron, at the Theatre Francais, are by him.

Cagliari or Caliari, Paolo, called Paul Veronese, born at Verona (1528-1588). Son of a sculptor, and pupil of Antonio Badile, his uncle, and a reputable painter. He lived mostly in Venice, and imitated Titian in color. He did not equal the latter in the perfection of his flesh tones, but that which particularly dis- tinguished him was the vitality and poetic feeling which he infused into his works. His gorgeous draperies, grand architecture, splendid vases and ornaments, varied costumes, and the representation of imposing scenes rendered his works most effective and masterly. Even his religious pictures have all these features, and are admirable scenes of earthly pageantry. Some of his more serious subjects,


168


CAGLIARI.


however, are thrilling in their deep feeling and expression. Magnifi- cent effect seems to have been his chief aim, and this was attained by representing crowds of figures gorgeously attired, apparently in full enjoyment of happy prosperity. His pictures appeal to the senses more than the spirit, and his costumes are often indecent. Few of his early works are known. The ch. of S. Sebastiano, in Venice, where the master is buried, is rich in his works; there are almost innumerable pictures by him on its walls and altars; of these three are very large and represent scenes connected with the Mar- tyrdom of S. Sebastian. In the Louvre is the colossal " Marriage at Cana." This is 30x20 feet in size, and among its many faces are



to

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A


<


3 O


O



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the portraits of the artist and other prominent persons. Another lar^e work in the Louvre is the "Magdalen washing the Feet of


CAGLIARI. 1 69

Christ." The " Feast of the Levite," in the Acad, at Venice, is also large and rich in color, but less excellent than the others. In the Gall, at Dresden is the " Adoration of the Kings," which is extremely beautiful. The Holy Family are arranged on one side, while on the other, the kings, arrayed with purple and gold, adoringly worship the Divine Child. The harmonious coloring, the noble life, and dignity of the figures, and the whole arrangement of the compo- sition, render it a masterpiece. Veronese decorated the Pal. of the Doge with many mythological and allegorical designs. He left a great number of works. Many of them are in the Louvre, Brera, Dresden, and other European galleries, and the National Gall, has four of his pictures. His portraits were of high merit. He left two etch- ings ; they are slight, but masterly, and represent, —

The Adoration of the Magi : Paolo Veronese, fee.

Two Saints sleeping ; no mark.

Lubke says, " He entered, indeed, upon Titian's heritage, and by his errand creative power and noble beauty upheld the banner of Ve- netian art, until the end of the century." Wornum remarks, " Paolo Veronese was the real master of Rubens. His works, however, have their defects: he was, as Algarotti observes, careless in design, and in costume extremely licentious ; but these faults are completely con- cealed by the absorbing magnificence of his coloring, which, added to his noble fancv and inexhaustible invention, render his defects as a grain of sand in the balance." His son Carlo was his pupil, and seemed to have inherited his talents, but died when twenty-six years old, in 1596.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER PAOLO VERONESE.

Engraver, Aubin, Augustin de St. Jupiter and Leda.

Engraver, Audran, Benoit, the younger. Pilgrims of Emmaus.

Engraver, Bartolozzi, Francesco. The Judgment of Solomon ; after a drawing.

Engraver, Beauvarlet, Jacques Firmin. Venus lamenting Adonis.

Engraver, Bloemaert, Cornelius. The Resurrection.

Engraver, Brebiette, Pierre. The Martyrdom of S. George.

Engraver, Caracci, Agostino. Holy Family with SS. Anthony and Catherine. The Virgin taking two Monks under her protection. The Marriage of S. Catharine. The Crucifixion. Christ's Body, supported by the Virgin and an Angel. Martyrdom of S. Justina ; two sheets.

Engraver, Colemans, Jacob. A Poet conjuring up Fortune. Portrait of P. Veronese.

Engraver, Desplaces, Louis. La Sagesse Compagne d'Hercule.

Engraver, Duchange, Gaspar. The Entombment ; fine.


170 CAGLIAKI.

Engraver, Duflos, Claude. Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus. Engraver, Dupuis, Nicholas Gabriel. Adoration of the Magi. Engraver, Goltz or Goltzius, Heinrich. The Last Supper, 1585. Engraver, Groensvelt, John. Adoration of the Magi; J. Groens-

velt, fee.

Engraver, Haxsftaxgl, Franz. Susanna. Adoration of the Ma<d. Marriage at Cana. Christ bearing the Cross. The Concina Family before the Madonna.

Engraver, Hexriquez, Benoit Louis. Finding of Moses.

Engraver, Hoxeck. The Presentation in the Temple.

Engraver, Houbrakkn, Jacob. Portrait of Daniello Barharo.

Engraver, Jackson, John Baptist. The Presentation in the Tem- ple. Marriage of S. Catherine.

Engraver, Jacob, Louis. Rebecca and Eliczer.

Engraver, Jeaurat, Edme. Finding of Moses; fine.

Engraver, Jouillox, Francois. Apollo and Marsyas. Mercury turning Aglauros to stone.

Engraver, Kiliax, Lucas. The Resurrection.

Engraver, Kiliax, Wolfgang. Baptism of Christ.

Engraver, Kiliax. Philip Andrew. Adoration of the Magi.

Engraver, Lasxe, Michel. Christ in Glory, with SS. Peter and Paul.

Engraver, LoRENZlNI, Fra Antonio. The Annunciation. Bap- tism of Christ. Raising of Lazarus.

Engraver, Maxxl or Maexxl, Jacob. Judith leaving the Tent of Holofernes. Child holding a Dog.

Engraver. Matham, James. Visitation of the Virgin.

Engraver. Mat HAM, Theodoras. Marriage of S. Catherine, S. John presenting the Ring.

Engraver, Mitelli, Giuseppe Maria. The Rich Man and Lazarus.

Engraver, Moyreau, Jean. Rebecca and Eliezer.

Engraver, Pizzi, Luigi. The Feast at the House of Simon.

Engraver, Preisler, Johann Martin. Christ bearing his Cross.

Engraver, Prevost, Zacharias. Marriage at Cana. The Feast in the House of Simon.

Engraver, Raixaldi, Francesco. The Rape of Europa.

Engraver, Ravexet, Simon Francois. Venus and Adonis.

Engraver^ Saexredam, Jan. The Feast at the House of Simon. • Engraver, Saiter, Gottfried. Marriage at Cana.

Engraver, Scotto, Girolamo. Feast at the House of Simon.

Engraver, Terwesten, Augustin, the Elder. Finding of Moses.

Engraver, Thomassin, Henry Simon. Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus.

Engraver, Vaxxi, Gio. Battista. Marriage at Cana.

Engraver, Vexdramixi, Gio. Vision of S. Catherine.


CAGLIARI — CALDAR A. 171

Engraver, Villamena, Francesco. Presentation in the Temple ; this plate was commenced by Agostino Carracci ; it is rare.

Engraver, Visscher, Cornelius. The Ascension.

Engraver, Volpato, Gio. The Feast in the House of Simon.

Engraver, Vorstermax, Lucas. S. Helena seeing the Cross.

Engraver, Wagner, Joseph. Enthroned Madonna with infant S. John and other saints.

Engraver, Zucchi, Andrea. S. John the Baptist.

Cagnacci, G-uido, born at Castel Durante (1600-1680). Pupil of Guido Reni. He merits honorable mention anions BoWnese artists. He avoided all hardness, and so blended his tints as to soften and round the limbs of his figures. The Emperor Leopold T. was his patron, and he spent much time at Vienna. His works are better known in Germany than in Italy.

Cairo, Cavaliere Francesco (1598-16 74). Pupil of Morazzone, he became enamored of Venetian coloring, and studied the works of Titian and Paul Veronese. The result was an admirable style. One of his best works is the S. Theresa in S. Carlo in Venice. His pic- tures are also at Milan and Turin.

Calabrese. See Preti.

Calabrese. See Cardisco.

Calandra, Gio. Batista. One of the first mosaists who wrought in the Vatican. On account of the injury to oil paintings in S. Peter's, resulting from dampness, it was determined during the reign of Urban VIII. to replace them by copies in mosaic. The first altar- piece was a S. Michael after Cesare d'Arpino, executed by Calandra.

Calcar, Hans Von. Real name, Hans Stephanus (1510-1546). Of the Italian School of painting. In 1536-37 he resided in Ven- ice, and studied under Titian, whom he so imitated that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish their respective works. No histori- cal work known to be his remains. His portraits are fine and rare. Berlin Mus. No. 190; a man with a letter in his hand, at Vienna; and one in the Louvre, which has been ascribed to both Paris Bor- done and Tintoretto.

Caldara, Polidoro, called Caravaggio from his birthplace (1495- 1543). This painter began life as a mason and was employed at the Vatican, where, in 1512, he became acquainted with Matturino, of Florence, who instructed him in drawing and made him his assistant in the decorative works in which he was employed. Together they executed fresco chiaro-scuri which were much praised, even by Ra- phael. These are known now only by the engravings from them by Cherubino Alberti, Galestruzzi, and others. In 1527, the sack of Rome interrupted their work, and the two painters were separated. Polidoro went to Naples, and from there to Messina, where he es- tablished a good reputation as an artist. In 1543, having made a comfortable fortune, he prepared to return to Rome, but was mur-


172 CALDARA — CALLET.

dered by his servant for his money. His body was placed on the steps of the house of a lady he had often visited. The servant was suspected and made to confess by means of the torture. His princi- pal work was done at Messina, and represented " Christ bearing his Cross." This with several small pictures of sacred subjects is now in the Studj Gall., at Naples. His works have power, life, and passion, and he may be said to have originated the style which in later time formed the basis of the Neapolitan school.

Calendario, Filippo. Flourished at Venice about 1334. His prin- cipal work was executed for the Republic, and consists of the Por- ticos surrounding the Square of S. Mark. He was largely rewarded by the state, and the Doge gave him one of his daughters in marriage. He did other good works in Venice, but was at last executed as a conspirator.

Caleuse, Cesare. Flourished about 1590. He attained a reputa- ble rank as a painter. His knowledge of chiaro-scuro was good, and his style graceful. In the eh. of 8. John Baptist, at Naples, is a " De- scent from the Cross'* by this artist, which is line.

Caletti, Giuseppe, called Cremonese, born at Ferrara (1600?- 1660). An imitator of Titian. lie spoiled his pictures by inappro- priate arrangements of design. Lanzi says, " He placed wild boars in the sea, and dolphins in the forests." Two of his best works are in the eh. of S. Benedetto at Ferrara.

Call, John Van, born at Nimeguen (1655-1703). After copying the works of some of the best artists of his own country, he went to Rome, where he made a large collection of drawings of all the most picturesque views of the country surrounding that city. He settled at length at the Hague, where he died. His drawings are more prized than his pictures, and bring large prices in Holland, where they are placed in the best collections.

Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall, born at Kensington (1779-1844). A pupil of Hoppner, he at first practised portrait painting, but later devoted himself to landscapes. He has been called the English Claude. In 1837 he exhibited a picture of " Raphael and the Forna- rina," which was quite out of his usual style. "Milton and his Daughters" followed in 1840. The Queen conferred knighthood upon him in 1837, and in 1844 he was appointed Conservator of the Royal Pictures.

Calleja, Andres de la, born at Rioja (1705-1782). A Spanish painter of good reputation. His best works are in the churches of S. Philippe le Royal. S. Croix, the Treasury chapel, and the convent of S. Francis.

Callet, Antoine Francois (1741-1823). One of the best French painters of his time. In the Louvre, there is a large repre- sentation of the " Four Seasons" executed by him for Louis XVL, and intended to be worked in Gobelin tapestry. Part of the ceiling


CALLET — CALVART. 173

of the Gall, of Apollo in the Louvre, and that of the Luxembourg, were by him. He also painted portraits of Louis XVI., Louis XVIII. and Count d'Artois.

Callimachus. A Greek sculptor said to have invented the Corinthian capital. The story is that about 550 b. c. a virgin died at Corinth, and her nurse, according to custom, placed a basket on her grave containing the viands that she loved best. It happened that the basket was placed upon an acanthus, the leaves of which grew up about it with so much grace as to attract the attention of Callimachus, and suggest to him that design which has been for cen- turies a prominent beauty in architecture. Pausanias describes a golden lamp which he made for the service of Athens, which would burn exactly a year without going out. He is also called the inventor of the art of boring marble, but it is believed that he perfected it only, as it must have been known before his time. His fault was that he could never be satisfied with his works, and elaborated them until he spoilei them. On account of this he was called Kaiu&TExvog.

4 Callot, Jacques, born at Nancy (1593-1635).

huWYlt- j/ec. ^- n eminent designer and engraver. He was of a noble family from which he met great opposition

in his pursuit of art. Twice he ran away in order to study. At length he was allowed to go to Rome in the suite of the envoy sent to the Pope by the Duke of Lorraine. He speedily arrived at eminence in his profession. He did not succeed with the graver, and confined himself to the use of the point. Louis XIII. employed Callot to engrave the principal battles and sieges of the French. Richelieu desired him to engrave the siege of Xancv, but Callot declared he would sooner cut off his right hand, than thus to record the calam- ity and disgrace of his prince and country. His prints number more than 1500. His drawings are much prized. His plates with small figures are the best. Lie often made several drawings of the same subject before he satisfied himself. Watelet had seen four different sketches for his celebrated " Temptation of S. Anthony." A com- plete list of his works is given in M. Heineken's " Dictionnaire des Artistes. 1 "

Calvart, Denis, born at Antwerp (1555-1619). From the as- sociations of his life he may be considered as an Italian painter. He was one of those who, at Bologna, turned the attention of artists to landscape painting. He founded in that city the celebrated school in which Albano, Domenichino, and Guido studied. His excellence was such that he mav be regarded as the restorer of the Boloo-nese school, especially in color. His designs had many faults, were mannered, and his figures sometimes indecorous. He was of a turbu- lent and fiery disposition and temperament. He was, however, a most earnest and devoted teacher. His pictures may be seen in the churches of Bologna. He inscribed his name sometimes as DioxrsiO Calvaert. de Antvebsa.


1 74 . CAMASSEI — CAMPAGNOLA.

Camassei, Andrea (1601-1648). Pupil of Domenichino and Andrea Sacchi. His works may be seen in many public edifices at Rome: "Triumph of Constantine," Baptistery of the Lateran ; " Assumption of the Virgin " in the Rotonda, and a " Pieta ,? at the Cappucini.

Cambiaso, Luca, called also Luchetto da Genova, born near Genoa (1527-1585). Pupil of his father, Giovanni, whom he soon surpassed. He painted both in oil and fresco, and it is said that his impetuosity was so great that he sometimes executed his works with- out cartoon or sketch of any kind. His drawings are much esteemed. He was fruitful in invention and there is novelty in his designs. His Cupids and infant angels are boldly outlined, and suggest the study of Michael Angela His color is sometimes brilliant, but too fre- quentlv brown and dull. Some of his Inst works are in Genoa and that vicinity. His fame reached Spain, and Philip II. invited him to Madrid, where he went with his son Orazio in 1583. He was employed in the Escorial and received 12,000 ducats for his fresco of "Paradise" on the ceiling of the choir of S. Lorenzo. Probably this was the largest sum that had then been paid for any modern work of art. After the death of Luca, Philip continued to employ Orazio, and settled a liberal pension on him.

Cambio. See Arnolfo.

Camerata, Giuseppe, born at Venice (1 724 ?— 1 803). An en- graver and painter in miniature who was invited to Dresden, where he assisted in engraving the plates for the Gall., and was made en- graver to the court.

Camilo, Francisco, born at Madrid, of an Italian family ; died 1 G71. Palomino praises him immoderately. He was the scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas. I lis works may be seen in various Spanish cities. His most celebrated one is his " Nuestra Senora de Beleii " in the ch. of S. Juan de Dios at Madrid.

Campagnola, Giulo. A Paduan who flourished about 1500. He is most entitled to notice as an engraver, and there has been much discussion concerning him. Some of his plates are peculiarly done. The background is expressed by dots, and the figures, strongly out- lined, are finished by dots within. These plates prove this style not modern, as it is generally supposed to be.

-p, _ Campagnola, Domenico. Son of the preceding. A

o P u pil of Titian, he aroused the jealousy of that mas-

^•** ' ter. His frescoes in the Scuola del Santo, and his oil pictures in S. M. del Parto established his right to good consideration. His more important works are at Padua: there are four Prophets, half fisfures, in the Acad, at Venice. He holds hirjh rank as an en- graver, and his etchings and wood-cuts, mostly from his own designs, are executed with a spirit and style which show the power of a master hand.


CAMPALASTRO — CANAL. 17p

Campalastro, Ludovico, born at Ferrara. His best works are in the churches of that city.

Campanna, Pedro, born at Brussels (1503-1570). Went when very young to Italy, where he gained a good reputation, and in 1530 was invited to Spain by Charles V. His principal works are at Seville.

Camphuysen, Theodore Raphael, born at Gorcum (1586- 1626?). Pupil of Dietric Govertze. An imitator of Paul Potter. The facts of his life are not known, and are variously stated by differ- ent authors. According to Smith, No. 527, Cassel Gall., represent- ing cattle life size, is by Camphuysen.

Campi, Galeazzo. A Cremonese of little reputation, who flourished in the early part of the 16th century, and whose best work is his own portrait in the Florence Gall.

Campi, Giulio, born at Cremona (1500-1572). Son of the pre- ceding. Head of the Eclectic school at Cremona. He attempted to unite the excellences of the Roman and more northern schools, and has been called the Ludovico Caracci of Cremona, although his reform must have preceded that of Ludovico. He admired Raphael, Titian, and Giorgione. His best works are in Cremona, Milan, and Mantua.

Campi, Antonio, born at Cremona. Flourished about 1586. Brother and pupil of Giulio. He excelled most as an architect. His pictures were mannered. His best one is that of " S. Paul resusci- tating Eutychus," which was engraved by Agostino Caracci.

Campi, Vincenzo, died 1591. Also brother of Giulio, and in- structed by him. His best pictures were those of still-life, but he was much inferior to his brothers.

Campi, Bernardino, born at Cremona (1522-1592). Also brother of Giulio, and the greatest of the Campi. After studying under Giulio, and at Mantua, he went to Parma andModena to study the manner of Correggio. Returning to Cremona he executed im- portant works, the best of which are in the ch. of S. Gismondi. In the cupola he painted an immense representation of the " Blessed of the Old and New Testaments." The figures are seven braccia high and are very numerous, each one being distinguished by an appropriate symbol. He completed this great work in seven months. The Campi were the best Cremonese artists of their time, but they were extremely mechanical in their style.

Canachus. A sculptor of Sicyon. Lived probably at the begin- ning of the 5th century b. c. He excelled more in technicalities and in the excellence of the separate parts of his works than in the grace and beauty of the whole. One of his most important works was a colossal brazen " Apollo " at Miletus. Of this we have copies in a 6tatuette in the British Mus., and on Milesian coins.

Canal or Canale, Antonio, called Canaletto, born in Venice,


176 CANAL — CANO.

(1697-1768). A pupil of his father, who was a scene painter. He went earlv to Rome, where he assiduously studied the ruins of the ancient city. Returning to Venice, he astonished his countrymen by his magnificent views of the palaces and edifices of their city, and by his representations of festivals and carnival scenes, in some of which there are at least 200 figures. He went twice to England, where he was much patronized. His interior views were fine. His coloring in the latter was not brilliant, and in his Venetian pictures it is the o-ondolas with their o-old and gav decorations which give the glare to the scene, his figures being often in neutral tints. He acquired a fortune. His works are very numerous and are in almost every collection. Some of his followers imitated him so closely that their works are sometimes mistaken for his own, and, indeed, there are large numbers of pictures similar to those of Canaletto. Candido. See Witte.

Cano, Alonso, born at Granada (1601-1667). Architect, sculptor, and painter. He studied painting under Pacheco, Castillo, and the elder Herrera ; and sculpture with Martinez Montanes. His talents and versatile genius secured him a high place among artists; and his temper was such as led him to defend his rights against all new- comers. In 1637 he fought a duel, and escaped Madrid; and in 1644 his wife was found murdered in her bed. Cano was suspected of the crime, and, although he fled, was at length apprehended and put to the torture. He made no confession, and was released, judicially in- nocent. He still retained his place as painter of the king, and draw- ing-master to Don Carlos; and was, from time to time, employed on important works. He determined to remove to Granada and take priest's orders. Philip IV. appointed him to a canonry. He was still employed as painter and sculptor by private persons and religious bodies, and even went to Malaga to superintend improvements in the Cathedral. On account of his fierce temper he was deprived of his office by the chapter, and was obliged to repair to the king in order to be reinstated. This occurred in 1659, and so offended him that he would no more use his pencil or chisel in the service of the Cath. at Granada. He devoted the remainder of his life to religious and charitable works, and gave away his money as soon as received. His purse being often empty, he was accustomed to go into a shop and beg a pen and paper. He would then sketch a head, or an architect- ural design, and mark the price upon it. This he would give to a beggar with directions for finding a purchaser. Large numbers of these eleemosynary works were collected after his death. One of his strong characteristics was hatred of the Jews. He would cross the street in order to avoid them, and throw away a garment that had touched one of them. Entering his house, one day, he found his housekeeper bargaining with one of the despised race. He chased him out with great fury, sent his housekeeper away to perform quar-


CAXO — CANOVA. 177

antine, purified his house by re-paving the spot where the Israelite had stood, and gave the shoes, in which he had himself followed his tracks, to his servant. In his last sickness, he refused to receive the sacrament from his attendant priest, because he had communicated with Jews; and, when they gave him a rudely sculptured crucifix, pushed it away. Being reproved, he answered, " Vex me not with this thing, but give me a simple cross, that I may adore it, both as it is in itself, and as I can figure it in my mind." " This beino- done " Palomino says, " he died in a manner highly exemplary, and edify- ing to those about him." Cano's architectural works were chiefly retablos, which were executed according to the taste of the day, loaded with heavy ornamentation. Very few of these remain; but the Louvre has a few architectural drawings, simple and elegant in style. He loved his chisel better than his brush, and the little of his work which remains, proves him to have been excelled by no carver of Spain. When weary of painting he carved for refreshment. A pupil once remarked upon this strange method, when he replied, " Blockhead, don't you perceive that to create form and relief, on a flat surface, is a greater service than to fashion one shape into another?" The masterpiece of his chisel, now remaining, is a Virgin, about a foot high, in the Sacristy of the Cath. of Granada. In painting he was a ready draughtsman, yet was accustomed to borrow largely from the ideas of others, and defended the practice. His works are the finest produced by any Spaniard without study in Italy. The Queen of Spain's Gall, has eight of his pictures. The ch. of Getafe, two leagues from Madrid towards Toledo, has six large pictures by Cano, adorning the retablo of the high altar. The Cath. of Granada was cruelly robbed by the French, but still retains some good altar-pieces by its artist-canon. The Cath. of Malaga boasts the " Virgin of the Rosary," in which the hands and feet are peculiarly beautiful. This picture is fast decaying. The Mus. of Valencia has two pictures by this master. One of his most beautiful, and latest works, representing " Our Lady of Bethlehem," painted at Malaga for Don Andres Cascantes, was presented to the Cath. of Seville, where it still hangs in a small chapel, lighted only by votive tapers. It is finished with exceeding care, and is a worthy crown to his labors. The portraits by Cano, which remain, are few, but ex- cellent. The Louvre, the National Mus. at Madrid, and the Royal Mus., each possess one of these works.

Canova, Antonio, born in Possagno (1757-1822). His father and grandfather were stone-cutters. The former died young, and Antonio was left to the care and instruction of the latter. Works executed by Canova in his ninth year still remain. Not far from his home lived the Signor Gio. Faliero, who was accustomed to employ the old Pasino Canova, for whom he entertained so great a regard that he sometimes invited him to spend a few davs at his villa. Antonio ac-

12


178 CANOVA.

companied his grandfather, became the friend of the young Giuseppe Faliero, and the favorite of the entire family. On one occasion when Canova and his grandfather attended a festival in the Villa Faliero, the ornament for the dessert was forgotten. The mistake being dis- covered almost the moment it was required, the servants applied to Pasino to assist them, for they feared the displeasure of the master. The old man could do nothing, but the young Tonin, as he was called, asked for some butter, and presently carved a lion. This being sent to the table attracted the attention of all, and Tonin was sent for. He received the praises of the whole company, and from this time the Senator Faliero became his patron. This anecdote is verv pleasing, but it is probable that the talents of Canova were well known to Faliero before this occurrence. He placed the boy under the tuition of Giuseppe Bernardi, called Toretto, a Venetian sculptor, who had settled at Pairnano. Canova was at this time twelve years of ajje. He remained two years with this master, and during that time made many statues and models which are still preserved in the Faliero family, ami in various collections. During an absence of his master he made the models, in clay, of two angels, which were his first really original work. He placed them in a conspicuous situation, and awaited the master's return with hope and fear. Toretto remained astonished before them, and exclaimed that it was truly a marvellous work. From these models the grandfather executed in pietra dura the two angels on the high-altar at Monfumo. About this time Canova executed his first representation of the human form in marble. He made small statues and used them as gifts for his friends. When he was fifteen his patron sent for him to go to Venice, and received him kindly into his own house. Canova desired to do something for himself, and engaged to work the latter half of the day for Giuseppe Ferrari, nephew of Toretto. In a private letter Canova afterwards wrote, " I labored for a mere pittance, but it was sufficient. It was the fruit of my own resolution, and, as I then flattered myself, the foretaste of more honorable rewards." This fact places his genius before us in a strong: lisrht, for it is unusual that a youth of fifteen should receive money, instead of paying it for instruction. In Venice a new field was open to his observation. He systematically divided his time; passed his mornings in the Acad, or in some Gall., his afternoons in the workshop, and the evenings in studies which had been neglected in his youth. The first commission which Canova received was from the Commendatore Farsetti, and consisted of two baskets filled with fruits and flowers, sculptured in marble, and placed on the balustrade of the staircase which led to the picture- gallery, in the Pal. Farsetti, where Canova had spent much time in study. These works had no especial excellence, and prove that the powers of Canova were not extraordinary at that time. At the end of a year he went with the Faliero family to their summer home at


CANOVA. 17.1

Asolo. Some time previous to this, his patron, desiring to possess a good work of his, had given him as a subject, a group of Orpheus and Eurydice, and wished him to represent the moment when the lover beholds her torn from his arms forever. He had worked upon this in his leisure hours, and took everything necessary for the work with him to Asolo, where he finished, in his sixteenth year, " Euryd- ice," his first original statue. It was executed in pietra di Costosa, and was the size of life. From this time Canova perceived a great deficiency in the models then used, for it was customary to make them many times smaller than the statue when finished. He deter- mined to make all his models, even those of colossal figures, of the exact size in which they were to be finished. After this time he oc- cupied a cell in the monastery of the Augustine friars attached to the eh. of S. Stefano. During the next three years, in addition to his studies, he was employed on the " Orpheus," and in executing a bust of the Doge Renier. He was accustomed, at this time, to study entirely from nature. He also gave much time to anatomy, and in later years made dissections with his own hand, in order to sketch, and frequently to model from important parts, or well-defined conforma- tions in particular instances. In 17 76 his " Orpheus " was exhibited at the annual festival of the Ascension. It happened that at the same time the opera of " Orpheus " was brought out in Venice. The praise which he then received was always remembered by Canova " as that which made him a sculptor," to use his own words; and his gratitude for it caused him, when created Marquis of Ischia, to choose the serpent and lyre, the mythological symbols of Orpheus and Euryd- ice, for his armorial ensigns. He soon received an order from the Senator Grimani for a copy of the " Orpheus," which was the first statue he executed in Carrara marble. Finding his workshop too small, he removed to one in the street of S. Maurizio, where he con- tinued until his final departure from his native country. His next work was a statue of " iEsculapius," larger than life; and it is said that but a short time before his death, he saw this work for the first time after it had left his atelier, and declared himself sorrowful that ' ' his progress had by no means corresponded with the indications of excel- lence exhibited in this performance of his youth." He also executed a group of " Apollo and Daphne," never entirely finished. When twenty-two years old, he completed the group of "Dasdalus and Ica- rus," for the Senator Pisani. This was intended as an outward decora- tion of his palace, but when finished, it was considered too valuable, and was placed in the Gall, already made famous by the " Family of Darius " of Paul Veronese, and other excellent works. This may be considered his last work executed in Venice, as he went to Rome soon after his twenty-third birthday. He had been recommended by let- ters to the Cavaliere Zuliani, who then represented the Republic of Venice at Rome, and was the intimate friend of Faliero. He was an


180 CANOVA.

enlightened and generous protector of the arts, and received Canova with treat kindness. He soon arranged to have the model of tk Daeda- lus and Icarus " displayed before the best artists and connoisseurs in Rome. The trepidation with which Canova went to this exhibition, can easily be imagined. The praise which he received, and the acknowledgment of his merit, established his reputation. He had long desired to undertake a group on some heroic subject, and Zuli- ani procured him the marble, and promised that if no other purchaser appeared, he would give him the full value of the group when finished. The subject chosen was that of " Theseus vanquishing the Minotaur," the figures to be of heroic size. His workshop was in a part of the Venetian Pal. to which no one had access. He worked with untiring industry, studied in the museums and collections at Rome, and at daylight was often seen with his sketch-book or modelling ap- paratus before the statues in front of the capitol, or the colossal figures on Monte Cavallo. In the mean time his friends in Venice succeeded in obtaining for him a pension of 300 ducats from the government. While, at work upon the " Theseus " he also finished a statue of "Apollo," which last was first exhibited at the same time with the •' Minerva Pacifica " of Angelini, and in spite of the formidable com- petition, the " Apollo" received high praise. At length the " The- seus " was finished. Its existence Avas unknown to all save the ambas- sador. In order to give full effect to the first exhibition of this work, Zuliani gave an entertainment and invited all the most distinguished men of Rome. A model of the head of Theseus had been prepared by the artist, and attracted the attention of the guests. Various opin- ions were expressed regarding its form, its expression, and subject, and all agreed that it was an antique of great merit. In the midst of the talk, the ambassador said, " Come, let us end these disputes by see- ing the orio-inal," and the statue was unveiled before them. Every- thine was forgotten in their surprise and admiration, and even the ar- tists, who afterwards pursued him with envious malice, praised him in that moment. Canova was often heard to say that death itself could not have been more terrible than his emotions during these oc- currences. With the completion of this work terminated the novitiate of Canova. From this time his fame was established. He was soon selected by Volpato to erect a monument to Clement XIV., "the suppressor of the Jesuits, the collector of the Clementine Mus., and the author of those elegant letters by which his family name, Gan- ganelli, has been rendered famous over Europe." Canova hesitated in accepting this, feeling that his time should be controlled by those who had bestowed his pension. He went therefore to Venice, and laid the matter before the senate, who directed him to employ his time as was most profitable to himself. He now gave up his studio in Venice, and, as Zuliani left Rome at this time, he established him- self in the Strada Babbuino. and opened that studio which is still the


CANOVA. 181

resort of the lovers of art, of all nations. He now commenced to practise upon his long meditated design of making his original models of the dimensions of the projected work. In 1787, the monument of Ganganelli was first exhibited. It was much praised, even by Mili- zia. a bitter critic. This was followed by a monument to Clement XII J. , erected by his nephews in S. Peter's; and the mourning genius in this monument is one of the loveliest works of Canova. These two monuments employed the best part of ten years of the most vigorous time in his life. An engraving of the first monument had been dedi- cated to Zuliani, but Canova desired to give him some more substan- tial proof of his gratitude, and made for him a statue of Psyche; but Zuliani hesitated to accept it, and was only persuaded to do so with the understanding that the artist should receive from him a number of gold and silver medals, with Psyche on one side, and the head of Canova on the other, to distribute among his friends. In the midst of these arrangements, the ambassador died, and the heirs of Zuliani, displeased at his having given his works of art to the public library, refused to carry out his plans. Subsequently the "Psyche " was pur- chased by Napoleon and presented to the Queen of Bavaria. The fame of Canova extended to Russia, and most advantageous offers were made him to 20 to St. Petersburgh. He did not wish to do so, and excused himself on account of a commission from the Venetian senate. This was a monument to the Admiral Emo. Canova suc- ceeded so well in this that a gold medal was made by order of the senate and presented to him; while; at the same time, an annuity for life was voted him. In 1798, unable to endure the revolutionary frenzy at Rome, he retired to his native Possagno. Here he re- mained more than a year and employed his time in painting. Al- though we are not accustomed to associate his name with this branch of art, he was by no means a despicable painter, and his pictures, which Cicognara states as twenty-two, were more numerous than that. In May, 1800, his masterpiece, representing the Saviour just taken from the cross, surrounded by the Maries, S. John, Joseph of Arima- thea, and Nicodemus, was placed in the parish ch. of Possagno. This was the first of his many munificent gifts which made this hum- ble church a splendid temple. After his return to Rome, his health being affected by continual application, he determined to leave the many orders which awaited him, and, in company with Prince Rezzo- nico, he visited Vienna and Berlin. He returned with restored health, and from this time enjoyed the reputation he had so well earned, and was constantly employed in the most important labors. His " Per- seus " was placed, by a public decree, in one of the Stanze of the Vatican, an asylum hitherto denied to modern art. This was a proud triumph for Canova. In 1802-03, he went to Paris at the request of Napoleon, to model the bust for a colossal statue, finished six years after. In 1810 he was called again to Paris to prepare a model for


182 CANOVA.

the statue of Maria Louisa. In 1805, lie went the second time to Vienna, where he modelled the bust of the emperor. With the ex- ception of these journeys, from 1800 to 1815, he never quitted Rome, and, in truth, scarcely left his workshop. In the last named year he was sent, in an official capacity, to Paris, for the purpose of re- claiming the works of art which had been taken from Italy, and be- longed to the patrimony of the Church. His exertions, and the suc- cess attendant upon them, should ever be remembered by Romans with gratitude. When his commission was happily accomplished he went to London. Here he was received with great distinction. The kin<>- honored him with several conferences, gave him a commission for a beautiful group, presented him with rich gifts, and made him the bearer of private letters to the Pope. The joy in Rome when her works of art were restored, was increased when Canova himself arrived. His entry there may be called a triumphal one, and took place on the 5th of January, 1816. He had been president of S. Luke's before; he was now made president of the commission for the purchase of objects of art, and of the Acad, of Archaeology. In full consistory, the Pope ordered his name to be inscribed in the " golden volume of the Capitol," with the title of Marquis of Ischia, and a pen- sion of 3000 crowns a year was riven him. Canova now designed to execute a colossal statue of " Religion," to commemorate the return from banishment of the Pope. He only waited for the proper au- thorities to determine where it should be placed; but this they would not do. and, through mutual jealousies, Rome was deprived of the magnificent srift. Canova was filled with sorrow and regret at this circumstance, but he determined that not only one statue, but his re- maining life and fortune, should be consecrated to religion; and he re- solved to erect a church at Possa-j.no, adorned with many works of art, and that there his ashes should repose. In the summer of 1819, after many preparations, Canova arrived at his native town. On the 8th of July, he assembled his workmen and gave them a sumptuous entertainment. Many young shepherdesses and peasant girls had joined in the festivities, and assisted in the preliminary excavations. At the close of the day, each one received a present from Canova as she passed his seat to bid him farewell. On the eleventh of the month the religious ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the future church took place. An immense concourse, not only from the surrounding country, but from Venice, was present. Canova, habited in his robes as a Knight of Christ, and bearing the insignia of various other orders, led the procession. The occasion must have been most impressive, for all could not have passed away, who had seen this famous man, when, a poor boy, he attended the steps of his grand- father, the stone-cutter, now raised by the noblest distinctions. He consecrated his life and fortune to the service of God, and the bene- fit of his birthplace. Every autumn, Canova visited Possagno, en-


CANOVA. 183

couraged and rewarded the workmen, and changed from time to time, as seemed best to him, the details of the previous plan. The expenditure he thus incurred necessitated great exertion, and he con- stantly undertook new commissions. One work of this time, the statue of Washington, is especially interesting " as the first piece of sculpture executed in the Old, and publicly commissioned in the New World; thus uniting, by the fame of one individual, the art of both hemispheres. (Memes.) In his last winter he was more than or- dinarily diligent, engaged upon an equestrian statue of Ferdinand of Naples. On account of this work, in May, he went to that city, and there became ill. He returned to Rome where, for a time, he seemed to revive, and was able to resume his work. He arrived in Possagno on the 1 7th of September, and in October went to the Villa Faliero. A half century had passed since he had here indulged the dreams of youth, and he lingered lovingly on every favorite spot. Though con- stantly growing weaker he went to Venice, to the house of his friend Francesconi, where, on the 13th of October, he died. Solemn ser- vices were held in Venice when his bier was borne to the cathedral by the professors of the academy, attended by the most distinguished men in art, letters, or rank. His remains were then consigned to a deputation of priests from Possagno, and borne in a barge to Pos- tioma. From here they were taken to his temple, and on the 25th, the last honors were paid them. On this occasion, the crowd was so vast that they were obliged to deliver the oration in the open air. The Venetian Acad, obtained the heart of Canova, to contain which, an elegant little monument was erected in the hall of the Pal. of the Arts. The Venetian artists made arrangements to erect a cenotaph to him, and selected for it his own model of the tomb of Titian. In Rome a statue was decreed to him, and he was pro- claimed perpetual president of her chief academy. In personal ap- pearance Canova was not especially attractive. His hair was black and luxuriant, and his forehead of noble dimensions, but the outline of his features was neither grand nor extraordinary. His head was remarkably well set upon his shoulders, and his loose manner of dressing his neck permitted this to be seen. His whole air, manner, and dress was that of modesty, benevolence, and simplicity. There is a story that when he first arrived in Venice, he fell in love with a beautiful girl, somewhat older than himself, who came to draw in the Farsetti Gall. Day by day he watched her, until at last she came no more. At length her attendant appeared, and when he inquired for the loved one, she burst into tears and exclaimed, " La Signora Julia is dead." He said no more. Who Julia was he never knew, but, through all his life, whenever he endeavored to unite the purity of the angel with the representation of earthly beauty, the lovely Julia was in his mind. The habits of his life were very unostentatious. He arose early and worked late. He went little into public society,


184 CANO VA — CANTAGALLINA.

but almost always surrounded himself with a few friends at dinner. He entertained them cordially, but without display. He was very abstemious, and required rest even after his frugal meals. He joined in cheerful and light conversation, but avoided any subject connected with the arts, or anything that required mental activity. He re- tired to his chamber at eleven, and amused himself with a book or pencil before sleeping. Some of his finest sketches were made at this time, a part of which have been published under the title of " Pen- sieri." To describe one day. is to describe his whole life. His re- ligious character and generosity have been sufficiently portrayed. In professional intercourse, he was governed by the same rules that regu- lated his life. The progress of art through the achievements of others afforded him pleasure; envy and jealousy were unknown to him. At the same time he was severely just in the estimation of his own merits. He would not receive pupils, and no one could boast of being taught by him; but he never refused to leave his own work to give his advice or assistance, or to visit the work of any other artist. To art he was a willing and powerful patron, and he had executed, at his own order and expense, the numerous busts of distinguished per- sons in the Mus. of the Capitol. The following is a list of a por- tion of his works, with the dates of their execution : —

1772. Two baskets of fruits and flowers in marble, Farsetti

Pal.

1773. Statue of Eurvdice; soft stone of Costosa. 1776. Orpheus ; soft stone of Costosa.

1779. Daedalus and Icarus ; Carrara marble, Pasini Pal., Venice.

1782. Theseus and the Minotaur.

1787. Tomb of Clement XIV., Rome, ch. of the Holy Apostles.

1792. Tomb of Clement XIII., Rome, S. Peter's.

1793. Second statue of Psyche.

1794. Cenotaph of Admiral Erao.

1800. Perseus, with the Head of Medusa; Vatican.

1803. Colossal statue of Napoleon.

1805. Venus victorious; head of Pauline Bonaparte; Villa Bor-

ghese, Rome.

1811. Statue of Maria Louisa.

1817. Monument of Cardinal York.

1818. Sitting statue of Washington. 1822. Pieta in model.

1822. Seven reliefs for the Metopes of the temple at Possagno.

These are but a small portion of his works. Cupid, Psyche, Venus, Adonis, Nymphs, etc., etc., were his favorite subjects and often repeated.

Cantagallina, Remigio, born at Florence (1582-1630). An eminent designer and engraver, said to have instructed Cailot and Stefano della Bella. His pen-drawings are much prized.

The following are his principal plates: —


CANTAGALLIXA — CARAGLIO. 185

The Immaculate Conception; after Callot.

Set of four Landscapes. 1609.

Set of six Landscapes.

Set of twelve Landscapes; octagon; marked with cipher.

Set of six Landscapes ; with cipher. 1624.

Set of plates of -the scenes of an Opera; after designs by Giulio

Parigii.

Set of plates called the Palazzo della Fama. 1608.

Cantarini, Simone, called II Pesarese, bom at Orpezza, 1612; died at Verona, 1648. After studying with other masters he became the pupil of Guido Reiii. He came to be one of the very best Italian portrait painters. A head of Guido by Cantarini in the Acad, of Bologna can scarcely be surpassed in the world. He was vain, and so disagreeable in disposition that he was obliged to leave Bologna, and went to Rome. His imitation of Guido is very apparent, and even more so in his etchings than in his paintings. He is very highly esteemed as an engraver.

Cantofoli, Ginevra, born at Bologna (1618-1672). Pupil of Elisabetta Sirani. Her pictures were historical and may be seen in several churches in Bologna.

Canuti, Domenico Maria, born at Bologna (1620-1684). One of the most excellent pupils of Guido. He was employed in the public edifices of Rome, Bologna, and Padua. He also etched several plates in the manner of Guido.

Capella, Jan Van de. A Dutch painter of marine views, born at Amsterdam, and granted the freedom of the city in 1653. Further than this his history is unknown. His pictures are much admired in England, and a large part of them are in that country. Kb. 10, Gall, of the Duke of Aremberg at Brussels, is by him, and represents the mouth of the Scheldt, with numerous vessels. His pictures are signed J. V. Capelle, but are not dated. He liked smooth seas best, with objects clearly reflected, and his skies are often red. He was a good colorist. Some of his works are winter landscapes with skaters on lake or river.

Caracciolo, Giambattista, born at Naples (1580 ?-1641). Al- though in the main a follower of the Carracci, he was somewhat influenced by the Naturalisti. He is said to have been one of a cabal formed to exclude all masters from other parts of Italy from Naples. This association is said to have committed many crimes. Caracciolo went to Rome and studied the works of Annibale Carracci in the Farnese Pal. to so good a purpose, that some of his works done afterwards in Naples closely resemble those of Annibale. Some of his pictures are seen in the churches of Naples.

Caraglio or Caralius, Gio. Giacomo, born at Verona,

(1512?-1570?). An eminent Italian designer and engraver

    • " who was celebrated for his copper-plates from 152G to 1551.

From his style he is believed to have been a pupil of Marc


®


186 CARAGLIO — CARDUCCI.

Anton. He executed some medals at the court of Poland which gained him much reputation, and he was often employed to engrave gems.

Caravaggio, Michael Angelo. See Amerighi.

Cardi, Ludovico, called /T f*\ T\ T T' T ~\1 \ 7 ^%°^ fr° m tne place of his T J Cl 1 V. I* . 1 IN V ^»'th (1559-1613). One of

those artists distinguished more by the absence of any glaring faults than by the presence of any striking excellences. His color was warm and pleasing, but his expression was often exaggerated. He was a follower of Baroc- cio, and well understood chiaro-scuro. His designs were sometimes grand. S. Francis was one of the favorite subjects of this artist, and one of the best of these pictures is in the Pitti Pal., where there is also a " Christ walking on the Sea with Peter " and an " Ecce Homo," which last merits much praise. In the Louvre there is a beau- tiful " Flight into Egypt." Several of his works are in the churches of Rome and Florence. He engraved the two following plates : —

Mary Magdalene washing the feet of Christ : —

The Conversion of S. Paul.

Cardisco, Marco, called II Calabrese. A Calabrian who flour- ished from 1508 to 1542. Some of his works may be seen in the churches of Naples.

Carducci or Carducho, Bartolomeo, born at Florence, 1560; died at Madrid, 1608. A pupil of Zuccaro, he went with him to Spain. Carducho had also studied sculpture and architecture under Barto- lomeo Ammanati at Florence. He was employed by both Philip II. and his successor. Henry IV. invited him to the court of France, but he preferred to stay in Spain. Among his works at the Escorial, the frescoes in the spaces between the bookcases and the cornice of the library are especially fine. The work which most established his reputation was the i* Descent from the Cross," painted for the ch. of S. Felipe el Real. He was engaged in painting a gallery at the Pal. of the Pardo at the time of his death. He was an imitator of the antique. His drawing and coloring were good, and he was fastidious to a fault, in his own ideas of excellence. He never felt as if a picture was finished, and he declared that it was not the people that he wished to please, but those who could judge of art.

Carducci or Carducho, Vincenzo, born at Florence, 1568; died at Alcala de Henares, 1638. Brother of Bartolomeo, who brought him to Madrid in 1585. Vincenzo was accustomed to declare himself more a Spaniard than an Italian. He was instructed in painting by his brother, and at his death was appointed to succeed him as painter to the king. He had an inventive genius, and was not confined to any one class of subjects. He had studied anatomy to good advan- tage, and his pictures are vigorous in action, his draperies grand, and


CARDUCCI — CAROTTO. 187

his coloring rich. In the National Mus. of Madrid are the pictures •which he painted for the Chartreuse of Paular. They number 54, and he agreed to paint them in four years. Twenty-six of these illustrate the life of S. Bruno; an equal number represent events in the history of the order, and two are a combination of the arms of the Royal House and those of the Carthusians. These works are a wonderful monument to his industry and inventive powers. They lose much of their effect from being seen in a museum. They were intended for the lonely silence and gloomy shadows of a cloister, and to speak to the hearts of those, who lived in perpetual silence, to whom the figures of these pictures became friends, and were to them the only reminder of the mothers and sisters they had left, or, in fact, of the existence of woman in the world. What is absurd to us now, was venerable and lovely to them. The pictures of Carducho are seen in most of the Castilian cities. In the Gall, of the Queen of Spain, there are three pictures of a different order of subjects: " The Taking of Rheinfelt," " The Relief of Constance," and " The Victory at Floras." There is also a colossal study of a man's head, which is very effective if viewed from a favorable position. Collec- tors of sketches formerly esteemed those of Carducho very highly. He also wrote a book of "Dialogues on Fainting," published in 1633. This book is very curious and rare. His portrait at the Louvre, Gall. Espagn., No. 454, represents him as turning the leaves of this book with one hand, and holding a pen in the other.

Cariano, Gio... born at Bergamo. Flourished early in the 16th century. His chef-d'oeuvre was a " Madonna and Saints" painted for the ch. of S. Gottardo in Bergamo, which was removed to the Gall, of Milan, No. 113, during the French domination. He made a fine reputation as a portrait painter. Several of his works remain in Bergamo; Palazzo Borghese, Rome, Room IX., No. 32 ; Hermitage, St. Petersburgh, No. 116; Dresden Mus., No. 218 ; Berlin Mus., No. 188.

Carlevariis, Luca, born at Udina, 1665; died at Venice, 1729. His pictures are little known out of Venice, and represent views of that city and other sea-ports. His figures have spirit, but his color is not good. He made 100 good etchings of views in Venice.

Carloni, Gio., born at Genoa (1590-1630). He studied under Passignano at Florence, and became a good fresco painter, especially remarkable for his fine coloring.

Carloni, Giambattista (1594-1680). Younger brother of the preceding, with whom he studied under Passignano, and painted with him afterwards. He was remarkable for his large family, having had 24 children by his wife Nicoletta Scorza. Three of his sons were painters. The Cath. of Guastato at Genoa was the place where the Carloni executed their best and most extensive works.

Carotto, Gianfrancesco, born at Verona (1470-1546). Out of


188 CAROTTO - CARRACCI.

Verona his works are rare; there they are in the churches and the Palazzo del Consiglio. Mantegna was his teacher, but his works more nearly imitate the manner of Leonardo. His drawing was severe, his color warm and well blended. The " History of Tobias " in S. Eufemia is an excellent series of pictures.

Carpaccio, Vittore. Flourished early in the 16th century. Kug- ler calls him " the historical painter of the elder Venetian school." His pictures represent daily life in Venice. The backgrounds have landscape, architecture, etc., and his figures are numerous and full of spirit, his color deep and powerful. Many of his works are in the Acad, of Venice, among which are eight representing S. Ursula and her 11,000 virgins. His pictures are also in the Venetian churches, in the Brera, the Louvre, and the Berlin Gall.

Carpi, Ugo da. Flourished about 1510. Born at Rome. Painter and engraver, but chiefly important on account of having invented (as it is believed) that kind of wood-engraving which imi- tates drawings, and is called chiaroscuro. Bartsch gives 52 plates by Carpi; they are mostly after the works of Raphael and Parmigi- anino, and are spirited and masterly.

"Carpi, Girolamo, born at Ferrara (1501-1556?). Pupil of Garo- falo. Painted both in fresco and oil, and succeeded in portraits. He was also an architect and a decorative painter. Julius III. desired to have him superintend the Vatican buildings, but his rivals in Rome so disturbed him that he returned to Ferrara.

Carpioni, Giulio, born at Venice (1611-1674). Pupil of Ales- sandro Varotari, called Paduanino. He painted bacchanals and history, and small sacred subjects, many of which are in the churches of the Venetian states. Some of his works are close imitations of Paolo Veronese, and some remind one of Niccolo Poussin, though upon examination the figures arc not as highly finished as those of Poussin, and the color is more opaque. His pictures are in private galleries in England.

Carracci, Ludovico, born at Bologna (1555-1619). The founder of what is called the School of the Carracci. This was the most im- portant of the eclectic schools of Bologna. Ludovico was a pupil of Prospero Fontana, and afterwards of Tintoretto. He studied with more system and devotion to the principles of art than was the cus- tom of his time. He thus incurred much criticism, and by it he be- came convinced of" the need of a reform in the study and practice of painting. In the formation and conducting of his school he was as- sisted by his two nephews, Agostino and Annibale. The former composed a sonnet in which the principles of their theory was set forth. He advocated the selection of the chief points of excellence from various masters, par exemple, the color of Lombardy, the truth and nature of Titian, the design of Rome, etc., etc.; and all these were to be united to the study of Nature. But although this doctrine


CARRACCL i89

was the foundation of the school of the Carracci, they soon went be- yond it, and became independent artists, guided by their own genius. Their school, however, was most prosperous; so much so that all other schools in Bologna were closed. They furnished casts, models, and drawings, as well as living subjects for study, and were most attentive to their pupils. They also gave theoretic instruction in anatomy, perspective, etc. Ludovico excelled more as a teacher than as a painter, and in his works the greatest ability is found in their examination in single parts, rather than as a whole. The lamer number of his works are in Bologna, and in the Gall, there is a fine Madonna surrounded with a glory of angels, with SS. Francis and Jerome ; she is standing on the moon. Same coll., " Birth of S.John the Baptist '" has some most attractive features. Several of his pic- tures are in the Louvre, and in the Doria and Corsini galleries in Rome. He seems to have been the first to depict the pathos of sor- row, and his example resulted in the almost numberless sorrowing Maries and Ecce Homos of the Bolognese artists. There is a higher feeling in his works which raises him above his own school. Sir Joshua Reynolds gives Ludovico unbounded praise. It is said that when the scaffoldings were removed in the Cath. of Bologna, he dis- covered some errors in the " Annunciation," which could not be rem- edied then, and that this disappointment hastened his death. We have a few plates engraved by Ludovico from his own designs, in a masterly style. They are first etched and then finished with the


graver.


ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF LUDOVICO CARRACCI.

Engraver, Algardi, Alessandro. A Blind Beggar and his Dog. The Cries of Bologna, in 80 plates, engraved by Algardi in conjunc- tion with Simon Guillain.

Engraver, Aliamet, Francois Germain. The Adoration of the Shepherds.

Engraver, Aquila, Francesco Faraone. The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin, with Mary Magdalene and S. Francis.

Aubert, Michel. Pan instructed by Cupid; half-length figures.

Audran, Charles. The Annunciation; inscribed Spiritus Sanctus, etc., incorrectly attributed on the plate to Annibale. The picture is in the Bologna Cath.; very fine.

Engraver, Audran, John. S. John administering the Sacrament to the Virgin.

Engraver, Baillu. The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin.

Engraver, Bartoli, Pietro Sante. The Virgin and Child in the Clouds, with Saints.

Engraver, Blanchard, James. S. Agnes adoring the Child in the arms of the Virgin.

Engraver, Boulanger, John. The Holy Family, with S. Joseph giving the Infant some Cherries.


190 CARRACCI.

Engraver, Brizzio, or Briccio, Francesco. The Return out of Egypt. Portrait of Cinthio Aldrobrandini. A Frontispiece inscribed Explicatione del Sacro, lenzuolo ; 1599; scarce. Another Frontispiece inscribed Tempio al Cardinale Cinthio Aldrobrandini; 1579. Another Frontispiece with the Arms of the Duke of Modena, with children in the middle; 1594; very scarce. S. Francis holding the Infant Jesus, with the Virgin in the Clouds. The Virgin crowned, with the Infant and two Angels.

Engraver, Camerata, Giuseppe. S. Roch. The Assumption of the Virgin .

Engraver, Cantarini, Simone. S. Benedict curing a Demoniac.

Plates by himself, from his own Designs.

Samson overcoming the Lion; L. C. G. The Virgin and Child with four Angels ; half length. The Virgin suckling the Infant; half length; Lod. Car. inv.f. The IIolv Family, with the Virgin washing Linen ; L. C. f. Another Holy Family ; 1604; Ludovico Carracci fee. Another Holy Family under an Arch. The Frontispiece to the Poems of Cesare Rimaldi. A Thesis with the arms of Bonfigliovoli, with Mercury and Her- cules.

Engraver, Ciamberlano, Luca. Christ appearing to S. Theresa; 1615.

Engraver, Coriolano, Gio. Batista. Christ crowned with Thorns; fine.

Engraver, Corneille, Michel the Elder. The Virgin suckling the Child.

Engraver, Corneille, Michael the Younger. Marriage of S. Catherine.

Engraver, Cort, Cornelius. The Cord of S. Francis.

Engraver, Cunego, Domenico. The birth of S. John Baptist.

Engraver, Daret, Peter. The Virgin suckling the Child.

Engraver, Dupuis, Nicholas Gabriel. S. Sebastian.

Engraver, Fantetti, Cesare. Christ in the Garden.

Engraver, Frey, James. Crowning of the Virgin.

Engraver, Frezza, Gio. Girolamo. The Virgin suckling the Child.

Engraver, Gantrel, Stephen. S. Francis supported by an Angel.

Engraver, Gatti, Oliviero. An emblematical subject represent- ing an armorial bearing supported by two river gods, surrounded by several mythological personages.

Engraver, Giovannini, Giacomo Maria. S. Sebastian.

Engraver, Green, Valentine. The Entombing of Christ.

Engraver, Kessel, Theodore. Christ and the Woman of Samaria. The Woman taken in Adultery.


CARRACCI. 191

Engraver, Lasne, Michael. The Visitation of the Virgin.

Engraver, Lorkxzixi, Fra Antonio. The Ascension.

Engraver, Mattioli, Ludovico. The Annunciation ; scarce. The Circumcision.

Engraver. MORIN, John. The Virgin, with the Dead Christ.

Engraver, Pasquilini, Gio. Batista. S. Felix kneeling before the Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Pitau, Nicholas. The Entombing of Christ.

Engraver, Podesta, Andrea. Two Subjects from the Life of S. Diego.

Engraver, Poilly, Francis the Elder. The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin at the foot of the Cross.

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo, called De Rubeis the Elder. The Virgin and Child, with SS. Jerome and Francis, inscribed Hieroni- mus de Rubeis pictor, delineavit incidit.

Engraver, Scaramuccia, Luigi. S. Benedict praying.

Engraver, Schulze, John Gotfried. The Head of Christ.

Engraver, Simoneau, Charles. The Stoning of Stephen.

Engraver, To it re, Flaminio. The Virgin and Child with SS. Francis and Jerome; very fine.

Engraver, Traballesi, Giulio. Conversion of S. Paul.

Carracci, Agostino, born at Bologna (1558-1602). A man of poetic temperament and superior education. In the school he super- intended the theoretical instruction. His pictures are rare, and the most important one is the " Communion of S. Jerome," now in the Gall, of Bologna. The " Infant Hercules " in the Louvre has been at- tributed to Annibale, but belongs to Agostino Carracci. There is no doubt that the advice and suggestion of Agostino had much to do with the works of Annibale, especially in his mythological pictures, for the latter had not sufficient knowledge to have guided him in these undertakings. But Agostino is chiefly famous as an engraver, and is one of the most celebrated Italians in that art. His plates are very numerous. The heads are admirable, and the extremities are worked with the greatest care. His instructor was Cornelius Cort, and his manner is bold and free like that of his master. He seems to have used the graver entirely.

engravings after the works of agostino carracci.

Engraver, Bartolozzi, Francesco. The Adulteress before Christ.

Engraver, Brizzio or Briccio, Francesco. The great S. Jerome; the plate left imperfect by Carracci, and finished by Brizzio. Christ and the Samaritan Woman; 1610.

Principal Plates by himself, after his own Designs, Portraits and other

Subjects.

Agostino Carracci.

Antonio Carracci, his father; very scarce.


192 CARRACCI.

Medallion of the Emperor Augustus; C. A.

Bust of Cosmos I., with ornamental figures.

The Head of a Woman ; fine.

Portrait of a Lady, with a collar of pearls.

Giovanni Tommaso Costanzo.

Princess Christina of Lorraine.

Ulysses Aldrovandus.

Marc Antonio Raimondi.

Titiano Vecelli. 1587.

Antonio Carracci as S. Joseph.

Eve giving the Apple to Adam. 1581.

The Virgin and Child.

The Virgin suckling the Child.

The Repose in Egypt.

The Virgin in the Clouds giving the Scapulary to a Saint.

The Virgin Seated on a Step with the Child; SS. Joseph and John and an Angel; scarce.

•Good Samaritan. Proofs before the letter are very rare. The impressions with the name of Bertelli are retouched.

The Crucifixion, with two Females representing Christianity and Paganism.

The Resurrection.

Le Nome di Dio. The Pope and the Senate of Venice kneeling before the Virgin; Luc. Bartelli, formis. 1582.

S. Francis of Assisi receiving the Stigmata; Agos. Car. 1586.

The Cord of S. Francis; S. Francis distributing cords to persons of different orders. 1586.

S. Jerome kneeling at the entrance of a cave. There are impres- sions of this plate which are very scarce, where it is three parts fin- ished, and the rest slightly sketched. The plate was finished by Villamena.

Seventeen plates of free subjects, called Le Lnscivie dei Carracci.

Two other indecent subjects.

A Landscape with naked figures.

A Landscape with the same ; a dance in the distance.

Cupid conquering Pan; Omnia vincit Amor. 1599.

Perseus com bating the Monster.

Frontispiece for the book " Cremona Fidelissima," which contains 35 portraits engraved by Agostino; very scarce.

Subjects after Various Masters not Mentioned Elsewhere.

A Child blowing Bubbles. Goltzius. Very scarce.

Jacob watering the Flocks of Rachael. D. Calvart. 1581.

Judith; half length. Lorenzo Sabbatini. Tobit conducted by the Angel; improperly marked Raffaelle d'Urbino. It is after Raffaelle da Reggio.


CARRACCI. 193

The Presentation in the Temple. Orazio Samacehini. The Virgin and Child riving the Keys to S. Peter. The same. Adoration of the Magi. 1579. Balth. Per uzzi pinx. Adoration of the Magi. Marco del Moro. Mocking of Christ. Vesp. Strada, pinx. The Dead Christ supported by an Angel. The same. Nativity of the Virgin. And. del Sarto. The Virgin crowned bv the Trinity. A. Mostaert. The Holy Family. Fed. Baroccio. iEneas carrying his Father. The same. Holy Family with S. Michael. L. Sabbatini.

The Virgin with a crescent, and the Child giving the Benediction. The same. The Virgin and Child, with several Saints. Giulio Campi. S. Paul resuscitating Eutychus. Antonio Campi. The Holy Family. B. Passeri. The Virgin ; half length. Giacomo Francia. S. Sebastian. Francesco Francia. The Virgin suckling the Child. Gio. Ligozzi. S. Jerome; half length. Vanni.

Engraver, Corxeille, Michel the Vounger. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Cuxego, Domenico. Galatea, from the Farnese Gall.

Engraver, Fariat or Farjat, Benoit. The Marriage, or the Crowning of S. Catherine.

Engraver, Galle, Cornelius the Elder. Venus bound to a Tree, and Minerva chastising Cupid.

Engraver, Gatti, Oliviero. S. Jerome with a Crucifix.

Engraver, Greex, Valentine. Venus and Cupid.

Engraver, Lorexzixi, Fra Antonio. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Mattioli, Ludovico. The Nativity.

Engraver, Perkier, Francois. Communion of S. Jerome. Flight into Egypt.

Engraver, Ravexet, Simon Francis. Tobit anointing his father's eyes.

Engraver, Torre, Flaminio. Pan conquered by Cupid; very fine.

Engraver, Traballesi, Giulio. Communion of S. Jerome.

Engraver, Vaxgelisti, Vincenzio. Venus chastising Cupid.

A-_ Carracci, Annibale, born at Bologna (1560-1609). | The most distinguished of his family. His earlier works ^~^ evidence his study of Correggio and Paul Veronese ; but after he went to Rome he developed new power under the influence of the antique, and of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Although his pictures often fail to please, it is impossible not to recognize in them the genius of a great master. Those in the Farnese Pal. were his last important works. He painted landscapes as well as historical

13


194


CARRACCI.


subjects, and in some cases the attention is much divided between his figures and the background. His pictures are very numerous and are in almost all good collections. It is said that he painted very little during the last five years of his life. He died at Rome, and was bur- ied in the Pantheon, near Raphael. Annibale excelled in small com- positions of the Madonna and Holy Families. His " Three Ma- ries " is very fine, and full of deep pathos in its expression of sor- row. But his Farnese pictures are generally considered his greatest works, and are a good example of the school of the Carraeei.



VENUS AND MARS. BY ANMBALK CARKACCI.

In the Farnese Pal., Kome. ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF ANNIBALE CARRACCI.

Engraver, Audenaerde or Oudexaerde, Robert Van. The Birth of the Virgin.

Engraver, Audran, Charles. The Baptism of Christ; small oval.

Engraver, Audran, Gerard. The Death of S.Francis. Martyr- dom of S. Sebastian. Achilles at the court of Lycomedes. Tempta- tion of S. Anthony.

Engraver. Audran, John. The Good Samaritan: arched.

Engraver. Bartoli, Pietro Sante. The Family of Coriolanus at his Feet. S. Charles Borronieo led by an Angel.

Engraver, Bartolozzi. Francesco. Portrait of Annibale Carraeei.

Engraver, Baudet, Stephen. The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin; The Stoning of Stephen; 1G'7 7.

Engraver, Brizzio or Briccio, Francesco. A Blind Man led by a Don.


CAttRACCI. 195

His own Plate*.

The Virgin suckling the Child; oval.

The Virgin supporting the Head of the Child sleeping.

The Virgin and Child, and S. John presenting a Bird.

The Virgin seated, the Child standing.

Adoration of the Shepherds.

The Virgin of the Porringer giving Drink to S.John. 1606.

A Dead Christ, called the Christ of the Caprarole. 1597.

Christ crowned with Thorns; .4. C. inv. etfec. 1606.

S. Jerome with Spectacles.

S. Francis with the Crucifix and Skull.

S. Francis kneeling at the foot of a Rock.

S. Petronius kneeling.

Apollo playing the Lyre, with Pan.

An Old Man with two other Figures.

Venus sleeping, With Cupid and a Satyr.

Venus sleeping, contemplated by a Satyr, menaced by Cupid.

Silenus, a Faun, and Satyr, called the Cup of Annibale.

The Triumph of Bacchus, a Salver to the Cup ; both very scarce.

Acis and Galatea, with a Satyr.

Susanna and the Elders; very scarce.

Engraver, Cesi or Cesio, Carlo. Forty-one plates from the Far- nese Gall.

Engraver, Chateau or Ciiasteau, William. The Stoning of Stephen. Assumption of the Virgin. Christ appearing to S. Peter.

Engraver, Corxeille, Michel the Younger. Jacob wrestling with the Angel. S. John preaching in the Desert. S. Jerome. S. Francis receiving;; the Stigmata. Silenus. a Satyr, and Faun. Abraham send- ing away Hagar.

Engraver, Corxetlle, Michel the Younger. S. John in the Wil- derness. Christ with the Samaritan Woman.

Engraver, Cuxego, Domenico. Apollo and Silenus.

Engraver, Dupuis, Nicholas Gabriel. The Virgin and Child, with Saints.

Engraver. Earlom, Richard. Christ curing the Blind.

Engraver, Faxtetti, Cesare. Charity, with three Children.

Engraver, Fariat or Far.jat, Benoit. The Virgin and Child, with S. John presenting Fruit.

Engraver, Galestruzzi, Gio. Batista. Mercury giving the Golden Apple to Paris.

Engraver, Grimaldi, Gio. Francesco. Two upright Landscapes. A set of four Landscapes.

Engraver, Haixzelmaxn, Elias. The Virgin and S. John, with the Child sleeping, called " The Silence."


196 CARRACCI — CARRENO.

Engraver, Hainzelmaxx, John. The Child embracing the Virgin.

Engraver, Laxglois, John. Tobit and the Angel.

Engraver, Lasxe, Michael. The Virgin, called "The Silence."

Engraver, Lombard or Lombart, Peter. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Mannl or Maennl, Jacob. Susanna and the Elders.

Engraver, MATTIOLI, Lndovico. Christ and the Woman of Sa- maria.

Engraver, Michel, John Baptist. Clytie; circular.

Engraver, Mitelli, Giuseppe Maria. The Cries of Bologna; 41 prints.

Engraver, Pasquilixi, Gio. Batista. S. Diego working a Miracle.

Engraver, Picciiianti, Gio. Domenico. The Virgin and Child with S. John.

Engraver, Po, Pietro del. S. John in the Wilderness. The Woman of Canaan before Christ. The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin.

Engraver, Poilly, Francis the Elder. The Repose in Egypt, in which the Virgin is sleeping, with two Angels kneeling.

Engraver, Kim. Guido. Holy Family, with S. Clara. The Vir- gin suckling the Child. The Charity of S. Roch ; 1610.

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo, called DeRubeisthe Elder. S. Charles Borronicu kneeling before a Crucifix.

>

Engraver, Roullet, John Louis. The three Maries with the Dead Christ: very fine. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Rousseau, James. The Repose in Egypt. S. John baptizing the people of Israel.

Engraver, SCARAMUCCIA, Luigi. Venus and Adonis. The Virgin.

Engraver, Schmidt, George Frederick. Alexander and his Phy- sician. Timocleus justified by Alexander.

Engraver, Sharp, William. The three Maries and Dead Christ; plate left unfinished.

Engraver, SiMONEAU, Charles. The Adoration of the Shepherds. Christ and the Woman of Samaria.

Engraver, Vorsterman, Lucas the Elder. Christ praying in the Garden.

Engraver, Woollett, William. A Landscape with figures and a waterfall.

Carre' or Carrey, Michael, born at Amsterdam (1666-1728?). A landscape and cattle painter. His works resemble those of Van der Leeuw more than those of Nicholas Berghem, with whom he is said to- have studied. He was employed by the King of Prussia, and ap- pointed one of his principal painters. His easel pictures are seen in many collections, and are very good.

Carreno, as he is commonly known, was a native of Aviles (1614- 1685). His whole name was Juan Carreno de Miranda. His parents


CARRENO — CARSTENS. 19?

were of noble families, and the Carrenos had been eminenl amonjj the knights of Spain for nearly three centuries before his time. Juan Learned to draw in the school of Pedro de las Cuevas, and to use colors in that of Bartolome Roman. Before the death of Philip IV., he was appointed one of his court painters; and when the king asked Colonna whom he considered the first painter of Madrid, the Bo- Eognesc replied in favor of Carreno. Before he was called to court, he had painted many pictures for the churches and convents of Madrid, and had acquired a good reputation in the city. In 16G5 he was em- ployed in the Cath. of Toledo; and in 16 71 had so advanced in the favor of Charles, the young king, that he made him painter in ordi- nary and deputy Aposentador, and gave him the cross of Santiago. lie would allow no other artist to paint his likeness without the con- sent of Carreno; and the portraits of this artist were so well considered, that most of the eminent men of his time desired to possess them. He deserved all his good fortune. His drawing was correct, his color harmonious, his portraits easy and truthful, and his religious compositions were highly esteemed. He was good-tempered and affable, and much regretted by all who knew him. Some anec- dotes are told of him, and it is said, that being one day in a house where a copy of Titian's " S. Margaret " hung upon the wall, a discus- sion arose as to who had painted it. Every one declared it abom- inable. Carreno said, " It at least has the merit of showing that no man need despair of improving in art, for I painted it myself when I was a beginner." It happened at one time that Gregorio Utande, a poor artist, had painted a " Martyrdom of S. Andrew "for the Car- melite nuns of Alcala, for which he demanded 100 ducats. The nuns refused to pay it, and desired to have the picture valued by Carreno. Accordingly Utande proceeded to the capital, and first presented Carreno with a jar of honey, and then begged him to re- touch his S. Andrew. Carreno consented, and, in fact, repainted the picture. A short time after, he was astonished at being asked to value the same ; he declined, and it was left to Herrera-Barnuevo, who called it worth 200 ducats. Utande, after receiving his money, told of his trick, and the work was known as la Cantarilla de Miel. The Queen of Spain's Gall, has several portraits by Carreno, among which is that of Bishop Potemkin, the ambassador of the Czar of Muscovy, who, with his long beard and red robes, was a subject to please an artist. There is also a curious study of a female dwarf, with an apple in each hand, and a gaudy, flowered robe.

Carriera. See Rosalba.

Cars, Laurence, born at Lyons (1702 ?-l 771). One of the best French designers and engravers of the 18th centurv. His best works are after Le Moine; and that of " Hercules and Omphale " is his chef-d' 'ceuvre. He left many plates.

Carstens, Asmus Jacob, born in Schleswig (1754-1798). A


198 CARSTENS — CASS AN A.

great lover of Michael Angelo and classic art. He gave a new inv

O O G3

pulse to German artists, and his fine paintings and drawings did much in their noble simplicity to east off mechanical drowsiness, and arouse his countrymen to the poetic sentiment which now distin- guishes them.

Carucci, Jacopo, called Pontormo, from his birthplace (1493-1558). After studying under other masters he entered the school of Andrea del Sarto, who, from jealousy of his fine powers, expelled him from his academy. In his large works he disappointed the expectations founded on his youthful promise, but he excelled as a portrait painter There are good portraits of him in the Berlin Mus., and in the Uilizi one of Cosmo dei Medici, which is vivid in color. In the National Gall, there is a portrait by him of a young- Italian nobleman, which is very fine.

Casalina, Lucia, born at Bologna (1677-1 762). A very successful portrait painter. Her own likeness painted by herself is in the Flor- entine Gall.

Casanova, Francesco, born in London (1732-1805). Son of Ve- netian parents, he was early placed under the instruction of Guardi. He painted battles, landscapes, and animal subjects. He was ad- mitted to the French Acad., and settled in Vienna. Two of his large battle pieces are in the Louvre.

Casentino, Jacopo di, born at Prato Vecchio (1310 7-1390?). A relative of the family of Messer Christoforo Landino. He acompa- nied Taddeo Gaddi to Florence. Lie painted many frescoes, of which few remain, and was an architect as well as a painter. He is worthy of notice as one of the founders of the Florentine Acad, of S. Luke. In the National Gall, there is an altar-piece by him, formerly in the eh. of S. Giovanni Evangelista at Prato Vecchio. It has 22 compart- ment-, and represent^ the old legend of the lifting of the Evangelist to heaven. It was probably the chef-(Ta acre of Casentino. No. 1292, Ufli/.i, is also his work, and is a predella, representing a religious cere- mony in the centre, with side pictures from the life of S. Peter. It is better painted than the National Gall, picture.

Casolani, Alessandro, born at Siena (1552-1G0G). A reputable painter of history, whose works may be seen in the churches of Siena, and also at Naples and Genoa.

Casolani, Ilario, son of the preceding. Several of his works are in the churches of Pome, where he died in middle life.

Cassana, Gio. Francesco, born at Genoa (1611-1G91). A painter of history and portraits ; in the latter he excelled. He was the father of a family of artists who were all of good reputation. Niccolo was an excellent portrait painter, and went to England in Queen Anne's time. He painted her portrait, and those of many nobles. He died in London, in 1713. Abate Gio. Agostino painted animals, and his works are in the collections of Genoa, Venice, and


CASSAXA — CASTIGLK >NE. 100

Florence; died 1720. Gi<>. Batista painted fruit, flowers, and still life. Maria Vittoria executed small devotional subjects for private collections, and her works were much esteemed; died 1711.

Cassteels, Peter, born at Antwerp (1684-1749). A successful painter of flowers, birds, fruit, etc. He also engraved some plates which arc not without merit.

Castagno, Andrea del, born at Castagno (1390-1457). The name of this painter has been loaded with infamy as the murderer of Domenico Veneziano, from whom it is said he had learned the secret of oil-painting, and killed him that he might be the sole possessor of this knowledge. But of this crime he could scarcely have been guilty, since, according to Signor Gaetano Milanesi, he died three years before Domenico! (Sec Giornale Stor. ub. sup. pp. 6, 7). As a painter he is a coarse and exact imitator of nature, rather than the follower of any school. Some of his works show the study of the antique; his colors wen- used with a dash, but his flesh tints Avere not good: his figures are bold in outline and full of action. He painted for the Cath. of S. M. del Fiore at Florence a picture of S. Niceolo di Tolentino, intended to represent an equestrian statue. It was a remarkable work. It has been transferred to canvas, and hangs in the cathedral. Besides his pictures in various places in Flor- ence, there are two in the Berlin Mus.

Castelli, or Castello, Bernardo, born at Genoa (155 7-1629). In his desire to acquire facility of execution, he fell into many faults. His works may be seen in Genoese churches, and at S. Peter's at Borne there is one representing " S. Peter walking on the Sea." He lived in intimacy with the cultivated and literary men of his time. He excelled as a miniaturist, and was praised for his manner of paint- ing insects.

Castelli, Valerio, born at Genoa (1 625-1659). Son of the pre- ceding. He was a good painter. His sacred subjects are in the churches of Genoa, ami his battle pieces in the palaces of that city.

Castelli, Gio. Battista, called II Bergamasco, born at Gandino (1500-1570). In his youth he attracted the attention of one of the Pallavicini at Genoa, who sent him to Rome, where he became pro- ficient in architecture and sculpture, as well as painting. After his return to Genoa, he painted in rivalry with Luca Cambiaso. Castelli was the more successful one. In 156 7 he was invited to Spain by Charles V., and received a salary of 300 crowns, besides payment for his work. He designed the grand staircase in the Escorial, and executed several ceilings in the Palace of Madrid, in which city he died.

Castello. There are several other artists of this name, whose works are occasionally seen in churches and galleries.

€Castiglione, Gio. Benedetto, born at Genoa (1616-1670). Painted landscapes in which he intro- duced animals, and sometimes figures. He met Yan-


200 CASTIGLIONE — CATLIN.

dyck in Genoa and received some instructions from him, the influence of which may be traced in his works. Sometimes he painted re- ligious subjects with great tenderness. There are a few studies of animals on paper by this artist, which are surprisingly good. As an engraver, he deserves notice, having left more than seventy plates etched with power, and in light and shade resembling Rembrandt and Delia Bella. He used the -raver but little. His sun Francesco, and his brother Salvatore, were his pupils and imitators, but never equalled him.

Castillo Juan del, born at Seville (ir>84-lG40). Pupil of Luis Fernandez and teacher of Murillo, Alonso Cano, and Pedro dc Moya. He was a distinguished painter of historical subjects.

Castillo y Saavedra, Antonio del, born at Cordova (1G26-1667). Studied first with his father, and then at the school of Zurbaran at Seville. He painted portraits, sketched from nature, made archi- tectural drawings, and executed models for the silversmiths at Cor- dova. After his return from Seville, he became the fashionable painter of his city, and his portraits were sought by all persons of pretension. Flattered by this homage, be desired to win reputation in a wider field, and went again to Seville. He was kindly received by the artists there, but foolishly praised his own works, at the ex- pense of theirs. When, however, he was led to the cathedral to see the works of Murillo, he was overpowered by their splendor, and ex- claimed. " Castillo is dead." He returned to Cordova and attempted to imitate his rival, but soon sickened and died, a victim to his con- viction of inferiority: in the same way as Francesco Francia, a cen- tury and a half before, is said to have died of the S. Cecilia of Ra- phael. Castillo was a man of cultivation and wit. His pupil, Juan de Alfaro, visited Madrid, and returned puffed up Avith his knowledge of art. He signed his pictures conspicuously, "Alfaro pinxit; ' whereupon Castillo inscribed his "Baptism of S. Francis," " Non pinxit Alfaro." Most of his works are in the churches and convents of Cordova, The Royal Gall, at Madrid has but one — the " Adora- tion of the Shepherds " — which has strong lights and shadows, effec- tive heads, is well drawn, but dry and disagreeable in color.

Catena, Vincenzo, born in the Venetian States (1495 ?— 1531). Real name Vincenzo di Biagio. He was a most industrious artist, but had no o-reat talent. One of the school of the Bellini, of whom he was a close, if not a servile imitator. His best works were his portraits, some of which are fine. Many of his pictures are in Venice, and they are also found in nearly all large collections in Europe. He left several wills and codicils, and considerable property.

Catlin, George, born in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania (1794- 1872). He first studied law, but afterwards devoted himself to painting. He spent eight years, 1832-1839, among the American Indians, and made the acquaintance of forty-eight different tribes.


CATLIN — CAXES. 201

He made mnnv drawings illustrative of their manners and mode of life, and painted two hundred portraits of the most prominent chiefs and warriors. His gallery was exhibited in this country and in Eu- rope, and attracted much attention. His letters concerning this tour were published in 1841; he published also the "North American Portfolio of Hunting Scenes," 1844; " Notes of Eight Years' Travel and Residence in Europe," 1848; " Life among the Indians," and »• Okeepah," 1867. His first book had over 300 steel-plate engrav- ings from his own designs. His books remain the most authentic, as well as the most entertaining account Ave have of the wild tribes which he visited.

Cavallini, Pietro. Very little is positively known, and much has been connected of this artist. It is certain that in 1308 he was em- ploved by Robert of Naples, but his works of that time do not exist, or are unknown. He was a pupil or follower of Giotto, and had prob- ablv been instructed by the Cosneati. At S. Grisogono, at Rome, there is a mosaic, undoubtedly his, which represents the Virgin en- throned, with the Child giving the benediction; SS. James and Chry- so< r onus are also in the same work. In S. Maria, in Trastevere, there are some wall mosaics, much damaged, probably by the same hand as the above. He was an architect, as well as a painter and worker in mosaics. There is a " Crucifixion " in the ch. of Assisi at- tributed to him, but of this there is still some doubt.

Cavallino, Bernardo, born at Naples (1622-1654?). An artist who painted easel pictures of historical subjects, which may be seen in the collections of Naples. He gave promise of great excellence, and indeed his works have much merit, but he became intemperate and died young.

Cavallucci, Antonio, born at Sermoneta (1752-1795). A good painter of the modern Roman school. His most celebrated work is " Venus with Ascanius," Palazzo Cesarini, Rome.

Cavarazzi, Bartolomeo, called Crescenzi, born at Viterbo (1590 ?-l(J25). Studied under Pomerancio. When he left his mas- ter he was taken under the protection of the family Crescenzi. He painted many pictures for his patron, and was much employed in the public edifices at Rome. In the ch. of S. Ursula he represented the legend of that saint. In S. Andrea della Valle is his picture of S. Carlo kneeling with a choir of angels; and in the convent of S. Anna, a "Holy Family."

Cavedone, Giacomo. A Modenese (1577-1660). A pupil of Annibale Carracci, whom he bid fair to rival, for some of his pictures painted in middle life were mistaken for those of his master. But through family misfortune he became depressed, relinquished his art, and died a be^ar in the streets of Bologna. His best works are in the public edifices and Gall, of that city.

Caxes, Patricio. An Italian painter who spent many years in


202 OAXES — CELLINI.

Spain. Few of his works remain, for many of them were burned in tin- Pardo. In the Queen of Spain's Gall., there is a large Madonna with the Child asleep on her lap, surrounded by adoring angels.

Caxes, Eugenio. Son of the preceding, born at Madrid (1577- 1042). Court painter to Philip III. and Philip IV. Much employed in the churches, convents, and edifices of Madrid ; many of his works perished in the Pardo and the Convent of S. Philippi. Queen of Spain's Gall., "Repulse of the English under Leicester, at Cadiz, in 1625."

Caylus, Anne Claude Philippe, Comte de (1692-1765). An amateur engraver. He was a zealous lover of art, and did so much for its advancement, and for the service of artists, that his name de- serves honorable mention in any work referring to the fine arts.

Celesti, Andrea, born at Venice. (1637-1 700). One of the best painters of the Venetian decline. He imitated Paul Veronese. His lights and -hadows are better than his middle tints, but this may arise from his backgrounds not having been properly prepared. His works can be well judged in the Dresden Gall. He painted views of Venice and other Italian cities, which are rare and of much value.

Cellini, Benvenuto, born at Florence (1500-1570). The life of this greal sculptor was so full of change and incident, that his story is one of the mosl interesting books of its class. Very early in life he de- sired to be a sculptor, but his father was determined he should be a musician; and his firsl fifteen years were divided between the two pur- suits. Then, against the will of his father, the son established him- self with a goldsmith. His temper constantly led him into difficul- ties. On account of an affray he went to Siena, then to Pome, and then returned to Florence. Again, for the same reason, he went to Rome, and Pope Clement VII. employed him both as sculptor and musician. He tells us that he was a good soldier, and claims to have killed the Constable Duke of Bourbon and the Prince of Orange while fighting in defence of Koine. He returned after a time to Florence, and from there went to Mantua, which he was soon obliged to ilec on account of some indiscretion. He became known to Michael Angelo in Florence. By invitation of the Pope he went again to Rome, and was appointed engraver of the mint ; but Pompeo of Milan, who was his enemy, obtained his dismission from ollice. About this time his mistress, Angelica, deserted him, and he spent much time with a necromancer, who told him she had gone to Naples. He was engaged in another quarrel, and this, united to the influence of Pompeo, determined the Pope to arrest him and have him imme- diately executed. He was informed of this design, and fled to Na- ples, where he met Angelica as had been foretold. She again de- ceived him; and although the Viceroy desired his services, he would not remain. He obtained the pardon of the Pope, and again went to Koine. In 153-1 the Pope died, and as Cellini was returning from S.


CELLINI — CERACCHI. 2< 13

Peter's, where he had been to kiss the feet of his dead patron. ht» met Pompeo and killed him. Paul III. desired his services, so he pardoned him and again made him engraver of the mint. Pier Lui^i, the natural son of the Pope, hated him and determined to have him assassinated. He learned this and fled again to Florence, where he was received with much honor. But soon the Pope summoned him to Pome : and after going there and again returning to Florence, and in to Pome, he determined to visit France. Francis I. made him gnat offers it he would remain: but he was ill. and attributed it to the climate. So again he went to Home only to meet misfortune, for his servant accused him of having stolen vast treasures from the Ca>tle of S. Angelo during the war. This was utterly false, but he was imprisoned, and made his escape. Again he was apprehended and treated with great severity. While in prison his release was foretold to him in a vision. His friend, the Card, of Ferrara, ob- tained his pardon, and they went together to Paris. The salary pro- posed to him did not please him, ami he set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Francis I sent in pursuit of him and he was brought back. The king would have been his friend but for the influence of the favorite, Mme. d*K-tampes, who disliked Cellini. He obtained permission to return to Florence, and Cosmo de' Medici gave him a studio where he commenced his celebrated v - Perseus." He then went to Venice where he became acquainted with many distinguished artists. Returning to Florence he finished the " Perseus." This obtained such great honors for him that he made a pilgrimage to Vallombrosa and Camaldoli in order to express his gratitude. He was then employed on various important works, and contended with Bandinelli for the commission of a statue of Xeptune. Catherine de' Medici wished him to go to France to erect a monument to her hus- band, but the Grand Duke required his services, and he left Italy no more. His " Perseus," in the Piazza del Gran Duca, Florence, dis- plays his merit as a sculptor of large works. He executed many portraits, and large numbers of dagger-hilts, medals, coins, clasps, etc. His works are not as numerous now as might be expected. One great reason for this is the fact that he often worked in the precious metals, and thev have been destroved for the sake of their intrinsic value, regardless of their merits as works of art. He wrote a treatise on his art, which is praised by Yasari. He died at Florence and was buried in the Annunziata with great pomp.

Cephisodotus, the Elder. A sculptor of Athens. Probably the father of Praxiteles. In the Glyptothek at Munich there is a copy of a statue by this master which represents Irene with Plutus in her arms. The forms are grand, the drapery admirable, and the whole expression noble. This artist represents the transition period between the severe and sublime art of Phidias and the grace of Praxiteles.

Ceracchi, Joseph (17G0-1800). He had an eventful life. In


204 CERACCHI — CESPEDES.

1782 he was in London, and made some excellent busts of distin- guished men. But not finding sufficient employment, he went in 1790 to Vienna. Soon after tlii- he met Napoleon, and executed his bust so well that he was invited to Paris, where he was guillotined, in 1800, on account of the part which he had taken in the invention of the Hell-machine. The bust of Napoleon is in the Glyptothek at Munich; that of Metastasio is in the Pantheon at Rome. One of his best works was the bust of Prince Wenzel von Kaunitz, which he executed at Vienna.

Cerano, II. See Crespi.

Cerezo, Matteo, born at Burgos (1635-167.3). An excellent pupil of Carreno. He was called the Vandyck of Spain. Queen of Spain's Gall.. k - Marriage of S. Catherine ; " " S. Jerome ; " " Assumption of the Virgin."

Cerquozzi, Michael Angelo, called Michael Angelo delle Bat- taglie: born at Home (1600-1660). A distinguished painter of battle scenes. The works of Peter de Laer were so in vogue in Rome, that Cerquozzi gave himself to the same style of painting, and represented fairs, ami festive scenes in low life. He heeded not the prettinessof peasant life, but chose the lazzarorti, etc.. as his subjects. He could rival many of the best masters of the Netherlands in color, finish, completeness, ami naivete. In the Spada Pal., Rome, there is a very touching representation of a Dead Ass. with the family to whom it belonged grouped around it: Berlin Mus., a fine representa- tion of the entrance of one of the Popes into Rome.

Cesaie, Giuseppe, il Cavaliere d'Arpino, born at Rome (1568- 1640). Pupil of Roncalli. He had great facility of handling, and finding himself able to please, he did not study thoroughness. His influence upon art was bad, although lie acquired great reputation, and was much employed. He had also many scholars, and opposed himself to other schools, especially that of the Carracci. His fres- coes on the ceilincr of the choir of S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo are his best Avorks. His pictures of " Diana and Actaeon," and "Bath- ing Nymphs " are also among his finer pictures.

Cesi, Bartolommeo, born at Bologna (1556-1629). A contempo- rary of the Carracci, and often employed with them. He deserves honorable mention anion"- the artists of his time. His frescoes were superior to his oil pictures. Many of his works are in Bologna.

Cespedes, Pablo de, born at Cordova (1538-1608). Painter, architect, sculptor, divine, poet, and scholar. He studied at the University of Aleala. and excelled in the lamrua<res of the Orient. He went to Rome and studied. He was an intimate friend, some say the pupil, of Federigo Zuccaro. While in Rome, Cespedes painted in several churches, and made a head of Seneca in marble. which he fitted to an antique trunk. This gained for him the title of " Victor il Spagnuolo. 1 When Zuccaro was asked to paint a pic-


CESPEDES — CHAMBERS. 20.5

tare for the Cath. of Cordova he declined, and said that while Ccs. pedes was in Spain they had no need of Italian artists. He left many writings, among which were an essay on the antiquity of the Cath. of Cordova, a discourse on ancient and modern painting and sculpture, and a poem on painting. His works which remain scarcely support the fame which he enjoyed as a painter. His " Last Sup- per," in the Cath. of Cordova, is too faded to be judged fairly. In the foreground are some jars and vases which it is said were so well painted, that some visitors complimented them, to the neglect of the rest of the picture. Cespedes angrily commanded his servant to rub them out, and only the most judicious entreaty and admiration saved them from destruction. In the Cath. there is also a Virgin, Infant, and S. Anne. In the counting-room of the Cath. of Seville there is a picture of "Abraham offering up his Son." It is good in color. Isaac is modelled after one of the boys of the " Laocoon." In the Louvre there is a portrait of Cespedes, said to have been painted by himself. His biographer likened his coloring to that of Corre^io. Cespedes was as modest as he was learned. He was also much be- loved, and when made a canon in the Cath. of Cordova, he was re- ceived with full approbation of the Cordobese bishop and chapter."

Chabry, Mark, born at Lyons (16G0-1 727). Painter and sculp- tor. He did many works in his native city. He sent a statue of Hercules and one of the Virgin to the King, who appointed him sculptor of the city of Lyons. The Marechal de Villeroy paid him 6,000 livres for a statue of " Winter." The bas-relief over the en- trance to the Hotel de Ville, at Lyons, representing Louis XIV. on horseback; the paintings and bas-reliefs of the great altar in the ch. of S. Antoine, and several works in the ch. de la Trinite were by him. His son, Mark, also attained considerable distinction as a sculptor.

Challe, Charles Michael Angelo, born at Paris (1718-1778). When elected to the Acad, he executed a picture of " Painting and Sculpture united by the Genius of Design." One of his most impor- tant pictures represented S. Hippolyte congratulated by the priests upon his conversion. It was in the ch. of that saint. He also wrote treatises upon architecture. He was made professor of per- spective in the Royal Acad. , designer for the Royal Cabinet, and Chevalier of the Order of S. Michael.

Chambers, George, born at Whitby. Son of a seaman, he be- came a sailor, although from childhood he desired to be a painter. After various ups and downs in life, he met with Horner, who em- ployed him seven years on his panorama. He then became scene painter at the Pavilion Theatre, and at last by Vice- Admiral Lord Kerr was introduced to William IV. His pictures of naval battles, three of which are in Greenwich Hospital, are good. His smaller works are also deserving notice; he is coming to be generally ap- preciated.


206 CHAMPAIGNE — CHAUDET.

Champaigne, Philippe de, born at Brussels (1602-1674). When quite younir he went to Paris and worked with Nicholas Duchesne upon the decorations of the Luxembourg. In 162 7. he returned to Brussels, but soon hearing of the death of Duchesne, he returned to Paris, married the daughter of that painter, and succeeded to his work at the Luxembourg. Champaigne excelled as a portrait painter. His best works of this kind arc in the Louvre. Some of his pictures are finished with great attention to effect in matters of laces, jewels, etc. One of his finest pictures represents " Adam and Eve mourning for Abel," and is in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna.

Chantrey, Sir Francis, born at Norton, in Derbyshire (1782- 1841 ). From his early youth, he desired to be an artist, and attracted the attention of a lady named Stanley, by some pastry figures which he modelled for her table. She placed him with a carver in Sheffield. Here he made models in clay, and received instruction in painting from John Raphael Smith. He visited Edinburgh and Dublin, but at length went to London and studied in the Royal Acad., where he ex- hibited a portrait in oil. in 1804. He returned, however, to his true vocation, and next exhibited three busts which displayed great talent. Tn 1809, the architect Alexander gave him an order for four colossal busts. lie also made the bust of Pitt, and, in 1811, the works whi.h he exhibited so pleased the sculptor Nollekens that he ordered one of his own busts to be removed, that one by Chantrey mi'_iht take its place. For the city of London, he executed his statue of Georo-e III. This greatly increased his fame. In 1817, he was made an associate of the Royal Acad. He made many statues and monuments. One of the finesl represented two children, lying asleep in each other's arm-, which is in Litchfield Chapel. This obtained him an election to the Royal Acad. In 1819, he went to Italy, and was elected member of the Academies at Rome and Florence. In 1835, he received the honor of knighthood. An especially beauti- ful work is his statue of Lady Luisa Russell. At the time of his death, he was engaged upon the colossal equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington. He possessed a choice cabinet of medals, antiques, etc. His large fortune was bequeathed to his wife for life, and then to the Royal Acad, for the encouragement of English art.

Chardin, Jean Baptistc Simon, born at Paris (1699-1779). A painter of conversations, still-life, etc. His best works arc those with two or three small figures together. He paid great attention to acces- sories. Some of his kitchen pieces are excellent. There is a light- ness and grace in his female figures, and he gave a richness of effect to his works by a variety of colors.

Chaudet, Antoine Denis, born at Paris (1763-1810). At the acre of fourteen, he had shown so much talent for modelling and de- sio-nino", that he was admitted to the Royal Acad. In 1784, he car- ried off the grand prize, and went to Rome with the royal pension,


CHAUDET — CHRISTOPHSEN. 207

where he remained five years. He soon came to be ranked among the first modern sculptors. He also acquired a reputation as a painter and designer. He was appointed professor of sculpture, and made valuable contributions to the " Dictionary of Fine Arts." Some of his works in sculpture are : the silver statue of " Peace,"* in the Tui- leries; statue of ** Cincinnatus," in the senate chamber; a statue of "GEdipus;" a bas-relief, representing '-Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture," in the Musee Napoleon, and many busts, etc. He painted •• JEneas and Anchises in the Conflagration of Troy," and designed many of the illustrations for the fine edition of Racine, published by P. Didot, and a great number of medals.

Cheney, Seth, born at Manchester, Conn.; died 1S56. Brother of John Cheney, one of the best engravers of heads in America. Seth was a crayon limner, and his best works are exquisite female heads. He was enthusiastic and of an extremely sensitive tempera- ment; so much so, that if a sitter came to him to whom he found him- self antagonistic, he was forced to relinquish the picture. He visited Europe four times, and ended his life in a weary decline in his native town, where he was buried with an impressive service by moonlight, singularly in keeping with his poetical nature. There is no depart- ment of art, in which true genius can be more strikingly displayed, than in that of drawing where few lines are used, and no color and little shadow to conceal defects. The most scrupulous exactness in design can alone be termed excellent.

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicolas, born at Dantzic, 1726; died at Berlin, 1801. The poverty of his youth compelled him to follow mer- cantile pursuits, but he practised miniature painting daring leisure hours, and learned the process of enamel painting. At last he gave himself up to the profession of an artist and engraver, and succeeded well. He painted few oil pictures, and they had no special merit. His etchings amounted to more than 1300, and he made them as illus- trations for various kinds of books. Those for the ' k Sorrows of Werther," were very fine. He published a plate called " Les Adieux de Calas," of which but 100 impressions were taken. It is now rare, and prized by collectors. At the time of his death he was director of the Acad, of Arts and Sciences at Berlin.

Christoph. The history of this artist is unknown. He flourished in Cologne, early in the 16th century. His first known work, exe- cuted about 1501, was formerly in the Chartreuse, at Cologne, now the possession of Herr Haan of that city. His most remarkable work is a " Descent from the Cross," No. 280, Louvre. There are others in the Munich Gall.. Cabinets, and in the City Gall, at Mavence.

Christophsen, Pieter. This painter is known by this name, but should properly be Christus. He was of the Van Eyck School. He bought citizen's rights as a painter in Bruges, in 1444. His earliest known work is dated 144 7, is in the Stadel Mus., at Frankfort, and


208 CHRISTOPHSEN — CIGOLI.

represents the Virgin and Child with SS. Francis and Jerome. In 1452, he painted a "Nativity," an " Annunciation," and a "Last Judgment," now in the Berlin Gall. They are wonderfully fine in color. He painted a picture of S. Eligius, as a goldsmith selling a ring to a bridal couple. This is dated 1449, and is in the possession of Mr. Oppenheim, the banker, at Cologne.

Churriguera, Josef de, born in Salamanca; died, 1725. His works were so peculiar, that since his time, everything bizarre or extravagant has been called Churriguresque. He removed to Madrid in 1688. In the next year he made the design for a catafalque for Maria Louisa, which was very singular. He was appointed assistant draughtsman for royal works, built a portal, church, and palace, and executed many sculptures. Soon after his death, the dome of the ch. of S. Tomas, upon which he was employed, fell down and killed num- bers of workmen and worshippers.

Ciampelli, Agostino, born at Florence (15 78-1G40). Pupil of Santo di Titi. He painted some angels with offerings, on the walls of the apsis of S. Maria in Trastevere, which merit attention. Two good works of his, representing the Burial of Martyrs by Pious Women, are in S. Pudenziana. He was also an architect, and super- intended some works at S. Peter's.

Cibber, Caius Gabriel, born at Holstein. Flourished about 1G70. He went to England, where he received much encouragement. He is best known by his statues of " Raging " and " Melancholy Madness," at Xew Bethlehem Hospital, St. George's Fields.

Cignani, Carlo, born at Bologna (1628-1719). This artist was of a noble family. He has been called the last of the Bolo^nese. He was of the school of Albano, and produced correct and pleasing pic- tures, quite academic in character, but wanting in depth of senti- ment. He attempted principally graceful postures and display of beautiful limbs. He was much admired in his time, and even called the Apelles of his age. "Joseph and Potiphar's Wife," one of his pictures, is in the Dresden Gall., and an " Assumption " of great size is in the Gall, at Munich. He painted the cupola of the ch. of the Madonna del Fuoco at Forli. This occupied him nearly twenty years, and he died in that city.

Cignaroli, Giambettino, born at Verona (1706-17 70). One of the best painters of his time. He painted in the manner of Carlo Maratti, and his pictures are full of sweet beauty and grace. His subjects were mostly religious. He introduced architectural back- grounds with good effect, and his angels and cherubs were well painted. It is said that in 1769, the Emperor Joseph II. visited Cignaroli in his studio at Verona, and afterwards said that in that city he had seen two rare things, the first painter in Europe, and an ancient amphitheatre.

Cigoli. See Cardi.


CIMA — CIMABUE.


209


Cima. See Conegliano.

Cimabue, Giovanni. Of the noble family of the Cimabui (1240- 1302?). Few facts arc known with certainty concerning the life of this artist, and so much has been said and contradicted, that the search for what is true is most puzzling and unsatisfactory. But the important truth connected with him is, that he gave a new impulse to art, and infused new life into dying and worn-out forms and rules. From his time the revival of painting may be confidently dated, and this result is much more important to us, than the matter of where and with whom he studied, whether or no a certain quarter of a city was named for him, etc., etc. In Florence there are two large Madonnas ascribed to him. The oldest one, formerly in S. Trinita, now in the Acad., is Byzantine in style, and although very powerful in some features, as in the energy and expression of the prophets in the centre niche, it does not show the peculiar characteristics of Cimabue with the same clearness as does the " Madonna Enthroned," in S. Maria Novella. At the time when this last was completed, it wa^ the largest altar-piece that had been seen, and it is said to have been borne to the church by a rejoicing procession of Florentines, with trumpeters, and expressions of pride and praise. In it the Virgin sits in a chair held by six kneeling angels. The infant is on her lap, and both their heads are encircled by the nimbus, delicately wrought. The frame of the picture (which is a gabled parallelogram in form) is richly carved, and in it are thirty medallions representing half



ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST. BY CIMABUE.

From a Madonna picture in S. Maria Xovella, Florence. 14


210 CIMABUE — CIVETTA.

figures of saints on gold ground. The old features are still here, but the eye is softened by a change in the form of the iris, and by closer curving of the lids than had been customary. The hands are very striking for their thinness, and the separation of the fingers. The head of Mary is disproportionate to the slenderness of her form, and it is a wonder now that angels could have been so painted, and yet, from this very picture went out an influence, but for which such names as those of Giotto, Ghirlandaio, Michael Angelo, Leonardo, and Ra- phael might never have been heard. In color, Cimabue made great advance. He softened the old hardness of outline; he made new and better flesh tints; he rounded the form, and he used for his draperies gay, transparent colors. He used much ornament, it is true, but he made it a subordinate part of his work, and executed it in better taste than his predecessors had shown. Cimabue painted in the eh. of As- sisi, but which are his pictures is not known. The careful observer of that church must be convinced that the works were done by

it

several different hands, and I can but believe that careful study and criticism reveals the brush of Cimabue. A large Virgin and Child above the altar of the Conception in the lower church, surrounded by the works of Giotto, and an enthroned Saviour and some angels in the northern transept of the upper church, seem to be the work of the same master who painted the Madonnas of Florence, especially that in the Acad, of Arts. The last known work of Cimabue was done in the Duomo of Pisa, where he was appointed capo maestro of the mosaics. He executed a large part of the mosaic in the chief tribune, representing the Saviour with the Virgin and John the Bap- tist. This work has suffered so much injury as to afford little satis- faction from examination. A Madonna somewhat like those in Flor- ence, once in S. Francesco at Pisa, is now in the Louvre. A Madonna in the National Gall, was in the ch. of Santa Croce.

Cimaroli, G-iambattista, da Salb, born at Venice. Flourished 1718-1733. A painter of seaports, landscapes, and classical ruins. His works are not uncommon in England.

Cioli, or Ciolli, Valeric This old sculptor studied under Tri- bolo and Raphael de Monte Lupo. He was employed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to restore antique statues. He executed the statue of Michael Angelo, on his grave at Santa Croce in Florence.

Cipriani, Gio. Battista, born at Florence, 1727; died in London, 1785. An elegant designer, as well as a painter. After studying in Florence and Borne he went to England, where he designed many plates which were engraved by Bartolozzi in his excellent manner. He painted but few large pictures, but he left many beautiful draw- ings, which, together with Bartolozzi's engravings, have a wide repu- tation. In his oil pictures his female figures are beautiful in the dis- tance, but are too coarse and unfinished to bear examination.

Civetta. See Bles.


CI VIT ALI — CLE VENGER. 211

Civitali, Mzitteo, born at Lucea (1435-1501). One of the most distinguished sculptors of his time. Studied in Florence. His " S. Sebastian," in the Duomo at Lucca, so delighted Perugino that he re- peated the figure in his picture of " The Entombment." His most im- portant work was the tomb of Pietro da Noceto, Secretary to Pope Nicholas V., which ranks high among the monuments of the 15th century. At Genoa he executed six statues and five bas-reliefs for the chapel of S. John the Baptist. In the Uffizi there is a seated figure of ' ; Faith," full of earnestness and religious feeling. Although best known as a sculptor, he was an accomplished architect, and did much to improve the style of building in Lucca; and the beautiful temple of the Volto Santo in the Duomo was designed by him.

Claessens, Anthony. A painter of Bruges, whose works are in the Acad, and Town Hall of that city.

Cleef, John Van, born at Yenloo, 1646; died at Ghent, 1716. Pu- pil of Gaspard de Craeyer. His works are numerous in Flanders and Brabant, and some of the best are at Ghent.

Cleomenes. 1. The sculptor of the " Venus de Medici " in the Uf- fizi Gall. Pliny alone mentions this master, and he does not appear to have been very celebrated among the ancients. From various known facts it is decided that he lived between 363 and 146 B.C. 2. Another sculptor, the author of the statue in the Louvre called " Germanicus," and which, in truth, represents a Roman orator with the right hand lifted and in the habit of Mercury, as is seen from the turtle at his feet. There is also at Florence a bas-relief representing the story of Alceste, which is inscribed with the name of Cleomenes, but to which one it should be attributed is not known.

Clerisseau, or Clarisseau, Charles Louis, born at Paris. Died 1820. An architect and a designer in water-colors. Principally known for his much-esteemed water-color drawings of the remains of ancient architecture.

Cleve, Joas Van, born at Antwerp. Flourished from 1530 to 1550. Little is known of him. It is said he went to Spain. It is certain he painted in England. His pictures are sometimes mistaken for those of Holbein. Two of his best works are his portraits of his wife and himself, at Windsor Castle.

Clevely, John, born in London (1743-1786). His best works are water-color marine views. His perspective was fine and his execu- tion neat and delicate.

Clevenger, Shobal Vail, born in Middletown, Ohio, 1812. Died at sea, 1843. He was first encouraged to attempt sculpture by the execution of an angel upon a tomb-stone when employed as a stone- cutter in Cincinnati. He confined himself to making busts, and found much employment in Boston and Xew York. His works are well known, and some of them have been widely circulated in plas- ter casts. His bust of Webster is perhaps the most striking of all.


212 CLEVENGER — CLOYIO.

It does not represent "Webster, the intellectual giant, but the "Web-. ster known by the mass of the people. Webster, Clay, Everett, Allston, Van Buren, Chief Justice Shaw, and other eminent men were perpetuated in his marble portraits. Thorwaldsen greatly praised some of his works. The early education of Clevenger was deficient, but his association with refined and cultivated people had its fullest Legitimate effect upon him. He frankly confessed his need of knowledge, and never hesitated to ask what he did not know. There was a genuine truthfulness and a sincere directness about him that endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. When in Florence, with his young family, with every opportunity and motive to work about him, he was prostrated by disease. His intense long- ing for his home led him to attempt to reach it. This he was not permitted to do, and from the midst of the broad ocean his spirit found free course to his eternal home.

Cleyn, Franz, born at Rostock: died 1G58. He was employed by Christian IV. of Denmark, went next to Rome, and acquired the art of painting grotesques. James I. of England employed him at his tapestry manufactory at Mortlake. Some of his best works are in Holland House. He left a few etchings which resemble those of Hollar.

Clint, George, born at Hexham (1770-1854). Son of a hair- dresser. After repeated trials of other pursuits, he gave himself up to miniature painting and mezzotinto engraving. About 181G he commenced his valuable portraits of the principal dramatists of his time. These embrace Kean, Charles Kemble, Young, Liston, Mat- thews, Macready, etc., in character. Many of these are at the Gar- riek Club. He also painted numerous other portraits.

Clouet, or Cloet. Three artists of this name have been con- founded into one. Jehan the father went from Brussels and settled in Tours, in 1480. Jehan the son went with his father to France, and became painter to Francis I. in 1518, and the portraits often credited to Francois belong to him. He painted the equestrian por- trait of Francis I. in the Florence Gall., attributed to Holbein. He did not write his name on his works.

Clouet, Francois, son of Jehan the younger, and called by his name, on -account of his celebrity, was born at Tours (1510-1574). He succeeded his father as painter to the king, and was continued in that office under Henry II. He painted many portraits of the royal family, nobility, and persons of celebrity.

Clouet, Peter, born at Antwerp (1606-16G8). An engraver, who studied with Spierre and Bloemaert, at Rome. After his return to Antwerp he engraved several plates after Rubens, which are much esteemed.

Clovio, Giulio, born in Croatia (1498-1578). A pupil of Giulio Romano. He was a miniaturist or illuminator. His designs were


CLOVIO - COELLO. 213

bad, but tne finish of his works wonderful. The " Farnese Brevi- ary," now in the library at Naples, is said to have occupied him nine years in the execution of its twenty-six miniatures.

Codagora, Viviano. Flourished about the middle of the 1 7th cen- tury. Painted architectural ruins. Some of his works are in Eng- land, and many are in the collections of Naples. The figures in his pictures were done by other artists.

Coello, Alonso Sanchez, born at Benifayro, early in the 16th century; died 1590. The first great portrait painter of Spain. Painter-in-ordinary to Philip II., and a great favorite of that king, who was accustomed to address him in his letters as his "beloved son." At Madrid, Coello lived in apartments to which Philip could go by a private door, to which he kept the key. He was in the habit of surprising him in his studio, or even when dining with his family. But Coello never abused this confidence, and remained a favorite, not only of the king, but of the court also. Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., Card. Alexander Farnese, and the Dukes of Florence and Savov, were also his admirers and friends, and many royal and noble persons were accustomed to visit him and to accept his hospi- talities. Large as the expense must have been of maintaining a proper style of living under these circumstances, it is said that when he died he left a fortune of 55,000 ducats. He endowed a hospital at Valladolid. Philip often called Coello his " Portuguese Titian," because he had lived at Lisbon, and his portraits, of which com- paratively few exist, are fine in color and graceful in design. He knew how to represent the repose and refinement which belong " to crentle blood and delicate nurture." He also painted sacred subjects, and there is a "Marriage of S. Catherine," by him, in the Royal Gall, at Madrid. Many of his pictures were burned in the Palace of the Prado. Lope de Vega wrote his epitaph, and called his

pictures

" Eternal scenes of history divine, Wherein for aye his memory shall shine."

His pictures in the Escorial were painted at the command of Philip, in 1582, and represent different saints at their altars, but a "Martyrdom of S. Sebastian," painted for the ch. of S. Jerome, at Madrid, is considered by many to be his chef-d'ceuire, and was praised by Cumberland for its " majesty of design, bold relief, and strong, masterly expression."

Coello, Claudio, born at Madrid between 1630 and 1640; died 1693. His father was a Portuguese sculptor in bronze, and intended to train his son in his own profession. He placed him in the school of llizi, to study drawing, where he showed so much talent, that his master persuaded his father to allow him to be a painter. He was never weary of his pencil, and soon outstripped his fellow-pupils. While still under llizi, he was employed to paint for churches and


214 COELLO — COLE.

convents. He became the friend of Carre no, who obtained admis- sion for him to the Royal galleries, where he studied color by copy- in^ Rubens, Yandyek, and Titian. He became the partner of Ximenez Donoso, and together they executed many frescoes. When Queen Maria Louisa made her public entry into Madrid, these two painters superintended the artistic arrangements of the great cere- monial. In 1683, Coello was called to Zaragoza, by the Archbishop, to paint in the collegiate ch. of the Augustines, and upon his return, in 1684, was made painter to the king, and afterwards became painter-in-ordinary and deputy-aposentador. After the death of Rizi, in 1685, he painted the altar-piece for the Santa Forma. This was his masterpiece, and still hangs in the Escorial. It represents Charles II. and his court receiving the sacerdotal benediction at the dedication of the altar. (For legend of the Santa Forma, see Fran- cisco Rizi.) This picture occupied him more than two years, and at its completion was received with great applause. During a few suc- ceeding years, Coello reigned supreme artist of Madrid. He painted portraits of the royal family and many notable persons ; he was ap- pointed painter to the Cath. of Toledo, and keeper of the Royal gal- leries. He felt, with reason, that he merited the honor of painting the walls of the Escorial; and so great was his sorrow and mortifi- cation when Luca Giordano was preferred to that work, that he threw aside his brushes and pencils, grew sad, and at length ill, and died a year later. The frescoes of Coello were not his best works, because too hastily done, but his oil pictures were finished with care, and are effective, graceful, and rich in tone. The picture at the Escorial is the best. The Royal Gall., Madrid, has two large compositions, Nos. 224 and 306, both representing the Virgin, with several saints. The sketches of Coello* a few of which are in the Louvre, are highly esteemed.

Cole, Thomas, born in Lancashire, England, 1801. His father was a woollen manufacturer, who came to America while Thomas was a child, and manufactured paper-hangings in Ohio. In mixing pig- ments, the son took his first lessons in art. He was of an extremely sensitive temperament, had much taste for music, and fully appre- ciated beautiful scenery. A portrait painter strayed into the village where he lived, and gave him some instruction. At length, with his palette and other materials, his flute, and a little clothing, he started off, supported himself by playing his flute, and took his frugal meals by the roadside. After varied experiences, he made his way to New York. Here Durand and Trumbull were his friends. His views of the Hudson brought him good prices. During his life he made two visits to Europe, but he followed his art with unceasing devotion. Some of his autumnal scenes were exhibited in England, where they were considered as the invention of an extravagant Yankee. His allegorical pictures are most celebrated, but it is in the landscape


COLE — COLOGNE. 215

rather than in the figure that he excelled. He painted landscapes in England, Italy, and Sicily, but he loved best to represent the beauties of the New World. It has been well said that his brush performed the same service to our scenery, as Bryant's pen. He wrote from Italy, " Neither the Alps, nor the Apennines, nor even Etna itself have dimmed in my eyes the beauty of our own Catskills." His religious sensibility was shown in his pictures of the " Voyage of Life." He died at his home among the Catskills when forty-seven years old. There is a singular coincidence connected with his serial pictures. " The Course of Empire " was painted for Luman Reed, who died just before its completion. His " Voyage of Life " was for Samuel Ward, whose own life was ended before the work was done. " The Cross and the World," he painted for himself, and the "Pil- grim entering Heaven " was scarcely finished when his own spirit was taken to that other world he had so recently contemplated. He painted but few portraits. His descriptions of scenery were charm- ins: and full of artistic feeling. His " Mount Etna," and view of the "White Mountains" are in the Wadsworth Gall., Hartford; his " Course of Empire " in the Gall, of the New York Historical Soci- ety: the " Mountain Ford," " Kenihvorth Castle," and the " Voyage of Life " are in the Gall, of John Taylor Johnston, New York city; the " Angel appearing to the Shepherds," in the Boston Athenaeum, and many of his pictures are owned by our most appreciative men, as will be understood from the fact that after his death sixty-three pic- tures were exhibited in New York, by the kindness of the owners.

Colin, Alexander, born at Malines (1520-1612). His principal works are at Innsbruck, where he settled and received the appoint- ment of sculptor to the Archduke Ferdinand. In 1577, he exe- cuted the embellishments for a fountain at Vienna.

Collantes, Francisco, born at Madrid (1599-1656). A painter of history and landscapes, which last were rich in color, and bold and masterly in style. Queen of Spain's Gall., very striking picture of " Ezekiel in the Valley of Bones," signed, Fran. Collantes, ft. 1630; same Gall., a landscape; Louvre, the " Burning Bush in Horeb."

Collins, William, born in London (1788-1847). A very charm- ing painter of landscapes, rustic children, etc. His pictures are highly prized. They are excellent, whether considered as landscapes with figures, or as figures in a landscape. He was fond of such sub- jects as " The Sale of the Pet Lamb," " Shrimp Boys at Cromer," " Skittle Players," etc. He painted many subjects connected with fishermen and sea views, especially those of Cromer Sands. He visited France, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and the Shetland Isles. Towards the end of his life he painted some religious sub- jects. %

Cologne, Meister Wilhelm, of. Little is known of this old master, who is said by some to be the same as Wilhelmus de Herle,


216 COLOGNE — COXINCK.

and to have settled in Cologne in 1370. The Limburg Chronicle of 1380 says, " In this time there was a painter in Cologne of the name of Wilhelm; he was considered the best master of all German Land; he paints every man, of whatever form, as if he were alive." All the best old pictures of Cologne and vicinity have, on the strength of this, been credited to Meister Wilhelm. The oldest one is probably that at S. Castor, at Coblentz. It is a wall painting, commemorative of an Archbishop of Treves who died in 1386. Its original appearance cannot be even surmised, owing to the restorations (?) it has suffered. The altar-piece and wings which once adorned the ch. of S. Clara, and are now in the Cath. of Cologne, are far more satisfactorily asso- ciated with the great fame of Meister Wilhelm. It is probable that the centre portion only was his work. This represents the " Life and Passion of Christ." The pictures arc on gold ground, the drawing feeble and incorrect, but the tints better. At S. Severin, there is a "Crucifixion" on the wall of the Sacristy, probably by the same hand. There are works attributed to him in the Museums of Cologne, Berlin, and Munich; in the National Gall., the Frankfort Library, etc.

Colonna, Michael Angelo. See Mitelli.

Compe, Jan Ten, born at Amsterdam (1713-1761). Pupil of Dirk Dalens. He painted landscapes and views of eities. One of the New Market at Amsterdam sold for 2000 Dutch florins, at public sale.

Conca, Sebastiano, born at Gaeta (1676-1764). A pupil of Francesco Solimena, he strove only to acquire the prettiness of art. He was employed in Rome by Clement XL Mengs says that by the introduction of his style at Rome, " he put the finishing stroke to the ruin of painting."

Condivi, Ascanio. A pupil of Michael Angelo. Without suffi- cient talent to be known as a painter, his reputation is world-wide as the author of the life of the great master, published in 1553.

Conegliano, Giambatista Cima da. His latest date on any known work is 1508; but he is said to have lived much later. He was one of the best of the Bellinesque painters. His coloring of some works is such that Kugler says it "glistens like jewels." His chef- d'oeuvre is in the ch. del Carmine, at Venice, and represents the Vir- gin kneeling before the sleeping Child. He often introduced into the landscapes of his backgrounds the rocky height and castle of Coneg- liano. As a painter of sacred subjects he merits a worthy place in his age. He Avas very industrious, and his pictures are in most Euro- pean collections, and many are in Venice in churches, and in the Acad.

Coninck, David do (1636-1687). Pupil of Jan Fyt. His pic- tures arc animated and powerful in color. They are rare. There are two of great merit in the Amsterdam Mus., representing a Stag- hunt and a Bear-hunt.


CONSTABLE — COPLEY. 217

Constable, John, born at East Bergholt in Suffolk (1776-1837). A landscape painter. His favorite subjects were country lanes, stiles, and fields. He was passionately fond of quiet nature, and one con- spicuous characteristic of his works is their simplicity. He was ac- customed to give the effect of dew, and this, sometimes carried to an excess, gave a spotted appearance which is much criticised. The " Corn-field " and " Valley -farm," in the National Gall., are fine specimens of his pictures.

Contarini, Cavaliere Gio., born at Venice (1549-1605). An exact imitator of Titian. He painted many mythological pictures. His principal work, formerly in the Ducal Pal. of Venice, now in the Louvre, represents the Virgin with the Child; she is on a throne, sur- rounded bv SS. Mark and Sebastian, and the Do^e Marino Grimani kneeling. He was also an eminent portrait painter.

Conte, Jacopo del, born at Florence (1510-1598). He lived much at Rome, and a few of his historical pictures are to be seen in churches there ; but he especially excelled in portraiture, a branch of art much patronized in his time in Venice, Rome, and Florence.

Conti, Bernardino di. In the Berlin Mus., there is a fine por- trait of a Cardinal by this old artist, and in the Gall, of the Capitol, Rome, a picture of a boy, 1496.

Cooninxloo, Giles, born at Antwerp (1544-1609). A landscape painter, who was well considered in his time. His pictures are spirited and his color is agreeable.

Cooper, Samuel, born in London (1609-1672). An eminent miniaturist. His works were much admired during his life, and now have an honorable place in fine collections. His reputation extended to the continent. He has been called " the Vandyck in little." But his impasto and fine fresh color remind one of Lely, more than Van- dvck, and there is a breadth in his works unusual in miniature. He painted many eminent persons. His wife was aunt to Alexander Pope, and was promised a pension (which she never received) for the pictures her husband had painted for the court. He was buried in Old S. Pancras.

Coopse, Pieter. Little is known of this artist. He painted in the style of Backhuysen, and it is believed that many of his pictures are attributed to the latter. No 230, Munich Gall., is called a Back- huysen, although the name of Coopse is on it.

Copley, John Singleton, R. A., born in Boston (1737-1815). The father and mother of this artist emigrated from Limerick, Ire- land, to Boston. The father was descended from the Copleys of Yorkshire, and the mother from the Singletons of County Clare, both families of importance. When the subject of our sketch was eleven years old, his mother was married to Peter Pelham, a portrait painter, and mezzotint engraver. Whitmore calls Pelham " the founder of these arts in Xew England." This marriage was an ad-


218 COPLEY.

vantage to young Copley, since he not only received the instruction and advice of Pelham, but was surrounded by those who sympathized with him in his choice of a profession. He was studious and quiet, and advanced rapidly. He attained eminence as a portrait painter in America, and lived in easy elegance, having married in 1769 Miss Susan Clarke, the daughter of a distinguished merchant of Boston. A little later Copley sent to Benjamin West, in London, his picture of the "Boy with a Squirrel " now owned by Mrs. James S. Amory, for exhibition at Somerset House. He sent no letter or name with it ; the rule of the exhibition excluded anonymous pictures, but West knew it to be an American work by the wood upon which it was stretched, and from the fact of the squirrel being such as belong to New England. The rule was set aside, and the picture so favorably received, that Copley was advised to go to England. He sailed in 1774, never to return. He went from England to the Continent, studied at Rome and Parma, travelled as far as Naples, returned to France, Germany, and Holland, studying constantly, and finally settled in London, where his wife and children joined him.

He soon rose to distinction, was made an Associate of the Royal Acad, in 1777, and an Academician six years later. Many distinguished persons were among his sitters, and a portrait of three of the children of George III., now at Buckingham Pal., is a fine example of his por- traits. He painted several large pictures, illustrative of events in English history, and some religious subjects. His portraits are full of dignity, and there is that in them which seems to assure us that they were truthful likenesses; his rich, subdued coloring is very effective. His life was most successful; he had friends among the most eminent men on both sides of the Atlantic; his family were cul- tivated, and his son became eminently distinguished as the great Lord Lyndhurst. He was a man of strong religious sentiments, and of quick and earnest sympathy. The following anecdote shows us his American feeling. In 1782, Elkanah Watson was in London, and Copley made a full length portrait of him. In his journal, Mr. Watson says, " The painting was finished in most exquisite style in every part except the background, which Copley and I designed to represent a ship, bearing to America the acknowledgments of our in- dependence. The sun was just rising upon the stripes of the Union streaming from her gaff. All was complete save the flag, which Copley did not deem proper to hoist under the present circumstances, as his gallery was the constant resort of the Royal family and of the nobility. I dined with the artist on the glorious 5th of December, 1 782. After listening with him to the speech of the King, formally recognizing the United States of America as in the rank of nations, previous to dinner, and immediately after our return from the House of Lords, he invited me into his studio; and there, with a bold hand, a master's touch, and I believe an American heart, he attached to the


COPLEY — COQUES. 219

ship the stars and stripes. This was, I imagine, the first American flag hoisted in Old England."

Copley was buried in Croydon ch., near London. Many of his pictures are scattered over America, belonging to the descendants of those for whom they were painted. A number are of easy access to the public in the Boston Athenaeum, where some are owned, and where from time to time they are put on exhibition by private indi- viduals. Heretofore there has been no satisfactory account of his works, but a book is about being published which will supply this de- ficiency. It is known that 209 oil paintings, 35 crayons, and 14 miniatures by him are still in existence in this country ; a list of these will be given with a sketch of his life, and other interesting facts. The title of the book is " A Sketch of the Life, and a List of some of the Works, of John Singleton Copley." It is written by Augustus Thorndikc Perkins, to whom I am indebted for the facts contained in this article.

LIST OF ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF COPLEY, AS GIVEN

BY MR. PERKINS.

Engraver, Dunkarton, Robert. The Children of George III. Abraham's Sacrifice.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. Portrait of Admiral Viscount Dun- can. Portrait of Lord Spenser.

Engraver, Green, N. Portrait of Henry Laurens of South Caro- lina.

Engraver, Green, Valentine. Samuel and Eli. A boy rescued

from a Shark.

Engraver, Thew, Robert. Picture of the Copley Family.

Engravers not given. Portrait of President John Adams. Portrait of Lord Howe. Portrait of Admiral Bonington. Portrait of Lord Mansfield. Portrait of George IV. at a Review. A Head of Cop- ley; by himself. The Nativity. The Tribute Money. The Death of Earl Chatham.* The Death of Major Pierson. The Surrender of Admiral De Winter. The Siege of Gibraltar.

Copley also made an engraving from one of his portraits. It bore the following inscription : " Rev. William Welsteed, of Boston, New England, cet. 58, 1753, J. S. Copley, jnnxit et fecit.

Coques, Gonzales, born at Antwerp (1618-1684). Pupil of David Ryckaert, the Elder. His best works are groups of ladies, gentlemen, and children, with accessories, in the open air. These were probably portraits. They are admirably colored; his white draperies are exquisite, and he excelled in painting beautiful hands. He often introduced dogs, and so well were they done that the ad- miration of the beholder is divided between them and the children playing with them. His backgrounds were also well done, but in i Engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi. — C. E. C


220 COQUES — CORNELISSER.

these he was often assisted by other artists. " The Verhelst Family," his chef-d'oeuvre, is in the Queen's Coll. at Buckingham Palace. Dresden Gall, No. 964, is said to represent his own family. His sin- gle portraits are. as a rule, inferior to his groups. He sometimes painted genre pictures, such as "La Lecon de Musique," in Lord Hertford's coll. He was a true lover of art, and being rich, painted for pleasure rather than gain. His works are not numerous, and are very valuable.

Cordieri, or Cordier, Nicholas (1567-1612). Educated in Home as an engraver on copper. He preferred sculpture, and became dis- tinguished in that art. Clement VIII. and Paul V. often visited his atelier. His works are in the Paulina, S. John in Lateran, and S. Gregorio in Monte Celio.

Corenzio, Belisario. A Greek (1 558-1 G43). He studied at Venice, under Tintoretto. Settled at Naples, where he gained great influence and a large fortune, and lived in elegant luxury. His works in that city are numerous. His style was the same as that of Tin- toretto, and Large frescoes were his best efforts. His pictures are also in some churches in Venice. He formed a cabal with Caraceiolo and Ribera (called Lo Spagnoletto) for the purpose of excluding other Italian artists from Naples. They committed many outrages, and, it is said, the crime of poisoning those whom they could not be rid of otherwise. IVArpino, Guido, Annibale Carracci, and, it is said. Domenichino, all suffered at the hands of these men.

Coriolano. The name of a family of artists, mostly engravers, who flourished in the last half of the 16th and the early part of the 17th centuries. Cristofano was the most important, and engraved the portraits for Vasari's " Lives of the Painters," published in 1568.

Corneille, Michel, the Younger, born at Paris (1642-1708). More noticeable as an engraver than as a painter. His etchings are the admiration of collectors. They are correct in drawing, grand in composition, and masterly in execution. His S. Francis kneeling before the Cross is fine. The four following plates came into the hands of a Roman print-seller, Rossi, who put the name of Raphael on them; they are now scarce.

The Deity appearing to Abraham.

Abraham journeying with Lot.

Abraham discomfiting the Army of the Confederate Kings.

Abraham with his son Isaac setting out for the Sacrifice.

Cornelisser, Cornells, called Cornells van Haarlem, from his birthplace (1562-1638). One of his best works is that by which he became known, and was executed for the Guild of Marksmen of Haar- lem. Berlin Gall., No. 734, " Bathsheba Bathing," is one of his chefs-d'oeuvre. In the Gall, at the Hague his "Murder of the Inno- cents " is most unpleasant. At Dresden there are mythological sub- jects by him, but although carefully finished, good in color, and full


COKNELISSER — CORT. 22 1

of force, it is easy to see that the only talent he had was for the realistic, and portrait painting was his vocation.

Corona, Leonardo, born at Murano (1565-1605). An artist no- ticeable for his copies of Titian, of which picture-buyers should beware, since they are sold as originals.

C^, ~ Cort, Cornelius, born at Hoorn, in Holland, 1536, f, f died at Rome, 1578. His first instructor was prob-

    • ' ably Jerome Cock, for whom he engraved some

plates published under the name of that master. He first engraved after Dutch and Flemish masters; then went to Venice and resided in the house of Titian, and engraved some of his finest works. He next went to Rome, where he established a school. Before his time there had been few large engravings. He greatly advanced his branch of art, and his plates are much valued by collectors. He worked with the graver only. His execution was masterly and bold, his drawing correct, and his landscapes especially fine. Agostino Carracci was his pupil. The following is a list of his best prints, not given in con- nection with the masters from whom he copied.

PORTRAITS.

Cornelius Cort.

Henricus II., Gallorum Rex; oval.

Catherine de' Medici.

Don Juan of Austria ; oval, with ornaments. 1578.

Marcus Antonius Moretus; oval.

Andrea Alciati; oval, with ornaments.

Roger of Brussels, painter.

Theodore van Haarlem, painter.

Joachim Dionatensis, painter.

SUBJECTS AFTER HIS OWN DESIGNS.

The Birth of the Virgin. 1568.

Conception of the Virgin. 1567.

Presentation in the Temple.

Repose in Egypt. 1568.

Holy Family, S. Joseph presenting a Pear to the Child.

The Last Supper. 1568. He engraved this subject twice.

A Crucifix held above a globe by Angels.

The Resurrection. 1569.

S. Theodore overcoming a Dragon.

S. Catherine crowned bv two Angels.

S. Veredina kneeling before an Altar.

Two Landscapes with Shipwrecks.

SUBJECTS AFTER FLEMISH ARTISTS BEFORE HE WENT TO ITALY.

Adam and Eve with the Serpent; after Michael Coxcie. The Resurrection; after the same. 1568.


222 CORT.

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same.

Christ Triumphant, with SS. Peter and Paul; after the same.

Four plates of the Rich Man and Lazarus; after Hemskerk.

The Parable of the Vineyard; after the same.

Four plates of the Parable of the Talents; after the same.

Six plates of the history of Noah and the Deluge ; after F. Floris.

Six plates of the history of Abraham ; after the same.

Six plates of the history of Jacob and Rachel; after the same.

Ten plates of the labors of Hercules; after the same.

Four plates of the history of Pluto and Proserpine; after the same.

Bacchus and Venus; 1566; after the same.

The Immortality of Virtue, emblematical; 1564; after the same.

The Descent from the Cross; after Roger van der Weyde.

S. Roch; after J. Specka/t. 1567.

S. Lawrence ; after the same.

S. Dominic reading; after Bart. Spranger.

Holy Family with Angels ; after the same.

Crowning of the Virgin ; after Giles Moestaert. 1565.

The Acad, of Painting; after Stradan ; fine.

SUBJECTS KXGHAVED IX ITALY.

After Girolamo Mutiano.

S. Peter walking on tin- Water. 1568.

Christ crowned with Thorns.

Christ bearing his Cross.

The Descent from the Cross, with two ladders.

The Descent from the Cross, with four ladders.

Christ appearing to the Maries.

S. Jerome meditating.

A set of seven landscapes with figures, called " The Seven Peni- tents : " S. John Baptist, Magdalene, S. Jerome, S. Onophrius, S. Hubert, S. Francis with the Stigmata, and S. Francis in devotion.

After Clovio. The Annunciation.

Adoration of the Magi, in the form of an Altar. Virgin and Child; half length. Christ preaching in the Temple. Baptism of Christ.

The Crucifixion between the two Thieves. Another Crucifixion; a grand composition. 1568. The Dead Christ, with the Maries. Entombment of Christ. Christ appearing to Magdalene. Conversion of S. Paul. S. George and the Dragon.


o~ * ~ A "6'


COTCT.


223


After Taddeo Zucchero.

Creation of Adam and Eve. Presentation in the Temple. Nativity; a rich composition. Holv Family, with S. John and a Lamb. Miracle of the Loaves. Entombment of Christ. Descent of the Holy Ghost. Martyrdom of S. Agatha.

After Federigo Zucchero*

Moses and Aaron before Pharoah.

Birth of the Virgin. 1578.

Conception of the Virgin.

The Annunciation. 1571.

The Nativity. 1568.

Adoration of the Magi.

Holy Family.

Flight into Egypt.

Woman taken in Adultery.

Temptation of Christ.

The Money Changers driven from the Temple.

Resurrection of Lazarus.

The Woman of Samaria.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Christ taken in the Garden.

Death of the Virgin.

Coronation of the Virgin.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

Parnassus; after Polidoro da Caravaggio.

Adoration of the Shepherds; after the same.

Repose in Egypt; after B. Bassaro.

Visitation of the Virgin to S. Elizabeth ; after Marco da Siena.

The Nativity; after the same.

Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Paris Romano.

Holy Family; after F. Baroccio.

Baptism of Christ; after F. Salviati.

The Marriage at Cana ; after Lorenzo Sabbatini.

The Last Supper; after Livio Agresti.

Stoning of Stephen; after Marcello Venusti.

S. Jerome penitent; after Riccio da Siena.

S. Jerome in the Desert, with two Angels; after J. Parmensis.

S. Margaret of Cortona; after Tempesta.

A dance of Dryads; after II Rosso.

The Three Fates; after Giulio Romano.


224 CORT — COSSA.

Cort, Henri de, born at Antwerp, 1742; died in London, 1810. Pupil of Antonissen and G. Herreyns. Many of his pictures, which are landscapes, are in collections in England, in which country he lived many years. They are well finished, and have rich foliage, with cool, silvery skies. He was fond of openings in heavy foliage, with brio-lit light or sunshine between, which discloses buildings and other objects in the distance.

Corte, Juan de la, born at Madrid (1 5*7-1 G60). Painter to both Philip III. and Philip IV. He excelled in battle pieces and per- spective views. Several of his works may be seen in Madrid.

Cortese, Jacopo, called II Borgognone, born in Tranche Conte (1621-1676). One of the most celebrated battle painters. Pupil of Cerquozzi. Many pictures are attributed to Borgognone which are the work of his imitators. In the Borghese Pal. there are two of his original works. Others are in the 1'itti Gall. When in the height of his career, his wife died. lie had not lived amicably with her, and Avas suspected of her murder. The sadness which this accusation induced led him to become a Jesuit. Besides his pictures be left a few etchings of battles, which are uncommonly effective in light and shade, and full of spirit.

Cortona, Pietro Berrettini da, born at Cortona (1596-1669). One of the most prominent among that class of painters called machinists. His works prove that he had great talent, in spite of their incorrectness and superficiality. He attempted to dazzle by great effect rather than to satisfy judgment or good taste. He acquired a passing reputation by his inventive powers and ready execution, but is now more justly valued. He painted a ceiling in the Palazzo Barberini at Rome, and frescoes in the Pitti Pal. in Florence. Some of his smaller pictures, good specimens of which may be seen in Paris, are pleasing in their bright, cheerful tints.

Cortot, Jean Pierre (1 7.S7-1843). This sculptor excelled in design, but we find a want of deep feeling in expression. In the Chapelle Expiatore the group representing Marie Antoinette, sup- ported by Religion, is his work. He also executed a group in the pediment of the Palais des Deputes, symbolical of the glory of France, and the relief of " Napoleon crowned by Victory " oh the Arc de l'Etoile.

Cosimo, Piero di (1441-1521). Pupil of Cosimo Rosselli. Said to have rivalled Leonardo in his early Florentine days. He was of a gloomy temperament, which is shown in his works, especially in the " History of Perseus," in the Ufhzi. His chiaro-scuro is good, but depth of feeling is wanting in his pictures. His principal works are in Florence, but there are specimens in the Louvre, Berlin Mus., etc.

Cossa, Francesco. Little is known of the history of this painter. His name first appears in the history of Ferrara in 1456. He went later to Bologna ; where there are two works of his, justly celebrated.


COSSA.


225



DEATH OF S. MARY OF EGYPT. BY PIETRO DA CORTONA.


One is an altar-piece in the Gall, of Bologna, representing the Madonna holding the Child on her lap, with a saint on each side, and one of the donors of the picture kneeling. It was painted in 1474. There is much dignity in his figures; his faces are of a noble type, his outlines clear, his extremities well drawn, and his draperies broad; but there is a fixedness in all that suggests statues as models, rather than living and moving beings. His wall painting in the Barracano is only uncovered on days of high festival. It represents an enthroned Virgin within a highly ornamented arch. On each side of the throne angels hold candelabra, and lower down are figures of a male and female who look up to Mary. It is said that they were portraits of Gio. Bentivoglio and Maria Vinziguerra, and the picture was painted at the request of Bentivoglio. The Madonna was a miraculous one which Cossa restored, and added the portraits. It has been restored, so that portions only of Cossa's work remain. These are the female in profile, the angels, the frame of the Virgifc and Child, and the architecture. Both are remarkable works for their time.

15


226 COSTA — COUSIN.

Costa, Lorenzo, born at Ferrara (1460-1536). There is doubt as to who were the teachers of Costa, but it is easy to tell his earlier from his later works by the change and improvement in them. He painted much in Bologna, and his works may be seen in the churches and gallery of that city. In Ferrara, too, in the Constabili and other collections, there are pictures of his, and in most large collec- tions in Europe. A Dead Christ," at Berlin, is a good specimen of his manner. Among Bolognese artists he ranks next to Francia. He was his contemporary and co-worker. His color is less harmo- nious and delicate than that of Francia, but it is more powerful. In gome of his works the architectural parts are overdone, as was the rule in Ferrarese art. After the fall of the Bentivoglio, who had been his patrons in Bologna, Costa entered the service of the Gonzagas of Mantua, where he passed the remainder of his life, and executed as many more works as he had before done in Bologna and Ferrara.

Cosway, Richard, born in Devonshire (1740-1821). An emi- nent miniaturist. He did not confine himself to that branch of painting, but nothing that he did outside of it compared in excel- lence with his miniatures, or added to his reputation. Small pictures of Venus, Cupid, etc., were his best subjects. There is a charming refinement in his miniature portraits of ladies, which are rather pale or delicate in color, and often in white dresses with light backgrounds.

Cotan, Juan Sanchez, born at Alcazar de S. Juan, 1561 ; died at Granada, 1627. A painter monk. A pupil of Bias del Prado. His finest pictures were for the Chartreuse of Granada. He was also a mechanic, and in the habit of repairing the water-pipes and clucks of the convent, making alarums, etc. The Mus. of Madrid has a fine bodegon, or kitchen piece, by Cotan, in which is a huge garden thistle, lying on a table surrounded by vegetables, while birds and fruits hang above.

Cotes, Francis, born in London (1725-1770). A portrait painter who is justly celebrated for his pictures in crayon, in which he excelled. Ilis painted portraits cannot be praised.

Cotignola, Girolamo Marchesi da. Real name Marchesi ; called Cotignola from his birthplace (1475-1550). Pupil of Francesco Francia. His pictures prove him to have been a great artist. He had two distinct styles. The first was that of his master ; the other showed the effect of Roman study, the works of Raphael, etc. To the first belongs a "Coronation" in the Berlin Mus. There is much sweetness in the heads, but the arrangement of the picture is stitf and void of grace. A "Madonna" with kneeling Monks, in same Gall, shows his later manner.

Courtois, Jacques. See Cortese.

Cousin, Jean, born at Soucy, 1501. A painter, sculptor, architect, and writer. Little is positively known concerning him. He was origi-


COUSIN — COYPEL. 227

nally a glass painter, and executed works of this kind at Sens. He is celebrated for his picture of the "Last Judgment/' in the Louvre. It is in minute, hard stvle. P. de Jode engraved it in twelve plates. He was the author of a book of portraiture, pub- lished in 1G03, in Paris. The monument of Louis de Breze, in the Cath. of Rouen, has been attributed to Cousin. It is a beautiful work of the Renaissance style, and is more probably that of Jean Goujon, rather than Cousin.

Couston, Nicholas, born at Lyons, 1658; died at Paris, 1733. He studied at Paris under his uncle (Coysevox), and took the orand prize at the Royal Acad, at twenty-three. He went to Rome, where he studied principally the works of Michael Angelo and Alo-ardi. He made a copy of the " Hercules," which is now at Versailles. After his return to France, he was much employed. His works, thouo-h executed with spirit, are wanting in the purity of the antique. His most important production was a colossal representation of the " Junction of the Seine and Marne." He also executed a bronze statue, representing the river Saone, for the city of Lyons. Some of his works are in the Cath. of Notre Dame.

Couston, Guillaume, born at Lyons (16 78-1746). Brother of the preceding. He gained the grand prize of the Acad, and went to Rome. Returning to Paris, his reputation rapidly increased. Some of his best works were for the garden at Marly ; the bronze statue of the Rhone, at Lyons; a bas-relief of "Christ with the Doctors," at Versailles ; and statues of Louis XIV. and Cardinal Dubois, in the Musee des Monuments Francais.

Couston, Guillaume, born at Paris (1716-1777). A son and pupil of the preceding. He took the grand prize and went to Rome, and, in 1746, was appointed Professor of Sculpture, and Keeper of the Sculptures in the Louvre. He executed the sepulchre of the father of Louis XVI. ; a bronze of the " Visitation " in the chapel of Versailles, in bas-relief ; and a statue of St. Roch in the church of that saint. For the King of Prussia he made statues of Mars and Venus ; and a fine marble group for the Jesuits of Bordeaux, repre- senting the " Apotheosis of St. Francis Xavier."

Coypel, Noel, born at Paris (1628-1707). He was, when quite young, employed at the Louvre, and became an Academician in 1659. He was appointed director of the French Acad, at Rome, whither he went in 1672, and presided for three years with great honor. He painted the four easel pictures representing scenes in Roman history, now in the Louvre ; they were displayed in the Rotunda and much admired. After he returned to Paris he was employed at the Tuileries, and when seventy-eight years old painted the Vault of the eh. des Invalides, which was one of his best works. He also left the following etchings: —

The Virgin caressing the Child; two sizes.

The Holy Family.


228 COYPEL — CRAESBECKE.

Coypel, Antoine, born at Paris (1661-1722). Son of the pre- ceding. This artist has been much admired by some, and severely criticised by others. His grace has been called that of the dancing- master, and his effects too theatrical. But he was very popular, was much employed in the royal palaces, and made painter to the Kino - . He also left a considerable number of etchings, some of which are very fine, and all are executed in a masterly and finished style.

Coxcien or Van Coxcyen, Michael, born at Mechlin (1499- 1592). Pupil of Van Orley. He studied also in Rome, and became an imitator of Raphael; indeed, he has been called the Flemish Raphael. In the Antwerp Gall, there is a " S. Sebastian," and a Triumph of Christ " by this master; in the Mechlin Cath. a " S. Sebastian." His frescoes in the ch. dell' Anima at Rome are unim- portant. His chef-d'oeuvre was a copy of the " Adoration of the Lamb " by the Van Eycks. He painted this for Philip II. of Spain, and was two years in completing it. Much of it is well executed, lie is said to have received more than £300, besides his living while at work on it. This picture was formerly in Madrid, but was taken away by the French. Some portions of it are in the Munich Gall, and some at Berlin.

Coysevox, Antoine, born at Lyons (1640-1720). Before he was seventeen he had distinguished himself by a statue of the Virgin. He studied in Paris, and progressed rapidly. In 1667 he was engaged by Cardinal Furstenberg to go to Alsace to decorate his palace. This occupied him about four years. When he re- turned to Paris he executed a statue of Louis XIV. and was com- missioned by the province of Bretagne to make an equestrian statue of the same monarch. He became very eminent. Among his best works are : the tomb of the Cardinal Mazarin ; the tomb of the great Colbert, in S. Eustache ; the monument of Charles le Brun, in the ch. of S. Nicholas ; the statue of the great Conde ; the marble statue of Louis XIV. in the ch. of Notre Dame, etc. His bust by Lemoine is in the Musee des Monuments Francais.

Cozens, John, died 1799. A landscape painter and drawing- master. He left many drawings, admirably executed, which are now highly prized by connoisseurs.

Craesbecke, Joost Van, born at Brussels, 1608. Pupil of Adrian Brower. He painted the same class of subjects as his mas- ter but did not equal him in color or execution. His works are very spirited. On account of having first followed the trade of a, baker, and dying young (1641 ?), his works are rare. One of the best is in the Aremberg Gall, and represents his own atelier, with himself painting a group of men and women. This is undoubtedly his chrf-fPceuvre. Kugler says, " The arrangement is easy; the heads full of life ; the keeping in a cool harmony, and, with decided light-


CRAESBECKE — CRANACH. 229

in"-, very delicate ; and the careful and spirited execution of solid impasto."

Craeyer, Gaspard de, born at Antwerp (1585-1669). Pupil of Raphael Van Coxis of Brussels. A contemporary of Rubens, who, it is said, admired his works. He was also the friend of Vandyck, who painted his portrait. Craeyer' s pictures were mostly of Bibli- cal subjects. His color was subdued, but truthful ; he had a free, masterly touch, and his feeling for beauty sometimes borders on the ideal. He was much admired in his time, and fully occupied. Many of his works were very large ; they are well drawn, and, in spite of their formality, impressive by their dignity. In the Mus. at Ghent he may best be judged. The best picture of the number there, is the " Coronation of S. Rosalie by the Infant Christ." This picture was carried away by the French, and returned. The " Mar- tyrdom of S. Blaize," in same Mus., was his last Avork, executed when he was ei^htv-six vears old. In the Munich Gall, there is an im- mense enthroned Madonna, with Angels, surrounded by Saints; the lower figures are portraits of himself, his brother, sister, and nephew. He had no wife. His own head is fine. His portraits resemble those of Vandyck. The backgrounds of his pictures were sometimes executed by other artists. A Virgin and Child enthroned, with surrounding saints, in the Vienna Gall, is considered by some critics his chef-d' 'ceuvre. It is full of tender feelings. Works of his are also in the Louvre, Brussels Gall., etc.

_ w ^^^ . Cranach, Lucas, born at

/fc ifey S^SS ^5 Kranach (1472-1553). His

V^ v^™ ^^xEi^^^K^ ^ family name was Sunder.

Q His st vie seems to have been formed by Matthew Griinewald. He painted religious, mythological, historical, and genre subjects ; he also painted miniatures, was an enoraver, and made drawings for wood-cuts. His drawing is the poorest feature of his works. His color was good, his execution finished, and his inventive powers varied. His characteristics were cheerfulness and grace, rather than grandeur or dignity, though he is not without the latter. He retained his powers to the time of his death, and his works are numerous. The most important one is the altar-piece at Weimar. The centre of this represents Christ on the Cross, and his own portrait and that of Luther is introduced. His works are at Prague, Leipsic, Schneeberg, and Gotha, as well as in the galleries of Munich, Berlin, Augsburg, the National Gall., and some private collections. The " Fountain of Youth," at Berlin, is a peculiar picture. On one side of the fountain old women are with much trouble assisted into the water, and emerge on the other side with youth and beauty. They dance ; a feast is spread, etc., and the only sad thing is that the men retain their age and their gray locks. His mythological pictures are naive and somewhat graceful, but are


/


230


CRANACH.


almost burlesques upon good renderings of such subjects. He was successful in the representation of childhood, as is shown in his various pictures of Christ blessing little children. Purely realistic subjects, such as hunting pieces, he treated well. His execution was



GROUP FROM A PAINTING BY LUCAS CRANACH.

so rapid that he was called " celerrimus pictor." He was in the ser- vice of Frederick the Wise, and was retained by his two successors, John the Constant, and John Frederick the Generous. When the latter was a prisoner for five years, Cranach remained with him, to


CRANACH — CRAWFORD. 2H

cheer him by his art and his society. In Wittenberg he was much respected, and was elected Burgomaster. His prints are scarce and much prized. The following are some of the best.

Copper-plates.

Portrait of John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, with an Angel hold- ing a Crown of Laurel; very scarce.

Portraits of Frederick and John, two Electors of Saxony, Da ^ length ; one holding a Chaplet. 1510.

Christianus II. Danorum rex, etc.

Martin Luther, in a Monk's Habit.

Temptation of Christ; L. C. W. ; very scarce.

Wood-culs.

Half length of an Elector, with a Book, before a Crucifix; marked with the Dragon; 1552; scarce.

Philip Melancthon; full length.

Emperor Charles V. ; full length.

Emperor Ferdinand; full length.

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 1509.

The Annunciation.

S. John preaching in the Wilderness. 1516.

The Passion of Christ; in fourteen prints; entitled Passio D. N. Jesu Christi, etc.; 1509; very fine.

The twelve Apostles; very fine.

Paris dying on Mount Ida, visited by the three Goddesses; 1508; fine.

M. Curtius plunging into the Gulf.

The great Tournament 1509.

The little Tournament. 1509.

Cuts in Chiaroscuro.

S. George and the Dragon.

S. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus. 1507.

Venus and Cupid.

Cranach, Lucas, the Younger, died 158G. He formed his style after his father and Albert Durer. In the principal eh. of Witten- berg, there are several of his works, and they are also in the galleries at Munich, Dresden, etc. No doubt some of the pictures attributed to the father, were the works of the younger. He had grace and sweetness, and his color was often glowing. He was also a Burgo- master at Wittenberg.

Crawford, Thomas, born in New York, 1813; died in London, 1857. No striking event marked his youth, and his advance in art was a healthful and systematic process. Next to Rome, Munich is, of all the cities of Europe, severely critical of statuary. It is there-


232 CRAWFORD — CREDI.

fore sufficient to establish Crawford's claim to eminence to say that, at the time of the casting of his two great statues, that German city- expressed its enthusiasm by the celebration of impromptu festivals. At the completion of the Beethoven, some of that composer's grand- est music was performed under the united auspices of the court and the artists. When Crawford went to Munich to see his Washington in bronze, on the evening of his arrival, he was surprised to find it in the midst of a large and gloomy arena; but suddenly, as he ap- proached, numberless torches flashed their light upon his work, and a hundred German voices greeted him in a triumphant song. For years the studio of Crawford wa,s one of the homes of travellers in Rome, and he became, through his works and the charm of his manners, the friend of the lovers of art in every country in which the word art is used. The following are his principal works and the places where they may be found : The statue of Beethoven, Boston Music Hall; statue of James Otis, Chapel of Mount Auburn; the " Indian," New York Historical Society: the " Orpheus," " Adam and Eve after the Expulsion," a " Shepherdess," and a bust of Josiah Quincy, Boston Athenaeum; a statue of " Flora," New York Central Park ; " Chil- dren in the Wood," owned by Hon. Hamilton Fish, New York; "Boy Playing .Marbles," by Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Worcester, Mass. ; the bust .of his wife when a bride, and several busts of Washington .were- owned by the late John Ward, of New York. His most elaborate monumental works are in Washington, D. C, and Richmond, Ya. ; while his "Pandora," "Dancing Jenny," — for which his daughter, now deceased, was the model, — "Cupid," "Genius of Mirth," "Flora," "Indian Woman," "Hebe and Ganymede," "Mercury and Psyche," "Daughter of Herodias," "Aurora," "Peri," etc., as original or repetitions, are widely dis- tributed. Crawford executed no less than twenty-two bas-reliefs from classic, Scriptural, and other subjects. Eighty-seven plaster casts of his works were presented by Louisa W. Crawford to the commissioners of the Central Park, and are now arranged in a building where they can be seen by visitors. His works embody the history of his life, in which there were few remarkable events. The disease of which he died was extremely painful, a tumor on the inner side of the orbit of the eye. The pressure on the brain was removed by medical skill, and he retained his mind until his last moment. His remains were brought to New York and interred at Greenwood. As we consider his life, it would almost seem from the intensity of his application and the results of his labor, that the time of his early death had been revealed to him and urged him on to work while his day lasted.

Credi, Lorenzo di, died 1537. A fellow-pupil with Leonardo da Vinci under Andrea Verocchio. He surpassed his teacher, but not Leonardo. His favorite subjects, and those in which he best sue-


CREDI — CRIVELLI. 233

ceeded, were Madonnas and Holy Families. His best pictures are in Florence, at the Utiizi, and an " Adoration of the Shepherds," formerly in S. Chiara, now in the Acad., is one of his happiest efforts. There is a Madonna and Child with Saints, in the Louvre, which Vasari called his capo cV opera. The Berlin Mus. has fine specimens of the pictures of Credi, and there are two small, but characteristic ones in the National Gall. Credi copied the works of Leonardo most successfully.

Cresilas. A sculptor of Athens who competed with Phidias, Poly- cletus, and Phradmon in making the statue of an Amazon for the Ephesian temple of Diana. A " Wounded Amazon " in the Capitol at Rome, is believed to be a copy of that by Cresilas, who took, as we are told, the third rank in the contest. He also made a beautiful bust of Pericles, and there are three now existing which have some claims to being copies of it; they are in the Vatican, the British Mus., and the Glyptothek at Munich.

Crespi, Gio. Battista, called II Cerano from his birthplace (1557- 1633). One of the most eminent pupils of the Procaccini school of Milan. He was mannered, but he was also powerful. The Brera has some excellent works of his, and there is a fine one in the Berlin Mus. He was also a sculptor and architect, and executed the colos- sal statue of S. Charles Borromeus, in the Lago Maggiore, for his patron, Card. Borromeo.

Crespi. Daniele (1590-1630). Son of the preceding. Also dis- tinguished among Milanese painters.

Crespi, Giuseppe Maria, called Lo Spagnolo di Bologna (1665- 1747). Pupil of Cignani. He had a capricious fancy, and was tempted to caricature, even in religious subjects. His manner of working Avas as coarse as that of his master was fine. His execution was free, but in some cases so slight, that parts have disappeared. His figures sometimes appear to be thrown upon the canvas. Of his works at Dresden, that of the " Seven Sacraments " is remarkable. The " Cumagan Sibyl," at Vienna, is a good specimen of his style. He was a good copyist of the old masters. He left several etchings from his own designs.

Cristofori, Fabio, and his son, Pietro Paolo. Two fine mosaists. They executed for S. Peter's the " Communion of S. Jerome," after Domenichino; the " S. Petronilla," after Guercino, and the "Bap- tism of Christ," after Carlo Maratti.

Crivelli, Carlo, born at Venice. His earliest known work is dated 1468, and his latest, 1495. He was one of the best of the tempera painters of Venice. His pictures are well executed, and not badly colored, but they are hard and ugly in expression. He was fond of painting garlands of flowers, or fruit on gold grounds, as ornaments to his pictures ; these were excessively rigid in effect. When his works are chronologically studied, there is much interest in tracing


234


CK1VELLI — CKOME.


the changes and improvements in his manner. The honor of knight- hood was conferred on Crivelli in 1490, by Prince Ferdinand, of Capua. Some of the best works of this master in any Gall, are in that of London. The Brera, Berlin Mus., Borghese Pal., Vatican



S. LUCIA. BY CRIVELLI.

Gall., and Kensington Mus., all have his pictures. A "Pieta"of 1493, now in the Oggioni Coll. at Milan, was his best and probably last work. He had much talent, but his pictures are not pleasant. They are very numerous, and are in many private collections and in the churches of Massa and other places.

Crome, John, born at Norwich (1769-1821). A good landscape


CROME — CUYP. 235

painter. His sun effects and moonlight scenes are especially excel- lent. Sandy or pebbly beaches he also painted well, and his water views were made effective by bright lights thrown on the water in the distance. His color is sometimes very rich. He also left some etchings, which are good.

Cross, John, born at Tiverton (1819-1861). Studied in Paris. In 1847 he gained a prize of £300 for his picture of " Richard Coeur de Lion forgiving Bertrand de Gourdon," which was purchased by the Eno-lish government, and is now at Westminster Pal. For several years he sent pictures to the Exhibition, but in the end his " Storm Scene on the Cliffs " was rejected by the Acad. He died in oreat poverty, and broken-hearted at his want of success in the art he loved.

Curia, Francesco, born at Naples (1538-1610). This artist painted several imposing altar-pieces for churches in Naples. That in S. Maria della Pieta has been a model to Neapolitan painters.

Curradi or Currado, Francesco, born in Florence (1570-1661). Pupil of Battista Naldini. His best works were historical subjects, easel size. Two of his finest ones are in the Florence Gall.

Cuyp, Jacob Gerritze, called Old Cuyp, born at Dort (1580?- 1642?). Although much eclipsed by his son, this artist merits hon- orable mention. A pupil of Abraham Bloemaert. He painted land- scapes and battle pieces, but excelled most in portraits. He was skilful in the arrangement of family groups. His color was fine, and may be described as sunny. Berlin Mus., No. 743 ; Amsterdam Gall.,

No. 60.

Cuyp, Albert, born at Dort (1606-1672). Son and pupil of the preceding. Little is known of the life of this great painter. His favorite subjects were landscapes, with cattle and other animals. Frequently they were lying beside a river. He also painted winter scenes with good effect; still-life, fowls, hens, ducks, etc., were all painted by him. He was remarkable for his atmospheric effects, and as we look at his pictures we can almost feel the chill of the damp morning, or the heat of the high noon which he has painted. His colors, too, are managed with great skill; and the contrasts of light and shade, of dull and bright, were perfectly understood by him. But there is a certain monotony in the heads of his cattle; and his pictures were never very carefully finished. He was not appreciated for a long time, and his paintings had no large sale even at moderate prices. The English first gave them their proper value, and many of them are in England, both in public and private collections. Smith's Catalogue numbers 336 of his pictures. No. 53, National Gall., is called his masterpiece, and represents a morning landscape with two cows reposing in the foreground, and a woman talking with a horseman. Some of his works are in the Munich Gall, and the Louvre, but are wanting in most Continental collections.


236 DADDI — DAMER.


D.


Daddi, Bernardo, born at Arezzo. Flourished about 1355. Pupil of Spinello Aretino. Some of his works remain in Florence, and his name is among those who approved the original statutes for the founding of the Compagni of Florence. The object of this so- ciety was the meeting together of artists to afford each other assist- ance, and to thank God for the prospered state of art at that time. It seems to have been largely a religious institution, and assem- bled in a chapel of S. Maria Nuova.

Daelliker, John Rudolph (1694-1769). A Prussian portrait painter who lived at Zurich and Berne several years, and then studied in Paris, after which he returned to his own country. His drawing was correct, his color beautiful, and his execution masterly.

Dahl, Michael, born at Stockholm, 1G56 ; died in London, 1743. After visiting France and Italy he settled in England, where he made a flue reputation as a portrait painter.

Dahl, John Christian (1788-1857). A Norwegian landscape painter. He was intended for the Church, but he loved art too well to devote himself to anything else. In 1811 he went to Copenhagen and found friends who enabled him to study at the Acad. Before this he had received but little instruction. He went afterwards to Dresden, and later, in the suite of Prince Christian of Denmark, he visit i'd the Tvrol and Italy. He was an acute observer, and an accurate imitator of nature, and represented her well in various forms ; but his best works were representations of stormy northern seas, although his Italian skies and sultry atmospheric effects, and his Tyrolese passes, are well painted. His works are to be seen in all parts of Europe ; some arc in America, but the larger number are in the galleries of Copenhagen and in Berghen, his native city, and other places in Norway.

Dalmasio, Lippo di, born at Bologna. Flourished towards the end of the 14th century. Called " dalle Madonne," on account of the beauty of his Madonnas. It is said that his works were done in oil colors, which is interesting in connection with the much-discussed question of the time when these were first used.

Damer, Hon. Anne Seymour (1748-1828). A distinguished sculptor. Daughter of Field-Marshal Conway. While still young, in conversation with Hume, Miss Conway criticised some plaster casts they had seen. Hume told her it was more easy to criticise than to do better. She immediately obtained some wax and mod- elled a head which she showed him. It had merit enough to surprise him, but he suggested that it was much more difficult to chisel than to model. She then proceeded to execute a bust in stone, which, though rude, demanded his admiration. From this time she devoted


DAMER — DANIELL. 237

herself to art. She studied under Ceracchi, and in the studio of Ba- con acquired the technicalities, and learned the elements of anatomy from Mr. Cruikshank. She visited Italy in order to better study Grecian art, and endeavored always to imitate its pure and simple style. She married the Hon. John Darner in 1767, but the marriage was an unhappy one, and he committed suicide in 1776. She had travelled considerably and had written some things which she at one time intended to publish, but in her will she commanded all her papers to be destroyed, and among them were not only her MSS. but many interesting and valuable letters. She declared that the distinction of being an artist was all that she desired, and requested that her working apron and her tools should be placed beside her in her coffin. She executed a large number of works, among which are the following: A marble statue eight feet high, in the Registry Office, Edinburgh ; two colossal heads in Portland stone, which orna- ment the key-stone of the bridge at Henley-upon- Thames; a bust of Fox, which she presented to Napoleon Bonaparte in person in 1815, and in return for which she received a snuff-box with the portrait of the emperor set in diamonds; a bust of Lord Nelson, who was her friend, and sat for this bust immediately after his return from the Battle of the Nile ; this she presented to the city of London, and it is in the Common Council Chamber at Guildhall ; busts of her father, of Sir Humphry Davy, of her mother, and of herself One of the latter is in the Royal Gall, at Florence, and another is in the British Museum.

Danby, Francis, born in Wexford County, Ireland (1793-1861). He was most successful as a painter of calm evenings at sea ; gen- erally sunset scenes, with which he frequently connected some poetic incident or sentiment.

Dance, Sir Nathaniel, born in London (1734-1811). Pupil of Francis Hay man, and travelled in Italy for improvement during sev- eral years. He painted in various styles. Some of his portraits are likened to those of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Some of his works remind one of Havman or of Hogarth, and again they are more like Italian paintings. Dance married a fortune, had a seat in Parliament, was made a baronet, and took the name of Holland. He did not abandon painting entirely, but sometimes sent works to the Exhibition as an amateur.

Dandini. The family of artists by this name were quite important in their time. The most distinguished was Vincenzo, a pupil of Pietro da Cortona, whose style he imitated. Some of his works remain in Florence. He died 1675.

Daniell, Thomas, born at Kingston-on-Thames (1749-1840). Dis- tinguished for pictures of Oriental scenery. Together with his nephew, William Daniell, he passed ten years in India, and made illustrations for a work descriptive of that country, which was pub-


238 DANIELL — DAVID.

lished in six volumes, in 1808. Their works are so united that they must be considered as almost one artist.

Dannecker, Johann Heiiirich, born at Stuttgart (1758-1841). He gained the prize in the Acad, founded by the Duke Charles Eugene. His statue was that of Milo. This entitled him to the royal pension, with which he went to Paris, from there to Rome, where he remained seven years, and then returned to Wurtemburg to be appointed Director of the Acad, with 15,000 fr. a year. For fifteen years he was considered a fine sculptor, but his health failed, and others of his country surpassed him. There was a delicate feeling for nature, and noble expression in the heads of Dannecker, and his fio-ures were li<dit and graceful. The " Ariadne " in the coll. of M. Bethmann of Frankfort is one of his best known and most admirable works. He also executed a Cupid, a statue of Alexander, and the monument of Count Zeppelin. His figure of Christ, upon which he labored eight years, belongs to the Emperor of Russia. His statues and portrait-busts are numerous. The " Maiden lamenting the Dead Bird " is fine; in Stuttgart, on a fountain in Neckar Street, there is a Nymph pouring out water, and on a reservoir in the palace gardens two reposing Nymphs, which display the fine architectural taste of this master.

Dante, Girolamo, celebrated for his copies of his master, Titian. Sometimes, it is said, Titian finished his works with a few strokes, and then it was impossible, to see that they were copies. His own designs were meritorious. There is a good work attributed to him in S. Giovanni in Olio.

Dario da Treviso. Flourished about the middle of the 15th century. Disciple of Squarcione. But one of his pictures remains, and that is a " Virgin of Mercy " in the Bassano Gall. It was the custom, in his time, to paint the outsides of houses, and many deco- rated by him are seen at Serravalle, Conegliano, and Treviso.

Daulle, Jean, born at Abbeville (1 703-1 7G3). One of the most eminent and excellent engravers of his time.

Daven, Leon, called also Daris and Danet, an engraver whose birthplace is not known. He distinguished himself in Florence and Rome about 1540. When Primaticcio went to France, Daven ac- companied him, and engraved plates after his works. His plates are esteemed by collectors. They are frequently marked with his ini- tials, L. D.

David, Gerhard, born at Oudewater. Settled at Bruges 1487, and died there 1523. In the Acad, of Bruges there are two of his pic- tures illustrating the judgment of Cambyses upon the unjust judge, Sisamnes. The first represents his seizure, and the second his flay- ing. Herodotus says that the son of Sisamnes succeeded his father in office, and that his judgment-seat was covered with his father's skin. The pictures of David have the figures three quarters life size.


DAVID — DEAS. 239

They are well colored, and the heads are expressive, but the subject of the second is too horrible. In the same Gall, there are also two miniatures on vellum by this artist.

David, Jacques-Louis, born at Paris (1748-1825). He was con- sidered the first master in modern art, at the close of the 18th cen- tury. He had great power, but his taste and judgment may well be questioned. So great was his admiration for the antique that his pictures are repetitions of the ideal Greek physical proportions, and his costumes might be called heroic Greek. Some of his works are merely groups of statues — the flesh is as hard as marble. He was active in the revolution, but returned to the practice of his art. Napoleon honored him, and he painted the " Passage of S. Bernard," and other scenes from the life of the Emperor. After the return of the Bourbons, David was banished, and lived in Brussels, where he executed many of his best works. His family were not allowed to bury him in France.

David, Pierre Jean, born at Angers (1 789 ?-1856). He went when young to Paris to study sculpture. He was in very poor cir- cumstances until he by some means made the acquaintance of David the painter, who instructed him gratuitously, and otherwise assisted him. In 1811 he obtained a prize which secured to him a pension, and enabled him to go to Rome. He studied closely, and upon his return to Paris was constantly employed. He executed many colos- sal works, large numbers of busts, and more than 90 medallions. Among his works mav be mentioned the statue of Mine, de Stael; that of Talma, for the Theatre Francais; colossal statue of King Rene at Aix ; Fe'nelon's monument at Cambray ; statues of Cuvier; one of Jefferson in Philadelphia, etc., etc. He executed busts of Goethe. Schelling, Dannecker, and many others. He was a Knight of the Legion of Honor, a member of the Institute, and a Profes- sor in the Acad, of Painters, besides belonging to other academies. He is called David of Angers to distinguish him from David the painter.

Dawe, George, died 1829. An English portrait painter who went to Russia, and is said to have painted 400 portraits of the leaders of the Russian army which fought against Napoleon I.

Deas, Charles, born in Philadelphia (1818 ). From his ear- liest youth his inclination for art was plainly manifested. He was of a nervous temperament and strangely sensible to color. He had executed several pictures when he saw Catlin's Indian Gallery. From this time he desired to represent scenes from Indian life, and as his brother was stationed at Fort Crawford, every opportunity was his for the studv of their wild habits and customs. He at- tended their councils, feasts, dances, etc. He established himself at St. Louis, and there found patronage and appreciation. He wrs deranged in his later life, and died in an asylum where he had been


240 DEAS — DELACROIX.

for a long time. The following are the subjects of some of his pic- tures : " Long Jake; " " The Trapper; " " The Wounded Pawnee; " two scenes from the history of Wenona ; "The Last Shot;" " Hunters on the Prairie," etc.

Decamps, Alexander Gabriel, born at Paris (1803-1860). A painter of landscapes, animals, and genre pictures. He often repre- sented Eastern scenes with striking lights and effective contour. At the Paris International Exhibition of 1855, there were forty-four paintings besides drawings by this artist. His subjects were always popular, because illustrative of the life about him. He was thrown from his horse against a tree, and killed, while hunting in the forest of Fontainebleau.

Decker or Dekker. There are nine artists of this name men- tioned by different writers, and the confusion concerning them is so great, that it is quite impossible to give a clear account of any one. The Decker lived in the 17th century, and painted pictures closely resembling those of Ruysdael. and like the latter excelled in represent- ing river scenery and running water. His works are well finished, his perspective correct, his cottages well done, and though his tone of color is sometimes dark, he relieves it by silvery skies. His w T orks are placed in the most important collections. The figures in some of his pictures were painted by Adrian Van Ostade and A. Van dc Velde.

Deelen, Dirk Van, born at Heusden. Flourished from 1640 to 1G70. lie painted architectural subjects, both exterior and interior. His perspective was good, his color clear and pleasing, and his exe- cution finished. His indication of separate forms is somewhat too prononce. and reminds us of older artists. The figures in his pictures were done by others. His works are not numerous in public galleries. The Vienna Gall, has two of the finest, both representing grand buildings with columns. At the Mus. of the Hague, there is a view of the Binnenhof with the last great meeting of the States General, which took place in 1651; Berlin Gall., a view of antique buildings, dated 1647, clear and delicate in tone. One of his best pictures in England is a church interior in the coll. of Mr. H. T. Hope.

Delacroix, Eugene, born at Charenton, S. Maurice (1799-1863). Under the Directory, his father had been Minister of Foreign Affairs, and held other offices of honor. The son had the prospect of some fortune, but all was lost, and he was obliged to struggle hard for the barest necessities of existence. He entered the studio of Guerin when eighteen years old, and there became the friend of Gericault. He first exhibited in 1822, and his subject was that passage from Dante's " Inferno " in which the poet recognizes some of his old townspeople among the condemned who float upon the lake which surrounds the infernal city. This work made a great impression. It was purchased for the Luxembourg Gall. Baron Gros was so


DELACROIX — DELFT. 241

much pleased with it, that he invited Delacroix to his studio, and assured him he could obtain the " prix de Rome." But Delacroix was not anxious to follow in the accepted path, and so offended those in power, that he received no large commissions, and after painting the " Massacre of Scio " (Luxembourg Gall), and " Sardanapalus," he was compelled to execute small works for private collections as a means of support. He also designed illustrations for " Faust" and " Hamlet." The former were approved by Goethe himself. In 1830, he went to Spain, Algiers, and Morocco, and on his return painted a picture of three Algerine ladies smoking the narghile. He now found a patron in M. Thiers, Minister of the Interior under the new order of things, and received orders for the decoration of the Throne-room in the Chamber of Deputies. He was severely criticised by other artists, but his work when finished was magnificent in effect. He was prosperous from this time, and some of his large pictures were placed at Versailles; others are in many of the churches of Paris, and another important commission was given him in the library of the Chamber of Peers. His works, when considered as a whole, are powerful in the extreme, but lose their effect when examined in portions. His color was rich and bold, his design free and spirited, and his expression well suited to his subject. His works are nu- merous and varied in character. He became a member of the Insti- tute in 1857.

Delaroche, Paul, born at Paris (1797-1856). Pupil of Baron Gros. A great painter. His best works are illustrative of subjects of much interest, such as the " Death of the Duke de Guise," 1835; " Napoleon at Fontainebleau," 1847; " Cromwell contemplating the Remains of Charles I. ; " " Condemnation of Marie Antoinette," etc. His largest work is the " Hemicycle," in the theatre of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts, at Paris. It contains seventy-five life-size figures, and employed him three years. It represents the arts of different coun- tries and times, by groups of portraits of the artists of those times and nations. Delaroche married the daughter of Horace Yernet, and it is said that the figure which symbolizes Gothic architecture is her portrait. The pictures of Delaroche appeal forcibly to the heart. His design was in a good degree academical, or uniform, but many of his works are free from conventionalities. His color has rarely- been excelled, and in some of his small religious pictures, there is sentiment of a high character. He was a member of the Institute, a professor in L'Ecole des Beaux Arts, and received the Cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor. His principal works have been well engraved by S. W. Reynolds, Desclaux, Henrique 1-Dupont, Martinet, A. and J. Francois, and other fine engravers.

Delft, Jacob. A Dutch portrait painter of the 16th century. There is a very remarkable female portrait by him in the Stiidel In- stitute, at Frankfort. 16


242 DELFT — DESPORTES.

Delft, Johann William, born at Delft. Son of the pre-

ds ceding. There is in the Hotel de Ville, at Delft, an archery \r\ piece dated 1592, by this artist. But he was a better en- graver than painter, and at length gave all his time to that art. He engraved many portraits, especially alter Mirevelt, whose daughter he married. His heads are finely drawn.

Delli, Dello, born about 1404. He was about twenty years old, when his father, who was keeper of the fortress of Montecerro, sur- rendered to the Duke of Milan. For this he was sentenced to death, and fled to Sienna. From here they went to Venice, and at last Dello emigrated to Spain, and lived in Seville many years. He gained a fortune and the title of " Cavaliere.*' which was recognized in Florence upon his return to Italy. In the eh. of S. M. Novella, at Florence, there are twenty-four pictures representing episodes from the Genesis, said to be the work of Dello. These are very weak and imperfect, and it does not appear that one who painted them could haw- gained reputation for excellence in any country. Dello was the friend of Paolo Uccelli. and it is said that the latter painted the portrait of Dello, in the figure of Shein, in his picture of the " Drunkenness of Noah."

Delmont, real name Deodat van der Mont, born near Antwerp (1581-1644). The earliest scholar of Rubens. His works are very rare. No. 300, Antwerp Mus., is a representation of the " Trans- figuration " bv him. and has no great merit.

Denis or Denys, Simon, born at Antwerp (1750-1815). He painted landscapes and cattle. He resided many years in Italy, and died in Naples. His botanical representations are fine and very accu- rate. His works are much valued.

Dernier, Balthasar, born at Hamburg (1685-1749). If the exact and toilsome imitation of nature would make a great artist. Denner would be at the head of the first rank. His best works are bust portraits of old people, with not a freckle, a hair, a wrinkle, or a speck left out. Two very striking pictures of this kind are at Vienna; another, No. 1014, Berlin Mus. But he sometimes painted family groups and other likenesses, and many of his portraits remain at Schwerin, where he was much employed by the Duke of Mecklen- burg- Sehwerin. His miniatures executed late in life, both in oil and water-colors, are very fine. In the city library of Hamburg, there is a series of these in water-colors.

Desplaces, Louis, born at Paris, 1682. An eminent engraver. His best plates are after Jouvenet. He used both point and graver.

Desportes, Francois, born at Champigneul (1661-1743). An eminent painter of animals, especially dogs. He was a great favorite with Louis XIV.. who employed him in the palaces of Versailles, Fon- tainebleau, and Meudon, and gave him the office of painter to the king. His own portrait, as a sportsman with dead game and a dog,


DESPORTES — DIEPENBECK. 243

painted by himself, is in the Louvre. Desportes was without doubt in England, and painted some pictures there.

Detroy, Jean-Francois, born at Paris (1679-1752). This artist passed many years in Italy, was Director of the French Acad, at Rome, and President of the Acad, of S. Luke. He painted a variety of subjects; large altar-pieces, genre subjects, and myths and stories for the Gobelins' tapestries. His execution was very careless, but his designs exhibit great ability. In the Louvre is one of his best works, dated 1732, and representing the first Chapter of the Order of S. Esprit, held by Henri IV. in the convent of the Grands-Au- gustins.

Deutsch. See Manuel.

Devis, Arthur, born at Preston, Lancashire (1708-1787). He could not be termed a miniaturist, and yet his portraits were small, often full lengths 15 or 18 inches high. He gave them the appear- ance of fancy sketches by putting them in a room or in a landscape, and paying great attention to all the details of finish. His color was cool, but his heads are very expressive, even when thinly painted.

Devis, Arthur William (1762-1822). Son of the preceding. He painted life-size portraits in a somewhat theatrical style. When but twenty years old he was appointed draughtsman to the East India Company, and started for a voyage round the world. He suffered shipwreck and many hardships, but at length reached Bengal, where he painted for a time. Returning to England he executed historical subjects, one of the best of which is the "Death of Nelson," at Greenwich Hospital. He grouped his figures well, and his portraits were full of character; he made good use of light and shade, but his color was brown and thin. Many of his portraits are excellent.

Diaz, Diego Valentine. A Spanish painter of architecture and history. He founded a hospital for orphans at Valladolid, and his most creditable work was done there. In the Mus. at Valladolid there is a " Holy Family " by Diaz.

Diepenbeck, Abraham van, born at Bois-le-Duc (1607-1675). This artist was originally a painter on glass, and the windows of a chapel in the Cath. of Antwerp were his work. He spent a long time in Italv, and went also to England. His whole manner shows that he was the pupil of Rubens ; but he used more impasto than his master, his colors are more blended, and the whole work smoother. He was a figure painter, decidedly, but his backgrounds were well done and very varied, embracing lake and river scenery, houses and terraces, landscape and sea. He also painted animals well, and loved to represent horses. Antwerp Mus., "Ecstasy of S. Bonaven- tura; " Vienna Gall., " Vanity of all Earthly Things ; " Berlin Mus. and Louvre, " Ckelia fleeing from Porsenna." His chef-cP oeuvre was long attributed to Rubens, and is the altar-piece of the ch. of Deurne, near Antwerp, representing " S. Norbert giving the Cross and his


244 DIEPENBECK — DIETRICH.

Benediction to Waltinan, first Abbot of S. Michel." Perhaps no works of his so well display his powers of invention as the designs he made for engravers, among which were those for " The Temple of the Muses," engraved by Cornelius Bloemaert.

Diest, Adrian van, born at the Hague (1655-1704). A land- scape painter of some merit. He occasionally painted portraits also. His pictures would be called decorative works, but they are bold and spirited in effect. His skies were pale blue, and his whole tone of color silvery gray; sometimes he made large gray clouds with lighted edges of a delicate yellow. His men-of-war and fishing boats were good, and his foreground figures spirited. He executed a few etch- ings from his own designs, in a slight, masterly manner.

Dietisalvi, Petroni. In the latter part of the 1 3th century it was the custom to have the registers and books of the public offices adorned with paintings of the arms of the people and " commune," or with portraits of the officers who kept the books. Dietisalvi painted in 1264 and 1269 two such book-covers, which are now pre- served in the Acad, of Arts at Siena. They are very curious and interesting on account of their authenticity and age. M. Ramboux, of Cologne, made a full collection of these curiosities, and among them was a portrait by Dietisalvi.

Dietrich, Christian Wilhelm Ernst, born at Weimar (1712- 1774). Pupil of his father and Alexander Thiele. He especially loved the painting of pasticci, and succeeded well with the works of Rembrandt, Everdingen, Ostade, Poelemberg, Heinrich Roos, and Salvator Rosa. He had no originality, and his color and execution were subject to much criticism, yet he had great popularity and his works are numerous. The Dresden Gall, has 51, and all the Ger- man galleries have specimens of his brush. In the National Gall, the " Wandering Musicians " is an unusually good work of this artist. The engraving of Wille has made it well known. But Dietrich was more worthy of praise for his etchings than for his paintings. These can only be admired, and as he often destroyed his plates after mak- ing a certain number of impressions, some of his prints are now rare. Among these are the following: —

Lot and his Daughters: scarce.

Abraham going to sacrifice Isaac ; 1 730 ; scarce.

Another of the same subject differently designed; very scarce.

The Repose in Egypt; 1732; scarce.

Descent from the Cross; style of Rembrandt ; 1730; scarce.

The Disciples at Emmaus; extremely rare.

Famine and Pestilence; 1731; very scarce.

Nero dying, tormented by Furies and the Shade of his Mother; scarce.

Jupiter and Antiope ; 1735; one of the best; scarce.


DIETRICH — DOLCI. 245

The Alchymist in his Laboratory; 1731; style of Rembrandt; scarce.

Dobson, William, born in London (1610-1646). Pupil of Robert Peake. Dobson was a portrait painter of much merit. His color was good and his drawing excellent. Vandyck was attracted by the sight of one of his pictures, sought him out, and recommended him to Charles I. After the death of Vandyck, the king gave Dobson the appointment of sergeant-painter to his Majesty. His pictures in some points resemble those of Lely and Vandyck, but the resemblance is not sufficient to lead to any confusion in their works. His portraits have much dignity, and the face shadows are sometimes very dark. He did not succeed in historical subjects. He lived extravagantly, and was poor and dissipated at the time of his death.

Does, Jacob van der, born at Amsterdam (1623-16 73). Pupil of Nicholas Moyaert. He went to Rome when the works of Pieter van Laer were very much in vogue, and Does adopted the same class of subjects, which were scenes from peasant life, markets, robber- subjects, etc. The landscapes of Van der Does were principally Italian, and he introduced sheep and goats successfully. His works are rare in public galleries. There is a fine one in the Vienna Gall. It represents an antique fountain around which a flock of sheep and a laden mule are resting, with a shepherdess and some children near. The clearness and power of color suggest Rembrandt. Brunswick Gall., No. 41, is another fine work of this master. He executed one etching, dated 1650, which represents five sheep, and is as good as his pictures.

Does, Simon van der. Son of the preceding (1653-1717). He painted the same subjects as his father, and also small portraits and domestic subjects. He did not equal his father. There are three of his works in the Amsterdam Mus. He also etched a few plates of landscapes with cattle.

Dolci, Carlo, born at Florence (1616-1686). School of Matteo Rosselli. He painted few historical pictures. His best works were Madonnas and penitent Saints. These he painted with great delicacy and grace. There was also much sentiment in them, which sometimes became affectation. There is a great difference in the quality of his works, but they are all valuable. They are not rare in galleries. His most important historical picture is in the Pitti Pal. It represents S. Andrew praying by the Cross, previous to his execution, and is dated 1646. He especially excelled in the painting of the hands. His representations of the Mater Dolorosa, S. Apollonia, and the Magdalene are very beautiful, and find many passionate admirers. He had many imitators, and his pictures were often copied. This was done best by his daughter Agnese, who also executed original works, but never equalled her father.


246 DOLCI — DOMENICHINO.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF CARLO DOLCI.

Engraver, Baron, Bernard. S. Cecilia.

Engraver, Bartolozzi, Francesco. Madonna and Child.

Engraver, Basan, Francis. Christ breaking the Bread.

Engraver, Cardox, Anthony the Younger. Salvator Mnndi.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. The Virgin and Child with S. John. Salvator Mundi.

Engraver, Faucci, Carlo. The Martyrdom of S. Andrew.

Engraver, Garavaglia. Bust of Mary, Mater pulchrce dilectionis. Magdalena with the oil-flask.

Engraver, Kilian, Philip Andrew. Daughter of Herodias with the Head of S. John. S. Cecilia.

Engraver, Marri, G. Carlo Dolci, after himself. (Tosti Coll.)

Engraver, Rossr, Andrea. A Bust of the Virgin.

Domenichino, real name Domenico Zampieri, born at Bologna (1581-1641). The most distinguished painter of the school of the Carracci. His originality was not large, but his expression and color command admiration. He has been often criticised for allow- ing the auxiliary parts of his works to detract from the interest of the principal figure. It is true that he did this ; par exemple, in his picture of " S. Cecilia bestowing her Goods," it is not the Saint her- self who holds the attention, but the group of poor people below who strumrle for the <nfts thrown from the balcony above, and who are most powerfully represented; and in the " Scourging of S. Andrew," the women thrust back by the executioners are the great excellence of the work. He imitated the designs of other artists, but not with servility, for there is individuality in his heads, as well as grace and a noble beauty. His most noted work is the " Communion of S. Jerome," in the Vatican, considered by many second only to Raphael's " Transfiguration," among all the pictures in Rome. His other impor- tant works in Rome are, the " Four Evangelists " in the pendentives of the Cupola of S. Andrea delle Valle; two scenes from the life of S. Cecilia, in S. Luigi; " Scourging of S. Andrew," in chapel of that Sainton Monte Celio ; the "Martyrdom of S. Sebastian," in S. M. degli Angeli; " Diana and her Nymphs," Borghese Gall. Other famous pictures of his are, " Scenes from the Life of the Virgin " in a chapel of the Duomo at Fano; the " History of S. Nilus " at Grottaf errata; a " Guardian Ano-el defendino; a Bov from Satan," Studi Gall., Na- pies; an "Inspired S. John," S. Petersburg, coll. of Prince Narisch- kin; same subject at Castle Howard; " Pious Women dressing the Wounds of S. Sebastian," Stadel Institute, Frankfort; and the "Mar- trydom of S. Agnes," Bologna Gall. His most important work at Naples was a series of subjects from the life of S. Januarius, in the chapel Tesoro of the Cath. It is believed that he was poisoned by Neapolitan artists. He left Rome on account of the persecutions of



COMMUXION OF S. JKROMK. BY DOMEMCH1XO.

Vatican.


DOMENICHIXO. 249

rivals, only to meet death at Xaples. The landscapes of Domenichino are deserving of attention, whether they are the full subject, or nierelv the background for figures. Thev are grand and solemn: frequently towers and classical buildings are introduced, and his coloring is warm and rich.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF DOMENICHINO.

Engraver, Andriot or IIanderiot, Franz. Christ crowned with Thorns.

Engraver, Audran, Charles. The Assumption of the Virgin; very fine.

Engraver, Audran, Gerard. iEneas saving Anchises. The Mys- tery of the Rosary. Temptation of S. Jerome. Martyrdom of S. Agnes. Four sheets of the four angles in the ch. of S. Carlo de Catenari, representing Justice, Temperance, Prudence and Fortitude ; Rome; 1675.

Engraver, Audran, John. Our Saviour on the Mount of 01ive§.

Engraver, Barriere, Dominique. Several plates of the History of Apollo.

Engraver, Baudet, Stephen. Adam and Eve; very fine.

Engraver, Blond or Blon, James Christopher le. S. Agnes.

Engraver, Can ALE, Giuseppe. The Glory.

Engraver, Chaveau, Francis. A Concert; engraved also by Picart.

Engraver, Cunego, Domenico. S. Cecilia receiving the Palm of Martyrdom. Six plates : the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Na- tivity, the Circumcision, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Presen- tation in the Temple.

Engraver, Duflos, Claude. A Concert. The Triumph of Gal- atea. Cupid stung by a Bee. The same subject, smaller and circu- lar. Bacchus and Ariadne.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. The infant Jesus sleeping.

Engraver, Fariat or Farjat, Benoit. Communion of S. Jerome.

Engraver, Frey, James. Martyrdom of S. Sebastian. Commun- ion of S. Jerome. Justice, Temperance, Prudence, and Fortitude, from S. Carlo de Catenari, at Rome.

Engraver, Green, Valentine. The Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Grkuter, John Frederick. The Death of S. Cecilia.

Engraver, Haixzklmann, Elias. S. Francis praying before a Crucifix.

Engraver, Mariette, John. S. Peter delivered from Prison.

Engraver, Morghen, Raphael. Diana and her Nymphs.

Engraver, Pavon, Ignatius. Communion of S. Jerome. S. John writing-.

Engraver, Picart, Stephen. S. Cecilia. A Concert.


250


DOMENICHINO — DONATELLO.


Engraver, Poilly, John Baptist. Martyrdom of S. Cecilia.

Engraver, Roussellet, Giles. David playing on the Harp.

Engraver, Sharp, William. S. Cecilia.

Engraver. Simoxeau, Charles. Christ with Martha and Mary.

Engraver, Strange, Sir Robert. The Martyrdom of S. Agnes ; 1759. S. Agnes; 1759 (?)

Engraver, Tardieu, Nicholas Henry. Adam and Eve.

Engraver, Tardieu, Peter Alexander. Communion of S. Jerome.

Engraver, Testa, Gio. Cesare. Communion of S. Jerome.

Donatello, real name Donato di Betto Bardi (1386-1468). This old sculptor was a close imitator of nature. He seemed careless of mere beauty, and his works are striking for their marked difference from those of his predecessors, especially in this, that he denned the forms beneath his draperies, and by use of the girdle, and other



RELIEF. BY DONATELLO.

In S. Antonio, Padua.

means, made it possible to believe that the folds concealed the human figure. He executed numerous works. Among those remaining, the following are the most important : Reliefs in marble representing Dancing Children, executed for the front of the organ in the Cath. of Florence, now in the Uflizi; bronze David, same Gall.; bronze statues of SS. Mark, Peter, and George, on the exterior of Orsanmichele; the Magdalene in the Baptistery at Florence; bronze reliefs of two pulpits in S. Lorenzo, and a bronze Judith in the Loggia de' Lanzi.


DONATELLO - DOSSI. 251

At Padua, there is an equestrian statue of Francesco Gattamelata, which was the first one of importance in modern art, and is full of life and power. Many of his works are very excellent, but others, as the " Magdalene," are almost repulsive. He was much admired and patronized by Cosmo and Pietro de' Medicis. It is said that he con- sidered his " David," called Lo Zuccone (the bald head), his chef- d'oeuvre, and was accustomed to use as an affirmation, these words, " By the faith I place in my Zuccone." Donatello was buried in the ch. of S. Lorenzo with great pomp. His resting-place was near that of Cosmo de' Medicis, that, as he said, " his body might be near him when dead, as his spirit had ever been near him when in life." See Brunelleschi.

Doni, Adone or Done, born at Assisi, 1472. A pupil of Pietro Periunno, whom he at first imitated, but later changed to the Roman style. In «the ch. of S. Pietro, at Perugia, there is an " Adoration of the Magi " by him, in his first manner. It is graceful. He also painted Sibyls in the ch. at Assisi.

Donzelli, Piero and Ippolito. Many contradictory things have been written about these brothers. The full extent of what is known seems to be that they were sons of Francesco d' Antonio di Jacopo, bailiff (don zello) of Florence. Piero was born in 1451, and Ippo- lito in 1455. The latter was apprenticed to Neri de' Bicci, and they were both in the " Studio " at Florence in 1480. It is hard to say which of the pictures attributed to these artists are genuine. They may have taken part in the frescoes at S. Severino in Naples, but that they were Florentines is certain, and also is it true that they lived later than the Neapolitan accounts have stated.

Dorigny, Michel, born at St. Quentin (1617-1665). A painter and engraver. He married the daughter of Simon Vouet, and is de- serving of notice principally as having engraved the works of that artist. i

Dossi, Dosso, and his brother, G-io. Battista. The former was the most celebrated. He died in 1560. The brothers passed some time in Rome, after the death of Raphael. Dosso shows his peculiar characteristics in mythological subjects, more than in religious pic- tures. The " Four Fathers of the Church," the " First Person of the Trinity," and the " Glory of the Virgin," all-in the Dresden Gall., have much merit. They are rich and dignified representations. But in the " Circe " of the Borghese Gall., there is freedom of action, naivete of expression, and pleasing individuality. The " Dream," in the Dresden Gall., is wild and fanciful. The brothers worked together in the Ducal Pal. at Ferrara, in 1554. Many of their works are much injured, and in those that remain there is a mixture of excel- lence and hard conventionality. In the Borghese Pal., there are two landscapes by Gio. Battista. Dosso excelled in portraits, and painted that of Ariosto, by whom he was employed to make designs for his


^52


DOSSI — DOW.


"Orlando Furioso." There are several pictures by Dosso in the churches of Ferrara.

Doudyns, "William, born at the Hague (1630-1697). His ceil- ings were his best works. He executed several in the Town Hall of his native city. He deserves mention as one of the founders of the Acad, at the Hague, of which he was a Director.

Doughty, Thomas, born in Philadelphia (1793-1856). He started in life as a leather manufacturer, but at thirty years of age, his love of art compelled him to take up the brush, even in the face of the opposition of his friends, and against all prudential considerations. He was one of the earliest American artists who represented our au- tumnal colors. His works were much admired in their time, and are now remarkable for their true feeling for nature. Col. William Doughty, of Georgetown, D. C, brother of the artist, has some of his pictures, others are in the collections of various gentlemen, and one of his landscapes is in the Boston Athenaeum; others are in the Philadelphia Acad, of Fine Arts.

Dow, Douw.or Dou, Gerhard, born at Leyden (1613-1680). Son of a glazier, who, on account of his love for drawing, early placed him

with a glass painter, named Kowenhoorn. At fifteen he entered the school of Rembrandt, where he re- mained three years, when he had become a finished painter. He did not at- tempt to make his works tell romantic tales, but de- picted the e very-day life of the humbler classes. His execution and finish are most remarkable ; so minutelv did he dwell on

at

each part, that he was obliged to relinquish por- trait painting on account of the weariness to his sitters. He loved to paint her- mits, and Scriptural events, and, like Rembrandt, he often repeated his own face. His impasto is ad- mirable ; his color warm and transparent at times, and always excellent; he fully appreciated the picturesque, and excelled in his chiaro-scuro. His lights were often from lanterns and candles, and are wonderfully effective. In spite



PICTURE BY G. DOW.

Vienna Gall.


DOW — DROST. 253

of his minute execution he finished more than 200 pictures. They are never large, and rarely contain more than three figures. Even in his own time his works were so much esteemed that President Van Spiring offered him 1 000 florins a year for the right to choose from his works; they now bring very large prices. There are specimens in all the large European galleries. The " Woman sick of the Dropsy," in the Louvre, is often called his chef-cV ceuvre. This was ex- ecuted when he was sixty-five years old. It has a sunny, transparent lighting, and a marvellous execution. The " Evening School, " in the Amsterdam Mus., is his best candle-lighted picture. It is ex- tremely picturesque, and the lights are admirable. His best por- traits are mi the same Mus., and represent a Burgomaster of Leyden and his wife, full length, in one frame. He excelled in the combi- nation of domestic, peaceful happiness, with masterly lighting, warm, beautiful color, and tender execution.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF GERARD DOW.

Engraver, Amstel, Cornelius Ploos Van. A Lady seated at a Harpsichord; Ger. Douw, del., 1660; P. v. Amstel, fecit, 1767.

Engraver, Baillie, Capt. William. The Pen Cutter. The Lace Maker. The Mother of G. Douw.

Engraver, Bause, John Frederic. The Good Housewife.

Engraver, Beauvarlet, James Firmin. The Double Surprise.

Engraver, Kauperz, John Vitus. The Flute Player.

Engraver, Moitte, Peter Stephen. The Dutch Cook. The Fish- woman.

Engraver, Vale, or Valck, Gerard. A Girl holding a Lamp.

Engraver, Voyez, Nicholas Joseph. The Astrologer. An Old Man in Meditation.

Engraver. Wille, John George. A Lady Reading. The Housewife.

Drevet, Pierre, the Elder, born at Lyons (1664-1739). An emi- nent engraver. He used only the graver, of which he was a perfect master.

Drevet, Pierre, the Younger, born at Paris (1697-1739). Son of the preceding, and a celebrated engraver also. His portrait of Bos- suet gained him a world-wide reputation. That of Samuel Bernard is almost as fine, and all his works are excellent.

Drolling, Michel Martin, born at Oberbergheim (1786-1861). Pupil of David. Two decorated ceilings in the Louvre Avere by this master. His subjects were poetical and classical as well as religious, and he painted some good portraits. He was a good academic painter.

Drost (1638-1690). A pupil of Rembrandt, and one of his most faithful imitators as far as his talents would allow. There is a u Christ with the Magdalene after his Resurrection," by Drost, in the Cassel Gall., and the " Daughter of Herodias with the Head of the Baptist," in the Mus. at Amsterdam.


254 DROUAIS — DUCCIO.

Drouais, Jean Germain, born at Paris (1763-1788). An artist who o-ave great promise of excellence, but whose early death pre- vented the execution of many works. His masterpiece was " Pla- nus at Minturnas." This picture is illustrative of the imitation of the antique in the modern French school.

Drummond, Samuel (1770-1844). An English landscape and portrait painter. His portraits were his best works.

Dubbels. There have been at least three artists of this name, and all painted sea and river views. But few facts are known of them. Jan has been called both the scholar and master of Backhuysen, to whom, it is said, many of his pictures have been attributed. But his known works would Indicate him to have been the instructor rather than the pupil, for the Dutch school can scarcely show a finer sea view than one of Dubbels. which is signed and in the Van der Hoop Coll. at Amsterdam. It represents an agitated sea breaking on the coast. It is almost equalled by another similar subject, also signed, in the Pitti Pal. In this a single figure is seen emerging from the breakers. The lighting is exquisite. The general tone of color is a silver grav. with gleams of sunshine on waves, sands, and horizon. One of this artist's rare works is in the Coll. of the Duke of Bedford, London. Hendrik ami Thierry are the names of the other Dubbels.

Due, A. In the Gall, at Dresden there is a picture of a peasant kneeling and beg&ins his life of a soldier, and in the Vienna Gall, one of a lady and gentleman imploring the mercy of an infantry offi- cer, and both are signed A. Due. Otherwise he is unknown. These works show him to have been a good imitator of the style of Pala- medes.

Ducq, Jan le, born at the Hague (1633-1695). He is believed to have been the pupil of Paul Potter, but his pictures resemble those of the Palamedes, whom he also surpassed. He had much delicacy of touch, and his heads are very truthful. His portraits were excel- lent, as may be seen in two small, delicately painted ones in the Dresden Gall. The Berlin and Munich galleries have good speci- mens of his scenes from soldier life. Le Ducq also executed a number of very skilful etchings, representing dogs and other animals.

Duccio di Boninsegna, was to the Sienese school what Cimabue and Giotto were to that of Florence. He was a reformer who re- tained indeed much of the manner of those who had preceded him, but he added to it, and elevated it bv creations all his own. The time of his birth is unknown. He w r as in Florence in 1 285. He commenced his great altar-piece for the Cath. of Siena in 1308, and in June, 1310, it was borne, like the " Madonna" of Cimabue, from his studio to the Duomo by a solemn procession, headed by the Archbishop, followed by clergy, monks, government and communal officers, women, and children. Music and the ringing of bells added merry inspiration, and Duccio was the "bright, particular star'


DUCCIO — DUCHANGE.


255


to the Sienese of that day. His work remained nearly 200 years in its place, and is now well preserved in the transept and sacristy of the Cath. It is probable that at the time of the procession it was not all completed, for in the end it was painted on both sides, and from some records it would appear that a portion, at least, of the back part was done afterwards. The front was a representation of the "Majesty" of the Virgin. Seated on a vast throne, and hold- in" 1 the Child, she was surrounded by angels and worshipped by- saints. There was much gold, tapestry, and orna- mentation ; the group was characterized by grace more than solemnity or dignity. His drawing was careful; his color soft and powerful ; his execution was patient and highly finished, and even his superabundant ornament was tasteful. A marked difference was made be- tween the treatment of the male and female fig- ures, but color was the best feature of Duccio and his school, who re- tained much of the old exaggeration of design, form, and action. On the other side of the work, he depicted the Passion of Christ, in 28 panels. The subjects commenced with the entrance into Jerusalem, and proceeded to the meeting at Em- maus. The whole has been divided into many pieces. In the Acad, of Siena there are other works of this master, and in the National Gall, a Virgin with saints and prophets. One of his finest works is in the Coll. of the late Royal Consort, Prince Albert. This ranks next the great altar-piece. In the Ramboux Coll. at Cologne there are two pictures of his. The successors of Duccio in the 14th cen- tury did nothing which exceeded him.

Duchange, Gaspar, born at Paris, 1662. An eminent engraver.



THE WOMEN GOING TO THE SEPULCHRE OF CHRIST. BY DUCCIO.

Cath. of Siena.


256 DUCHANGE — DUPATY.

His plates are remarkable for the effect -which he produced by the combined use of the etching-point and the graver. He reproduced the works of Correggio with peculiar skill.

Duchatel, Frans, born at Brussels, 1625. Pupil of Teniers, his works so marly resemble those of his great master that they have been mistaken for his. He had however been brought under the influence of Van der Meulen in France, and was, all in all, more independent in style than Teniers. His chief work is in the Mus. at Ghent, and represents ' k Charles II. of Spain receiving homage as Count of Flanders from the Estates of Ghent, in the person of his Stadtholder the Marquis of Castel Rodrigo." This picture is signed and dated 1G68. It contains several most excellent portraits, and is good in general effect and keeping. In the Antwerp Mus. the pano- rama of Valenciennes has been called a Teniers, but good authorities now assign it to Duchatel.

Dufresnoy, Charles Alphonse, born at Paris (1611-1665). A very learned painter. He was classical in his taste, and after his death his friends published his Latin poem, " De Arte Graphica," which was translated into English by William Mason, and enriched with notes by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Dufresnoy went when quite young to Rome, and became learned in antiquities, anatomy, and perspective, as well as in classical literature. His works are scarce. His subjects were landscapes, history, and architecture. They are correct in drawing and carefully executed, but are too studied to be pleasing.

Dunlap, William, born at Perth Amboy, New Jersey (1766- 1839). The versatility of his talents and the circumstances of his life led him into so many different pursuits that it is difficult to know whether to call him a painter, an annalist, or a theatrical manager. He did however devote several years entirely to portrait painting, and his pictures are numerous. The sketch of his life is full of adventures and interesting stories. He should be mentioned as one of the active men in establishing the New York Acad, of Fine Arts, and indeed it is due him to say that he did much for artistic and literary enterprise at a time when little thought or sym- pathy was given to such matters.

Bunwegge, Victor and Heinrich. Two painters of the West- phalian school. In the parish ch. of Dortmund there is what the Germans term a "Holy Kith-and-Kin picture," by these artists. It was painted in 1523, but seems about a century older in style and excellence, proving the school of Westphalia to have been behind others in Germany.

Dupaty, Charles Mercier, born at Bordeaux (1771-1825). His father designed to make him a lawyer, but after his death in 1788, Dupaty studied painting. He was, however, compelled to enter a reo-iment of dragoons, and did not resume his studies until 1795.


DUPATY — DURER. 257

At length he devoted himself to sculpture under the teaching of Lemont. As early as 1799 he obtained the grand prize, but did not go to Rome until 1801. His first works were executed in the man- ner of his time and country, but when he went to Italy he adopted the antique, and made models for some mythological and historical statues, which were put in marble later. His chef-d'oeuvre was " Ajax pursued by Neptune," which gained him, deservedly, a great reputation. He executed various commissions for the Government, among which was the principal group of the monument to the Duke de Berri. He also made the statue of the Virgin for the ch. of S. Germain des Pres.

Duquesnoy, Francois, called " II Fiammingo," on account of his nationality, born at Brussels (1594-1646). The Archduke Albert sent him to Rome, but at the death of his benefactor he was forced to carve ivory figures to support himself. He made the ac- quaintance of Poussin, and they pursued their studies together. Duquesnoy soon gained a reputation for his beautiful statues of children, 1 and was commissioned to model the groups which adorn the columns of the grand altar of S. Peter's. He also made a colossal statue of S. Andrew for the same basilica, which is one of the best works of modern art, and occupied him five years. His S. Susanna for the ch. of S. Maria di Loretto has been much admired. It is said he was poisoned by his brother when on his way to France.

__ , I — Olll Diirer, Albert, born at Nu-

n\ /M& ^ I ^^ //^\ remberg (1471-1528). This /D\ // D)\\ iDV 1 fni — A // Uy\\\ °„ v '

J.V\.!/VJ^ . ^, uv ...,, ] J^// li^ artist, if not really the founder

of the German school, perfected the art which already existed in his country. He was a sculptor, architect, and painter. He also wrote various theoretical works. He was capable of the severest study, and full of earnest and truthful feeling in art. His drawing was rich in life and expression; his coloring very unequal; his nude figures ugly and vulgar; and his love for the fantastic prevented him from be- coming what he might otherwise have been. His father was a gold- smith, and intended to have placed him with Martin Schoen, but the death of that artist caused him to become the disciple of Michael Wolgemuth, in whose atelier he remained three years. In 1490, he set out on his travels, and in 1494 returned to Nuremberg and settled himself as a painter. He remained there ten years, and did many important works in engraving. In 1505, he went to Venice, Padua, and Bologna. The following; vear he returned to Nuremberg where he remained till 1520, and executed an immense number of paintings, drawings, engravings, and some carved works in box-wood and steatite. He then made a journey into the Netherlands, was absent about a vear, and returned to his native citv, never to leave it ao;ain,

1 His figures of children are full of genuine naivete" ; he executed the foun- tain of the Manneken-Pis at Brussels.

17


258


DURER.


although Venice and Antwerp made him attractive proposals to re- main in those cities, and his own people, within thirty years, paid

him but 500 guilders. The only favor he asked was that the city should pay him five per cent, upon a capital of 1000 guilders, which he had obtained by un- ceasing toil. In rep- resenting ecclesiastical subjects, Durer disre- garded all fixed forms, and portrayed them with great power, but with perfectly human feeling. In 1498, he illustrated the book of Revelation by wood- cuts. In these the fan- t a stic element forms the groundwork, but they are conceived in a singularly poetic spirit. Tn them, the marvel- lous and the monstrous are strangely united. In the Uffizi, at Flor- ence, is a splendid " Adoration of the Kings," painted in 1504; in the Monastery Strahoff, at Prague, the " Feast, of Roses ; " in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna, the " Martyrdom of 10"',000 Saints," full of terrible truth; 1508: in the same Gall., the " Trinity; " 1511; color clear, light, and fresh. From 1511 to 1515, he published many wood-cuts of religious subjects. The Madonnas are especially pleasing. In 1518, he represented the death of the Virgin, giving her the features of the deceased wife of the Emperor Maximilian, and making the other characters portraits of living personages. This picture is in England. Although his pictures are scarce, the large German galleries have specimens of his work. In 1526, he painted on two panels, SS. John and Peter, and SS. Paul and Mark, and presented them to the council of Nuremberg. They have been called " The Four Temperaments," and are now in the Pinacothek, at Munich. This Gall, has also five large pictures of the life of Christ. The portrait of his father, dated 1497, is in the Munich Gall. Cabi-



S. CIIBISTOPHEK. BY ALBERT DUREB.


DURER. 259

nets. No. 128; and his own portrait in the same Gall. Cabinets, No. 124. One of his most celebrated pictures, the "Adoration of the Trinity." painted for a chapel in Nuremberg, in 1511, and a Virgin holding the Naked Child in her Arms, are now in the Belvedere ,° at Vienna. One of his most singular pictures is the " Knight, Death, and the Devil." in the Munich Gall. These are but a small part of the important works of Diirer. He also published, during the latter portion of his life, scientific works upon Geometry, the Art of Forti- fication, and the Proportions of the Human Bod v. He was one of the first artists in Germany who practised and taught the rules of perspective, which he is said to have learned from Lucas von Ley- den. He lived in the most frugal and unostentatious manner, apply- ing himself unceasingly to his profession, and receiving the honors which were paid him with quiet modesty. He had married (it is said, to please his father) the daughter of Plans Fritz, who proved a Xantippe, and rendered his life one of discomfort. She survived him. and he left her 6000 florins. He had joined the Reformers, but Pirkheimer states that he died a member of the Romish Church.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF ALBERT DURER.

Engraver, Bruyx or Bruin, Nicholas de. The Knight, Death, and the Devil. 1618.

His own Plates.

Portraits on Copper : —

Albert Diirer represented at two different dates, 1509 and 1517, on each side of a piece of architecture, with a Latin inscription.

Albert, Elector of Mentz. 1523.

Frederick, Elector of Saxonv. 1524.

B. Pirkheimer. 1524.

Melanchthon. 1525.

Erasmus, from statue at Rotterdam ; 1526; scarce.

Subjects on Copper : —

Adam and Eve with the Serpent; 1504; fine.

Adam and Eve after the Fall.

The Nativity; 1504; called " The Little Nativity."

The Holy Family, S. Joseph resting on a Stone. 1506.

The Holy Family, called " The Virgin with the Monkey."

The Virgin and Child, called " The Virgin with the Pear."

The Virgin and Child, called " The Virgin with the Apple."

The Passion of Christ; sixteen plates including frontispiece. 1507- 1512; difficult to find complete.

The Apostles.

The Crucifixion, with the Maries and S. John at the foot of the Cross; small, circular; very scarce.

Christ in the Garden; 1515; said to be engraved on iron: very scarce.


260 DURER.

Angels with the Instruments of the Passion. 1516.

The great Ecce Homo; 1512; Latin inscription; very scarce.

Prodigal Son ; best impressions before the date. 1513.

S. Hubert kneeling before a Stag with a Cross on its Forehead; one of his finest works.

S. Jerome in the Desert.

S. Jerome seated in a Room, writing; 1514; very fine.

A Woman with Wings, standing on a Globe, holding a Cup, im- properly called "Pandora's Box;" sometimes called "The Great Fortune."

A Naked Woman on a Globe, holding a Stick with a Thistle at the end, called " The Little Fortune."

Melancholy; a Woman resting her Head on her Hand, holding a Compass; very fine.

Three Women or Witches, with a Globe over their Heads, with the letters O. G. H., and an appearance of Hell in the background ; copied after Israel Van Mecheln; 1497; very scarce.

An Armed Man on Horseback pursued by Death, called " Death's Horse:" best impressions before the date 1513.

A Coat of Arms with a Skull, a Satyr, and a Young Woman; 1503 ; called " The Death's Head."

A coat of Arms, with a Lion and a Cock.

A Horse, with an Armed Man with an Halberd following.

A Man mounted on a Unicorn, carrying off a Woman ; called " The Rape of Proserpine ; " very scarce.

Etchings : —

Christ seated, leaning his Head on his Hand, with a figure in front pointing towards Him.

One of the Fathers of the Church, in a Cell, with two Books. 1515.

The Virgin and Child asleep, with a Young Female kneeling. 1510.

Moses receiving the Tables of the Law. 1524.

The Cannon, with figures, at the Entrance of a Village; 1518; said to be etched on iron ; very scarce.

Wood-Cuts (Portraits) : —

Albert Diirer, at the age of fifty-six, inscribed Albrecht Durer Con- terfeyt, etc.

Albert Dureri Effigies, edita ex linea tabula, etc.

Bust of the Emperor Maximilian I. 1519.

Ulrichus Varnbuler ; 1522; scarce.

Wood-Cuts (Various Subjects) ; —

The Life and Passion of Christ, in thirty-six cuts.

The Life of the Virgin, in twenty cuts.

S. Anne, with the Infant on her Knee, and the Virgin kneeling with two Saints ; in chiaro-scuro ; very scarce.

The Holy Family in a Landscape, with two Angels crowning the


DURER — DYCE. 261

Virgin, and three Rabbits; in the lower part of the print, S. Chris- topher carrying the Infant Jesus; scarce.

The Emperor Maximilian, with the Virgin and several Saints wor- shipping the Saviour.

The Siege of Vienna, in two sheets; 1527 ; scarce.

The Triumphal Car of Maximilian I., in eight sheets.

The Rhinoceros, with a German inscription; scarce.

Six cuts of Ornaments for Tapestry and Embroidery.

Eniyraver, Hopfek, Jerome. S. Hubert. S. Jerome ; smaller than the original. The Great Cannon.

Engraver, Hopfek, Lambert. The Life and Passion of Christ; fifteen small plates.

Engrave?', Kartarius, Marius. Christ in the Garden; Romae; 1567. S. Jerome, seated in a Chamber.

Engraver, Montagna, Benedetto. The Nativity, with Joseph at the Well; B. M. on a Tablet hung from the upper part of the house. The Sorceress; B. M. at bottom on the left. The Virgin suckling the Child; marked B. M.

Engraver, Prestel, John Gottlieb. The Holy Family.

Engraver, Raimoxdi, Marc Antonio. Set of seventeen plates of the Life of the Virgin ; copied from the wood-cuts of Diirer, with his monogram; on the last plate the cipher of Marc Antonio. Set of thirty-six plates of the Life and Passion of Christ; copied in imita- tion of the wood-cuts of Diirer, without his mark.

Engraver, Sadeler, Giles. The Virgin and Child. Christ bear- ing his Cross.

Engraver, Steen, Francis Van der. The Martyrdom of the 11,000 Virgins; from a drawing by Van Hoy, after the picture by Diirer.

Engraver, Wierix or Wierinx, John. The Little Satyr. Adam receiving the Apple from Eve: upon a tablet is inscribed Albert Durer inventor, Johanes Wierix fac, ait. 16. S. Hubert Kneeling before the Stag; reversed from the print by Albert Diirer, marked with the cipher of that artist. S. Jerome in meditation.

Dusart, Cornelius, born at Haerlem (1665 ?-l 704). Pupil of Adrian Van Ostade. He represented subjects of vulgar merriment. His positions are extravagant, and his heads almost or quite carica- tures. His color was warm and powerful, and his chiaro-scuro well managed, but he wanted the Rembrandtish effect, and the more truthful spiritedness of Ostade. He used more colors in his inte- riors than others who painted his class of subjects. One of his best pictures is " A Fish-Market," and is in the Amsterdam Mus. Du- sart also executed a number of excellent etchings, and thirtv-five plates in mezzotint.

Dyce, "William, born at Aberdeen (1806-1864). Director of the Government School of Design at Somerset House, from 1837 to 1844. He was a severe painter, a learned and precise man. His talents


2G2 DYCE — EDMONDS.

were versatile. He painted in oil and fresco, and while most of his subjects were religious and historical, he also executed some fine landscapes. His works are in the House of Lords, in the Queen's Robing Room, and in All-Saints ch., Margaret Street.


E.

Earlom, Richard (1740-1822). An accomplished English mez- zotint engraver. His " Bathsheba leading Abishag to David," has been called the chef-d 'ceuvre of mezzotint engraving. His fruit and flowers after Van Huysum are also much admired. Boydell pub- lished the " Liber Veritatis," containing 200 plates by Earlom.

Eckhout, or Eeckhout, Gerbrandt Van der, born at Amsterdam (1621-1674). Pupil of Rembrandt. He composed his pictures, es- pecially his Biblical subjects, very much in the style of his master. In color, too, he approached the same excellence, although his whole effect is cooler than that of Rembrandt. His works are- well consid- ered. Among the best are the " Raising of Jairus' Daughter," Ber- linMus.; " Woman taken in Adultery," Amsterdam Gall.; ' ; David and Abigail," Schleissheim Gall.: " Christ Teaching in the Tern- pie," Cabinet, Munich Gall.; and "Hannah giving Samuel to be dedicated to the Lord," in the Louvre.

Edelinck, Gerard, born at Antwerp (1627-1707). An eminent engraver. Pupil of Cornelius Galle. It is diflicult to select the best of the numerous works of this artist. He interpreted Raphael with o-reat truth, and his engravings after Le Brun and other French artists are very superior. He used the graver only. His plates are highly finished, and yet they are spirited and bold. "The Holy Family," after Raphael, and the " Tent of Darius," after Le Brun, are among his best works. Some of his portraits are also xqyj fine.

Edema, Gerard, born at Friesland (1652-1700). Pupil of Ever- dingen ; like him he painted wild, rocky landscapes with waterfalls, etc. They were often Norwegian views, and he also went to New- foundland for the study of scenery. He did not equal Everdingen, and his chief excellence was in the representation of falling water.

Edmonds, John W., born at Hudson, New York (1806). He was known as a business man as well as an artist, for from his early years he was a clerk, and afterwards the cashier of a bank. He re- moved to New York city in 1834. When he first began to exhibit his pictures he used an assumed name, fearing that the reputation of being a painter would injure him in business circles. He was accus- tomed to paint both morning and evening, and this continued appli- cation weakened his health so much that in 1840 he went to Europe for rest. His pictures may be called genre, and are such as appeal very strongly to all classes and ages. His ' l Gil Bias and the Arch-


EDMONDS — ELMAR. 263

bishop " belongs to J. Taylor Johnston of New York ; " Dame in the Kitchen," to J. L. Claghorn ; "Boy Stealing Milk," and "Bashful Cousin," to Jonathan Sturges; and "Bargaining," the " Wind- mill," and the "Image-Peddler" to R. L.Stuart. "The Penny Paper " was one of his most successful attempts, and some of his other subjects are "Sparking," engraved by the Art-Union; "Comforts of Old Age;" " Dominie Sampson; " " Sam Weller," etc.

Egg, Augustus Leopold (1816-1863). His subjects may be called high genre. His best pictures are " Catherine seen by Peter the Great for the first time;" " The Life and Death of Bucking- ham ; " " Past and Present ; " " The Night before Naseby ; " and his last work, " Catherine and Petruchio." He is noticeable for the spirit of his pictures in both serious and comic subjects. He died at Algiers, when travelling for his health.

Egmont, Justus Van, born at Ley den ( 1 60 2-1 6 74) . Pupil and as- sistant of Rubens. He worked with his master on the pictures for the churches of Mechlin, on those illustrating the life of Marie de' Medicis,,and others. Egmont was appointed painter to Louis XIIL, and Louis XIV. He also painted in conjunction with Simon Vouet. In the Vienna Gall, there are two portraits of Philip IV. of Spain, by Egmont alone. They are too smooth in execution, but good in color and expression, and prove him to have been a good painter.

Eimbeck, Johann Raphon Von. In the choir of Halberstadt Cath. there is a triptych by this painter, dated 1508. The centre is a picture of the Crucifixion, and the wings represent the Annun- ciation, the Adoration of the Magi and that of the Shepherds, and the Presentation. There is life and variety of expression, but the color is not good, and the whole effect is somewhat coarse.

Elliger or Elger, Ottomar, the Younger, born at Hamburg (1666- 1732). After some other instruction he became the pupil of Gerard Lairesse, whose style he imitated. He was, like Lairesse, very mind- ful of details in costume, etc., and his architectural representations were good. He painted historical subjects, such as the "Death of Alexander," which he did for the Elector of Mentz. His principal works are in Amsterdam.

Elliot, Charles Loring, born at Scipio, New York (1812-1868). One of the very best of American portrait painters. His pictures are all that one can desire a portrait to be. Full of expression and char- acter, life-like in effect, and well colored. He executed an immense number, and among his sitters were many men eminent in different departments of life; clergymen, authors, artists, statesmen, and mili- tary men. His portrait of Fletcher Harper is considered a master- piece. Some of his pictures may be seen in the City Hall of New York, in the State Library at Albany, and in the Mercantile Li- brary of Baltimore.

Elnaar or Elmer, Stephen, lived principally in Farnham, in Surrey,


264 ELMAR — ENGELBRECHTSEN.

where he died about 1795. He painted still-life, such as dead game, fruit, and flowers. His pictures are seen in old-fashioned collections and are executed with spirited fidelity.

Elstracke, Reginald, or Renold. An English engraver of about 1620. He engraved some portraits which are prized for their con- nection with history, more than for their merits as engravings. When he did not sign his plates with his full name, he used his initials,

R. E.

Elzheimer, Adam, born at Frankfort (15 74-1620). He studied first under Philip Uffenbach, then went to Rome, where he was called II Tedesco. His pictures were often painted on copper, which was a disadvantage in regard to the ' ' quality ' ' (as artists say) of his color. He had an intense love of nature, and after studying a view, would go away and paint it with marvellous exactness, even to the shadows at the time of day he chose to represent, and all without a sketch. His pictures were always small, and exquisite in finish. He loved to introduce figures, and many times repeated the " Holy Fam- ily " and ' k Tobit and the Angel." He was fond, too, of effective lights, and sometimes gave moon and torch light in the same work. He married an Italian, and had a numerous family, and though well paid for his pictures, lie spent so much time on them that he became involved in debt and was thrown into prison. He died there, or very soon after his liberation. Rubens and the Chevalier Goudt assisted him, but in vain. His Avorks became very valuable after his death, and the works of other painters were often called by his name. There are about GO engravings after the works of Elzheimer. Some of these are by Hollar, and seven by Count Goudt, who was also his pupil. He is said to have etched several plates himself, but that of " Tobit leading his Father ' ' is the only authentic one. His " Flight into Egypt," in the Louvre, has been called his masterpiece. Other important works are, " The Good Samaritan," Louvre; "Paul and Barnabas, at Lystra; " and "Christ at Emmaus," St'adel Institute, Frankfort; " Flight into Egypt," Munich Gall; " Repose in Egypt," and another " Flight into Egypt," Vienna Gall.; and the " Triumph of Psyche," Uffizi Gall.

Empoli, Jacopo Chimenti da (1554-1640). An imitator of An- drea del Sarto. His Madonnas were much admired. A picture of £>. Ivo, Florence Gall., is one of his best works. He was so injured by falling from a scaffolding, that he could not paint in fresco. He was so fond of o- od eating that he was called L'Empilo, which is to say, a stew-pan.

IJngelbrechtsen, Cornells, born at Leyden (1468-1533). Very little is known of this old painter. The only picture known to be his is an altar-piece in the Town Hall at Leyden. The centre has a pic- ture of the" Crucifixion," the wings those of the " Sacrifice of Abra- ham " and the " Lifting of the Brazen Serpent ; " the predella has the


ENGELBRECHTSEN — EUTYCHIDES. 265

" Restoration of Mankind by the Atonement of Christ." It is very different from the works of the masters who had preceded him, but is hard and crude. The flesh tones are brown, and the heads very monotonous.

Es, or Essen, Jacob van, born at Antwerp. He painted flowers, birds, fish, lobsters, etc. He excelled in representing shell-fish. In the Antwerp Mus. there is a picture of fruit, dead game, vessels, etc., which is good. In the Vienna Gall., two large pictures of fish-mar- kets are excellent; the figures in them are by Jordaens.

Escalante, Juan Antonio, born at Cordova (1630-1670). Pu- pil of Francesco Rici. He was an imitator of Tintoretto, and a painter of good reputation. In the churches of Madrid some of his pictures are seen, and in the Royal Gall, there are two: the "In- fants Christ and S. John," and the " Holy Family."

Espagnondel, Mathieu, born at Paris (1610-1689). A sculptor of some merit. Several of his works are in the gardens at Ver- sailles, and he also executed many statues for churches.

Espinosa, Jacinto Jeronimo de, born at Cocentayna, 1600; died at Valencia, 1680. He studied under Francisco Ribalta, and also in Italy. He was pious, industrious, and popular. Some of his works are little inferior to the works of the Ribaltas, to which they bear a strong resemblance. In 1647 the plague appeared in Valencia, and it is said that this artist placed himself and his household under the protection of S. Luis Beltran, who not only preserved them from con- tagion, but also cured the master of water on the brain. For these benefits Espinosa painted a series of pictures, and placed them in the chapel of the Saint, in the convent of S. Domingo. The Mus. and churches of Valencia contain many of his pictures.

Etty, "William, born a.t York (1787-1849). This artist especially excelled in color, and when judged by that alone was one of the most highly distinguished English painters. His works were numerous, and embraced a large variety of subjects. In the year of his death 130 of his pictures were exhibited in the room of the Society of Arts, at the Adelphi. He declared that his aim had been in all his large works to paint some great moral on the heart; par example, by three "Judith " pictures he would represent patriotism and self-sacrifice to one's country and God; by " Benaiah," David's great captain, he would picture valor, etc.

Eusebio di San Giorgio. A pupil of Perugino. He was never above mediocrity. His pictures are dated 1505 and later. Most of his remaining works are in Perugia.

Eutychides. A sculptor of Sicyon. He was a disciple of Lysip- pus and lived b. c. 300. One of his most famous works was a bronze statue of the Eurotas, " in quo artem ipso amne Hquidiorem plurimi dixere." Several of his statues are known to us in the writ- ings of the ancients, and that of " Fortune " for the Syrians on the Orontes, is represented by a copy in the Vatican.


266 EVERDINGEN — EYCK.

Everdingen, Aldert van, born at Alkmaar (1G21-1675). A fine landscape painter. His Norwegian views are admirable. They are poetic, with clear skies, rocky masses, and tumbling waterfalls, and dark, lofty fir-trees. He painted storms at sea, but rarely. His col- orinw is occasionally too heavy a brown. His pictures are in the Louvre. Berlin Mus., and Munich Gall., and in many private collec- tions. He was also a master in his handling of the etching point. lb- left l<"i etchings, which arc known, besides 57 plates, which illus- trate the poem of " Reineke Fuchs." The original drawings for these last are in the British Mus., as are also some landscapes done in In- dia ink, bistre, and sepia.

Eyck, Hubert Van, born at the small market town of Maaseyck (about 1366-1426). Little is known of his history beyond the facts that he spent, probably, his middle life at Bruges, and his later years at Ghent. That he effected a revolution in painting, is beyond a doubt. By his strong intellectual power he breathed life into the symbolic art which had preceded him. He represented Scriptural Bcenes and characters, but he did it through the medium of such peo- ple as be had seen in actual life. He gave his figures the appearance of men about him. lb- in-presented nature as lie saw it, and did not hesitate to use architectural backgrounds, or even to make well-fur- nished rooms the scenes of his " Annunciations " and other sacred incident-. For all the requirements of his brain, the mediums here- tofore used were inadequate, and as ever, necessity being the mother of invention, lie made great improvements in the preparation and use of color-. He used oil as a cement, and a new varnish, which from its brilliant freshness, gave a reality of effect, never seen by his con- temporaries. His greatest work was an " Adoration of the Lamb," executed for Judocus Vyts, and Lisbetta, his wife, for the decoration of their funeral chapel in the ch. of S. Bavo, at Ghent. This was arranged with a centre piece and wings which could be closed. The inside was divided into twelve different pictures, and the outside of the wings was also painted. It is not known exactly how much of this great work Hubert did, for it was finished bv John Van Evck after his death; but the principal figures must have been by the elder, for they -how a power which no work of John's approaches. Liibke says, " Hubert is confirmed as an inventor, by contemporary records. To no other was such a depth of thought imputed, combined with such abundance of ideas, and with such grand power of characteriza- tion. The donors are represented on the outer wings in a masterly manner. The larger panels remain in their original place, the figures of Adam and Eve are in the Mus. at Brussels and six others arc in the Berlin Mus. There are but two other works attributed to Hu- bert. One of these is in the Mus. in S. Trinidad, at Madrid, and represents the " Triumph of the Christian Church over the Jewish Synagogue." This is in the form of the front of a Gothic building


EYCK.


267


■with arches and towers, and the whole picture is made up of several different designs. The other represents kl S. Jerome extracting a Thorn from the Paw of the Lion," and is in the Gall, at Naples.



THE ANCHORITES. BY HUBERT VAN EYCK.

From the Ghent Painting.

Eyck, John Van (1390-1440). Brother and pupil of Hubert. He lacked the power of his brother in conception and design, and preferred smaller works. But he finished with greater minuteness and nicety than Hubert, and was the founder of that school among his countrymen, remarkable for delicacy in detail and finish of exe-


268


EYCK.



ANNUNCIATION. BY J. VAN EYCK.

cution. There arc a good number of the works of this artist remain- ing. The following is a list of the more important ones in chronologi- cal order.

The " Consecration of Thomas a Becket," dated 1421, is in the coll. of the Duke of Devonshire, at Chatsworth; " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," 1428-29, is at the seat of Lord Heytesbury, in Wilt- shire; the wings of the tl Adoration of the Lamb," executed by Jan Van Eyck, Berlin Mus.; the "Virgin and Child," at Ince Hall, near Liverpool, inscribed, '* Completum anno domini mccccxxxh, •per Johannem de Eyck, Brugis," with the motto, " Als ich chan," or, " As well as I can; " the " Virgin suckling the Child," St'adel In- stitute, Frankfort, called the " Madonna di Lucca; " portrait of a man, National Gall, with the above motto, and inscribed " Jokes de Eyck me fecit ano MCCCC33, Oct. 21 ; " also in National Gall., por- traits of himself and wife, signed, " Johannes de Eyck fuit hie 1434 ;" this is one of the very best, and perhaps the best, of his works. Van Mander says that the sister of Charles V., the Governess of the Netherlands bestowed a post of 100 guldens yearly upon a barber to whom this picture belonged. The Virgin and Child, with S. Barbara, Burleigh House; another Virgin and Child, with the donor, Louvre; a Madonna and Child, with several saints and the donor, signed


EYCK — FABRIANO. 269

1436, Acad, of Bruges; portrait of Jan <le Leeuw, same date, Belve- dere, Vienna; another portrait, same Gall.; picture of S. Ursula, Antwerp Mns.. 1437; Head of Christ as Salvator Mundi, 1438, Berlin Mus.; portrait of his wife, 1439, Acad, of Bruges; and a small highly finished altar-piece, Dresden Gall. There are embroidered ecclesiastical robes in the Imperial Treasury, at Vienna, that were probably executed from the cartoons of Jan van Eyck.

Eyck, Lambert van. It is but recently that this third brother has been discovered, but the records of Lille declare him to have been a painter, and it is now thought that he must have executed the copy of the great Bruges picture, which is in the Antwerp Mns.. No. 11. There is also a triptych in Louvain, now attributed to him.

Eyck, Margaretha van. Sister of the foregoing artists; is said to have been a skilful painter, but no picture is known which can positively be ascribed to her. She was buried in the Cath. of Ghent, where Hubert rested before her.

F.

Fabris or Fabre. A painter of views in the vicinity of Naples. Some of his best works resemble those of Canaletto, and are perspec- tive or architectural views, with figures, etc. The sombreness of his color is his greatest fault. He also visited Malta, and his works are in the collections of Valetta.

Fabriano, Gentile da. This is the name by which this painter is known, but his true name was Gentile di Niccolo di Giovanni Massi, of Fabriano. Born between 1360 and 1370. Pupil of Allegretto Nuzi. It has been said that he was associated with Fra Ano-elico, either as master or pupil, but while in point of careful preparation of materials and in finish, they might be compared, in result they were totally at variance. He painted in Brescia, Venice, and Rome, and died in the latter city, and was buried in S. Francesca Romana. Ho also lived some time at Florence, and from existing records, probably went there about 1422. Jacopo Bellini, his pupil, went to Florence with him, and there seems to have been a strong friendship between them. It is not possible to tell when he went to Rome. Vasari says that Michael Angelo praised him and said that his manner corre- sponded to his name of Gentile. Van der Weyden thought him to have excelled all other masters of Italy. It is scarcely possible to believe that the first opinion could have been other than a sarcasm, for his stvle w r as characterized bv bright contrasts in color, fusion of tone, with no shadow, and great minuteness in detail and finish, which would have found a response in the Fleming, without doubt. His re- maining works are portions of a " Coronation of the Virgin " at the Brera, Milan, the predella of which is at Fabriano ; a " Virgin and


270 FABRIAXO — FAGE.

Child " in the Acad, of Venice ; k - Adoration of the Magi," Acad, of Arts, Florence: some side panels of a picture in the eh. of S. Xiccolo di la d'Arno, Florence; another panel in the same church represent- ing the Father sending the dove or Holy Ghost down to the Virgin and Saviour; a " Virgin and Child" purchased by Mr. James Jack- son Jarves ; a mutilated remnant of a u Madonna " in the Cath. of Florence ; in the Casa Morichi, Fabriano, the ' ; Coronation of the Virgin" and " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," formerly making thelwo sides of a standard; a Virgin seated on a cushion with the Child on her lap, Pia Casa della Misericordia, Pisa ; an enthroned Madonna with saints. Berlin Mus. ; and a few others, some of which are in private collections.

Fabullus, called also Amulius, was a Roman painter, distinguished for his decorations of the " Golden House of Xero." One of his works there was a picture of Minerva, which was always looking at the beholder, from whatever point observed. Pliny says he painted but a few hours a day, and so valued his dignity, that he would not lay aside his toga even when employed upon scaffoldings, or among machinery, and calls him "gravis et severus, idemque jloridus."

Fachetti, Pietro, born at Mantua (1535-1613). He went to Rome during the time of Gregory XIII., where his portraits were so much admired that every person of distinction desired to be painted by him. He was also an engraver. Bartsch mentions two prints by him, which have been claimed by Niccolo van Aelst. One is " Holy Family," after Raphael, and the other " Christ bearing his

Cross."

Pacini, Pietro, born at Bologna (1560-1602). Pupil of Annibale Carracci, of whom it is said that the master became jealous. Facini later established an Acad, of his own. But he had little real merit beyond that of color. In this he was truly admirable, and resembled Tintoretto. Some of his works are in the churches of Bologna. There are also some prints attributed to Facini.

Faenza, Gio. da. In Faenza there is a Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints, executed by this painter in 1506. It is in the Gymnasium (convent of the Serviti), and is a worthy specimen of that Umbrian school which preceded Raphael.

Faes, Peter van der. See Lely.

Fage, Raymond de la, born at Toulouse (1648-1690). Cele- brated for his drawings with the pen. They are little more than out- lines, but are admirable for their grace and spirit. It is said that he visited Carlo Maratti in his studio, and was offered a palette and brushes. De la Faga declined them, saying he did not paint. Ma- ratti declared himself pleased at that, and said that if he could paint as well as he could draw, he should himself abandon the brush. He also etched some designs of his own, and others have been engraved by Audran, Vermeulen, etc.


a



1 AITHORXE — FANTUZZL 27 1

Faithorne, "William, the Elder, born in London; dk-d 1691. An eminent engraver. His best works were his portraits. These arc executed with the graver

almost entirely, and are admirable. His plates are numerous, and some which are scarce are very valuable.

Falcone, Aniello, born at Naples (1600-1665). Pupil of Ribera, called Spagnoletto. The first painter noted for battle pieces. The school which arose from the influence of this master was connected with history, for under Masaniello it was organized as the " Com- pagnia delta Morte," and took part in the insurrection. Aniello was the teacher of Salvator Rosa. His drawing was correct both in figures and horses; he gave much animation to his designs, and his color was effective. His easel pictures were good, and his works are well esteemed. After the death of Masaniello, Falcone went to France, and Salvator to Rome. There are a lanje number of engrav- ings attributed to this painter.

Falconet, Etienne Maurice, born at Paris (1716-1791). Pupil of Lemoine. He became an eminent sculptor, and was appointed Professor and Rector of the Roval Acad. He was invited to St. Petersburg by Catherine II., and executed a bronze equestrian statue of Peter the Great. After his return to Paris in 1 7 78, he devoted himself to literary pursuits. His most important works in Paris were executed for the ch. of S. Roch and that of the Invalides.

Falens, Karel van, born at Antwerp (1684-1733). An imitator of Wouvermans, and a reputable painter. The smoothness of his touch takes from the spirit of his pictures. There is a work of his in the Berlin Gall., representing Ggures and animals in a landscape, and a " Departure of a party of Falconers," in the Dresden Gall.

Fanelli, Virgilio. A Florentine goldsmith who practised his art in Italy and Spain. He executed, in 1646, the great chandelier which is still suspended from the dome of the Pantheon of the Escurial. This Avas made at Genoa, and has twenty-four burners, with many ornaments. He also executed the throne for the Madonna del Sa- grario in the Toledo Cath.

/ f£3 Fantuzzi or Fontuzzi, Antonio. Said to

A L w -\T * iave ^ een ' J0rn at ^ terDO a t»out 1520. There

1 V jLM_ is much disagreement among the highest au-

thorities regarding this engraver. Some say that he and Antonio da Trento are the same artist. His plates are chiefly after Primaticcio, and are scarce. The following are the principal ones : —

Silenus supported by two Bacchante and surrounded by Satyrs; after II Rosso* 1543.

Dispute of the Muses with the Pierides; after Primaticcio.

Alexander and Roxana; after the same : circular.

Festival given to Thalestris by Alexander ; after the same. 1543.


272 FANTUZZI — FERNANDEZ.

Jupiter directing Minerva to dismiss Venus, Cupid, and Psyche; after the same ; oval. 1543.

Titan reposing on the Bosom of the Ocean ; Bologna inventor. 1544.

The four Cardinal Virtues.

Farinato, Paolo (1526-1 60G). A great ornamental painter. Kug- ler calls him the worthiest predecessor of Paul Veronese, whom he re- sembled. His " Pagan Sacrifice " at Vienna is a fine picture ; his masterpiece is in the ch. of S. Giorgio at Verona, and was executed in his seventy-ninth year. It represents the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes;" there are many figures introduced, and among them are portraits of his own family. It is inscribed, mdciv. Paulus Farinatus de Uberto fecit ceiatis suoz lxxix. There is no doubt that some of the works of this painter are called those of Veronese. Fari- nato and his wife died the same day.

Farrington, Joseph (1742-1821). An English painter, pupil of R. Wilson. He was a good painter of park scenery.

Fassolo, Bernardino, born at Pavia. A picture of the " Virgin and Child " in the Louvre, is inscribed " Bernardinus Faxolus de Papift faciebat anno 1518." It is so much in the style of Leonardo da Vinci that it is believed that Fassolo must have been his pupil.

Fattore, II. See Penni.

Feke, Robert. An early colonial painter. One of his remaining works is dated 1746. It is said that " he was taken prisoner and carried to Spain," and there learned to paint. Upon his return he settled at Newport, R. I., as a portrait painter. A portrait of the wife of Governor Wanton, painted by him, is in the Redwood Library.

Ferg, Faul Francis, born at Vienna (1689-1740). Painter of landscapes with architectural adornments and figures. His works are often seen in England, where he lived about twentv years before his death. Most of his small pictures are on copper. His skies are silvery ; his figures are generally engaged in merry-making, and his horses and donkeys are well done. He occasionally painted sea pieces, but his landscapes are his best works. He was much accus- tomed to introduce an obelisk into his pictures; frequently with no apparent meaning.

Fernandez, Antonio, de Arias, born at Madrid; died 1684. Pupil of Pedro de las Cuevas. He was an excellent colorist and ex- ecuted with great rapidity. He was one of the most noted Spanish artists of his time. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a picture by him of the " Pharisees questioning Christ concerning the Tribute Money."

Fernandez, Vasco, born at Viseu, 1552. But little is known of this Portuguese artist. He is popularly known as Gran-Vascot. Count Raczynski, in his " Dictionnaire Historico-Artistique du


FERNANDEZ — FERRARI.


273


Portugal," gives two illustrations of the work of this artist. The " Calvary," in the Catli. of Viseu was his chef-d'oeuvre. It resembles the works of Albert Diirer so closely that it has been attributed to him. The other illustration is " S. Peter as a Pope."

Ferrara, Stefano da. Pupil of Mantegna. There are many- works of his in the Brera at Milan. They are peculiarly fantastic, but have considerable merit.

Ferrara, Ercolc da. See Grandi.

Ferraresino. See Berlinorhieri.



A WALL-PAINTING IN' THE CATACOMBS OF S. CALIXTUS, ROME.

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, born at Valdugga (1484-1549). An artist of the Milanese school ; he greatly improved by the study of the works of Leonardo, and later in life he worked under Raphael at Rome. In his stvle all the different influences under which he had formed himself may be traced, and in addition there is a large fan- tastic element all his own. His design is correct, his execution fin-

18


274 FERRARI — FIESOLE.

ished, and his coloring brilliant but wanting in harmony. He is, however, after Da Yinci, one of the very best Milanese painters. His works are very numerous, both in fresco and oils. An early work of o-reat merit is a Group lamenting over the Dead Christ, Royal Gall., Turin. A "Martyrdom of S. Catherine," in the Brera, Milan, together with a " Visitation " in the Solly Coll., and a " Madonna " in the Cath. of Vercelli, are among his best easel-pictures. In the Brera there are several frescoes formerly in S Maria della Pace. His most extensive and best works are at Yarallo, which was the pilgrim shrine of Piedmont. He also painted in the convent of the Minorites; in S. Maria di Loreto, near Yarallo; in S. Paolo, at Ver- celli; in S. Christoforo; in the ch. of Saronno, near Milan; and his last work was a " Scourging of Christ," in S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan. This is dated 1542, and is poAverful and spirited.

Ferri, Ciro, born at Rome (1634-1689). Pupil of Pietro da Cor- tona, and one of his best imitators. He excelled most in his studies of children, infant angels, or amorini. His color was very agreeable. Among his finest works are his frescoes in the Pitti Pal., at Florence, and at S. Maria Ma^iore, at Bergamo. His works are in some of the churches at Rome.

Ferucci, Andrea di Piero, born 1465. He was an architect and sculptor whose first -works were done in Naples, from which city he went to Fiesole and executed the high-altar in the Duomo. Another similar work, made for S. Girolamo of Fiesole, is now in the South Kensington Mus. Some of his sculptures are in the Cath. of Flor- ence, and in the ch. of S. Felicita. His works are somewhat pleas- ing, but he was not above mediocrity. His chef-iV 'ceurre was the baptismal niche in the Cath. of Pistoja, in which the figure of Christ is fine, and the adoring angels beautiful.

Fesele, Martin. An imitator of Albert Altdorfer. There are pic- tures of his at Nuremberg, and in the Schleissheim and Munich gal- leries. That in the latter represents the siege of Rome under Por- senna, and was painted about 1530.

Feti, Domenico, born at Rome (1589-1624). Pupil of Ludovico Cardi. He painted small pictures, and many of these illustrated the New Testament parables. His coloring is powerful, and his heads full of expression. A mourning figure which is called a " Magdalen " in the Louvre, and " Melancholy," in the Acad, of Venice are ex- cellent. His works are not at all numerous. There are, a number in Florence, and several in the Dresden Gall. Fiammingo, II. See Duquesnoy.

Fiammingo. It is very difficult to distinguish the artists called bv this name in Italian writings. Zani mentions 64 such, and there are undoubtedly more.

Fiesole, Fra G-io. da, called Angelico and II Beato; born at Vic- chio, in the province of Mugello (1387-1455). In 1407, with his


FIESOLE. 275

brother Benedetto, he became a novice in the Dominican convent of Fiesole. He had been christened Guido, but now took the name of Giovanni. At this time the convent at Fiesole had no novitiate, and the brothers were sent to Cortona to the care of the master of nov- ices. This explains the fact that the earliest works of Angelico are at Cortona. It is believed that he returned to Fiesole in 1418, where he spent eighteen years. In 1436 his order received the monastery of S. Marco, in Florence, where Angelico executed many works; here he remained until called to Rome by the Pope, in 1446. With the exception of a few months in Orvieto, he remained in Rome until his death, and was buried in the ch. of the Minerva. The title of the Angelic could scarcely be more fittingly applied than in the case of this holy man. His life was one of simple piety. He would paint only saintly subjects, and would receive no pay. He commenced a work with earnest prayer, and would never change his design, be- lie vino; that he was divinely assisted, and any change would thus be sacrilegious. He excelled all others in depicting religious sentiment. His works were finished with exquisite care, and there is a harmony both in composition and color in all he did. His draperies gave dig- nity and character to his figures, and, in short, "every part con- tributed to that unity of tenderness, inspiration, and religious feeling, which mark his pictures, and which are such as no one man had ever succeeded in accomplishing." Of human anxieties and struo-o-les he was so entirely ignorant, that he failed to depict them well, and the hatred of Christ in his enemies is but feebly expressed when attempted by Angelico. This is noticeable in his representations of the Cruci- fixion, of the persecutions and martyrdoms of saints, etc. The " An- nunciation," and the " Crowning of the Virgin" were favorite and oft-repeated subjects of his, as was also the " Last Judgment." He painted a great number of small panel pictures. The best ones are in the Acad, of Florence. Those which were formerly upon the presses for the silver of the SS. Annunziata at Florence are very fine. At S. Domenico in Perugia, there are many of his works, and another collection of his small pictures is in the Uffizi, where a ' ' Cor- onation of the Virgin " deserves especial attention. In the Vatican there is a predella illustrating the life of S. Nicholas of Bari, which well displays his power of representing what might be called semi- genre subjects. At the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, there is a fine en- throned Madonna, and in truth, these small works are seen in many European collections. Of his larger works I will mention those at his own convent in Florence : a " Deposition from the Cross," in the Acad, of Florence; the doors of a large tabernacle in the Uffizi; a " Coronation of the Virgin," in the Louvre; frescoes in the chapel of the Madonna di S. Brizio in the Cath. of Orvieto; and lastly, two chapels in the Vatican which are greatly restored. The pictures in the monastery of S. Marco are in better preservation. While in


276


FIESOLE — FILOCAMO.



CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. BY FRA ANGELICO.

In the Acad, of Florence.

Rome the Pope desired to make Angelico Archbishop of Florence, but he refused the honor, and recommended Fra Antonio of his order for the office. The Pope acted upon his suggestion, and the good qualities of Antonio proved the wisdom of Angelico.

Fiesole, Mino da (1400-1486). A sculptor whose works are in Florence and Rome, and are remarkable for their ornamental decora- tions rather than for the figures.

Figino, Ambrogio, born at Milan, 1590. A pupil of Gio. Paolo Lomazzo, and a successful imitator of Michael Angelo. His works are more remarkable for the elegance and correct drawing of a few figures than for the numbers represented. Some of his best works are in the churches of Milan.

Filippi, Sebastiano, called also Gratella, born at Ferrara (1532- 1602). After studying under Camillo Filippi, his father, he entered the school of Michael Angelo, at Rome, and became one of his best disciples. He was called Gratella on account of his squaring large works when reducing them to a smaller size. This he learned of Michael Angelo. His best works are in the churches of his native citv.

Filocamo, Antonio and Faolo. Natives of Messina, who after attending the school of Carlo Maratti at Rome, established an Acad, at Messina. They worked together both in oil and fresco, and both died of the plague in 1 743. Their principal works are in the churches of Messina.


FINIGUERRA — FIORENTINO. 277

Finiguerra, Maso. Flourished about the middle of the loth cen- tury. He was a goldsmith and niello-worker, and is very generally acknowledged to be the inventor of engraving on metal. Before his discovery, metal workers had been accustomed to make sulphur casts of their works, and to engrave from them, but Finiguerra beino- em- ployed to make a Pax, and wishing to see the effect of his work, filled the lines made by his graver with a preparation of oil and lamp-black, and the plate being laid by chance on a pile of damp linen, he found his design reproduced upon it. From this time it was customary to use damp paper, and a roller to take off the designs wished for. The " Coronation of the Virgin," the subject of the Finiguerra Pax, was engraved in 1452. The original plate is in the Uffizi Gall., and the only known impression from it is in the Bibliotheque de Paris.

Fink, Frederick, born at Little Falls, N. Y. (1817-1849). He went to Europe in 1840, and was employed in making copies after Murillo and Titian. He manifested good talent for genre subjects, but died before reaching the excellence he had reason to anticipate. His original works are, " The Young Thieves; " " A Negro Wood- sawyer; " " The Shipwrecked Mariner; " and " An Artist's Studio."

Finoglia, Paolo Domenico, born at Orta, in the kingdom of Naples; died 1656. One of the best pupils of Stanzioni. His prin- cipal works are in the Certosa of S. Martino, which towers above Naples on the steep rock of St. Elmo. In this convent the best specimens of Neapolitan art are gathered together.

Fiore, Colantinio del. Much has been written and said of this artist. He has been called the disciple of Francesco Simone, and certain works have been attributed to him, but the more recent re- searches of art writers and students have failed to establish what has been related of him, and some even doubt if he ever existed. He is usuallv said to have lived from 1354 to 1444, and a " S. Jerome ex- tracting a Thorn from the Lion's! foot," in the Gall, at Naples, was called his best work. This picture is in tempera, although it has been affirmed that he painted in oil.

Fiore, Jacobello del. A Venetian painter, who flourished in the first half of the 15th century. About his time a change took place in Venetian art, which seemed to foretell the excellence of coloring reached there later. As an example of this progress his " Madonna," in the Manfrini Gall., dated 1434, is a work of interest. He had a good reputation in his day, but the extreme ornamentation of his fig- ures and draperies is not admired in more modern times.

Fiorentino, Stefano. The usual account of this old painter is that he was born at Florence, and was the grandson and pupil of Giotto (1301-1350). Vasari says that he surpassed Giotto in everyway; that he established the rules of perspective, and prac- tised foreshortening. A " Virgin and Child," in the Campo Santo at Pisa, are claimed to have been painted by him. But there is


278 FIORENTINO — FLEMAEL.

nothing really known of him or his works, and all that is said of him must be taken as a pleasant tale which lacks evidence of truthfulness.

Fiori, Mario di. See Nuzzi.

Fisher, Alvan, born at Xeedham, Mass.; died 1863. A portrait painter. His likeness of Spurzheim is a valuable picture. He had good success in painting children with dogs, rabbits, etc.

Flaxman, John, born at York (1755-1826). His father kept a plaster-cast shop in London, and the son went to that city early in life. He commenced drawing and modelling very young, and gained his first prize for a model, when eleven years and five months old. At thirteen he received a second prize, and was admitted to the Royal Acad., at fourteen. In his youth, he painted a few pictures in oil. In 1 782 he married Miss Denman, and live years later went to Italy. He remained there seven years, and was a close student of the antique, and an incessant worker. While there, he executed a large group for Lord Bristol, representing the " Fury of Athamas," from the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and a smaller one of " Cephalua and Aurora," for Mr. Hope. It was also in Rome that he made the designs from Homer. 2Eschyius, and Dante, which have now a world-wide reputa- tion. In 1794 he returned to England, where he was constantly em- ployed on important works until Ins death. It is not possible to give an entire list of his works in the space allotted him here, but many of his sepulchral monuments are seen in the cathedrals and churches of England. In Glasgow are his statues of Mr. Pitt and Sir John Moore, in bronze, and in Edinburgh that of Robert Burns. He exe- cuted many works for the East Indies, one of which was not quite completed when he died. One of his best, perhaps the best of his works in England, is the group of the " Archangel Michael and Satan." This was one of his latest works, and was made for the Earl of Egremont, who had also a life-size " Apollo," which is very beauti- ful. He was elected Associate of the Royal Acad., in 1797, Acad- emician in 1800, and Professor of Sculpture in 1810. His lectures in the Acad, have been published. He was singularly pure in heart and life, and characterized by a cheerful and attractive manner, which made him the beloved friend of old and young. The very last work he did, was to make designs for the exterior embellishments of Buckingham Pal., which would have been executed partly by him, and entirely under his direction, had he lived. The friezes on the front of Covent Garden Theatre were all designed by Flaxman, and one of them, and the figure of " Comedy," were executed by him. His wife possessed an intelligence of mind and love for art, which enabled her to appreciate and assist the studies and labors of her husband, and her death, in 1820, was a grief from which he never recovered.

Flemael, Bertholet, born at Liege (1614-16 75). Pupil of Ge- rard Douffet. He visited Italy, and on his return was much em-


FLEMAEL — ELORIS. 279

ployed, and gained a good reputation in Paris. The Chancellor Seguier employed him at Versailles, and he painted in the Carmelite

and Augustin churches. He went to Liege, but was invited again to Paris, where he was employed in the Tuileries. He was made a professor in the Royal Acad, and every inducement was offered him to remain in France. But he returned to his beloved Liege, and was employed in embellishing its churches. His works show the influence of the French school. He loved to make the foreground figures especially fine, and finished them with great care, but his color was feeble, and there is little feeling in his works. One of his pictures, representing " Pelopidas arming against the Lacedemonians," is in the Dresden Gall.

Flinck, Govaert, born in Cleves (1615-1 (H>0). He was, after Eckhout, the scholar, most like their great master, Rembrandt. His chief occupation was portrait painting, but he succeeded well in genre subjects, and sometimes painted historical pictures. He was also a successful imitator of Murillo. He settled in Amsterdam, and re- ceived the freedom of the city in 1 G.32. He made a fine collection of drawings and engravings from the best masters, and casts from an- tique sculpture. It was sold for about 12,000 florins. In the new Hotel de Ville of Amsterdam is his picture of the " Regents," dated 1642; in the Amsterdam Gall., his picture of the " Archers " is re- markable for its fine portraits; in the same Gall, is " Isaac blessing Jacob," one of his few historical pictures; in the Berlin Mus., the " Expulsion of Hagar ; " and in the Munich Gall., a genre picture of the " Guard Room." At the time of his death, he had finished the sketches for twelve large pictures, which the Burgomasters of Am- sterdam had commissioned him to paint.

Florigerio, Sebastiano, born at Udine. Flourished about 1533. Pupil of Gio. Bellini, and an imitator of Giorgione. His frescoes at Udine have perished, but some of his oil-pictures remain in the churches there, and two Madonnas with Saints, in the Venice Acad., are his works. His color was pale and cold, but his figures are well drawn, and the composition is arranged after the antique manner.

Floris, Frans, born at Antwerp, real name Frans de Vriendt (1520-15 70). Pupil of Lambert Lombard. He opened a school in Antwerp, which was much frequented. He had great facility of exe- cution and power of invention, but there is much want of grace and sentiment in his pictures, and he knew too little of drawing to be a fine painter. His life was very wild, and his intemperate habits prevented his attaining the fame and fortune which the patronage and favor of his friends placed before him. His clief-rV ceuvre is in the Ant- werp Mus., and represents the " Fall of the Angels." Other works of his are in the same place, and a picture of Vulcan showing Venus and Mars, whom he has in a net, to the Gods, is in the Berlin Mus. While this displays the mastery of his hand, it is very tasteless ; it is dated 1547.


280 FOGOLINO — FONTANA.

Fogolino, Marcello. A Friulan who flourished about 1525. He spent his youth at Yicenza, where some of his works remain. His pictures are more interesting as illustrations of the style of his time and country, than for any merit of their own. In the Berlin Mus., there is a " Virgin and Saints " by him, and in the Acad, of Venice, a " Madonna and Saints " which has been attributed to Bernardino Licinio. He also painted in the churches of Pordenone and Trent, where his pictures may still be seen.

Folo, Giovanni, born at Bassano (1764-1836). An eminent en- graver. He studied in the school of Volpato, but later he made Raphael Morghen his model. His " S. Andrew," after Domenichino, is very highly esteemed, and is considered his clief-(V ceuvre by many. The " Madonna de' Candelabri " of Raphael and the " Mater Dolo- rosa " of Sassoferato were engraved by Folo. His style was best suited to large subjects, and his plates are after the works of the best masters, namely, Raphael, M. Angelo, Guido, Titian, Poussin, Thor- waldsen, Canova, etc.

Fontana, Domenico. A famous architect, whose life was writ- ten by Milizia, and who is especially interesting to all who visit Rome, on account of his having removed the Egyptian obelisk from its an- cient position to the Square of S. Peter's. This was done in 1586, and was a memorable occasion in Rome. After great preparations, the morning came when the obelisk was to be raised. Fontana re- ceived the blessing of the Pope, who also told him that failure Avould cost him his head. The workmen received the Holy Eucharist. The concourse of spectators was immense, the priests, soldiers, and people, high and low, were crowded in the streets and on the housetops. When the obelisk was raised, the guns of S. Angelo were all dis- charged, and joy was universal, and when, a few months later, the removal was completed, and the obelisk was placed on its pedestal, the people carried Fontana on their shoulders in a triumphal proces- sion, with drums and trumpets. Fontana was made a nobleman and a Knight of the Golden Spur; he had a pension of 2000 crowns, whiehdescended to his heirs; ten knighthoods; 5000 crowns ready money, and all the materials he had used, which were valued at 20,000 crowns. Two bronze medals of him were struck, and on the base of the obelisk, a Latin inscription was cut to perpetuate his name and honor. ,

Fontana, Prospero, born at Bologna (1512-1597). He had a fine mind, good invention, and many requisites for a good artist, but he often painted so hastily and carelessly, that his works were very imperfect, His pictures are still seen in Bologna. He also painted portraits, and was distinguished in that branch of art at Rome in the time of Julius III. , and later.

Fontana, Lavinia, born at Bologna (1552-1614). Daughter of the preceding, whom she excelled. Her portraits were excellent,


FONTANA — FORMENT. 281

and in her historical subjects, her manner is clever and spirited. Some of her works are in the churches of Bologna.

Foppa, Vincenzo, born at Foppa, territory of Milan. Nothing positive is known of him until 1456 ; died 1492. It is said that he was a pupil of Squarcione, and some of his works would confirm this. He was an artist of more than usual merit, and his later pictures are much better than his earlier ones. His outlines were well drawn, his faces expressive, and his color good and well blended. He lived at Brescia in his vouth and returned there in his old acre, and was buried in the ch. of S. Barn aba. He also resided at Pavia, and painted at Milan and Savona. In the Brera there is a S. Sebastian, taken from the ch. of S. Maria di Brera, and the onlv one remaining of a whole cycle which he painted in that church. It is called his chef- d'oeuvre. His works are also in the Carrara Acad., Bergamo; in S. Maria di Castello, Savona; in the National Gall. ; and in different places in Brescia.

Foppa, Vincenzo, the Younger. Very little is known of him. He was a subordinate Brescian artist of the 16th century. Son and probably pupil of the preceding. The works attributed to him are in several churches of Brescia, in the Scuola Elementaria, and in the Tosi Gall.

Forli, Melozzo da, born at Forli; died 1494. Count Girolamo Riario, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV., governed Forli, and through his influence Melozzo went to Rome, where he was appointed painter to the Pope, and received the honor of knighthood. Only small por- tions of his works remain, but they prove him to have been a won- derful painter. His principal work was the " Ascension of Christ," in the ch. S. Apostoli. Portions of this have been removed, and are preserved in the sacristy of S. Peter's, the Quirinal Pal., and in the Lateran. Grimm says, " I can place nothing of the same date by the side of these figures as regards boldness of composition. For an im- agination, before which human forms hovered in such bold foreshorten- ing, and a hand such as the painter possessed who could sketch so freely and firmly what his mind perceived, I find combined in no painter hitherto." The foreshortening or painting of figures in per- spective, on vaults and ceilings, was his invention and was perfected a half century later by Correggio. His draperies were somewhat form- less; his principal figures grand; and his cherubs and angels, graceful and beautiful. In the Vatican there is a picture by him of Sixtus IV., surrounded by his nephews. Xvlelozzo da Forli was a very important artist, but his place in the history of art is small, on account of the paucity of his existing works.

Forment, Damian, born at Valencia; died 1533. He went to Italy to study, and it is supposed that he formed his style after the works of Donatello. In 1511 he executed a work at Zaragoza, which is considered one of the finest monuments in Ara<ion. It is an


282 FORMEXT — FRANCESCA.

altar-piece of alabaster, for the Cath. " of the Pillar." This work occupied Forment nearly nine years. It represents the Assump- tion of the Virgin, the Nativity, and the Purification. In 1520 he began a retablo for the high-altar of the Cath. of Huesca. This oc- cupied thirteen years. It is of alabaster, and represents the " Death and Passion of Christ." The Emperor, Charles V., invited him to enter his service, but he died soon after. He left a large estate. His school never numbered less than twelve scholars.

Fosse, Charles de la, born at Paris (1G40-1716). He was ad- mired for his coloring, which he acquired from the study of Venetian art. He was much employed on the churches and palaces of Paris, Versailles, etc. He visited England, and ornamented the mansions of some of the nobles. His design was incorrect and inelegant, and his color, which was good, was much inferior to that of Titian or Vandyck.

Foucquet, Jean. Flourished 1 401-1485. He was a miniaturist, illuminator, and painter to Louis XI. A Boccaccio which he illumi- nated, is at Munich, and portions of a Book of Hours, also by him, belong to the coll. of M. Brentano Laroche, at Frankfort. There is a lk Virgin and Child " in the Gall, at Antwerp, attributed to him. The Virgin is said to be a portrait of Agnes Sorel, the beautiful mis- tress of Charles VII. This picture is pale and flat.

Fouquieres, Focquier, or Foucquier, James, born at Antwerp (1580-1G5!>). Pupil of Mompert and Jan Breughel. He was a fine landscape painter, and was employed in the Louvre by Louis XIII. That king made him a knight, and this, with other flattering attentions, rendered him so vain that he became unendurable. Nicholas Poussin. who was employed at the Louvre at the same time with Fouquieres, left Paris on account of his insolence and overbear- ing conduct. His drawing was good and his pencil free. His color was somewhat cold, though fresh and clear. He chose picturesque scenes, and his wagons, figures, etc., were well put in.

Fragonard, Jean-Honore, born at Grasse (1732-1806). He painted historical subjects, conversations, and bacchanals with con- siderable success. 1 Some rather stiff portraits are attributed to him, and he also executed several etchings frpm his own designs, and those of other masters.

Francesca, Pietro della, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro. He is dis- tinguished for having advanced the study of perspective. Some of his frescoes remain in his native place; in S. Francesco, at Rimini, and in S. Francesco, at Arezzo. In the National Gall, there is a profile portrait in tempera, attributed to him. In the Uffizi there are portraits of Federigo di Montefeltro and his wife, by his hand. He is said to have been the teacher of Signorelli and Pietro Perugino. He was living in 1494.

1 Four fine pictures, by Fragonard, belonging to Mr. Henry Lee, were burned in the great fire :n Bo-ton. "NTovpmbor 0, 1872.


FRAXCESCIIIXI — FRANCIA. 283

Franc eschini, Baldassare, called II Volterrano, born at Volterra (1611-1089). He was most distinguished as a fresco painter, but his oil pictures were very commendable. His correctness of design was remarkable; his knowledge of foreshortening perfect; his color harmonious; and his figures spirited. His works both in fresco and oil may be seen in Florence and Volterra.

Franceschini, Marcantoiiio, born at Bologna (1648-1729). Carlo Cignani was his chief teacher, and so fond of him that he o-ave him attentions and privileges beyond all his other pupils. He ex- celled as a machinist. His compositions were copious but without confusion. His inventive powers were large, and he had facility of execution. Many of his works are at Bologna. His easel pictures were good; his angels were especially beautiful.

Franciabigio or Francia Bigio, real name, Francesco di Cristofano (1482-1525). Pupil of Mariotto Albertinelli. He was a friend of Andrea del Sarto, and resembled him in his manner of painting. In 1513, Francia Bigio was employed at the Servi in Florence, and it is said was associated with Del Sarto. He painted, in the court of the Servi, a picture of the " Marriage of the Virgin." Just before it was finished, a day observed with especial solemnity by the Servites came round, and the monks removed the screens which were before the pic- ture. Francia Bigio was so angry at this that he took a hammer and did much injury to the Virgin's head, and to other portions of his work, and moreover, he could never be persuaded to restore it, neither would other artists do so. and the injuries remain to this day. In 1518-19, he worked at the Scalzo, and in 1521, together with Del Sarto, at the Medici Pal. in Poggio a Cajano. He was always a reputable painter, but he was not a man of great genius, and there- fore could not equal many others. During the later years of his life, he painted with great rapidity, and took every order that was offered him. Several of his frescoes remain, and a number of portraits by his hand, are in various collections in Europe. The " Bath of Bath- sheba," at Dresden, was painted but two years before his death. One of his portraits is at Windsor Castle, and another at Stanstead House.

Francia, Francesco, real name Francesco di Marco Raibolini, born at Bologna (1450-1518). As a goldsmith, he was first dis- tinguished, and was steward of o-oldsmiths in 1483. He was also master of the mint to the Bentivoglio, and to Julius II. at Bologna. It is impossible to say exactly when he began to paint, but his earliest known work is a Madonna surrounded by six saints, dated 1490 or 1494. This is one of the treasures of the Bologna Pinacothek. His first pictures are Umbrian in style, and much resemble those of Perugino, which is easily accounted for by the fact that the works of that master were taken to Bologna near the close of the 15th centurv. Later in life, Francia became Raphaelesque in manner, and his pic-


284


FRANCIA.


tures have been attributed to both these masters whom he imitated. His most striking characteristic is a tender and agreeable expression of deep religious feeling. His figures express calmness more than ac- tion; his color is warm, and his finish delicate and careful. His only remaining frescoes are in the oratory of S. Cecilia, at Bologna, and represent the marriage and entombment of that saint. An altar- piece in the Bentivoglio chapel in S. Giacomo Maggiore, representing the enthroned Madonna, with saints and angels, is very beautiful. The color is especially fine. Various other works of his are in Bo-



madonna. BY FR. FRANCIA. Dresden.

logna; in Munich is a " Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus," which is very attractive; in the Brera, another enthroned Madonna; many portraits, half length Madonnas, and Holy Families are seen in various European galleries. All have the same oval faces, and soft, dark eyes; the same calm and thoughtful expression, and are always pleasing. He retained his full powers at the time of his death. When the S. Cecilia of Raphael was finished, he sent it to Francia and requested him to care for it and see it properly hung in its place. He did so, and soon after died, it has been said, because of his dis-


FRANCIA — FRANCO. 285

covcry of his great inferiority to Raphael. It is well known that these two masters were friends, and corresponded, but it is not known that they met. There are few, perhaps no other specimens of the antico-moderno style, equal to the works of Franeia. His por- traits were excellent, and in some of his groups he introduced the likeness of the donor with fjood effect. He had more than 200 scholars.

Franck or Francken. There are at least eleven painters and en- gravers by this name, and probably more. There is some difficulty in distinguishing between them. The most important are Hans Franck, who was one of the earliest engravers on wood, and is be- lieved to be the same as Jan Franck, who worked for Albert Durer at Nuremburg ; Frans Francken, the Elder (1544-1616), Ambro- sius Francken, the Elder (1545-1618), and Jerome Francken, the Elder (1542 ?-1620) were pupils of Franz Floris, and painted in his style. The Antwerp Mus. has a number of pictures by Ambrose. There were three younger Francken s having the same names as the elder ones. Of these Frans, the Younger, was the most important. Born at Antwerp (1581 V-1642). His works are characterized by fine keeping and a spirited touch, with much feeling for graceful action. His drawing was good, and he had fine inventive talents. No picture better displays his powers of imagination than that of the " Witch's Sabbath," in the Vienna Gall., dated 1G07. His color was often heavy. He sometimes painted the figures in the pictures of Pieter Neefs, Van Bassen, and Jesse Momper. He was one of the best genre painters of his time. Jean Baptiste Francken was the son of Sebastian, and was instructed by him. Born at Antwerp, 1G00, sometimes called Old Francks. He improved by the study of the works of Rubens. His best pictures are the interiors of museums and galleries, and he so well imitated the manner of different artists, that however small his representations are, the style and color of the painter can be distinguished. He painted vases, suits of armor, and objects of natural history with wonderful exactness and finish. Many of the figures which he introduced w r ere portraits. He some- times painted figures in the pictures of Neefs, and sometimes the figures which he painted were encircled with flowers by Daniel Segers.

Franco, Battista, called II Semolei, born at Venice or Udine (1498-1566 ?). He went to Rome where he diligently studied the works of Michael Ano-elo. A few of his works remain in Venice. The finest of these are small decorations upon ceilings, such as those in the chapel of S. Francesco della Vigna, and in the Scala d'Oro of the Doge's Palace. His most important large works are also in the above-named chapel. A good portrait of Sansovino, by Franco, is in the Berlin Mus. This artist merits honorable mention as an en- graver. He is believed by some to have been the pupil of Marc An-


286 FRANCO — FREDI.

tonio. Bartsch mentions more than 100 j)lates by Mm. His drawing is often incorrect, but he showed great love for the antique, and re- spect for the traditions of the past, in the choice of his subjects. He worked entirely with the graver, and marked his plates B. F. V. F., for Batista Franco Venetus fecit.

Francois. There are three painters by this name, Lucas, Peter, and Simon. The first two were father and son, and born at Mechlin; the latter was a native of Tours. They are of no especial importance.

Francois, Jean Charles, born at Nancy (1717-1786 ?) The in- ventor of the engraving called the Chalk style, which represents cravon drawings. He received a pension of 600 livres, for this in- vention. He also executed some portraits with the graver.

Fraser, Charles, born at Charleston, S. C. (1782-1860.) A very successful portrait painter. In 1857 his works were exhibited in Charleston, and numbered 313 miniatures and 139 landscapes and other compositions.

Fratellini, Giovanna, born at Florence (1666-1 731). Her talents attracted the attention of the Grand Duchess Victoria, who provided her with masters. She painted in oil, miniature, and crayons, and excelled in the latter. Her reputation spread all over Italy, and she painted the portraits of many nobles and eminent persons. In the Ducal Gall., Florence, there is a portrait of herself engaged in paint- in < r that of her son, which is one of her best works.

Frazee, John, born in Kahway, N. J., 1790. A sculptor in spite of many hindrances, for in his youth there was no brightness but that of his mother's love; and it was not until 1824 that he was able to execute his first bust. This was a portrait of John Wells, and was placed in Grace Church, New York city, and is, according to Dun- lap, the first marble portrait from a native hand. At this time he had opened a marble-yard on Broadway, with Launitz, and it was there that Crawford first practised in statuary. After this Frazee made busts of several notable men, and in 1831 that of John Jay, for which Congress made an appropriation.

Fredi, Bartolo di, born at Siena about 1330. He was associated with Andrea Vanni, in 1353. In 1361 he was employed by the government of Siena, and in 1362 went to S. Gimignano, where he remained several years. After his return to Siena he was honored with some public offices. He was the founder of the noble house of the Bartoli Battilori. Had his reputation depended alone on his real artistic merit, he would not have occupied a leading position. His color was hard, and his pictures very flat; and he was excelled by many artists of his day in Pisa and Siena, while he could not be mentioned beside those of Florence. His remaining works are some pictures in S. Francesco of Montaleino; an " Adoration of the Magi," in the Acad, of Siena, and another in the Ramboux Coll. at Co- logne ; and a " Virgin odvino- the Girdle to S. Thomas," in the ch.

O ? o O O


FREDI — FUNGAL 287

of S. Maria, at Bettona, near Assisi. His " Descent from the Cross," in the ch. of S. Francesco, is dated 1382.

Freminet, Martin, born in Paris (1567-1619). He studied some time in Italy, and on his return was made painter to Henri IV., and also to his successor, Louis XIII. He was much employed at Fon- tainebleau. A picture in the Louvre, representing " Mercury admon- ishing JEneas," is a good example of his work.

Frey, James, born at Lucerne (1681-1752). An eminent en- graver, and better known by his Italian name of Giacomo Frey. He studied in the school of Carlo Maratti, at Rome. He left a lar«-e number of fine plates after the works of some of the best Italian masters.

Frey, John Peter de, born at Amsterdam, 1770. He became a distinguished engraver, though he could only use his left hand. His prints after Rembrandt, Flink, and G. Dow are much esteemed, es- pecially the "Anatomical Lecture," the "Family of Tobias," the " Presentation in the Temple," and the t; Ship-builder and his Wife."

Frisius, Simon, born at Leuwarde, in Friesland, about 1590. An eminent engraver, and the first who brought etching to perfection. His prints are scarce and much valued. He sometimes marked his plates S. F. fecit, and frequently fecit only.

Fruitiers Philip, born at Antwerp (1625-1677). He first painted historical subjects in oil, but changed to distemper and miniature. He was very celebrated for his water-color portraits, and so much admired by Rubens that he employed him to paint himself and fam- ily. He also made some etchings, among which the portrait of Queen Hedwig Eleanor, of Sweden, is distinguished for its excel- lence.

Fuessli, John Caspar, born at Zurich (1706-1781). A good por- trait painter, and the author of the " Lives of the Swiss Painters," for which work he designed and engraved the portraits and vignettes.

Fiiger, Henri, born at Heilbronn (1751-1818). He was appointed Director of the Imperial Gall, at Vienna, in 1806. His works in that Coll. are not his best. German writers considered him one of the most eminent artists of his time.

Fulton, Robert, born in Lancaster County, Penn. (1765-1815). It is well known that this great mechanician was also an artist. But very few of his works remain. There is in Philadelphia a portrait by him of Mr. Plumstead's sister; it belongs to her family. Fulton executed the first panorama ever exhibited in Paris. His love for art was very great, and he wrote from London to urge the people of Philadelphia to buy West's pictures as the nucleus of a Gall., and bought himself the " Lear" and " Ophelia," and gave them to the New York association of artists. There is a print from one of his pictures representing Louis XVI. in prison, with his family.

Fungai, Bernardino, born at Siena. Flourished about 1512.


288 FUNGAI — FUSELI.

There are numerous works attributed to this artist in guide-books and catalogues. They are all lifeless, badly drawn, and confused in arrangement. Several of these are in the churches and Acad, of Siena. They are also seen in various European galleries.

Furini, Francesco, born at Florence (1604-1646). Pupil of his father, and afterwards of Passignano and Roselli. He became a priest in 1640, but continued to paint until his death. He has been called the Guido and Albano of Florence. His heads are sometimes very powerful; his face shadows are deep brown. His pastoral sub- jects are half Spanish in appearance. His best works are easel pic- tures, and are much esteemed. His women and children are elegant and delicate, and he excelled in the representation of nymphs and kindred subjects.

Furness, William Henry, Jr., born at Philadelphia (1827-1867). A successful painter of portraits. He studied at Dusseldorf, and after his return to America established himself in Boston. His pic- tures are in the possession of the families for whom they were painted, and are much esteemed.

Fuseli or Fiissli, Henry, born at Zurich (1 741-1825). He was ed- ucated for the church, and took holy orders, but in 1763, having a difficulty with a magistrate of Zurich, he went to England, where he lived until his death, with the exception of eight years passed in Italy. He intended to devote himself to literature, but by advice of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who had seen his drawings, he became an artist. As a painter he was entirely original, and remarkable for his wonderful imaginations and fantastic conceptions of his subjects. He had a good knowledge of anatomy, which is fully shown in his pic- tures. His best works are his Milton Gall, and eight pictures painted for BoydelPs Shakespeare Gall. These are all extravagant and incorrect, but extraordinary in design. As a writer and critic of art, he ranks high, but is not free from the same extravagance in his intellectual efforts which characterizes his paintings. He held the offices of Professor of Painting, and Keeper of the Royal Acad. He delivered twelve lectures in all. He was very witty and sarcas- tic, and spared none who came in his way; still he was liked by the students, for they knew that he endeavored to build up the best in- terests of the Acad. He had a passionate temper, and was sometimes overcome by depression of spirits, when his wife was accustomed to make him angry, as a fit of passion restored his cheerfulness. He was very learned, and could speak eight languages. When not em- ployed in painting, he took up the pen; and when eighty years old declared himself to have been happy in the fact that he had always been occupied in something that he liked. There are many sharp and witty sayings of his recorded, and his life, published by his executor, John Knowles, is very interesting. From his choice of strange subjects, his fellow-artists called him " -painter-in-ordinary to


FUSELI — GADDI. ^89

the devil;*" ho laughed at this, and said, " Ave, he has sat to me many times." A student once showed him a drawing, saying U I

finished it without using a crumb of bread." " All the worse for you,"' answered Fuseli: " buy a two-penny loaf and rub it out."

Futerer, Ulrich. In the Gall, of Schleissheim there is a laro-e < ; Crucifixion " by this artist, who flourished about 1480. It is painted in compartments of Gothic architecture to imitate sculpture.

Fyoll, Conrad. Flourished from 1461 to 14 76. There are pic- tures by this artist in the Stadel Institute, at Frankfort, and in the Berlin Mus. Kugler says, " He has something tender and mild in his heads, and a delicate, silvery, and, upon the whole, cool tone in his flesh."

Fyt, Jan, born at Antwerp (1609-1661). After Snyders, he is the greatest Flemish animal painter. His greyhounds cannot be equalled by any master. His live dogs are excellent, but he was most successful in representing dead animals. The fur of animals and the plumage of birds was rendered by him with more detail of finish than by Snyders, and with wonderful truth. His composition was eood, and he had much animation : in drawing:, he is not always accurate, but his effects of light are fine. He may be well studied in the Munich and Vienna Galleries, which have fine pictures by him. There is a work of his in the British Mus., and others are in private collections in England. He sometimes painted in conjunction with Jordaens and Willeborts. Jan Fvt also executed the folowino- etchings, which are much esteemed : —

Eight plates of Dogs and other animals; marked Jo. Fyf. 1640.

Seven plates of different kinds of Dogs with landscape back- grounds; 1642; inscribed Johannes Fyt pinx. et fecit.

A set of eight small plates comprising a Horse, a Cart, a Doo 1 , Goats, Foxes, and three of Cows; very scarce.

G.

Gaal or Gall, Barent, born at Haerlem (1650-1703). Pupil of Philip Wouvermans. His village scenes are good pictures of their class. His figures have no special merit, but his effects of light and shade are fine, particularly when, like Ruysdael, he paints heavy clouds with the sun shining on distant fields.

Gabbiani, Antonio Domenico, born at Florence (1652-1726). The works of this artist occupy an honorable position in the Floren- tine galleries and palaces. His landscapes with mythological subjects resemble those of Domenichino. His distant scenerv is orand. His Cupids are, as a rule, his best figures, and his greatest deficiency is in drapery. He was a pupil of Giro Ferri.

Gaddi, Gaddo, born at Florence (1239-1312). A friend of Cimabue, whom he survived twelve years. The friend also of Andrea 19


290 GADDI — GAINSBOROUGH.

Tafi, and a worker in mosaics. He made a fortune which was the foundation of the position his family occupied later. Vasari speaks of many of his works, both paintings and mosaics, but the only remaining ones that can be attributed to him are some mosaics in the portico of S. Maria Maggiore, at Rome, executed in 1308, and possibly others in the cathedrals of Florence and Pisa, and in the Baptistery at Florence.

Gaddi, Taddeo, born at Florence (1300-1366?). Son of the preceding. He was held at the baptismal font by Giotto, and became the favorite disciple of that great master. His pictures are, in general in the style of Giotto. Vasari, who saw many of his works which are now destroyed, thought he excelled his instructor. His works still remaining are frescoes from the life of the Virgin, on the Avails of the Giugni (formerly the Baroneelli) chapel in Santa Croce, at Florence, and some smaller panel pictures in the Florentine Acad, and the Berlin Mus. There is much truth and feeling in the frescoes, and the small pictures are beautifully executed. His countenances are less characteristic than those of Giotto, and his entire manner nun;' mechanical, the almost unavoidable result of having been the assistant of his master, for more than twenty-four years. When he was asked bo name the greatest painter in Italy, he replied. " Art has fallen very low since the death of Giotto." and it was the misfortune of Taddeo and others who followed Giotto, to study his works and practise his rules, rather than to draw their inspiration from natur. , and reproduce her more perfect models. Taddeo was also an archi- tect, and made the plans for the Ponte Vecchio and Ponte a Santa Trinita, in 1336, and was employed at Orsanmichele and the Cam- panile.

Gaddi, Agnolo. Son of the preceding. Time of birth not known. Died 1396. The pictures of Agnolo are sometimes imposing at a distance, but do not bear close examination. A finely drawn head is often spoiled by disregard to the details of the features; his hands and feet are bad, and the folds of the flesh are indicated by lines. His color is clear and transparent, and his relief better than Taddeo's. The best preserved works of this master are in the chapel cf the Holy Girdle in the Cath. of Prato, and in the choir of Santa Croce, at Florence. The latter are a series illustrating the history of the Holy Cross, and are full of allegorical allusions.

Gaeta, Scipione da. See Pulzone.

Gainsborough, Thomas, born at Sudbury, in Suffolk (1727-1788). Pupil of Francis Ilayman. He became very eminent as a portrait painter, and his landscapes are much esteemed, while his fancy pic- tures are also excellent. He settled in London in 1774. It is said that he never put his name on any picture. When he died, he had 56 paintings and 148 drawings. The latter are much valued by con- noisseurs and collectors. Several of his fine landscapes are in the


GAINSBOROUGH — GALLI. 29 1

National Gall., and the excellent portraits of Mrs. Siddons and Dr. Ralph Shomberg are also there. In the Edinburgh Gall, there is a fine likeness of the Hon. Mrs. Graham. Some of his best pietures of genre subjects are, the " Shepherd Boy in a Shower; " the " Wood- man and Dog in a Storm; " the " Cottage Door; " and the " Cottasre Girl with Dog and Richer." His pictures command high prices, one having been sold in 186 7 for £1800. Many of his works have been engraved.

Galanino, called Baldassare Alloisi, born at Bologna (1578- 1G38). Pupil of the Carracci, and one of the ablest artists of their school. He was very busy in Rome in painting portraits of the most illustrious men of the time of Urban VIII. His larger works were for the churches of Bologna, and the great altar-piece for the ch. of Gesu e Maria, at Rome.

Galassi, Galasso, born at Ferrara, 1380. But few of his works remain, and these are in the churches of Bologna. It has been said that he learned the use of oil colors from Van der Wevden, but all his known paintings are frescoes.

Galaton. A Greek painter who probably lived under the earlier Ptolemies. He executed a picture probably intended to ridicule the Alexandrian epic poets. It represented Homer vomiting, and other poets gathering up what fell from him.

hjk. Galestruzzi, Gio. Batista. Of his paintings

&t/\J) little is known, but he was the friend of Delia Bella,

~^ ^ whose manner he imitated in engraving, and acquired

a good reputation. His plates are numerous, and

some of them are rare. He flourished about the middle of the 17th

centurv.

F-p^ Galle r Philip, born at Haerlem, 153 7. The first Jtr of a family of engravers consisting of Theodore, i vLr 1560, and Cornelius the Elder, 1570 (sons of Philip), and Cornelius the Younger, 1600. Cornelius the Elder excelled the others, and after studving in Rome established himself in Antwerp as an engraver and print-seller. He left a con- siderable number of plates, which are well esteemed.

Gallegos, Fernando, born at Salamanca, probably about 1475. He followed the manner of Van der Wevden and Memlino-. He has been called a pupil of Albert Diirer, and his works are said to resem- ble those of that master. His best picture is a Madonna, in the chapel of S. Clement, in Salamanca.

Galli, Gio. Maria, called Bibiena from his birthplace (1625-1665). The first of a family who distinguished themselves in art. He was a pupil of Albano, whose gracefulness he successfully imitated. Some of his finest works are in the churches of Bologna.

Galli, Ferdinando, called Bibiena, born at Bologna (1657-1743). Son of the preceding, he was very eminent as an ornamental and


292 GALLI — GARZI.

decorative painter, and was sought by all the sovereigns of Europe. He served the dukes of Parma and Milan, and went to Vienna by invitation of the Emperor Charles VI. He arranged public festivals with much magnificence, and made great improvements in the dec- orations and illusive effect of scenic decorations. He also painted many architectural and perspective views, which are in the galleries of Italy and are well esteemed. He published a work on architect- ure. He had three sons. Alessandro, Antonio, and Giuseppe, who became distinguished as decorative artists at several European courts.

Galli, Francesco, called Bibiena. born at Bologna (1659-1739). Brother of the preceding, to whom he was inferior. He painted the Bame class of subjects, and was invited to Spain and appointed prin- cipal architect to Philip V.

Garbo, Raffaellino del, born at Florence (14 76-1524). Pupil of Filippino Lippi. His earlier works are characterized by amiability, and an elegant tenderness of feeling. His works in the Berlin Mus. especially display this. His " Resurrection.'* in the Florentine Acad,, shows the same dramatic power which his master had. Later in life, when he attempted to follow M. Angelo and Raphael, he was less admirable, as may be seen in his ceiling pictures in the chapel of S. Thomas Aquinas in S.Maria Sopra Minerva at Rome. His works are also seen in the Louvre. Dresden Gall., Uflizi, Acad, of Venice, Mus. of Naples, and in some private collections.

Gargiuoli, Domenico, called Micco Spadaro, born at Xaples (1612-1679). Pupil of Salvator Rosa, and painted landscapes and small figures. His works in the Studj Gall, at Xaples are very in- teresting as historical representations of the events of his time. One series delineates the whole tragedy of Masaniello, and the horrors of the plague of 1656 form the subjects of others.

Garofalo was called by this name from his custom of painting a gillirlower in the corner of his pictures, but his real name was Ben- venuto Tisio. Born at Ferrara (1481-1559). He executed some fres- coes in Ferrara which caused him to be considered the head of the Ferrarese school, but he is best known by his easel pictures, which are in various galleries, especially in Rome. An " Entombment," at the Borghese Pal., is his most celebrated large work, and another, very similar, is in the Studj Gall, at Naples. The Doria Gall., the Acad, of Venice, and the English National Gall., have fine specimens of his works. His pictures at Ferrara were painted after his return from Rome, and show the effect of his study there. His color was good, and his pure, positive tints have not faded, and equal in this respect the works of the early Venetian artists. He was blind nine years before his death.

Garzi, Ludovico, born at Pistoja (1638 ?-l 721). A favorite pupil of Andrea Sacchi, and a rival of Carlo Maratti. He was em-


GAHZI — GELDER. 293

ployed in Naples in churches and palaces, and in Pescia; his princi- pal works at Rome are the cupola of the Capella Cibo in S. Maria del Popolo, and his celebrated*" Prophet Joel," in the Lateran.

Gassel, Lucas. Flourished middle of 10th century. His stvle is fantastic, his color cool and monotonous. Vienna Gall., a landscape, with Judah and Thamar, 1548.

Gasser, Hans (1817—1868). This Austrian sculptor was remark- able for bis portrait busts, among which are those of Jenny Lind, M.irko. Rahl, and Szeehenyi. His ideal figures were also worthy of praise. This may be seen in the new opera-house at Vienna, the Karl Theatre, and the arsenals at Vienna and Trieste.

Gatti, Bernardino, called II Soiaro or Sogliaro, from the occupa- tion of his father. There is much doubt about the facts of this painter's life, and it is not known whether he was a pupil or an imi- tator of Corressio. His works were in the manner of that master, and the most important were executed at Parma, Cremona, and Piacenza. Died 1.075. Gervasio Gatti, his nephew, was also his pupil, and called II Soiaro. Bryan names five painters and one en- graver of the name of Gatti.

Gaulli, Gio. Battista, called Bacicio, born at Genoa (1639-1709). He had £reat celerity of invention and execution, and became dis- tinguished as a machinist. One of his most important works is the great vault of the Gesu, at Rome. He painted in several Roman churches, and is said to have succeeded in portraiture, especially in making good likenesses of those who were dead. For the latter he was accustomed to draw an ideal face, which he would change ac- cording to the suggestions of those who had known the subject, until he made a satisfactory picture.

Gault de St. Germain, Pierre Marie, born at Paris, 1754. A painter of large historical subjects and portraits. He also wrote several books relative to painting.

Gay wood, Robert. Flourished about 1660. The plates of this eminent English engraver are much esteemed bv collectors. He was a pupil of Wenceslaus Hollar, and his most interesting works are his portraits.

Geddes, Andrew, born at Edinburgh (1789-1844). He painted landscapes and portraits. He was most successful in the latter, although many of his small landscapes are pretty, particularly his canal views. He also painted one large altar-piece, and a picture of " Christ and the Woman of Samaria." His picture of the " Dis- covery of the Regalia of Scotland " includes a portrait of Walter Scott, and several distinguished men of Edinburgh.

^cj Gelder, Aart de, born at Dort (1645-1727). Pupil

/ /^\ of Rembrandt, and a good imitator of his style, though

\/ I \ not equal to him in impasto and transparency of color.

Many of his pictures pass for those of his master, and


294. GELDER — GERARD.

his works arc not numerous in public galleries. The Amsterdam Mus. has a portrait of Peter the Great, and the Dresden Gall, a man's portrait and an Ecce Homo, by'De Gelder.

Gelee, Claude. See Lorraine.

Genga, Girolamo, born at Urbino (1476-1551). Pupil of Luca Signorelli and Pietro Perugino, and fellow-pupil of Raphael. Few of his works are known, as he painted much in conjunction with other masters, and was also employed as an architect, rather than painter, by the Duke of Urbino.

Gennari, Benedetto, born at Cento (1G33-1715). Nephew and pupil of Guereino, whose style he imitated so perfectly, that the copies which he made from the master's works could scarcely be distinguished from the originals. He painted some historical pictures for the churches of Bologna. Padua, and Cento, and in the reign of Charles II. went to England and was appointed painter to the King, in which office he was confirmed by James II. His principal works in England, were portraits. Cesare Gennari. brother of Benedetto, and Lorenzo, probably of the same family, were also painters. ^^^ Genoels, Abraham, born at Antwerp (1G40-1723). One

f/\ of the best landscape painters of his country. In France, _£ V. he was employed by Le Brim, to paint the backgrounds to his " Battles of Alexander the Great." His drawing is cor- rect, his touch spirited, his color clear, and his figures in the antique st vie. His works are rare. The Amsterdam Gall, has one, and there is another in the Brunswick Gall. He is also distinguished for his etchings. Bartsch enumerates seventy-three, and Weigel gives thirty-one more. In Rome, he was called Archimedes, on ac- count of his mathematical knowledge, and he sometimes signs his etchings with that name.

Gentileschi, real name Orazio Lomi, born at Pisa (15G3-1G4 7). He painted in several Roman palaces in conjunction with Agostino Tassi. He also painted historical subjects at Turin and Genoa. He was invited to England by Charles I. Several of his pictures are now at Marlborough House. Vandyck painted his portrait, which was engraved by Vorsterman. Gentileschi. Artemisia (1590-1642), was the daughter of the above, and accompanied him to England, where she painted both portraits and other pictures, but she passed most of her life in Bologna and Naples. She was the friend of Guido, and was much admired. She excelled her father in portraits. In the Florence Gall., there is a "Judith," painted by her. Gentileschi, Francesco, brother of the preceding, was also an artist, and resided chiefly at Genoa, where he painted for several churches.

Gerard, Francois, born at Rome (17 70-1837). The best French portrait painter of his time, and distinguished also for his large his- torical pictures. His clicf-d 'ceuvre of this kind is the " Entrance of


GERARD — GHIBERTI. 295

Henry IV. into Paris, at Versailles. He was a great favorite with Napoleon, and painted portraits of the Emperor, his wives, and the King of Rome. He was also principal painter to Louis XVI II., who made him a baron.

Gerard, Mark, born at Bruges. Painter, designer for glass-paint*- ing, and architect. He was not an eminent artist, but some por- traits he painted in England are interesting. Those of Queen Eliza- beth. Lord Burleigh, and Lord Essex are at Burleigh House.

Gerard of S. John. Van Mander says he was thus called from, the monastery of S. John, at Haerlem, where he resided. Two panels attributed to him are in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna, and three pictures which form a triptych in the Pinakothek of Munich, are also called his. These works are far from excellent, and seem to belong to the 16th century.

Gerard of Ghent is one of the painters said to have executed the celebrated Grimani Breviary, in the library of S. Mark, at Venice; 125 of the illuminations are attributed to him. It has been said that he was identical with Gerard Van der Meire.

Gericault, Jean Louis, born at Rouen (1791-1824). The chef- d'oeuvre of this artist is his immense picture of the " Wreck of the Medusa," in the Gall, of the Louvre.

Gessi, Francesco, born at Bologna (1588-1649). A pupil and successful imitator of Guido lleni. His early works are the best, for in later years he became a cold and languid mannerist. His pictures are in several churches of Bologna.

Gessner, Solomon, born at Zurich (1734-1788). A poet and artist. He was an amateur painter, until he was thirty years old, when he began to study landscape painting. He is known by his etchings, some of which he executed for his literary works, and some for separate publication. They are all well finished and

pleasing.

^ Ghein or Gheyn, James, the

Elder, born at Antwerp (1565-



^LJ^y B | \\) t I T-jfr> 1615). Pupil of Henry Goltzius. I Qjj * / fj * I Q/j + He became a skilful engraver, and

/ + his plates are much esteemed. Some

of them are scarce.

Ghent, Justus Van. This old painter must have been born about 1400, as he was a pupil of Hubert Van Eyck. The only re- maining work known to be his, is in the eh. of the Fraternity of Corpus Christi, at Urbino. It represents " Christ giving the Chalice to the kneeling Apostles," and has many points of merit. The por- traits it contains are excellent.

Ghiberti. Lorenzo, born at Florence (1378-1455). A goldsmith and sculptor, he also painted some pictures at Rimini, whither he fled from the plague in 1398. He is best known by his bronze gates


296


GHIBERTI.


to the Baptistery of Florence, which Michael Angelo thought " wor- thy to be the gates of Paradise," and which have never been sur- passed in some respects. There was much controversy as to who should obtain the honor of making these gates, and after Ghiberti re- ceived it, he spent twenty years upon the first, and as much more time upon the last. It is easy to see in them the marks of the gold- smith's minute and finished manner; but Ghiberti introduced a new




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feature in bas-relief when he attempted to represent distance in background. In this he of course failed, but in beautiful ornamenta- tion, and perfect form and finish of all minor parts, he has never been surpassed. Ghiberti also made three statues for the eh. of Or- sanmichele; two bas-reliefs for the Cath. of Siena, and the Sarcoph- agus of S. Zenobius, in S. Maria del Fiore, of Florence. All these works still remain, but the sarcophagus and the gates are the most


GIIIBERTI — GHIRLANDAIO.


297


excellent, and, indeed, are to-day anions the finest works of art in Italy, i Ghiberti had been a student of the antique as far as was possible for him, and in his records of art describes the ancient works he had seen. The earliest known work of this master is in the Uffizi, and is a bronze relief of the " Sacrifice of Isaac." which he made when contending for the commission for the Baptistery gates.

Ghirlandaio. Real name, Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di Doffo Bigordi. Born at Florence (1449-1494). It is said that his father was a goldsmith, who made such exquisite garlands for the hair that he was called Ghirlandaio (the garland-twiner), which name de- scended to his children. There are certain characteristics of Dome- nico* s pictures which might result from a knowledge of the gold-



ZACHARIAS WRITING THE NAME OF JOHN. BY DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO.

S. Maria Novella, Florence.

smith's art, such as precision in drawing, the modelling of figures, and the arrangement of drapery. Ghirlandaio was a pupil of Alessio Baldovinetti, and became a mosaist and celebrated painter. There is much of interest in the works of this master. They plainly show the advance from his earlier to his best manner : he introduced in his pictures the portraits of celebrated and important personages of his time, and was original in manv wavs. His life is a landmark in the history of Florentine art. His especial greatness is that of a composer. He preferred large spaces, and worked in the old system of tempera. His portrait figures were not the actors in the scene represented, but he placed them, generally, in detached groups. Kugler says this gave a solemn effect, and compares them, in their.


298 GHIRLANDAIO.

relation to the picture, to the chorus in a Greek tragedy. He laid his scenes in the streets of cities known to us, his architecture and costumes were familiar, but he did not run into the fantastic, and his works are never unpicturesque. His study of the antique is espe- cially apparent in his draperies. In the technicalities of fresco-paint- ing he excelled, and his works were highly finished. His remaining frescoes are those in the ch. and refectory of Ognissanti, Florence, dated 1480 ; in the Palazzo Vecchio, and Palazzo Pubblico, Flor- ence, 1481-85; in the Sixtine Chapel, Rome, only the " Calling of Peter and Andrew " remains; in the Chapel of S. Fina, at £>. Gi- mignano; in the Sassetti Chapel, in S. Trinita, Florence, and the choir of S. M. Novella (1490), same city. His smaller works are an =' Adoration of the Magi," in the Uffizi ; two pictures in the Acad, of Florence, in one of which, an " Adoration of the Shepherds," an an- tique sarcophagus serves as the manger; a "Visitation," in the Louvre; six pictures in the Berlin Mus., and others in the Dresden, Munich, and National galleries; while a few more are in other public and in some private collections. Ghirlandaio was the master of Mi- chael Angelo. Very little is known of the mosaics which he exe- cuted, although he called mosaic work " painting for eternity."

Ghirlandaio, Ridolfo, born at Florence (1483-1560). Son of Domenico. The works of this master may be classed in three divis- ions : those of his early time, his middle and best works, and his later and more mechanical manner. The first are characterized by thin, stiff figures, hard enamel, and thick substance of color, which may be seen in an <; Annunciation," in the Abbey of the Montoliveto, outside Florence. His middle and best manner was largely influ- enced by his association with other artists, and the study of their works. It has been said that he studied with Fra Bartolommeo and was the intimate friend of Raphael. It is true that the latter desired Ridolfo to o-o to Rome to work with him in 1508, and about this time Ridolfo excelled all Florentine artists in oil-painting, as his father in his day had excelled in mural decorations. To this time belong his " Nativity," Berlin Mus., and another in the Esterhazv Coll., at Vienna; a female portrait in the Pitti; the Miracle and the Burial of S. Zanobius, Uffizi; and various others in churches and galleries, in some of which he employed the assistance of his pupil Michele di Ridolfo. There was an old precept among shopkeepers, that an artist, if he kept a shop, should execute all orders brought him, no matter how small. Domenico believed this, and his son prac- tised it. He did much merely mechanical work from 1515 to 1541 for the public occasions, both of joy and sorrow, in which the Medici were the principal actors. This had a tendency to injure his man- ner, for he hastily executed scenes for plays, banners to be carried in processions, and gaudy triumphal arches. Then, too, he had a good fortune, fifteen children, and was growing old, — indeed, he suffered


GHIRLANDAIO — GIBSON. 299

so much from gout that he was wheeled about in a chair for some time before his death; still he did not resign his profession, but re- mained a silent partner, as it were, in his own business, and as late as 1543 undertook a series of frescoes for the monastery of the An- geli, where his brother Bartolommeo was in orders. Ridolfo sur- vived most of his contemporaries except Michael Angelo.

Ghisi. This is the name of a Mantufin family of engravers. Gio. Battista Ghisi, called Mantuano, was the eldest, and flourished about the middle of the 16th century. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, and engraver, in which latter profession, he is best known. He is said to have been a pupil of Marc-Antonio Rai- mondi, but his drawing is incorrect and his prints wanting in harmony.

G-iy j* — j Giorgio Ghisi, born 1524, son of the preceding, was ▼ p a much more eminent engraver, and his works are much esteemed by collectors. Fine impressions of his prints are scarce. r , \ Adamo and Diana

Ghisi were the brother /C\ /S\ an( ^ s * s * er °f Giorgio,

and were instructed by -L \ / J- *- him. Diana was the best artist, and executed some plates of great merit. They were all called Mantuano.

Ghisolfi, Gio., born at Milan (1623-1683). He studied under several masters, the best of them being Salvator Rosa. His pic- tures abound in Milan, Geneva, Naples, Rome, and are well repre- sented in England. He painted some historical subjects, but is best known by dark pictures of ruins, corridors in perspective, and court- yards paved with marbles. His works are in the choicest collections.

Ghezzi, Cavaliere Pier Leone. Chiefly known bv his etchings and his caricatures, which are numerous in Roman collections.

Giamberti. See San Gallo.

Giambono, Michele. An old painter and mosaist of the middle of the 15th century. An altar-piece in the Acad, of Venice, signed by him, represents Christ with S. Bernardino and other saints. At S. Marco, in the wagon roof of the Madonna de' Mascoli, there is a mosaic with his name, and at Padua, in the Coll. of Conte Riva, an exquisitely finished " Virgin and Child," inscribed "Michael Jo- hannes Bono, venetus pinxit." The Berlin Mus. Catalogue calls No. 1154 a Giambono. It is the " Assumption of S. Magdalen."

Gibbon, Grindling. A sculptor of the reign of Charles n. Some of his remaining monumental works are seen in the churches of England, but his wood-carving is most worthy of notice. His birds, flowers, foliage, and imitations of lace are remarkable for fine and elaborate execution. Some of the best of these are at Hampton Court, Windsor Castle, Chatsworth, S. Paul's Cath., and S. James' ch., Piccadilly. He died in 1721.

Gibson, Richard (1615-1690), usually called the Dwarf, was only three feet ten inches in height, and was married in the presence


300 GIBSON.

of Charles L, whose page he was, to Anne Shepherd, who was ex- actly his own height. They had nine children, who lived and were of a proper size. Vandyck painted the portraits of this remarkable couple. The King observed the talents of Gibson, and placed him with Cleyn for instruction. He made a reputation in water-color painting. He painted a miniature of the *' Parable of the Lost Sheep," which the King valued and gave to his medallist Vander- doort for safe keeping. When Charles desired to have it, Vander- doort had forgotten where he had put it, and became so nervous about it, that he hanged himself; after his death it was found. A drawing of Queen Henrietta, by Gibson, is at Hampton Court. He was sent to Holland to instruct the Princess Mary in drawing, and also was honored by being the teacher of Queen Anne.

Gibson, John, born near Conway, North Wales, 1790; died at Rome, 18G6. When nine years old, his parents went to Liverpool with the intention of emigrating to the United States, but this plan was abandoned, and Gibson sent to school in Liverpool. Before tins he had been in the habit of drawing whatever he saw that pleased him. He now began to study the prints in the shop windows, and sold his little drawings to his fellow-pupils. He attracted the atten- tion of a print-seller, who lent him some studies and casts from the antique. At fourteen he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker, but at tli*' end of a year, he persuaded his employer to change his indent- ures, and was bound to a wood-carver. He soon made the ac- quaintance of Messrs. Francis, who had marble works, and after much trouble and negotiation with his master, he was again apprenticed to the occupation which he had determined to follow. In modelling, drawing, and working in marble, he was truly happy, and made most rapid improvement. After a few months he fell under the notice of William lloscoe, who became his friend and patron. From this time until he was twenty-seven years old, he remained in Liverpool and executed many busts, bas-reliefs, etc. He had improved his oppor- tunities, but they were small, and he greatly desired to travel. In 1817 he went to London with a few letters of introduction, and ob- tained several commissions. In September of the same year he left England for Rome, where he arrived in October. By means of a letter, he was presented to Canova, who took him under his protec- tion and introduced him into his Acad., where he had an opportunity to draw from life. He had also the advantage of associating with artists, and listening to conversations on art, in which the most talented sculptors, such as Canova and Thorwaldsen, were engaged. In 1819 he received his first commission from the Duke of Devon- shire, which was for a group of Mars and Cupid. From this time, he advanced steadily in his profession, and was fully employed. He lived twenty-seven years in Rome, spending his summers principally at Innsbruck. In 1844 he went to Liverpool to superintend the plac-


GIBSON. 301

ing of his statue of Mr. Huskisson. He was received there with great enthusiasm. He had also executed a statue of Mr. Finlav for the Merchants Hall of Glasgow, to which city he was invited, to wit- ness its erection. The compliments here paid him were more flatter- ing than those of Liverpool, on account of the absence of all ties of association or residence. During this visit, he was invited to Wind- sor to make a statue of her Majesty. This was completed in Rome. The Queen was represented in a classical costume, and the diadem, sandals, and borders of the drapery were colored. This created much controversy: but Gibson always answered, " "Whatever the Greeks did, was right." The Queen and Prince Albert were much pleased with the statue. In 1853 he received Miss Harriet Hosmer as his pupil. She is the only one he ever professed to teach, and they became devoted to each other, not only as teacher and pupil, but as friends. In 18G2 he modelled a sacred subject, a bas-relief of w Christ blessing Little Children." In 1851 Gibson sustained a great loss in the death of his brother Ben, to whom he was greatly attached, and who had resided with him in Rome for fourteen vears.

7 *

On the 9th of January, 186G, when seventy-six years of age, and ap- parently in perfect health, he was seized with paralysis, and died on the 27th of the same month. He was buried in the English cemetery at Rome: and as he had been decorated with the cross of the Legion

7 O

of Honor, a company of French soldiers joined the funeral procession and fired a salute above his grave. The inscription upon his monu- ment, written by Lord Lytton, gives a concise and truthful account of him as an artist, and as a man : " His native genius strengthened

7 O C

by careful study, he infused the spirit of Grecian art into master- pieces all his own. His character as a man was in unison with his attributes as an artist, beautiful in its simplicity and truthfulness, noble in its dignitv and elevation." A monument was also raised to Gibson in the ch. at Conwav. He left the models of all his works, and the greater part of his fortune, to the Royal Acad. Many amus- ing stories are told of his absent-mindedness, and he was scarcely fit to go outside his studio alone. He could never master the ins and outs of railroad travelling and when started in the right train at the right time, was sure to get out at the wrong place at the wrong time. Miss Hosmer said of him, " He is a god in his studio, but God help him when he is out of it." On one of his journeys, having arrived, as he supposed, at the right place, he desired a porter to show him the way to the Cathedral. In his own account he said, " But the scoundrel would have it that there was no cathedral in the place, and at last had the impudence to ask me if I knew where I was. Then I discovered that instead of being in Chichester, where I had a par- ticular appointment with the Dean and Chapter, I was safe in Ports- mouth, where there was no cathedral at all." He found his entire happiness in art, and worked on, to use his own words, " happily,


302 GIBSON — GIMIGNANI.

and with ever new pleasure, avoiding evil, and, with a calm soul, makino- images, not for worship, but for the love of the beautiful. The beautiful elevates us above the crowd in this world; the ideal, higher, yes higher still, to celestial beauty, the fountain of all. Soc- rates said that outward beauty was the sign of inward; in the life of a man, as in an image, every part should be beautiful." The tributes of respect which were shown him, he thoroughly enjoyed; and those of which any man might be proud, he received with a simplicity of self-respect which added a higher worth to them. The following are a portion of his works : —

Mars and Cupid; Chatsworth.

Psyche borne by Zephyrs; Palazzo Torlonia, Rome, and S. Petersbur<di.

Hylas surprised by Nymphs; National Gall.

Sleeping Shepherd Boy; Mr. Lennox, New York.

Cupid disguised as a Shepherd; often repeated; Mr. Appleton, Boston.

Narcissus; Royal Acad.

Portraits of the Queen; Buckingham Pal. and Osborne.

Sir Robert Peel; Westminster Abbey.

George Stephenson ; S. George's Hall, Liverpool.

Eighteen portrait -busts, among which are those of Mrs. Jameson and Sir Charles L. Eastlake.

Sixteen bassi-relievi, mostly of mythological subjects, and sixteen monumental relievi; a large part of the last are in Liverpool Ceme- tery Chapel.

Gillray, James, born at Lanark (1757-1815). This celebrated caricaturist began life as a goldsmith, then ran away with a strolling company of players, and at last went through a course of study at the Royal Acad. His first caricatures were done about 1779, and he worked diligently in this department of art until 1811. He left more than 1200 of these prints. He seized upon every circumstance of politics and manners which could be turned to ridicule, and in this art has had no rival. His intemperate habits undermined his health, and induced an insanity several years previous to his death. There are a few engravings of Gillray's of subjects not caricatured, of which the impressions are rare.

Gilpin, S a wrey, born at Carlisle (1733-1807). An animal and landscape painter, who painted whole pictures by himself, but was also accustomed to work in conjunction with Barret, who painted the landscapes for Gilpin's animals, which the latter repaid by painting animals in the pictures of Barret.

Gimignani, Giacinto, born at Pistoja (1611-1680). A disciple of Pietro da Cortona. He assisted Carlo Maratti, at the Lateran, in Rome. A picture of his in the Ducal Gall., at Florence, has been attributed to Guercino. His works are also at the Palazzo Nic-


GIMIGNANI — GIORDANO. 303

colini, Florence; in S. Giovanni at Pistoja, and in other churches of Italy.

Giordano, Luca, born at Naples (1632-1705). Pupil of Ribera, called II Spagnoletto. He went to Rome while still young, and was employed by Pietro da Cortona. His facility of execution was mar- vellous. He made copies from various masters, and his style became a mixture of all. This was greatly to his disadvantage. His father, who had always been very poor, followed him to Rome, urged him to haste for the sake of money, and was accustomed to repeat to him "Luca, fa presto," by which appellation he is known. In 1690 he was in- vited to Spain, where he executed a vast amount of work for Charles II., in the Escorial and elsewhere. He returned to Naples with much wealth and a great reputation. His works are very numerous, and varied in style. They are in all large galleries. Perhaps his masterpiece is the " Expulsion of the Fallen Angels," in the Belve- dere, Vienna, signed Jordanus, F. 1666. Giordano painted equally well in oil and fresco, and is at times remarkable for beautv, (dow of color, and dramatic effect, but sacrificed so much to hasty finish that it is painful to see what he has done, and feel how much less it is than what he might have done. He also left some very spirited etchings, executed with free and masterly touch.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER LUCA GIORDANO.

Engraver, Aveline, Peter. The Death of Seneca.

Engraver, Beauvarlet, James Firmin. Lot and his Daughters. Susanna and the Elders. Perseus combating; Phineus. Acis and Galatea. Judgment of Paris. Rape of Europa. Rape of the Sa- bines.

Engraver, Dennel, Louis. Triumph of Galatea.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. Galatea. Judgment of Paris.

Engraver, Eredi, Benedetto. Death of Lucretia.

From his own designs, engraved by himself,

Elijah calling down Fire on the Priests of Baal.

Virgin and Child.

SS. Joseph and John.

Penitent Magdalene.

The Woman taken in Adultery.

Christ in the Temple with the Doctors.

S. Anne received into Heaven bv the Virgin.

Engraver, Mannl or Maennl, Jacob. Martyrdom of S. Bartholo- mew. Philosopher meditating on a Skull. A Geometrician.

Engraver, Ravenet, Simon Francis. Sophonisba receiving the Nuptial Present.

Engraver, Sornique, Dominick. The Rape of the Sabines.

Engraver, Vasseur, John Charles Le. Apollo and Daphne.


304 GIORDANO — GIORGIONE.

Engraver, Wagner, Joseph. Meeting of Jacob and Rachel* Rebecca receiving the presents from Eliezer.

Engraver, Zucchi, Lorenzo. David with the Head of Goliath.

Giorgione, real name Giorgio Barbarelli, born at Castelfranco (1477-1511). The first Venetian who cast off the Bellinesque rule and handled brush and colors freely. Grimm says, " His outlines disappear into something almost unessential. As when living beings approach us, we only see colors and movement, so in his pictures; there is none of the fixed, statue-like appearance; the living, moving character alone seems produced by magic." This artist had great personal beauty, and a dignified deportment. Giorgione means George the Great, and he acquired this name on account of his tall, noble figure. He had also an intense love of beautv; he was a good lute player, and composed songs which he sung; in short, his nature was full of harmony and sentiment. This shows itself plainly in his works, and Mrs. Jameson says, " If Raphael be the Shakespeare, then Giorgione may be styled the Byron of painting." Very little is known of his life. The Venetian traditions £ive the following : He was fond of pleasure, but never profligate, and his love of his art would not allow him long to neglect it. Pietro Luzzo, a painter known as Morto da Feltri, lived in the same house with Giorgione, where was also a girl whom he passionately loved. He made Morto his confi- dant, of which he took advantage to seduce and carry off the girl. Gioroione never recovered from the double grief caused by the faith- lessness of his mistress and his friend, and sank into a despondent state of mind, in which he died. Morto fled from Venice, entered the army, and was killed at the battle of Zara, 1519. Giorgione was much employed in decorative painting, and worked with Titian on the Fondacho dei Tedeschi, at Venice. He had great influence upon Titian. »If any of the frescoes of Giorgione remain in Venice, they are but parts of pictures. The dampness of the climate, fires, and the effect of time have effaced them. His pictures are rare, and it is difficult to o-ive a list of them, for there have been so many differ- ences of opinion among the best judges, concerning the genuineness of those assigned to him, that few remain upon which no doubt has been thrown. He painted but few historical subjects. Among the works acknowledged as his, the first place should be given to an altar-piece in the eh. at Castelfranco. It represents the Virgin and Child between SS. Francis and Liberale. A study in oil for the figure of S. Liberale is in the National Gall. This altar-piece was executed before 1504. In the Belvedere Gall, at Vienna, there is a picture called the " Chaldean Sages," in which a company of as- tronomers study the heavens. In the Manfrini Pal., Venice, is the so-called " Family of Giorgione." Be the subject what it may, it is an exquisite picture in which the painter succeeded in throwing great interest into a simple and natural arrangement of common objects.


GIORGIO'NE.


305


At Kingston-Lacy, there is an unfinished picture of the ' ' Judgment of Solomon." " The Concert," at the Pitti Pal., is one of his most beautiful and famous works. There are many portraits, sibyls, and other pictures in various galleries, attributed to Giorgione, but the



TETE CONCERT. BY GTORGIOTTE

Pitti Gall.

above are almost, if not quite all, which are universally acknowledged to be genuine, although it may be quite true that others are so. Among those very generally admired, as the works of this master, are the portrait of a lady with a lute, Manfrini Pal.; his own portrait, Munich Gall.; the " Daughter of Herodias," the portrait of Gaston de Foix, and a " Holy Family,'* in the Louvre; " Jacob meeting Rachel," Dresden; the " Finding of Moses," Brera, Milan; the Sea-storm, with the patron saints of Venice in a boat, demons and monsters all about, and a city in the distance, Acad, of Venice; etc., etc.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER GIORGIONE.

Engraver, Dupuis, Nicholas Gabriel. Amusement of Pastoral Life.

Engraver ', Kessel, Theodore. A Riposo. Magdalen at the feet of Christ.

Engraver, Mannl or Maennl, Jacob. A Warrior giving his Hand to a Man.

Engraver, Pether, William. A Warrior; half length. 20


306 GIOTTINO — GIOTTO.

Giottino. Vasari calls the name of this painter Tommaso di Stefano called Giottino, and says he was born in 1324. The only work remaining of those assigned to him is the chapel of S. Sil- vestro in Santa Croce in Florence, in which is a series of pictures illustrating the legend of S. Sylvester. These are well composed, the drawino- is firm, the movement animated, the heads individual, and the color warm and clear. There are other pictures at Assisi and in Florence, in the same manner as these, but not known to be by the same master.

Giotto di Bordone, born at Vespignano (1276-1336). It is a custom to call Cimabue the father of modern painting, and it is true in the sense that he discovered the genius of Giotto and placed him where it could benefit the world. Cimabue' s pictures are in the Byzantine manner, but Giotto drew his inspiration from nature, and seems almost an opposite to Cimabue rather than a follower of his. When tending his flock, Giotto was accustomed to draw on the large, flat stones, and while thus employed, Cimabue came upon him, was filled with admiration of his work, and obtained the consent of his father to his taking him to be his pupil. Giotto became a painter, sculptor, and architect. His principal works were his fresco paint- ings, which were in most of the large cities of Italy. The Bell- tower of Santa Maria del Fiore is his most famous architectural monument. He did not live to see it finished, but he left a perfect model for it, which was largely, though not entirely followed in its construction; for before it was completed the Gothic pyramidal spire which he had used was no longer admired, and had, in fact, come to be regarded with contempt. But the main construction, the stories-, the windows, the sculptured ornaments are his plan, and " form a matchless whole." Giotto was the friend of Dante, and it is most reasonable to believe that much of what appears original in the con- ception and treatment of his subjects was derived from his intercourse with the great poet, and the ideas he received from him. Dante's portrait, which he painted on the wall of the palace of the Fodesta at Florence, and which has been restored to the world, is one of his most famous works, and in spite of its destruction and restoration it is full of wondrous power. Of his small pictures there are twenty in the Florentine Acad., two in Berlin, and four others in private col- lections, which originally formed a series of twenty-six, illustrative of the lives of Christ and S. Francis in reference to each other; or representing circumstances in the two lives which seem to have a cer- tain likeness in them. Par cxemple, opposite to the " Incredulity of S. Thomas," in the Life of Christ, he places a picture of S. Francis on a bier, while a pious disciple examines the marks of the Stigmata. A divided altar-piece is in the Brera of Milan and the Gall, of Bo- logna. Some pictures on wood are in the Sacristy of S. Peter's at Rome, and in the vestibule of that basilica is his mosaic , called the


GIOTTO.


307


" Navicella." This has been changed from its original place, and has been often injured and restored, until it is probable that no part of the original work remains, but the design is that of Giotto. His large frescoes were in series. Those in the Carmine at Florence were destroyed by fire in 1771, but there are engravings of them. In the ch. of Santa Croce, a " Coronation of the Virgin," and the " Last Supper," in the refectory, still remain. In Padua, in the chapel of the Madonna dell' Arena, he painted the Life of the Virgin in forty- two different pictures. In the lower ch. at Assisi, he represented scenes from the Life of S. Francis. In the Incoronata at Naples he painted the " Seven Sacraments," which are very well preserved. His sculptures and reliefs, both upon the bell-tower, and in the fa9ade of the Buonio, were also arranged in cycles. In order to form



FIGURE OF JOHN ABOUT TO THROW HIMSELF ON THE BODY OF CHRIST.

BY GIOTTO.

From the painting in S. Maria dell' Arena, Padua.

a correct judgment of the works of Giotto, one must always keep in mind the time in which he lived, and the opportunities he had for study. Then it will be felt that he was eminent in his composi- tion, design, and color, and that he gave a wonderful impetus to art in various directions. Some of his followers devoted themselves to form, some to color, some to relief, and thus each branch progressed, until in Raphael the different parts were again united in a compar- atively perfect manner. The works of Giotto were so numerous that it would be impossible in such an account as this to even mention all of them, but it should not be forgotten that one of his most original conceptions was that of the crucifix. Before him there had been two representations. In one Christ was erect and alive on the cross, held by the nails. In the other every effort was made to de- pict simple physical agony, the effect being that of vulgar realism only. Giotto made more perfect anatomical proportions, and gave up


308 GIOTTO — GIRARDON.

the dreadful contortions while he still indicated pain; he gave the expression of suffering to the head, and to the face tenderness, abne- gation, and heavenly resignation. In truth it would be a difficult task to paint a better type of crucifix than that of this master. Two of his crucifixes are in S. Marco, and in the Gondi Dini chapel, in O^nissanti, at Florence: another at S. Felicita is also ascribed to him, but with less certainty. At the time of his death, Giotto had been architect and master of S. Maria del Fiore two years. He was buried there, and afterwards a monument was erected to him upon which his portrait was carved by Benedetto da Maiano. There is much of interest in the life of Giotto, and it is to be regretted that no more is known of it. He lived in stormy times, when Guelf and Ghibelline hated and persecuted each other, times in which Dante made enemies; but Giotto, though free from mental slavery, inde- pendent, and judging for himself, seems to have been so poised towards all humanity as to have impressed himself upon his sur- roundings, rather than to have stirred up any bitterness. His con- temporaries acquiesced in his success and fame, and his successors have enlarged it. Giotto was personally so ugly that his friends all joked about it, but he was charming in conversation, witty, and withal modest. He would not accept even the title of " Magister," although in his day such honors were much coveted. There are various jokes and witticisms attributed to him, such as the following. The king of Naples asked him to paint his kingdom, and he drew a saddled ass smelling at another pack-saddle at his feet. When the king asked him to explain, he said, " Simply that the ass, your kingdom, not satisfied with one royal saddle, is always snuffing around for another." There has been a story oft repeated, that in order to paint his crucifixes so well, he persuaded a man to be bound to a cross for an hour for him to study, and that when he had him there he stabbed him, and thus succeeded in making his fine representation of the subject. His picture pleased the Pope so well, that he would have it for his own chapel, but when Giotto told him all the truth, and showed him the dead man, the Pope threatened him with death. Then Giotto brushed the picture over so that it seemed to be erased, which the Pope so regretted that he promised forgiveness if it were done again. Giotto exacted the promise in writing, and then removed the wash with a wet sponge, and the crucifix was as perfect as before, and, according to tradition, is that from which all famous crucifixes were afterwards drawn. Giotto had a wife and eio-ht children, of whom nothing is known but that Francesco became a painter.

Girardon, Francois, born at Troves (1630-1715). A reputable sculptor who was assisted in his studies by Chancellor Seguier. Louis XIV. gave him a pension while he studied in Rome, and many commissions after his return. He was finally advanced in office


GIRARDON — GLOVER. 309

until he became director and chancellor in the Acad. A portion of hi* works were destroyed by the revolutionists, but many still exist in France.

Girodet, Anne Louis (1767-1824). He adopted the name of Trioson in 1812. The favorite pupil of David. The only excellence he possessed was that of drawing the figure correctly. For this rea- son, his drawings are better than his paintings. His principal works are in the Louvre.

Girtin, Thomas (1775-1802). Pupil of Dayes. A good water- colorist. His manner of treatment is simple and pleasing. He made sketches of twenty views in Paris, and etched the outlines of the plates, which were finished by other artists.

Glass, James W., born at Cadiz. His mother was an American, and he commenced his studies as an artist in the studio of Hunting- ton, in New York. He chose to paint horses and such subjects as required them. He was very, successful and gained a good reputa- tion in London, where he lived for some time. It has been said that his picture of the Duke of Wellington was the best portrait ever made of him. It was sold to Lord Ellesmere. His pictures are all well esteemed, but they are not numerous, for he did not live to fulfil the promise of excellence he had given. He died in New York in 1856. " The Battle of Naseby," " Safe," " Royal Standard," " Puritan and Cavalier," and " Edge Hill," are some of the subjects he painted.

Glauber, Jan, born at Utrecht (1646-1726). Pupil of Berghem. He studied in Italy, and became an imitator of Poussin. He settled in Amsterdam, and was the friend of Gerard Lairesse, who often painted figures in the landscapes of Glauber. His compositions are poetical, and his drawing excellent. His color is also admirable. His pictures are seen in the Louvre, Dresden, Berlin, and Munich galleries. He also executed a number of etchings from his own de- signs and those of other artists.

Glaucus, an artist of Chios, who worked in bronze, and is dis- tinguished as the inventor of the art of soldering metals. Eusebius says he lived about 69 b. c.

Glockenton, Albert, born at Nuremberg

©

about 1432. The plates of this engraver are stiff and neat, and executed with the oraver alone. The following are his : —

©

Twelve plates of the Passion of Christ; after Martin Schoen ; fine and scarce.

Ten plates of the Wise and Foolish Virgins; after the same.

Christ bearing his Cross ; after the same ; scarce.

Death of the Virgin; after the same.

The Virgin and Child seated on an Altar.

Glover, John (176 7-1849). An English landscape painter. His


h6,&G


3 1 GLOVER — GOMEZ.

pictures are highly finished, and become tedious if large, but his small works are pleasing, especially those cool in color. His rocky scenery is pretty, and his views well selected.

Glycon. The Athenian who executed the " Farnese Hercules ' in the Mus. at Naples. It represents Hercules resting on his club after one of his labors. The right hand is modern. It is believed to be a copy of the " Heracles" of Lysippus, of which there are several imitations, but none so fine as this. It was found in the Baths of Caracalla.

Gobbo, Pietro Paolo Bonzi, called II (1580-1640). The hunch- back of Cortona, and known as II Gobbo da' Frutti on account of his pictures of fruit, in which he excelled. His works are in the finest collections. He ornamented several Roman palaces in fresco.

Goebouw or Gobau, Anthony, born at Antwerp (1C25-167 7). His best pictures are merry-makings, and subjects like those of Te- niers. He also painted landscapes, sea-ports, and battle-fields after the conflict; the latter with such truth as to reach the horrible. His pictures are much admired in his own country.

Goes, Hugo Van der, born at Bruges (1405 ?-1480 ?) It is said that he Avas a scholar of Jan Van Eyck, and a distinguished painter. Many of his works perished by the hands of the Dutch and Flemish Iconoclasts. About fifty pictures are now attributed to him, but there is little certainty about many of them. A large altar-piece in the choir of S. Maria Nuova, at Florence, is undoubtedly his work, and a portrait of his is in the Pitti Pal. The Munich Gall, has a " S. John in the Wilderness," signed II. V. D. Goes, 1472. It is delicately finished. There are no others that can be positively given to him. He retired, late in life, to the convent of Rooden, near Brussels, where he died.

-. Goltzius, Heinrich (1558-1617). A distinguished en-

Ll| graver. He left a great many plates — more than 500. -LM7" ^hose -which imitated Albert Diirer and Lucas Van Leyden are the most successful. His own portrait is a master- piece of engraving. He visited Italy and became enamored of the works of Michael Angelo, and in his attempts to imitate him, he made some very distorted pictures. Late in life he commenced to paint, but his works were few and much inferior to his plates. His " Circumcision," in the manner of Diirer, and his " Adoration of the Kings," in that of Lucas Van Leyden, are very celebrated engravings, and indeed, all his plates are much esteemed by intelligent collectors. Some of his paintings are in the Imperial Gall, at Vienna.

Gomez, Sebastian, was the mulatto slave of Murillo, and prac- tised painting secretly, until at length he so perfected himself, that he ventured one day, to paint the head of a Virgin which his master had sketched and left on his easel. Murillo promoted Gomez, and was happy in the thought that he had made him a painter. His


GOMEZ — GOYA. 311

pictures were full of faults, but his color was much like that of his master. In the Mus. of Seville, there are two pictures by Gomez, representing SS. Anne and Joseph, and the Virgin appearing to S. Dominic. He died soon after his master, in 1682.

Gondolach, Matthaus. This painter settled in Augsburg, and died in 1653. He married the widow of Joseph Heinz, and suc- ceeded that artist in the favor of Rudolph II. He painted small pic- tures on copper in the manner of Heinz, some of which are in the Gall, of Vienna.

Good, T. S. Painted very pretty small interiors with figures, and other similar subjects.

Gool, John Van, born at the Hague (1685-1763). He painted landscapes and animals indifferently well, and was a writer on art.

Gortzius, Gualdorp, called Geldorp, born at Louvain (1553- 1618?) Pupil of Frans Franck, the Elder, and Frans Pourbus, the Elder. He settled in Cologne, and a few of his works are preserved there. His portraits are better than his historical pictures.

Gossaert. See Mabuse.

Goudt, Henry, Count de, born at Utrecht, 1585. This amateur engraver was a Count of the Palatinate, and the benefactor of Adam Elsheimer. He bought some of the works of the latter, and engraved them in a manner quite his own. They are powerful in effect, cor- rect in drawing, and some of them are very beautiful. Some of his prints are scarce.

Goujon, Jean. French sculptor. He was much employed in the time of Francis I. He was also an architect and medal engraver. He made a medal for Catherine de' Medici which is curious and rare. He perished in the massacre of S. Bartholomew, being shot while on a scaffold carving a rilievo at the Louvre. Many of his works are preserved in different parts of France. In the Musee des Monuments Francais, there are some bas-reliefs, which are good specimens of his style.

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco, born at Fuente de Todos, 1 746 ; died at Bordeaux, 1828. Studied some years in Rome and returned to Madrid, where he attracted the attention of Mengs. He became a favorite in fashionable society, and lived in good style at a fine villa near Madrid. Charles IV. appointed him painter in ordinary, in 1789. He painted pictures of religious subjects, and portraits; and found continual employment among the nobility. But his chief ex- cellence was that of a satirist with the pencil. He maybe called the Hogarth of Spain. He parodied the religious pictures, and painted priests in the form of asses or apes, and was never weary of making the Jeronymite and Franciscan friars ridiculous. He painted with dashing boldness, and as often used a sponge or stick as the brush. He sometimes executed an entire piece with his palette-knife, and put in the delicate touches of sentiment with his thumb. He was


312 GOYA — GRAFF.

skilful in the use of the graver, and published eighty prints which he called Caprichos. These attained great celebrity. They were satirical representations of the Spanish customs of law, physic, the pulpit, the cloister, etc. He was also the author of a series of sketches of the French Invasion, in which he represented in the most exaggerated manner the hanging of citizens, the shooting of prisoners, and sacking of convents. Besides these, he published thirty-three prints of scenes in the Bull-Ring; and etchings of some of the works of Velasquez. In the Gall, of the Queen of Spain are the portraits of Charles IV. and his Queen, by Goya. The National Mus. has a picture of two dark-eyed Spanish ladies, with fans and mantillas ; and the Louvre a full length portrait of the Duchess of Alba.

G-oyen, Jan Van, born at Leyden (1596-1656). The works of this landscape painter are not of great merit, but he is worthy of notice as having introduced a new manner of treating nature among the artists of his country, which was afterwards very generally adopted. His characteristics were truthfulness and a light and easy pencilling.

Gozzoli, Benozzo. Real name Benozzo di Lese di Sandro. A pupil and assistant of Fra Angelico (1 124-1496 ?). Remarkable for the treat amount of work he did. and the number of his pictures re- maining, rather than for wonderful talents. He had an influence upon Umbrian art which adds to his importance. His industry was marvellous, and he excelled in a sort of aptitude which enabled him to seize and apply different ideas and elements collected from the works of various masters. He also possessed a somewhat extravagant fancy. He painted for churches in various cities of Italy, and many of his works remain, but the most important are those in the Campo Santo at Pisa. These were twenty-four in number, and are in good preser- vation, with the exception of two or three. He was occupied sixteen years in this work. The Pisans presented him with a tomb directly under these pictures, where his own works were an appropriate mon- ument. He seems to have had an overpowering sense of beauty. He was the first to represent backgrounds rich with cities, rivers, trees, bold rocks, and cultivated fields. He introduced all kinds of animals wherever he had room. If his scene is interior or architectural, it is of the richest kind, and his color added to the richness, as did also the gilding and embroidery which often exceeded good taste. His smaller works are rare. In the Louvre is a picture of S. Thomas Aquinas; it is the most valuable of his panel paintings. The Acad, of Pisa has two of his works, and the National Gall, two, an en- throned " Virgin and Child," and the ' ; Rape of Helen." It was a custom with this artist to introduce the portraits of his friends into his pictures, and some of them are excellent.

Graff, Anton (1 736-1803). He resided at Augsburg and Dresden, and was one of the best portrait painters of his time. He had an ap-


GRAFF — GRAMMATICA.


313


pointment at court in Dresden, and also worked in Berlin and Leip- sic. He painted many notable persons. Some of his pictures are in the Dresden Gall.

Graat or Grait, Barent or Bernard, born at Amsterdam (1628- 1709). He painted landscapes and garden scenes with family groups. His pictures are pleasing and well-finished. He also painted a few historical pieces.



Grammatica, Antiveduto (1570-1626). A distinguished por- trait painter. He was honored by being elected president of the Acad, of S. Luke, but was afterwards accused of substituting a copy he had made after Raphael for the original work, which he attempted to sell. He was removed from his chair by sanction of the Pope, and did not long survive the disgrace. His copy is now in the ch. of S. Luca, and the original is in the Acad.


3 1 4 GR ANACCI — GREBBER.

Granacci, Francesco, born at Florence (1469-1543). A fellow- pupil with Mi<hael Angelo in the atelier of the Ghirlandai. His fondness for Michael Angelo was great and endured for manv years. In 1489 Lorenzo de' Medici desired to have some pupils trained for sculptors, and consulted Domenico Ghirlandaio upon the subject. Granacci and Michael Angelo were selected by the latter as his best pupils, and placed under instruction. Granacci soon proved himself better fitted for a draughtsman, and was constantly employed by Lorenzo in the festivities with which he was accustomed to amuse the Florentines. He was a good-tempered, congenial man, and always ready to acknowledge and admire superiority in others. He was associated with the best masters of his age. For many years his style showed his devotion to Michael Angelo, and an attempt to imi- tate him; later he studied and imitated Raphael, and sometimes seems also to have Fra Bartolommeo for his model. In 1508, when Michael Angelo sent to Florence for artists to assist him in the Sixtine chapel, Granacci was prominent among those who went to Rome. But the experiment failed, and when the great master was convinced that he could not employ assistants, he locked the doors of the chapel and his house against them, and they returned to Florence. This was severe treatment for an old friend like Granacci, and from that time he ceased to show in his works his allegiance to Michael Angelo. His remaining pictures arc seen in the various Florentine collections, at Berlin, Munich, and in a few English galleries.

Grandi, Ercole, called Ercole da Ferrara, born at Ferrara (1491- 1531). Pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and an unimportant painter.

Grandi, Ercole Roberti. According to Crowe and Cavalcaselle, this Grandi was a pupil of Mantegna, and the painter of the Gar- ganelli frescoes at Bologna, which Vasari says were much praised by Michael Angelo. There are works attributed to him in the Dresden Gall., the Liverpool Institution, and the Gall, of Modena.

Granet, Francois Maurice, born at Aix (17 75-1849). A fine architectural painter. He lived much at Rome. He was a member of the Institute. This is the highest honor for men of culture in France, and but fourteen painters are admitted in the division of the Beaux Arts. His interiors are remarkable for their effects of licjht and shade. He left his lar«e fortune to found an Art Mus. in his native town. One of his pictures is in the Royal Coll. of England, and cost £800 sterling. The " Interior of the ch. of S. Francis, at Assisi," is a fine specimen of his style, and is in the Louvre.

Graziani, Ercole, born at Bologna (1688-1765). A reputable artist, whose assiduity was such that the number of his works was simply prodigious. Many of them remain in the churches and public edifices of Bologna and Piacenza.

Grebber, Pieter de, born at Haerlem (1590-1656?). Pupil of Henry Goltzius. He was older than Rembrandt, but he adopted his



GREBBER — GREENOUGH. 315

style. His works are in the collections of Holland, especially at Haerlem. He left several engravings. An etching of " Christ and the Woman of Samaria " is very spirited.

Greff, Jerome. An engraver of Frankfort who flour- ished about 1520. He copied the wood-cuts of Albert Diirer, and his set after those of that artist of the " Apocalypse of S. John," are very finely executed, and the same size of the originals. He was also called Jerome von Franckfort.

Green, Valentine, born in Warwickshire (1739-1813). An eminent mezzotint engraver. In his line he has rarely been equalled. The number of his works is large, nearly 400. They embrace sub- jects of almost every kind.

Greenough, Horatio, born in Boston, U. S. A. (1805-1852). His taste for the life of a sculptor was apparent while he was still a mere child. He had a fine intellect, and entered Harvard Univer- sity at sixteen. During his college life he was constantly in familiar intercourse with Washington Allston. He went to Italy just before the end of his collegiate course. Before this he had made the plan for the exterior of Bunker Hill Monument which was accepted. He rose rapidly to his place among sculptors. He was the first Ameri- can who executed a group in marble. This was done for our nov- elist, Cooper, and was exhibited in America. It was called the " Chanting Cherubs," and was, no doubt, the means of his receiv- ing the commission for the statue of Washington for the Capitol ; his group called " The Rescue " is also at the Capitol, and is intended to illustrate the struggle between the Anglo-Saxon races and the Aborigines. His fdeal subjects were very beautiful, and speak more fully of the quality of the mind which conceived them than words could possibly do. His " Medora," illustrating Byron's description of the Corsair's bride, is one of his most charming works. He had a favorite greyhound, and a representation of it was for years in the library of Edward Everett, who was his faithful friend and admirer. He lived many years at Florence. In 1851 he returned to America. Enthusiastic for art, a consistent republican politically, a cultured scholar and writer, a large-hearted man and friend, he anticipated a happy life here. But his health soon failed. It was then that he wrote, "lam arrived at that mezzo del cammin, that half-way house, where a man sees, or thinks he sees, both ways. If my head is not white, it is whitening. I begin to love to sit alone — to look upon the skies, the water, and the soft green — the face of the mighty mother ! I feel that she thus sweetly smiles on me, more sweetly than formerly, because she means to call me home to her own bosom. I would not pass away and not leave a sign that I, for one, born by the grace of God in this land, found life a cheerful thing, and not that sad and dreadful task with whose prospect they


316 GREENOUGH — GRIMOU.

scared my youth."' His last summer was spent at Newport, in de- lightful social intercourse with, his family and friends, and there he died, December 18, 1852.

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste, born at Tournus, near Macon (1725- 1805). Pupil of Gromdon. A portrait and genre painter. He especially excelled in painting beautiful women and lovely children. His works now command enormous prices. A " Young Mother and her Children " at Buckingham Pal. is a fine work of his, and the Louvre has several of his most noted pictures. In some respects he was a very able artist, but he was also mannered ; and his most beautiful female heads are affected and sometimes extravagant. His most pleasing subjects are his single heads of young girls and chil- dren. His color is very agreeable, and while he never painted thinly, but with considerable impasto, his works are sometimes as delicately finished as if done on ivory. He painted some male portraits which possess considerable merit.

Grien or Griin. See Baldung.

Griffier, Jean, born at Amsterdam (1656-1720?). Pupil of Roland Rogman, and it is believed also of Philip Wouvermans. He was, however, an imitator of Hermann Saftleven. His works are attractive, picturesque in design, tender in execution, and delicate in finish. Thev may be seen in the Amsterdam Mus., the Dresden Gall., and Berlin Mus. His son, Robert Griffier, was born in Lon- don, where his father resided for some years (1688-1750). His pictures are chiefly Rhine views, and are much esteemed in Holland.

Grimaldi, Gio. Francesco, called II Bolognese, born at Bologna (1606-1680). A disciple of the Carracci. His landscapes are grand and imposing, and sometimes very finely colored; but they are not equal in excellence, nor uniform in style, for some of his works are more like Poussin than like the Carracci; and his figures are some- times classical, and again in the homely style of the Dutch painters. He was of a generous disposition, and the following story is told of him. A Sicilian nobleman, who had been exiled from his country, lived with his daughter, in great poverty, directly opposite to Gri- maldi in Rome. He pitied them and desired to assist them without mortifying their pride. He went therefore after dark and knocked at their door, and when it was opened threw in a well filled purse, and ran away. This he repeated until the nobleman caught him in the act, and overwhelmed him with thanks. Grimaldi then took the exiles to his own house and cared for them many years. A series of Grimaldi' s works is in the Borghese Gall., at Rome, and a good picture by him is in the Berlin Mus. Grimaldi was an en- graver, and left some good etchings, and also many pen drawings, some of which Bartolozzi has engraved.

Grimou, Grimoux, or Grimoud, Alexis, born in the Swiss canton of Friburg (1680-1740). He is said to have instructed himself by


GRIMOU — GU AUDI. 317

making copies after Vandyck and Rembrandt. His own portrait and several other pictures of his are in the Louvre. He excelled in por- traits, and his best pictures are half-lengths of ladies in picturesque costumes. He received much honor in Paris and became very proud of himself. His habits of life were dissolute, and it is said that as he was returning one night from a drunken frolic, he heard a sudden roaring noise and screamed out, " Je suis Grimoux," as if his great name could avert all danger.

Gros, Pierre le, born at Paris (1656-1719). This eminent sculp- tor was first instructed by his father, and gained the grand prize at the Acad, when but twenty years old. He then went to Rome where he soon became so distinguished as to receive important commissions for S. Peter's and other churches. "With the exception of two years spent in Paris, Le Gros resided at Rome for life. His statue of " Si- lence," executed for the gardens of the Tuileries, was much admired; he also executed works for the Hotel Crozat. He was constantly employed at Rome until his death.

Gros, Antoine Jean, born at Paris (1771-1835). A painter of historical subjects. He had great power, but was coarse in exe- cution and design. His picture of " Napoleon visiting the Sick at Jaffa," is disgusting. Some of his works were more delicate, and some of his portrait figures were fine. He was also a successful decorator, and was made a baron by Charles X., as a reward for his painting of the cupola of S. Genevieve. He was so overcome by the criticisms of his works exhibited in 1835 that he drowned himself in the Seine.

Griinewald, Matthew. Nothing is known of this artist, except that he lived at Aschaffenburg, and was much employed by Arch- bishop Albrecht of Mayence. He died about 1530. As a painter he ranks next to Diirer and Holbein among the Germans of his time. The only work positively known to be his is an altar-piece, having six panels, now in the Munich Gall. The figures are colossal, masterlv in drawing, dignified, and individual. His color is harmo- nious and pleasing. There are various other works existing of which parts were executed by this master. One is an altar-piece in the ch. of Our Lady, at Halle; another is a Rosary picture in the Cath. of Bamberg; and in the Coll. of the Prince Consort at Kensington there is an altar-piece with the Virgin and Child in Glory, adored bv SS. Catherine and Barbara.

Gryeff or Griff, Anthony. Flourished about the middle of the 1 7th century. Painter of landscapes with dead game, dogs, etc. Many of his pictures are small, and his works are unequal in excellence, some being very good and others quite inferior.

Guardi, Francesco, born at Venice (1712-1793). Pupil of Ca- naletto. He painted the same class of subjects as his master, and the works of the two are sometimes confounded; but those of Guardi are more sketchy than Canaletto's. They are spirited and life-like.


318 GUARDI — GUERCINO.

have countless figures, gondolas, etc., all of which show a certain ra^o-edness of execution, while his sharp touches of light and bright colors o-ive spirit and sparkling effect. Many of his skies are too sombre to be agreeable.

Guercino. So called from having a squint; real name Gio. Fran- cesco Barbieri. Born at Cento, near Bologna (1590-1666). He may be said to have been largely self-taught. He was faithful to nature, and his works are life-like and brilliant in color, but some- times very heavy in the shadows of the flesh. His earlier works have a power which he afterwards Lost, and his later style is effeminate and shallow. In the Villa Ludovisi at Rome, there is an " Aurora" by him; in the Spada Pal., a picture of the " Last Moments of Dido; " and in the Capitol the famous - S. Petronilla," in which the Saint is being raised from her tomb to be shown to Flaecus, her be- trothed. In°Bologna Gall., a " S. William of Aquitaine," and the 44 Vir<rin appearing to S. Bruno," are remarkable; his works are seen in almost all large European galleries. A small " Dead Christ," in the National Gall., is a specimen of his better style. His works are very numerous, are much esteemed, and command good prices. He also left an immense number of drawings, many of which were engraved by Bartolozzi. He painted 250 large pictures besides his frescoes and numerous smaller works, many of which are in private collections.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER GUERCINO. Engraver, BLOEMAERT, Cornelius. S. Peter raising Tabitha from the Dead: best plate of this master.

Engraver, CARMONA, Emanuel Salvador. Angels appearing to

Magdalene.

Engraver, C un ego, Domenico. The Prodigal Son. Rinaldo and

Arn iid a.

Engraver, DoRlGNY, Sir Nicholas. S. Petronilla.

Engraver, DuNKARTON, Robert. Christ at Emmaus. Four sub- jects from the Life of Joseph.

Engraver, Earlom, Richard. Holy Family. Virgin and Child.

Engraver, Falck, Jeremiah. Concert of Music.

Engraver, Trey, James. Death of S. Petronilla.

Erom his own Designs.

S. Anthony of Padua; half length. Joan Fr. Cent.

S. John; same mark.

S. Peter; Joan F. Barbieri, f.

S. Jerome with a Crucifix; same mark.

Bust of a Man with a Cap and Beard.

Bust of a Woman.

Bust of a Man in Oriental Dress.



8. PETROXILLA. BY GUEUCtNQ.

In the Capitol, Home.


GUERCINO — HAANSBERGEN. 321

Engraver, Lorenzini, Fra Antonio. David with the Head of Goliath. Christ at Emmaus. S. Peter delivered from Prison.

Engraver, Ottaviani, Gio. S. Jerome with a Crucifix. S. Ce- cilia. Angelica and Medora. Mars and Venus. Three Women bathing, surprised by a Young Man. Diana and Actaeon.

Engraver, Pasquilixi or Pascalixi, Gio. Battista. Christ dictat- ing the Gospel to S. John. Resurrection of Lazarus. Christ giving the Keys to S. Peter. Christ taken in the Garden. Angels showing the Instruments of the Passion to the Magdalene. Christ at Em- maus. Incredulity of S. Thomas. The Virgin and Child, with an Angel presenting Fruit. Virgin and Child, with S. John present- ing an Apple. S. Charles Borromeus. S. Felix restoring a Dead Child to Life. Tancred and Erminia. Tithonus and Aurora.

Engraver, Pesxk, Jean. A set of Landscapes; fine.

Engraver, Pitau, Nicholas. The Virgin holding the Child, and Reading. The Dead Christ, with Angels weeping.

Engraver, Pool, Matthew. Cupid taken in a Net by Time.

Engraver, Pozzi, Francesco. The Aurora; F.Pozzi. 1780.

Engraver, Raven et, Simon Francis. Return of the Prodigal.

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo. Two Cupids playing. Another Cupid.

Guerin, Pierre Narcisse, born at Paris (1774-1833). A painter whose style is a literal representation of Greek sculpture in color. His works are devoid of life or motion. " iEneas telling Dido of the fate of Troy," in the Louvre, is a fine specimen of his pictures. He was distinguished by Napoleon I. and Louis XVIIL, and made a baron by Charles X.

Guido. See Reni.

Guillain, Simon (1581-1658). This sculptor executed the statue of Louis XIV. as a boy of ten, now in the Louvre, and those of his parents, also there. Originally they decorated the Pont au Change. Other works by Guillain are in the same Mus.

Gyssens or Ghysells, Peter. There is some uncertainty as to the name and personality of this painter. Some of his works are mis- taken for those of Jan Breughel. It is not improbable that two painters of this name existed, and the younger was a pupil of Breu- ghel. His subjects are dead game, dogs, etc., and often represented on terraces. They are highly finished and bear the closest examina- tion. There are fairs and views on the Rhine attributed to the elder Ghysells, which have numerous figures, and are better painted than the pictures of Breughel.

H.

Haansbergen, Jan Van, born at Utrecht (1642-1705). A painter whose works are rarely seen out of Holland. He painted

21


322 HAANSBERGEN — HALLER.

portraits principally; his other works were small cabinet pictures in the st vie of Poelemburg.

Haarlem, Cornells Van. See Cornelisser.

Haarlem, Deerick Van. See Stuerbout.

Hackaert, Jan, born at Amsterdam about 1636. The landscapes of this artist are very highly esteemed. He excelled in his effect of sunshine, and the representation of it shining through trees was his forte. He failed in figures, and other artists supplied them for him. His mountain views are attractive, but his Dutch views are the best. His works are in the Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Amsterdam gal- leries, and a few good specimens are in England. He also left six etchings, which are much inferior to his paintings in execution and excellence.

Hackert, Jacob Philip, born at Prenzlow (1 737-1807). This ar- tist resided many years at the court of Naples under most fortunate circumstances. He painted many beautiful views of Italian scenery, which are well considered. He used both oil and water colors. His finish is extreme and careful, almost as if his pictures were on ivory. His outlines are very sharp and precise, and'his colors brilliant. His foregrounds have many small objects finished with great labor. These detract from the force of his work. He left a great number of drawings in bistre and sepia.

Hagen, Jan Van der, born at the Hague (1635-1679). The landscape! by this artist have suffered from deterioration of color, caused by Ids use of k- Haarlem blue," which was in vogue in his day- They are well composed. He frequently represented a river in which the houses and trees on the bank were reflected, and men and animals gave animation to the scene. In the new Town Hall of Amsterdam, there is one of his best works, and another is in the Mus. of the same city. Kos. 188 and 189 in the Louvre are also his.

Hainzelmann, Elias, born at Augsburg (1640-1693). An en- graver who studied with Francis Poilly and followed his manner. His portraits are his best plates, and have much merit.

Haldenwang, Christian, born at Durlach (17 79-1831). An emi- nent landscape engraver.

Haller, John, born at Innsbruck (1792-1826). After limited study he entered the Royal Acad, at Munich, where he soon attracted the attention of the Crown Prince Louis to his skill in modelling. In 1817 he received the commission for the colossal statues in the niches on the front of the Glyptothek. He executed also a " Child on a Dolphin " in sandstone, and the caryatides for the Royal box in the Roval Court and National Theatre. He then received the commission for the statuary for the gable end of the Glyptothek. This was to be done in Rome. He went there and first finished two of the figures for the front, made several busts and


HALLER — HAMILTON. 323

a small model for the gable end, but his health compelled him to re- turn home. The theatre had been burned, and he again made the caryatides, several busts of notable men, and three of the figures for the gable, when his health entirely failed, and he died in his thirty- fifth year. He was a sculptor of great promise, and the works which he executed do him much honor.

Hals, Frans, born at Mechlin (1584-1666). Very little is known of the life of this artist, except that it was a merry one, and that he was fond of drinking and good living. It is said that Carl van Mander, the Elder, was his master. His pictures are very unequal. He is really of great importance in the Dutch school, for he was the first to introduce the free, bold treatment which later artists more fully developed. His facility of execution was wonderful. He was much accustomed to paint laughing or grinning faces. These are pleasing in his fancy subjects, but quite the contrary in portraits. His mode of life often exhausted his means, and he painted hurriedly to replenish his purse. He painted large pictures of archers and civic guards. The best of these may be seen at Haerlem, in the Hotel de Ville; and are spirited, energetic, warm in color, and happy in in- dividualism. In an apartment of the " Oude Man Huys," a be- nevolent institution, there are two other fine works of this class. The Munich Gall, has an excellent specimen of his family groups. His single portraits are rare (life-size), and his small, genre like works still more so. The Berlin Mus. has two small portraits. For anecdote of Hals, see Vandvck.

Hamilton, Philip Ferdinand Von, born at Brussels (1664-1750). A descendant of James Hamilton, who, in Cromwell's time, went from Scotland to Germany. Philip Ferdinand was the best painter of the many artists of this name. His subjects were those of the chase. His pictures may be best observed in the Vienna Gall. There is one also in the Gall, of Munich. Johann Georo; Von Hamilton, born at Brussels (1666-1 740). Brother of the preceding. A painter of animals of no great excellence. His pictures ane also at Munich and Vienna.

Hamilton, Gavin, died 1797. Of Scotch descent, he resided manv years in Italv, and is more noticeable for his collections of an- tiquities and his interest in the progress of art, than as a painter. He was a finished scholar. His subjects were classical, and by good attention to costume and proprieties of detail, he attained a respecta- ble place among the artists of his day. He published a very interest- ing work, with the purpose of showing the advancement of art, from the days of Da Vinci to those of the Carracci, with the title of the " Schola Italica Pieturae."

Hamilton, William, born in London, of Scotch parentage (1751- 1801). He resided some years in Rome. After his return to Eng- land, he was engaged largely in the illustration of books. His eolored drawings were very fine.


324 HANNEMAN — HEAD.

Hanneman, Adrian, born at the Hague (1611-1680). He went to England during the reign of Charles I., and became an imitator of Vandyck. There is a portrait of Charles in the Vienna Gall., painted by Hanneman.

Harding, Chester (1792-1866). Born in New England; his family removed to Pennsylvania while he was still a boy. He commenced his artistic career as a sign painter, but rose to the profession of por- trait painting with wonderful rapidity. He went to England, where he received much kindness from Leslie and Lawrence, and painted the portraits of several men of note. His portrait of Daniel Web- ster is much esteemed, as well as other works of his. His life was full of adventure, and he wrote a sketch of it for his children under the title of "My Egotistography. " It has been printed but not published.

Harlow, George Henry, born in London (1787-1819). A good portrait painter. Pupil of Lawrence. He painted some historical subjects of which the most celebrated is the " Trial of Queen Cath- erine," the principal figures being portraits of the Kemble family. When in Rome he made a copy of Raphael's " Transfiguration," in eighteen days. Throu<>h the influence of Canova he was made a member of the Acad, of S. Luke.

Hartmann, Johann Jacob, born in Bohemia. Flourished about 1716. In the Vienna Gall, are four landscapes by him, which repre- sent the Four Seasons.

Haydon, Benjamin Robert, born at Plymouth, England (1786- 1846). This painter had an ambition to be considered the source of progress to the art of his country. He had inordinate vanity, and became disaffected with people and things, so that his life had much of unhappiness. On the other hand he found some appreciative and faithful friends, and from them received great kindness and assist- ance, His principal works were " Dentatus," the "Judgment of Solomon," " Christ's Entry into Jerusalem," the " Raising of Laz- arus," *>' Nero watching the Burning of Rome," the " Banishment of Aristides," etc. Towards the close of his life he was overcome with pecuniary difficulties, and greatly disappointed in not obtaining an order to paint a fresco in the new House of Parliament, and at length, losing all hope, he took his own life in his studio, where he was painting a large picture of " Alfred the Great and the first Eng- lish Jury."

Haymann, Francis, born at Exeter, England (1708-1776). The best works of this artist are his small portraits in genre style. The dress of his period and the antique furniture harmonized and ren- dered his interiors very picturesque. His coloring was clear, not bright, and his finish careful and correct in every part. His per- spective was good and the accessories well managed.

Head, Guy. An English painter whose chief works were copies


HEAD — HEERE. 325

of Italian and German masters. His copies from Rubens are in the Royal Acad. He died in 1 80 1 .

Heaphy, Thomas, died 1835. This artist was so versatile in his talents that he scarcely did his best at anything. He first painted fish-markets and scenes from vulgar life, then portraits, and made many excellent copies of celebrated works of art. He was one of the first members of the old Water-color Society, and active in the Society of British Artists, but gave up his connection with both.

He arne, Thomas (1744-1817). Educated as an engraver under Woollett, he became an excellent draughtsman, and may be called the originator of English water-color landscapes. He was also much employed in the illustration of " The Antiquities of Great Britain." His works are not numerous, and are in private collections.

Heath, James, born 1765. An eminent English engraver, whose works are much esteemed.

Heck, Nicholas van der, born at the Hague (1580-1638). His best works are in the Town House at Alkmaer, in which place he as- sisted to found an Acad. His pictures have a fine effect of chiaro- scuro.

Heda, Willem Klaasz, born at Haarlem (1594-16 78?). A good painter of still-life. One of his works is in the Landauer Bruderhaus at Nuremberg.

Heem, Jan David de, born at Utrecht (1600-1674). The best painter of flowers, fruit, etc., of the school to which he belonged. He also excelled in representing glass or crystal. His works are very valuable. The two finest are in the Berlin and Vienna gal- leries. Others are at the Hague and Amsterdam museums, and in the Louvre. The Dresden and Cassel galleries also have fine pic- tures by De Heem.

Heem, Cornelis de, born 1630. Son of the preceding, he painted the same subjects with almost equal merit. His works are in the Munich, Vienna, and Dresden galleries.

Heere, Lucas de, born at Ghent (1534-1584). His father was a sculptor and architeet, and his mother painted miniatures. Lucas was placed under the instruction of Frans Floris and became profi- cient in making designs for tapestry, glass painting, etc. He was employed by the Queen of France to make designs for the tapestry at Fontainebleau. He visited England, and there is a very curious picture of his at Kensington, which represents Queen Elizabeth richly dressed, with crown, sceptre, and globe, coming out of a palace accompanied by two female attendants. Juno, Venus, and Minerva fly before her. Juno drops her sceptre, Venus her roses, while Cupid throws away his bow and arrows and clings to his mother. De Heere was a poet as well as artist, and it is pi-obable that the following lines, which are upon the frame, were written by him : —


326 HEERE — HELMONT.

Juno potens sceptris, et mentis acumine Pallas, Et roseo Veneris fulget in ore decor; Adfuit Elisabeth: Juno perculsa refugit; Obstupuit Pallas, erub i que Venus.

His small portraits and miniatures were delicate and well painted.

Heil, Daniel van, born at Brussels (1601-1662). He painted landscapes, but changed to the representation of conflagrations, towns on fire, and kindred subjects, in which the brilliancy of effect was surprising. He also painted winter scenes very well. John Baptist Heil was brother to the preceding. Born 1609. He painted history and portraits, and was much employed in the churches of his native Brussels. His portraits were good and many of them re- main in the Low Countries. Leo van Heil, the younger brother of the foregoing, was more of an architect than painter. He etched a plate after Rubens for his own amusement.

Heins, Heinsius, or Ens, Gioseffo, Flourished about 1660 and worked in Venice. He painted capricci which were so admired as to obtain for him the appointment of chevalier of the Order of the Cross from Urban VIII. Some of his works which were brought to England are very curious. He executed a few more serious pictures. An altar-piece by him in the Ognissanti is very beautiful.

Heintsch, Johann Georg. Lived in Prague, died 1713. His heads of Avomen and children are especially beautiful, full of grace, and expressive of purity and sweetness. There are three remarkable works of his in Prague, namely : " Christ Disputing in the Temple," in the Estates Gall.; a standing figure of the Virgin, painted in 1696 for the ch. of the Karlshof ; and " Christ after the Temptation, with Angels ministering to Him," in the Strahow Convent.

Heinz, Joseph (about 1565-1609). Pupil of Van Achen. He was a favorite of the Emperor Rodolph II., who sent him to Rome to study. He thus modified his manner formed under Van Achen, and painted several mythological subjects for the Emperor. Some of his smaller works are better than his larger ones. His pictures are seen to the best advantage in the Vienna Gall.

Helmbrecker, Theodore, born at Haarlem (1624-1694). Pupil of Peter Grebber. He studied in Rome, and only returned to Hol- land for a short time, preferring to live in Rome. His best works are his easel pictures of markets, fairs, and Roman views with groups of poor people, monks distributing food, alms, etc. He was much employed by the Jesuits in Rome, and painted some of his best pic- tures for them.

Helmont, Matthew y an, born at Brussels (1653-1719). Pupil of David Teniers. His subjects were like his master's, fairs, markets, and scenes from peasant life. In the Aremberg Gall, there is a large Fair scene by him, with numerous figures. Louis XIV. admired him very much, and some of his best works were executed for that king.


HELMONT — HERNANDEZ. 327

His son, Segres James van Helmont (1683-1726), painted history. His works are well considered, and are seen in several churches in Brussels.

Heist, Bartholomew Van der, born at Amsterdam (1613-1670). One of the most renowned Dutch portrait painters. Sir Joshua Reynolds said of his picture painted to celebrate the peace of West- phalia, and representing an Archery Festival, " This is perhaps the first picture of portraits in the world, comprehending more of those qualities which make a perfect portrait than any other I have ever seen." His principal works are in the Gall., and the new Hotel de Ville, of Amsterdam. No. 19 7, Louvre, is a small replica of one of his finest works, and is considered superior to the large picture, which is in Amsterdam.

Hemessen, Jan Van (about 1500-1566). A pupil or imitator of Quentin Massys. His pictures have little merit, are vulgar and dis- agreeable in expression, hard in outline, and ugly in color. They mav be seen in the Munich and Vienna galleries.

Hemling, Hans. See Memling.

M Hemskerk, Martin. Real name Martin van Veen.

i Born at Hemskerk (1498-1574). The remaining works of this painter are not numerous, neither are they such as to cause regret of this fact. He attempted to imitate Michael Angelo, but his manner is repulsive, hard, and mannered. At one time his pictures were very popular in Holland, and some still remain at Delft and Haarlem. There is one of his works in the Berlin Mus., and another in the Vienna Gall.

Hemskerk, Egbert. There were two painters by this name, father and son. They painted the same subjects, drunken scenes and drolls, interiors of Dutch ale-houses with boors and the usual accom- paniments. There is some merit in their works, but they have been so much surpassed by Teniers and others, that they are held in small esteem. These artists flourished in the middle of the 1 7th century.

Hendreks, Wybrand, born at Amsterdam (1744-1830). He painted a variety of subjects, but his best works are flower pieces and dead game, resembling those of Weenix. All his pictures have con- siderable merit, and are seen in fine collections. In the Amsterdam Mus. there is a view of Haarlem, by Hehdriks.

Herlen, Frederick, died 1491. This artist is important from the fact that he carried the art of the Van Eyck school into upper Ger- many. He was an imitator, and his works so much resemble those of Rogier van der AVeyden, that it is probable the latter was his master. His chief works are in the churches of Nbrdlingen and llothenburg (on the Tauber).

Hernandez, Gregorio, born at Pontevedra, 1566; died at Valla* dolid, 1636. An eminent sculptor in the reign of Philip III. He never quitted Valladolid after he went there to study, except when


328 HERNANDEZ — HERRERA.

he went to Vittoria to execute a high-altar in the eh. of S. Miguel, and to Plascencia for the same purpose. Bosarte called him the " sculptor of religion." Stirling calls his style tender and graceful, and his works full of devotional feeling, and says, " They seem to have been executed under the influence of the same pious inspiration which warmed the fancy of Juni. and guided the pencil of Factor." Mam' of his works are in the Mus. of Yalladolid, where, of course, they lose much of the effect which they had when in the chapels for which they were designed. Hernandez was devout in character, and accustomed to works of charity, and often provided decent burial for the poor. A large bas-relief of the " Baptism of Christ," now in the Mus., is one of the finest specimens of Spanish sculpture. The last twenty years of his life he passed in the house where Juni had lived. At his death his body was embalmed and buried, according to his will, in the monastery of the Carmen, where, in the principal chapel, his portrait hung many years.

Herp, Gerard van, 1G04. Pupil of Rubens, he painted moderate sized qenre subjects. He was a good draughtsman and colorist. A picture of "Monks distributing Bread," by Van Herp, is in the National Gall., and other works of his are in the Berlin Mus. and Aremberg Gall.

Herrera, Francisco de, the Elder, born at Seville. (1576-1056). Pupil of Luis Fernandez, but he adopted not the style of any other painter; he was original, and probably the most remarkable artist who studied in Andalusia only. lie had no timidity, used large brushes, laid on color in masses, and produced vigorous and effective results. His violent temper drove away his children and pupils. He could engrave on bronze, and made false coins. When his forg- eries were detected, he took refuge with the Jesuits. While in their convent he painted the story of S. Hermengild, one of the patron saints of Seville. When Philip IV. saw it he gave him his liberty. His picture of S. Basil is in the Mus. of Seville, and his " Last Judgment " hangs in its original place in the ch. of S. Ber- nard. In 1650 Herrera went to Madrid and found Velasquez, one of his runaway pupils, in great favor there.

Herrera, Francisco de, the Younger, born at Seville (1622- 1685). Son and pupil of the preceding. He passed six years in Italy and became a very fine painter. He was as ill-tempered as his father, and very jealous. He sometimes painted his name on his pictures on a representation of a piece of paper torn by rats. These Avere intended to represent other artists. At Seville he was appointed director of the Acad, of which Murillo was president. This did not please him. and he went to Madrid. Stirling says he was made Superintendent of Royal Works, but died of chagrin because he was not made painter to Charles II., as he had been to Philip IV. Some of his best works are in the churches and convents of Madrid.


HERRERA — HILTON. 329

He painted flowers, fish, and still-life, and on account of his fondness for reproducing the finny tribes, the Italians called him " 77 Spagnolo de gli PesciV

Hersent, Louis, born at Paris, 1777. His portraits of eminent persons are numerous, and these, as well as his historical and poetical subjects, are seen in the richest French collections. He was a mem- ber of the Institute, of the Royal Acad, of Berlin, and an officer of the Leo-ion of Honor. His wife, whose maiden name was Manduit, was also a food artist. Some of her works are in the galleries of the Luxembourg; and at Fontainebleau.

Heusch, Willem de, born at Utrecht. Died 1712 (?). Pupil of Jan Both, he imitated him almost perfectly. The small figures in his landscapes were usually supplied by other artists. His works are rare in public collections. There is one in the Louvre, one in the Vienna, and one in the Cassel Gall. He also executed thirteen etch- ings, which resemble the works of Both as much as his paintings do.

Heusch, Jacob de, born at Utrecht (1657-1701). Nephew and pupil of the preceding, he was not his equal. One of his works is in the Vienna Gall.

Heyden, Jan van der, born at Govinchem (1637-1712). His pictures are architectural, and represent well-known Dutch build- ings, palaces, churches, etc., or the canals of Dutch towns with houses on their borders. He finished his works with exquisite care. The figures were supplied by Van der Velde and other painters. Smith gives a list of 158 pictures by Van der Heyden, which is a laro-e number when we consider his manner of finish. Manv of his works are in England, but most large European collections have spec- imens of his painting, and all his views are well selected, warm in color, and admirable in arrangement.

Highmore, Joseph, born in London (1692-1780). He was a man of large acquirements, and wrote an excellent work on Perspec- tive. He was more successful in portraits than in historical pictures. His picture of the poet Young is at All Souls College, Oxford.

Hilliard, Nicholas, born at Exeter (1547-1619). He distinguished himself as a miniature painter during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was also a favorite of King James I., who gave him an appoint- ment as drawer of small portraits and embosser of medals.

Hilton, William, born at Lincoln (1786-1839). An English his- torical painter. Unfortunately he used some method of mixing his colors which is fast destroying his works. He save much time to the study of anatomy, and represented such subjects as gave good oppor- tunity for the display of* the human figure, such as the rapes of Proser- pine, Europa, Ganymede, etc. He had much taste in design, and his color was brilliant and harmonious. He became a member of the Royal Acad, in 1819, and keeper of the same in 1827. One of his best works is " Edith discovering the Body of Harold," It is in the Vernon Coll., and is perishing rapidly.


330


HIRE — HOEFXAGEL.


Hire, Laurent de la, born at Paris (1606-1656). Painter of his- torical subjects. Hi.- works are in the Louvre, and (some of the best) in the ch. of the Carmelites at Paris. His pictures are star- tling in the brilliancy of their coloring, and he introduced fragments of fine architectural remains, large plants, and other objects, which added to their effect. His drawing of the figure was correct, and

often graceful.

Hobbema, Mindert. Of the life of this celebrated painter scarcely more can be said than that he was living in 1669. He divides with Ruysdael the honor of being the besl Dutch Landscape painter. His works long remained unappreciated, but now sell for enormous sums, one having brought £4000. Many of his besl works are in England and in private collections. The specimens seen in Continental gal- leries are ordinary, and he cannot be judged by them. One of the besl is in the Berlin Mus. The National and Dulwich galleries have each one of his works. The figures in his picture- were often ex- ecuted by Adrian Van de Yelde. Philip Wouvermans. and other distinguished artists. His color is warmer and more golden than Ruysdael' s, and he is more fond of sunshine. His impasto is solid. His foliage is exquisite, and the representation of a variety of trees o-ives variety of tone. His single trees are less lofty and grand than Ruysdael's, but more individual. He often painted villages sur- rounded with tree-, and water-mills sometimes make a prominent feature. He represented ruined castles rarely; wheat fields, mead- ows, and small pools more frequently. His foregrounds are very fine, and he was able to finish in detail without sacrificing general effect.

Hodges, William, born in London (1 744-1 7!)7). Pupil of Wilson. He accompanied Captain Cook around the world, and lived some time in India. His pictures embrace views in many different coun- tries, and are well selected and picturesque.

Hoeck, Jan van, born at Antwerp (1598-1651). After studying with Rubens he went to Rome ; he then painted much for Ferdinand II. at Vienna, and on his return to Antwerp was principal painter to the Archduke Leopold. His tJ Christ on the Cross. in the Cath. at Bruges, is one of the best pictures in Belgium. He painted both history and portraits, and was a good colorist and correct draughts- man.

Hoecke, Robert van, born at Antwerp, 1609. He painted bat- tles, camps, troops, and military scenes. His pictures are in the Ber- lin and Vienna galleries. He drew well, understood perspective, and had a spirited touch. He also etched a set of plates. These are slightly done, but are skilful and pleasing.

Hoefnagel, Jooris, born at Antwerp (1545-1600). Pupil of Hans Bob whom he much excelled. He travelled much, and made very numerous drawings in different countries. These comprise every possible variety of subject. He decorated manuscripts in the old


HOEFXAGEL — HOGARTH. 331

manner. A Roman missal illuminated by him is in the Imperial Li- brary at Vienna; he labored on it eight years. He also illustrated a book with all kinds of animals, birds, and fishes. One of his single pieces is in the Library at Brussels. His -works are in the spirit of his time, and void of interest in their design, but their exeeution and finish are wonderfully painstaking and skilful.

Hoekgeest, G. or C. Nothing is known of the history of this artist. Two fine pictures of the interior of the new eh. at Delft, painted by him. are in the Mas. at the Hague. They are equal to the best art of his country.

Hoet, Gerard, born at Bommel (1648-1733). He first assisted his father, who was a gla^s painter, then studied with Warnar Van Rvsen. After various ups and downs, he settled in Utrecht, where he founded an academy of design, of which he was director. His pictures are very well esteemed, especially the cabinet sizes. His design is correct and his color agreeable.

Hofland, Thomas Christopher, born in Nottinghamshire (17 77- 1843). An excellent landscape painter. He excelled in depicting stormy skies and seas. It is to be regretted that so few of his works remain.

Hogarth, William, born in London (1G97-1764). The name of this painter is first in the history of British art, and he ranks with the eminent masters of his class in all countries. He was as eminent as a satirist, as he was as an artist, for he presented the lessons tc be drawn from the follies of his time, more powerfully with his brush than any writer could do with his pen, or any preacher with his ser- mons, even had he a thousand voices. In 1712 Hogarth was ap- prenticed to a silversmith, and in engraving armorial bearings, the grotesque creatures he copied assisted to strengthen his natural love and aptness for the ridiculous. After 1718 he was much occupied in eno-ravincr for the booksellers. In 1730 he married the daughter of Sir James Thornhill, without that painter's consent. At that time he painted small genre subjects and portraits. In the latter depart- ment, he was quite successful, but his patrons discovered what he well knew, that he was better fitted for something else. Soon after his marriage, he commenced his famous series of the " Harlot's Prog- ress." When some of these were shown to his father-in-law, he de- clared that a man who could paint such pictures, could maintain a wife who had no portion. They were soon fully reconciled to each other. The ' ; Harlot's Process/' the " Rake's Progress," and " Mar- riage a la Mode " were painted from 1 734 to 1 744. The satire of these works is immense; the costumes are excellent, and the painting good. He managed his interiors well; he gave them breadth, and the furni- ture and other accessories were exactly and strikingly rendered with- out becoming too prominent. His works of this kind are almost numberless. No place in society, no phase of life escaped his brush.


oo


2


HOGARTH.


Lord Orford say?. " It would be suppressing the merits of his heart to consider him only as a promoter of laughter. I think I have shown that his views were more generous and extensive. Mirth colored his pictures, but benevolence designed them. He smiled like Socrates, that men might not be offended at his lectures, and might learn to laugh at their own follies." In 1753 he published a book called " The Analysis of Beauty." It is a matter for congratulation, that many of his works are in public galleries win-re, all the world may see them, and that so many of his own plates exist, by means of which the lover of art can enjoy what the best engravings of his works by



MARRIAGE A LA MODE. BY HOGARTH.

In the National Gall.

other artists can never give. The following list comprises the largest part of his own engravings : —

Portrait of himself, with two figures and two Cupids. 1720.

A print emblematical of the South Sea Bubble; W. Hogarth, inv. et sculp. 1721.

Thirteen plates for Aubrey de la Motraye's Travels in 1 723.

Seven small prints for Apuleius' " Golden Ass." 1724.

Fifteen Head-pieces for Beaver's " Military Punishments of the Ancients."

Burlesque on Kent's Altar-piece in S. Clement's. 1725.

A Masquerade invented for the use of ladies and gentlemen, by the ingenious Mr. Heide£n;er. 1725.

© O©


HOGARTH. 333

A just view of the British Stage. 1725.

Twelve prints for " Hudibras; " large set. 1726.

The small set (17) with Butler's head; this head is that of J. B. Monnoyer, the flower painter.

Mary Tofts, the rabbit woman of Godalmin. 1726.

Rich's triumphant entry into Covent Garden. 1728.

Sarah Malcolm, executed in 1 732 for murder ; W. Hogarth, ad vicum pinxit et sculpsii. This portrait was painted two days before her execution.

A Midnight Modern Conversation. 1733.

Southwark Fair. 1 734.

The Harlot's Progress; six plates. 1733 and 1734.

The Rake's Progress; eight plates. 1735.

The Sleepy Congregation. 1736.

The Distressed Poet. 1736.

The Lecture; datur vacuum. 1736.

The four Times of the Day. 1738.

Strolling Actresses in a Barn. 1738.

The Enraged Musician. 1741.

Marriage a la Mode; engraved under the direction of Hogarth, by Scotin, Ravenet, and Baron. 1745.

Portrait of Martin Folkes, Esq. 1745.

Simon, Lord Lovat; an etching. 1746.

Garrick in the character of Richard III. ; engraved by Hogarth and Grignion. 1746.

The Stage-coach, an Election Procession in the yard. 1747.

Effects of Industry and Idleness; twelve plates. 1 74 7.

The Gate of Calais; « Oh the Roast Beef of Old England ! " By Hogarth and Mosely.

The March to Finchley; L. Sulivan, sc, W. Hogarth, dir. 1748.

Portrait of Hogarth with a pug dog. 1749.

The Stages of Cruelty; four prints. 1751.

Paul before Felix; scratched in manner of Rembrandt. 1 751.

Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter ; Hogarth and Sulivan.

Columbus breaking the Egg. 1 755.

Four prints of an Election; 1755; Hogarth, Grignion, La Cave> and Aveline.

Portrait of Hogarth painting the Comic Muse. 1758.

The Cockpit. 1759.

The Five Orders of Periwio-s. 1761.

Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. 1762.

The Times; two plates. 1762.

John Wilkes, Esq.; drawn from life, and etched by Hogarth. 1763.

The Bruiser; C. Churchill in the character of a Russian Hercules. 1763.

The Good Samaritan.


334 HOGARTH — HOLBEIN.

The Pool of Bethesda. Sigismonda.

The Analysis of Beauty ; two plates.

Hogenberg. This is the name of several engravers who flourished during the last half of the 16th century. It is believed that one of them "executed the first portrait that was engraved in England; but the honor is a matter of dispute between Remigius and Francis Hoo-enbeiv. They all engraved portraits and illustrations for books. The other names were John and Abraham.

Holbein, Hans, called Old Holbein. There is very little known of this painter. In the Mus. at Augsburg, there is a picture dated 1459, inscribed Hans Holben, C. A.; attributed to a painter who was probably the grandfather of Hans Holbein, the Younger. This pic- ture has little interest as a work of art, and represents the Virgin, life-size, seated on a bank, holding the Child. Another work by this same master is dated 1499, and has some interesting facts con- nected with it. In 1484 Pope Innocent Till, granted certain indul- gences to the nuns of S. Catherine, at Augsburg, providing that they should pay their devotions at the altars of the seven ancient basilicas of Rome. But he allowed that pictures of these churches should an- swer the same purpose as the churches themselves. The nuns there- fore, when they rebuilt their convent in 1496, ordered a series of these pictures which were to be so beneficial to them. Old Hans Holbein represented that of S. Maria Maggiore. The picture is of the average excellence of the German artists of the 15th cen- tury. The signature and date arc on two bells; on the first is Hans Holba, the name being finished with in on the second, and the date 1499. In the picture is a tomb-stone, on which is an H. Nothing whatever of circumstance or fact can be related with any certainty of this artist, and many authors have even doubted his existence.

Holbein, Hans, the Father,' born about 1459, and probably the son of Michael Holbein, a leather dresser. There is a panel painting at Hampton Court, dated 1512, called "Holbein's Father and Mother," believed to represent this Hans Holbein the father, and his wife. In the register of taxes for Augsburg, the name of Hans Holbein, Maler, occurs eleven times between 1494 and 1516. The earliest known work by him is a " Madonna and Child with Angels," in the Moritz Capelle,*at Niirnberg. There are three of his pictures in the Augsburg Gall., representing the " Basilica of the Vatican," the " Trinity," and a large picture in three parts containing the " Transfiguration," with the " Feeding of the Four Thousand " on one side, and°the « Casting out a Devil " on the other. His pictures are numerous in many churches and galleries, such as Munich, Frank- fort, Basle, and Schleissheim. But in the Cath. of Augsburg, his ability is displayed at its best in the four works painted in 1493, for the old Abbey of Weingarten, in Wiirtemberg. These have been


HOLBEIN. 335

restored and fitted up with rich, gilt Gothic carvings, and placed over four altars in the body of the Cath. He executed an immense number of pictures for churches and religious houses. When these houses were suppressed, his pictures were scattered, and his serial • works are now separated. In one saloon of the Munich Pinakothek, there are sixteen works on panels, by this Holbein. The date of his death is not known. He was living in 1521, and in 1524 his name was registered among the deceased artists.

Holbein, Sigmand, brother of the preceding, and also an artist. But one painting with his signature is known, although others are assigned to him. He was a bachelor, and Hans Holbein, the Younger, with his sisters, inherited his property. His will was dated in 1540. The time of his death is not known.

Holbein, Ambrose. This artist was either the brother or half- brother of Hans Holbein, the Younger. He was admitted a member of the guild of painters at Basle in 1517, and it is supposed died soon after. Four pictures attributed to him are in the Mus. at Basle. A picture in the Belvedere Gall, is also ascribed to him, and upon some wood-cuts and drawings the monogram of an A. H. is believed to be his.

Y -r^ T~\ T Holbein, Hans, the Younger^

I — rK I ) I born in Augsburg, 1494 or 1495;

died in London, 1543. A drawing of the year 1509 is the earliest known work of this painter. He was instructed by his father and his reputed uncle, Hans Burgk- mair. By the time he was fifteen he received independent com- missions. The Augsburg Gall, has four compositions which are his earliest known works, about 1510. In the same Gall, are pictures extending to 1516 in which his advance is remarkable. The precious picture of his father and mother, dated 1512, has already been referred to. The " Martyrdom of Sebastian," in the Pinakothek at Munich, a very interesting early production, could not have been painted later than 1516. It is a triptych five feet in height and seven in width. The " Execution of S. Sebastian' is the centre picture. The right wing represents " S. Barbara," and the left " S. Elizabeth of Hungarv giving Drink to the Sick. This last is a fine picture and much superior to any work of Hans Holbein, the Father. In the Imhof Coll., in the Mus. at Berlin, are three volumes of the early drawings of this painter, executed from 1509 to 1516. For his early years they are just such an illustration as the Windsor portfolios are of his later time. About 1516 he removed to Basle. The works which have been ascribed to him in that city are innumerable. In truth, almost everything which was painted there has been, first or last, credited to him, and it is only at a comparatively recent time that his works have been separated from the mass. In England, too, for a time, nearly every portrait of the reign of Henry VIII. was


336 HOLBEIN.

attributed to Holbein. In 1517 he was called to Lucerne to decorate a house which was still in existence in 1824. The library of

ml

Lucerne has sketches of all the compositions painted there. He also executed works for the Augustines of Lucerne and for the parish church in Altorf. He entered the guild of painters and took up the rights of citizenship at Basle, in 1519. It was in this year that Charles V. became Emperor of Germany, and that Hol- bein formed his friendship with Boniface Amerbach. Holbein's portrait of the latter, dated this year, is one of his very best ; and his very remarkable picture, now at Lisbon in the Pal. of the King of Portugal, called the " Fountain of Life," was also painted in 1519. In 1521 Hans Holbein was commissioned by a council of Basle to decorate the new Rath-house or Town Hall. These works, which represented historical and Scriptural scenes, have been de- stroyed, and the Mus. of Basle possesses very insignificant fragments. The easel pictures which he painted at Basle are rare, and it is a reasonable supposition that at this time he was often employed as a house-decorator and a designer for stained glass and silver work ; indeed, designs for these various styles of work are preserved in the museum. His more prominent pictures of this time are Jacob Meier and his wife, 1516; " Adam and Eve," 1517; portrait of Dr. Amerbach, 1519; one of John Froben, the printer; one of the cele- brated Erasmus; a life-size picture of " Christ lying in the Tomb," 1521; the very remarkable portraits of his wife and two children, 1525 or 152G; and an exquisite portrait of himself, a drawing in body-color, painted when he was twenty-one. The years 1523 and 1524 are not accounted for. He probably made many drawings for stained glass, and prepared drawings for wood-cuts. In the hall of designs, at Basle, there are ten sets of drawings for the " Passion of our Lord." His preparation for the " Dance of Death " must also have occupied much time. Among his friends at Basle, Froben, the printer, and the celebrated Erasmus deserve especial mention. The former employed him somewhat for book illustrations, and he made various portraits of both. That of Erasmus writing, at Hampton Court, was a fine work. The one of most reputation is at Longford Castle in Wiltshire. One at Windsor was painted in 1537, and it is said that in 1525, the year in which Luther married the nun, Cather- ine Bohra, Holbein painted both these remarkable characters. But this needs confirmation. The character of Holbein has been repre- sented in a most unfavorable light. That he was a drunkard, the number and quality of his works seem sufficiently to contradict. The prominent remaining charge against him is his separation from his wife. He married Elizabeth Schmid, a widow, with one son named Franz. The picture called " Holbein's Wife and Children," already mentioned, probably represents Franz, and Philip, the son of Holbein. The mother is a coarse-looking, unattractive, middle-aged


HOLBEIN.


337


woman, temper.


It is said that Holbein was driven from Basle by his wife's He occasionally visited her, and probably contributed to



THE BURGOMASTER MEIER MADONNA. BY HOLBEIX.

Dresden Gall. I

her support at all times. The Meier Madonna, in the Dresden Gall., commonly considered the masterpiece of Holbein, is believed to

22


338 HOLBEIN.

have been painted a short time before lie went to England. Hol- bein has been considered as the painter of the "Dance of Death," both at Basle and Berne. The true authors of these pictures are now known to have been Kluber and Nicholas Manuel, but it is believed that Holbein made a set of designs for engravings of this subject, which appear to have been first published at Lyons in 1538, although they must have been prepared much earlier. There were forty-one cuts in all. His Old Testament cuts appeared at the same time with the "Dance of Death." These are all assigned to the time when he was in Basle, on account of the leisure he is known to have had. Want of employment is the only reason Erasmus gave for his going to England. He arrived thereat the close of 1526,

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bearino- a letter of introduction from Erasmus to Sir Thomas More, who at once received him with kindness. The principal painter in England at that time was Luke Hornebolt, who persuaded Holbein to take up miniature painting. 1527 was the year in which Henry Vni. fell in love with Anne Boleyn. This was the first year of Holbein's occupation in England, but he does not appear to have entered the King's service until after 1530. In the mean time he painted Sir Thomas More's family and friends, among whom were Archbishop Warham and Sir Henry Gilford, both fine and important pictures. In 1528 he painted Sir Thomas and John Godsalve, on the same panel, now at Dresden; and the astronomer Kratzer, sur- rounded by his instruments, now in the Louvre. It is not probable that Holbein ever painted Queen Catherine or Cardinal Wolsey. The pictures of More and his family are very numerous. The most imposing one of Sir Thomas is that formerly owned by Mr. Farrer. There is a story connected with one of these portraits of More which relates that on the day of the death of the ex-chancellor, after Henry VIII. had reproached Anne Boleyn, who had never for- given More for refusing to be present at her wedding, she looked at this picture and exclaimed, " Oh, me! the man seems to be still alive ! " and, seizing it, threw it into the street. Eventually it was taken to Rome and was in the Palazzo de' Crescenzi. Wornum says of this, "Though it may not be true, it is not a bad story." Hol- bein returned to Basle in 1530, and completed the frescoes in the Town House. This being done he returned to England. When or Iioav he was first introduced to the King is not exactly known. The superb portrait of George Gyzen, at Berlin, was painted in 1532. In Buskin's description of this picture he calls it inexhaustible. For the merchants of the steel-yard Holbein executed two pictures called " Riches " and " Poverty." These were probably painted in 1532, and perished at Whitehall in 1698; but in the British Mus. there is a tfrawing, considered the original of the " Riches," and both pictures are known by plates. In 1532 Holbein was summoned to Basle by a council of the city. He received this communication,


HOLBEIN. 339

it is believed, when at Calais with the court on the occasion of the celebrated meeting called the Field of the Cloth of Gold. After 1533 Holbein rarely- dated his pictures, and there is no authentic portrait by him of Anne Boleyn or her daughter, the Princess Eliza- beth. To this year belongs the picture called the " Two Ambassa- dors," supposed to represent Sir Thomas Wyatt and some learned friend. They are standing by the side of a double table, one in a magnificent dress, the other in a doctor's cap and mornino-o-own. It is not his most refined picture, but the largest, and that on which he labored most. In 1536 the fine portrait of Sir Richard Southwell, in the Ufhzi Gall., was painted. The portrait called Jane Seymour, in the Belvedere Gall, at Vienna, is one of the fine, small half- lengths that Holbein often executed. The picture of Mr. Morett, in the Dresden Gall., has until lately been attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. It is, in truth, one of the finest of Holbein's works. It is not known whom it represents. Thomas Morett was a distinguished jeweller who served Henry VIII. , and was a friend of Holbein, who often worked con amove. The original drawing of this picture was discovered in 1860, and is now hung beside the picture. The first payment made to Holbein as in the service of the King occurred in 1538. After this time Holbein painted many portraits of the Royal family. In the same year he was sent to Brussels for the purpose of painting a portrait of the Duchess of Milan, whom the King had been recommended to make his fourth wife. Her ladyship allowed him a sitting of three hours, in which he made a sketch which has been thought to be a small panel, with the head and hands of the Duchess, now at Windsor. According to the laws of Basle a citizen could not enter the service of a foreign sovereign without the con- sent of the council. In the autumn of 1538 he visited his home and obtained permission for two years longer residence in England. Great exertions were made in Basle to retain him there, but at length a document was made out permitting him to remain two years longer in England, upon the condition that at the end of that* time he should settle in Basle, and should receive a pension for life of fifty florins a year. Just as the two years expired his uncle Sig- mund died and left him property in Berne, and this was taken pos- session of by Franz Schmid in behalf of his mother. After this time there was no motive for Holbein to return to Basle; but the official document prepared and addressed by the council of that city to Henry VIII. , is most complimentary to the artist, and such an one as could scarcely have been written for a man of immoral char- acter. The King became very fond of Holbein and treafed him with much generosity. After 1537 he had a painting-room in the Pal. at Whitehall. In 1539 he was sent to the Duchy of Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne, daughter of the Duke, who was married to the King in 1540. It is believed that Holbein flattered this picture, for


340 • HOLBEIN.

when the King came to see the lady he liked the picture much better than the original, from whom he was divorced immediately after marriage. Walpole went so far as to say that "Holbein, by practising the common flattery of his profession, was the immediate cause of the destruction of that great subject (meaning Cromwell), and of the disgrace that fell on the Princess herself." The half-

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length picture of Anne, in the Louvre, is a homely face, but an agreeable one; and the fact of its being on parchment has induced many to believe that it is the original picture, taken by Holbein during the marriage negotiation. Among the other important pic- tures painted by Holbein are the portraits of the Duke of Nor- folk; Sir Anthony Denny ; and numerous pictures of Henry VIII. , and his family in groups, portraits, and miniatures. There also remain various drawings of ornamental designs, among which that for the Jane Seymour cut is important. One of his last works was the portraits of the barber-surgeons, which represents the King granting a new charter to that society. On the 7th of October, 1543, Holbein hastily prepared his will, on account of the plague which was raging. lie died between the 7th of October and the 29th of November

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of the same year, but of the circumstances of his death or burial noth- ing is known. There is an anecdote that at one time, when Holbein passed through Strasburg, he visited a distinguished painter without making himself known. He went next day when the artist was out, and painted a fly upon the picture on the easel. When the master returned he noticed the fly, and attempted to drive it away. He found he could not do so, and when, on inquiry, he learned who had been there, he sought Holbein all through the city ; but he had already left for England. "When he was painting at Whitehall there came to his studio one day a nobleman who forced himself into the room, although the artist told him that he was engaged in

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painting the portrait of a lady for the King. Holbein was so angry that he seized the man and threw him down-stairs. Without waiting

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to see what had happened, he rushed to the King and confessed what he had done. The King bade him wait in his apartment until he learned more of the matter. Almost immediately the nobleman was brought in on a chair, much injured in body and temper. He com- plained bitterly to the King, who made light of the matter, when the nobleman lost his temper and threatened to take the law into his own hands. This roused the anger of the King, who exclaimed, " Now you have no longer to deal with Holbein, but with me, the King. Do you think this man is of so little consideration with us ? I tell you, m^ lord, that out of seven peasants I can, if I please, any dav make seven earls; but out of seven earls I could not make one such artist as Hans Holbein." The Earl besought his pardon, and the King warned him that if he attempted any violence on the painter, either himself or through others, he would treat it as an


HOLBEIN — HOLLAR. 341

offence against his own royal person. As an engraver on wood Holbein deserves especial notice. Before leaving Switzerland he was employed by the most celebrated publishers of his time in Basle Zurich, Levden, and Lycns. His wood-cuts of the " Dance of

ml 7 J

Death" are his most important works. When complete, there are fifty-three prints ; but it is rare to find more than forty-six. They are small, upright pictures, surrounded by a border. His Old Tes- tament prints numbered ninety, and the best impression - of them was published in 1539 at Lyons, by the brothers Treschel. These two series have been often reproduced. That engraved by Hollar in 1789 is finely executed. That by Dance, in 1833, is also excellent. Holbein also made wood-cuts for a catechism executed in 1548. This work is extraordinary and rare. It was republished at London in 1829. The " Pastime of the People, or the Chronicles of Divers Realms, and most especially of the Realm of England," printed first in 1529, was republished by Dibden in 1811. Very few copies exist. In an illus- tration of the Revelation of St. John, published by T. Wolff in 1523, twenty-one wood-cuts of the Apocalypse are attributed to Holbein. A celebrated wood-cut of an upright figure, under a decorated gate, called Erasmus of Rotterdam, has been more recently printed ; for the copper still exists. In the first and second impressions there were Latin inscriptions which have been omitted more recently. His " Moriae Encomium " has been frequently printed. It consists of plates after his humorous drawings, and is by no means among his best produc- tions. There are also many title-pages, symbolical alphabets, etc.; and the following portraits : —

Prince Henry Frederick; full length.

Thomas Egerton, Viscount Bracklev, Lord Chancellor.

Sir John Hay ward, Kt., LL. D.

Martin Billincrslev, writing master.

Giovanni Floris, Italian master to Anne of Denmark.

Michael Drayton; prefixed to his works.

Holland. See Dance.

f^r-— Hollar, Wenceslaus, born at Prague (1607-

•k-sjT) / VV_// 16 7 7). This eminent engraver was the pupil VV7 , LJAaAj of Matthew Merian. In 1636 the Earl of Arundel met Hollar in Cologne, and considered his talents so re- markable that he eno;aa;ed his services, and took him to England, where he made many plates, a large number being from the pictures in the Arundel Coll. On the breaking out of the civil war of 1645, the Earl removed to Antwerp, and thither Hollar also went and con- tinued to engrave from the pictures of his patron. The Earl went to Italy, and Hollar worked for the booksellers, but his pay was so small that he ventured to return to England in 1652. Charles II. was restored at length, and he hoped for better days, but the plague broke out, and he was reduced to great misery. He was afterwards


342 HOLLAR — HONTHORST.

sent by the king to make drawings of Tangier, but his pay was only £100. He died in the depths of poverty; the bailiffs even went to take his bed, but he begged them to leave it until he eould die, which was not long. His prints number nearly 2400. They are very much sought by collectors and are very dear, especially some which are scarce. The prices given for these are enormous. His portraits and landscapes are very fine, as are also his costumes of women, furs, shells, insects, etc.

Holloway, Thomas (1748-1827). An English engraver, princi- pally known for his engravings after the cartoons of Raphael. Their execution is very elaborate, but connoisseurs prefer the freer manner of Dorigny. He engraved much for books and magazines.

Hondekoeter, Melchior, born at Utrecht (1636-1695). He was descended from a noble family, his great-grandfather being Marquis of Waterloo. Giles Hondekoeter, Ms grandfather, and Gisbert, his father, were both artists. Melchior received his first instruction from his father, after whose death he studied with Jan Weenix, his uncle. He painted birds and animals, alive and dead. His live birds are his best works, and are very excellent. His drawing is good, and he is true to life. It is said that he had a fine cock so well trained that he would keep any position his master wished, long enouirh to be painted. His pictures are in the Louvre, and all the laro-e German naileries. The Amsterdam Mus. has nine, and that of the Hague has four.

Hondius, Abraham, born at Rotterdam (1638-1695). He lived many years in England. His favorite subjects were dogs. He ac- quired a good reputation, but his pictures are open to grave criti- cism. His drawing is incorrect and his color not pleasing. His very rare etchings do him more honor as an artist than his pictures. There are ten of these.

Honthorst, Gerard, born at Utrecht (1592-1662). Pupil of Abraham Bloemaert. He went to Rome, and acquired the manner of Caravaoroio. His pictures found favor in Rome and on account of his fondness for painting night scenes he was called Gherardo dalle Notti. After his return to Holland he opened a school which was well attended, and his reputation having reached Charles I., that king invited him to England. He only remained six months, but during that time painted several historical pictures. He was also hon- orably employed by the King of Denmark and the Prince of Orange. In his later years he painted many portraits. His wonderful facility in the use of the brush enabled him to execute a large number of works, and these are seen at the Louvre, in Munich Gall., at the new Hotel de Ville of Amsterdam, Berlin Mus., etc. They embrace sub- jects from sacred and profane history, mythology, allegory, and genre

designs.

Honthorst, Willem. Flourished in the middle of the 1 7th cen-


HONTHORST — HORREMANS. 343

turv. Brother of Gerard. Many of his portraits are in the Prussian roval residences, and resemble the works of his brother.

Hoogh, Peter de. Nothing is known of the history of this painter. His works are dated from 1658 to 1670. He painted interiors and conversations, and was remarkable for his effects of sunshine; in fact, he may be considered the painter of full, clear sunlight. He often represented two rooms, the figures being in the first, and the second full of sun; even the dust in the air can almost be seen. In this no other master approaches him. His impasto is excellent, and his touch very delicate. His out-of-door scenes arc usually in a court-yard or garden, and are very picturesque. About 100 pictures are known by this master, and many of these are in private collections in England. The Louvre, Amsterdam, and Munich galleries have specimens, as have also the Yan der Hoop Coll., at Amsterdam, and the Landauer Bruderhaus at Nuremberg.

Hooghe, Romeyn de, born at the Hague about 1638. An en- graver of some merit. He left a considerable number of works, some of which are in good estimation.

Hoogstraeten. There were three painters of this name. The father, Theodore or Dirk, painted landscapes and still-life. The sons, Samuel and John, painted a variety of subjects. Samuel was the most noted, and was born at Dort (1627-1678). He painted genre subjects, marine views, animals, and still-life. His touch was deli- cate, his color clear and agreeable, and he painted with great care- fulness. The Vienna and Hague galleries have attractive works by this master.

Hopfer, David, Jerome, and Lambert. Three engravers of Nuremberg: who flourished about the middle of the 1 6th centurv. They signed their plates with a hop-blossom between the initials (for their name means hop-plant), and this was mistaken for a candle- stick by some, and they were called the Masters of the Candlestick. Their plates are stiff and of no great merit, but some of them are prized on account of their rarity.

Hoppner, John, born in London (1759-1810). A fine colorist and portrait painter. He also painted a few fancy subjects, of which the " Sleeping Nymph " was one of the best. His state portraits were especially good, as he gave great richness to the robes, and man- aged them well. He loved to represent his lady sitters in rustic cos- tumes. His landscape backgrounds are fine, and he was accustomed to employ his leisure in making chalk sketches, which were very beautiful.

Horremans, John. There were two artists by this name, father and son. Both died in 1759. They painted similar subjects, con- versation pieces. The characters in the pictures of the father were usually peasants, while those of the son were from the higher walks of life. Their works sometimes suggest a thought of Hogarth. They


344


HORREMANS — HOUBRAKEN.


are not uncommon in England, and are in the Antwerp Mus., and the Cassel and Dresden galleries.

Hoskius, John. The name of a father and son, both miniaturists of the reign of Charles I. The works of the father are very ex- quisite, those of the son not as fine. The father used a monogram, the son the simple initials J. H. The father died 1664.



Houbraken, Arnold, born at Dort, 1660. He painted portraits and small historical subjects, and wrote a biographical account of the Dutch artists. He also made some etchings, but is more celebrated as the father of the succeeding artist, than for his pictures.

Houbraken, Jacob, born at Dort, 1698. This eminent engraver especially excelled in portraits, of which he made a great number.


HOUBRAKEN — HUCHTENBURGH. 34o

His plates are not all of the same excellence, but some of them have not been surpassed. His drawing is correct, and his execution deli- cate, while his stroke is bold, and his color brilliant.

Houdon, Jean Antoine, born at Versailles (1741-1828). At the age of eighteen, he gained the grand prize for sculpture, in the French Acad., and went to Rome, where he remained ten years. He was invited to America by Franklin, and executed the statue of Washington and the bust of Lafayette, for the Capitol at Richmond, Virginia. His statues of young girls were very much admired. For the use of the French Acad., he made two representations of the human frame without the skin, which showed great knowledge of anatomy. His principal works were a statue of "Morpheus;" a "Diana," for the Empress of Russia; statue of Voltaire, for the peristyle of the French theatre; busts of Rousseau, D'Alembertj Marshal Ney, Xapoleon, Josephine, and others, and a statue of Cicero.

Houston, Richard. This engraver excelled in mezzotint, and in the chalk manner. He executed a large number of portraits and various other subjects, many of which are much esteemed.

Howard, Henry, born in London (1769-1847). A painter of portraits and fancy or historical subjects, which were all highly poetic. After studying in Italy, and visiting Vienna and Dresden, he settled in London. He became Professor of the Royal Acad, in 1833; and delivered very excellent lectures there. Most of his fancy subjects are in private collections.

Huber, John Rodolph, born at Basle (1668-1748). He studied in Italy, and became a painter of considerable merit. In 1696 he re- ceived the appointment of court painter to the Duke of Wlirtemberg. He painted some historical subjects and some ornamental pictures for the palace, but was chiefly employed on portraits, of which he painted so many that he was called the Tintoretto of Switzerland.

Huchtenburgh, Joon Van, born at

"L-lD T VT-R Haarlem (1646-1733). He studied under

J *~~^ Jan Wyck, then went to Rome, and re-

turning, stopped in Paris and received instructions from Van der Meulen. He painted landscapes, hunts, and battle-pieces. The latter were his best works. About 1708 he received commissions from Prince Eugene, and an excellent picture of that Prince on horseback is in the Hauue Gall. Others are in the Louvre and Amsterdam Mus. His chef-d'oeuvre, the li Siege of Naniur," is in the Vienna Gall. He had good inventive powers, drew correctly,' and had facility of execution, but his color was not equal to his other qualities. He also etched a great number of plates from his own de- signs, and those of Van der Meulen. which have considerable merit. He scraped a few plates in mezzotint, of which it is now difficult to obtain a good impression.


346 HUDSON — IMOLA.

Hudson, Thomas, born in Devonshire (1701-1779). A pupil of Richardson, and the master of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who so much eclipsed him, as to almost make us forget that Hudson was, after all, a very good portrait painter, and in some respects invented the style which Reynolds and Gainsborough perfected.

Huysmans," Cornells, born at Antwerp (1648-1727). Pupil of Artois, and sometimes called Huysmans of Mechlin, because he settled there. His landscapes are very excellent, and are prized in the large European galleries, where they may be seen.

Huysmans, James, born at Antwerp (1656-1696). A good por- trait painter. He went to England in the reign of Charles II., and was much patronized. His portraits resemble those of Lely.

Huysum, Van. There Avere five painters of this name, a father and four sons; but of these, one alone merits special notice: Jan Van Huysum, born at Amsterdam (1682-1749). He excelled as a flower and fruit painter. In these pictures he introduced antique vases, ornamented with nymphs, amorini, etc., exquisitely finished. Sometimes also birds' nests with insects and dew-drops, all equally well done. His works are in many public and private collections, and are very valuable. He also left a large coll. of fine drawings.

I.

Ibbetson, Julius Caesar, born in Yorkshire; died 1817. A painter of landscapes. Some of his mountain views are his best works. His farm-house scenes are also good, and he succeeded par- ticularly well in painting pigs; and by some is thought to excel Mor- land in these animals. Ibbetson also painted a few small full-length portraits. Most of his works are of moderate size.

Ictinus. This Grecian architect designed the temple of Athene, called the Parthenon, built upon the Acropolis of Athens, and the temple of Apollo Epicurius, near Phigalia, in Arcadia. He was a contemporary of Pericles, and the Parthenon was finished 438 u. c. Ictinus was also the architect of the shrine at Eleusis, within which the mysteries were celebrated. All these buildings were of Doric architecture, and the latter was so planned as to accommodate a vast

number of persons.

Imbert, Joseph Gabriel, born at Marseilles (1666-1749). Pupil of Charles le Brim and Van der Meulen. At the age of thirty-four he became a Carthusian monk, and his best works were painted for his order; especially for his own monastery at Villeneuve d' Avignon. In the Carthusian eh,, at Marseilles, there is an altar-piece by him, which has been much admired, and is esteemed his chef-d'oeuvre.

Imola, Innocenzo Francucci da, born at Imola (1494-1549?). Pupil of Francia. He became an admirer and imitator of Raphael; indeed, he copied whole figures from the works of that master into


IMOLA — JAMESONE. 347

his own. His works are in many galleries. The most important are at Bologna, and in the Cath. of Faenza.

Ingham, C. C, born at Dublin, 1796. Before coming to America, at the age of twenty-one, he had gained a prize from the Dublin Acad. His pictures were finished with exquisite care, which some- times lessened their spirit and truthfulness. He was very industrious, and scarcely lost an hour of daylight. He was one of the founders of the present National Acad, of Design.

Inman, Henry, born at Utica, N. Y. (1801-1846). Pupil of Jar- vis. He possessed a fine mind, and refined and scholarly tastes. As a friend he was much beloved, and as a man much admired. In his pictures he was somewhat unequal, and when we regard his genre subjects, we feel that he never did the best of wtich he was capa- ble, and can but regret that he did not devote himself to that class of pictures. His portraits were very much admired at one time, and his income was good; but his health failed, he met with some reverses, was absent in England for a time, and returned to find himself out of fashion, and his place filled by others. He painted portraits of various notable persons, some of which are in the Boston Athenaeum, Independence Hall. Philadelphia, City Hall, New York, and the Capitol at Albany. His genre pictures are in private collections and embrace a variety of subjects, such as the " Boyhood of Washington," the " Newsboy," the "Awaking of Rip Van Winkle," " Mumble- the-Peg," etc., etc.

Iriarte, Ignacio de, born at Azcoitia, 1620; died at Seville, 1685. Pupil of the Elder Herrera, and the friend of Murillo. He became the most celebrated landscape painter of Andalusia. Murillo was ac- customed to say that he painted by inspiration, and they sometimes engaged in joint works, Iriarte painting the background, and Mu- rillo the figures. At length thev disagreed about a series of pictures of the Life of David. Each insisted that he should do his work last, and Murillo finally decided to paint all himself. The works of Iriarte are rare, and much esteemed. He has been called the Spanish Claude Lorraine, but his subjects were more akin to those of Salvator Rosa. He loved to paint the wilderness, wild glens, and tumbling mountain streams. The Roval Gall, at Madrid has three, and the National Mus. one of his pictures. The Louvre has two flower pieces, and a picture of " Jacob's Dream." At S. Petersburg, in the Hermitage, there is a landscape.

J.

Jamesone, George, born at Aberdeen (1586-1644). He was a fellow-pupil with Vandyck under Rubens, and has been called the Vandvck of Scotland. In 1633 Charles I. visited Edinburgh, and sat for his portrait to Jamesone, with whom he was so much pleased,


348 JAMESONE — JARENUS.

that he presented him with a ring from his own finger. His best pictures are highly esteemed, and are executed with much delicacy.

Janet, Francois. See Clouet.

Jansen, Cornelius. Some writers say he was born at Amsterdam, but according to Sandrart, London was his birthplace, and his par- ents were Flemish (1590-1665). He lived in England many years, and was very successful as a portrait painter. His feeling for nature was refined, his color warm and tender, and his composition graceful. Many of his works are in the galleries of England. In 1648 he went to Holland, where he was constantly employed until his death. Many of his pictures are painted on board.

Jansens, Abraham, born at Antwerp (15G7-1631 ?). Pupil of Jan Snellinek; he also visited Italy. He somewhat resembled Ru- bens in style, but it has been proved that there is no foundation for the accounts which have been given of the enmity between these two masters, or of the dissipation of Jansens. The latter excelled in rep- resenting artificial lights, and some of his torchlight subjects are very fine. His works are seen in the churches of Flanders, and there are fine specimens in the Antwerp and Vienna galleries.

Janssens, Victor Honorius, born at Brussels (1664-1739). This artist painted a variety of subjects, but is best known by his conver- sations, or collections of gallants and ladies, in the peculiar costumes of his time. He was a good colorist, and his rich dresses and dra- peries are very effective. It is a peculiarity of his works that his figures have the appearance of being very tall. He also executed several altar-pieces for the churches of Brussels and other cities.

Jardin, Karel du, born at Amsterdam (1625-1678). The best pupil of Bcrchem, but more nearly resembling Paul Potter in style. He went when quite young to Rome, and became so fond of Italy that with the exception of eight years, he spent the remainder of his life there. His portraits are better than those of his master; his Scriptural and mythological subjects cannot be admired; but his land- scapes with animals and figures are excellent. Many of his works are very highly finished, and worked up in the smallest details. He represented a summer sky after a storm with remarkable skill, and indeed, the skies of his pictures form one of his chief points of ex- cellence. The number of his works is not large; 145 are mentioned by Smith. He lost much time in his devotion to pleasure. His works are best seen at the Louvre, the Hague, and in Amsterdam. There are also excellent specimens at Dresden, Munich, and Cassel, and England is rich in his paintings. Very large prices are paid for the pictures of Du Jardin. He also executed 52 etchings, which show the hand of a master. These are not very rare, and represent landscapes and animals.

Jarenus. This painter flourished late in the 15th century, at Soest in Westphalia. There is a picture of his in the Coll. of the


JAREXUS — JOANES. 349

Earl of Pembroke at Wilton House, and a large altar-piece by him is in the Berlin Mus. The centre of this is very confused, and rep- resents scenes from the Passion; each of the wines contains four scenes from the Life of Christ: those in the left wino- are much the best, and resemble the works of Van Eyck.

Jarvis, John Wesley, born at South Shields on the Tyne (1 780- 1840). This artist was at one time a very prominent portrait painter in America, to which country he came when five years old. He was of a convivial disposition, witty, and an especially good story- teller. He did not study or apply himself to his profession with any system, and the pictures he left are very unequal in merit. He painted a great number, and they may be seen in all parts of the country. There are portraits Joy him in the City Hall in New York, and in the rooms of the New York Historical Society. He was an in- imitable story-teller, and the life of the .circle in which he moved.

Jeaurat, Edme, born at Paris about 1680. This eminent enoraver especially excelled in representing the peculiar characteristics of the different painters whose works he engraved.

Ct Jegher, Christopher, born about 1590. Rubens em-

1 ployed him to make wood-cuts from some designs which oo e = n =^ he intended to publish. After the death of the painter, Jegher purchased the blocks and published them himself.

Jervas, Charles, born in Ireland. Died 1739. Pupil of Sir God- frey Kneller and teacher of Pope, who flattered him in an essay. He was a portrait painter of no great merit, but was much employed. He also copied the works of the Italian masters.

Joanes, Vicente de, called also Juan Bautista de Juanes. Born at Fuente de Higuera, 1523; died at Bocairente, 1579. This artist is scarcely known out of Spain, and there his works are in churches and convents. As recently as 1782 it was doubtful if any of his pic- tures were in the possession of laymen. His subjects were entirely religious, and he commenced his pictures with prayer and fasting. It is more than probable that he studied in Rome. He was a success- ful imitator of Raphael. He established a school of painting at Valencia, where he chiefly resided. It is related that the Virgin ap- peared to a Jesuit of Valencia and commanded him to have a pic- ture painted of her in the dress in which she appeared, which was a white robe and blue mantle. She was to be standing on a crescent; the mystic dove to float above her; her Son to crown her, while the Father was seen to lean from the clouds above all. Joanes was chosen to execute this miraculous commission, and although he fasted and prayed much, he could not succeed in realizing the ideal of the pious Jesuit; but at last his zeal and piety overcame all diffi- culties, and his picture was placed above the altar of the Immaculate Conception in the convent of the Jesuits. Artists praised it, and the monks believed in its miraculous powers. It was known as " LaPu-


350 JOANES — JORDAEXS.

risima." He was inventive, and his coloring was splendid, but his stvle was severe and stiff, like his character. Joanes especially ex- celled in painting the Saviour. He seemed to have conceived the verv Christ of Scripture, the realization of the visions of S. John, or the poetry of Solomon. In these pictures majesty and grace, strength and love, were united. His best pictures of Christ represent Him as dispensing the types of his body and blood. He frequently introduced a cup. which was believed to have been that used by our Lord at his Last Supper. It was of agate, and adorned with gold and gems. This cup is known as the Holy Chalice of Valencia, where it is treas- ured in the Cath. A picture of this kind in the Mus. of Valencia is perhaps his best. This Mus. has other works of his. and others are in the Cath. of the same city, and in The Royal Gall, of Madrid. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a series of six pictures by this master, illustrating the life of S. Stephen, and a "Last Supper." Another picture of the latter subject was painted for the eh. of S. Nicholas in Valencia, where it remains. It is one of his finest works and more round and harmonious in design and color than most of his pictures are. In portraits. Joanes excelled. Perhaps his finest one remaining is that of Don Luis de Castelvy, in the Royal Gall, of Madrid. Stirling says, " It might pass for a work of Raphael him- self. In the Mus. of Valencia is his S. Francis de Paula, and in the Cath. one of S. Thomas of Villanueva, and one of Archbishop Juan de Ribera: the former expressive of mildness, the latter of gravity and thought, and both of dignified superiority.

Jode. This was the name of a family of Flemish engravers who flourished for a century from 1560. Arnold de Jode was the latest, and was in London in 1666. Peter de Jode, the Younger, was the best eno-raver of them all. but the works of his father, Peter the Elder, are well esteemed, and some of them are scarce.

Jongh, Lieve de, born near Rotterdam (1616-1697). His prin- cipal work was a " Company of Archers," for the Salle des Princes at Rotterdam. It is an excellent work, and may be compared with those of Van der Heist.

Jordaens, Jacob, born at Antwerp (1593-1678). Pupil of Adam Van Xoort at the same time with Rubens, he became the follower and half assistant of the latter. He married early in life the daughter of Van Xoort, and never visited Italy. He was a master of great power. He painted a variety of subjects. Many of his sacred pictures are in the churches of Flanders and Brabant, but they are not his best works. His best historical work is in the House of the Wood near the Hague, and represents scenes from the life of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange. His best works are popular subjects, which represent the customs of the common people. These are full of humor, and sometimes degenerate into vulgarity, but are well and powerfully painted. His pictures vary very much according


JORDAENS — JUSTUS. 351

as he was interested or not in his subject. His color was fine, his impasto somewhat unequal, but he excelled in depth of chiaro-scuro, and a " certain golden glow " in which he sometimes surpassed even Rubens. His pictures are numerous and are seen in all large Euro- pean galleries.

Jouvenet, Jean, born at Rouen (1644-1717). One of the best French academic painters. He never visited Italy. His greatest work was a " Deposition from the Cross/' now in the Louvre. He painted in oil and fresco. Ke executed many works for the princi- pal churches of Paris. At the time of his death, he had held the office of Rector of the Acad, of Painting, during ten years. He lost the use of his right hand in 1713, and his latest works were done with the left. His drawing was correct, and he had great facility of exe- cution, but his color cannot be praised.

Julien, Pierre (1731-1804). French sculptor, and pupil of Guil- laume Couston. He spent four years in Rome, where he was much admired and constantly employed. He was not admitted to the Royal Acad, until 17 79. His statue of La Fontaine is considered his chef- d'oeuvre in that department of sculpture. His last work was a statue of Nicolas Poussin, executed for the Hall of the Institute. He made some very fine bas-reliefs for the castle of Rambouillet, and a statue of a woman bathing, which ranks very high among modern sculp- tures.

Juni, Juan de. Flourished from the middle to the last of the 16th century. Was the best sculptor in Spain at that time. Has some- times been thought a Fleming, but Bermudez believes him to have been a native of Castile. His style seems to prove that he studied in Italy. He hesitated at no difficulty of attitude, and represented power, energy, and strong emotions, which made his works a per- fect contrast to those of Berreguete. His works remind one of Michael Angelo, perhaps more than those of any other modern sculptor. His sculptures which represent the Life of our Lord, still exist in the Cath. of Osma. They were done by the order of the Bishop of Acosta, who is buried at Aranda de Duero, beneath a monument, also the work of Juni. The Mus. of Valladolid has the " Entombment of Christ," made in clay. It formerly adorned the chapel of the Franciscan convent. There is no mention of the name of Juni, later than 1586.

Justus of Padua, as he is frequently called, was named Giusto di Gio. Menabuoi, and was born in Florence. He was made a citizen of Padua, where he had settled, in 1375, and died in 1400. Several different works are attributed to him, some of which are in a very imperfect state. The National Gall, has a fine triptych signed by him, and dated 136 7. The chief subject is the " Coronation of the Virgin; " it is exquisitely finished in parts, especially the hands, and the figure of the Virgin is very graceful. He was not a pupil of Giotto, but may be ranked among the best of the Giotteschi.


352 JUSTUS — KALF.

Justus of Ghent. There are several works attributed to this old painter, but the only one positively known to be his, is a representa- tion of the " Last Supper ; ' in S. Agatha, at Urbino. This was exe- cuted in 1468-1474. Full accounts are preserved concerning this work in the registers of the convent. It is probable that Justus was employed on account of his knowledge of the use of oils, and not be- cause of superiority over such men as were living in Italy in his day. His manner was, however, good-, his composition was well arranged, his hands and feet accurately drawn and fairly proportioned, and the figures of the Apostles are more refined than was usual in his time. The state of the picture scarcely warrants a judgment of his color, but altogether it may be safely said, that he well maintained the reputation of Flemish art.

Juvara, Filippo, born at Messina, 1G85. Studied at Rome under Fontana. He was employed at Turin by the King of Sardinia, and at Lisbon bv the King of Portugal. He also travelled in France and England. Philip V. invited him to Spain and employed him first at S. Ildefonso, and afterwards appointed him to rebuild the Alcazar, which bad been burned in 1734. Juvara was engaged in construct- in"- a colossal model of this edifice, when he died, in 1736. The model was fiuished by Sachetti, whom Juvara had recommended on his death-bed. This model may still be seen at Buenretiro, and is composed of enough timber to build an ordinary house. It was, in the end. rejected, and another plan made by Sachetti for the new palace, which is now the chief object to the eye of the stranger ap- proaching Madrid.

Juvenel, Paul (1580-1643). A painter of interiors. He was em- ployed at Nuremburg, Vienna, and Presburg.

K.

Kabel. See Cabel.

Kager, Johann Mathias, born at Munich (1566-1634). He studied in Rome, and became an eminent painter. He was much employed by the Duke of Bavaria, and some of his works are in the churches of Munich. He removed to Augsburg, where he painted his principal work, the " Last Judgment," in the Hall of the Senate. His pictures are known from engravings by the Sadelers, Kilians, and other engravers. Kager also etched some plates from his own de- signs.

Kalcar. See Calcar.

Kalf, Willem, born at Amsterdam (1630-1693). A painter of still-life. He especially excelled in the representation of elegant vases and porcelain vessels. He sometimes painted kitchen pieces, with vegetables and cooking utensils as prominent features. The Louvre and the Amsterdam Mus. have one picture each by this mas'er.


KAUFFMAN — KESSEL.


353


Kauffman, Maria Angelica, born at Chur, in the Grisons (1742- 1808). Daughter of Joseph Kauffman, also a painter; she received her first instruction from him. She was taken to Rome while still voung, and had good opportunities for study there. She was very much admired for her beauty and musical talents, as well as for her pictures, and these last were in great demand. She went to England, where she had a most flattering reception and constant employment,



STILL -LIFE. BY KALF.

and was made a member of the Royal Acad. She returned to Rome, where she died. Her husband was named Zucchi, and her marriage was unhappy. She first painted portraits, and later in life, historical subjects. Her pictures possess no striking merit, though many of them arc very agreeable; neither have they glaring faults; therefore she should have a middle rank, not meriting fully the extreme praise, or severe criticism, which have been bestowed on her. Her works are seen in many English collections, and in some of the large Conti- nental galleries. She also made etchings from her own designs, and after the works of other artists. They were executed with spirit and grace.

Kerkhove, Joseph Van der, born at Bruges (1669-1 724). Pupil of the younger Quellinus. He resided some years in France, and on his return to Bruges received more commissions than he could exe- cute. His pictures may be seen in the churches of his native city, and at Ostend he painted the ceiling of the Town Hall.

Kessel, Van. There were several artists of this name. One Jan 23


354 KESSEL — KING.

(born 1626) painted his backgrounds very bright, like Paul Brill, and his son Ferdinand (1660-1696) followed his style, but did not equal his father. Another Jan (died 1 708) painted in the manner of Jacob Ruvsdael with much power, but his works are scarce. There was also Nicholas (born 1684), who painted in the style of Teniers, and Theodore (born 1620), an engraver whose plates are etched with freedom and spirit.

Ketel, Cornells, born at Gouda (1548-1602). A reputable por- trait painter. He went to England and painted Queen Elizabeth, and many other persons. He also painted the Company of Marks- men of Amsterdam, and other groups.

Keulen or Ceulen, Jansons Van. Said to have been born in England of Dutch parents. He was a good portrait painter of the time of Charles I., and it is probable that many portraits now in Eng- land, and attributed to Vandyck, were by Van Keulen.

Keux. John Le, born in London (1783-1846). An eminent archi- tectural engraver. lie executed plates for many fine works, among which are Ncalc's Westminster Abbey; Britton's Architectural An- tiquities, Cathedrals, etc.: and the first volume of Neale's Churches.

Keyser, Theodor de. Flourished 1625-1660. Very little is known of him, but he left some good portraits, large and small. One of the latter is in the National Gall. An Archery Company is in the new Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam, and at the Hague there is a fine work representing the "Burgomasters of Amsterdam Deliber- ating upon the Reception of Mary deMedicis," in 1638.

Keyzer, Henry de. A portrait painter whose works are in the Amsterdam Mus.

Kierings or Cierincx, James, born at Utrecht (1580-1646). A painter of landscapes in which Poelemburgh was accustomed to paint the figures. He went to England, and was employed by Charles I. to make views of his country houses.

Kilian. Zani mentions twenty engravers of this name. Lucas Kilian was the first of a family of them who flourished from 1600 to 1 750. He was the pupil of Dominic Custos, and also studied in Italy. His son Wolfgang, and his grandsons Philip and Bartholomew, were also engravers; and another, named Wolfgang Philip, and still another, Philip Andrew, were of the same family. Lucas and Bar- tholomew were eminent, and their works are much admired.

King, Charles B„ born at Newport, Rhode Island (1786-1862). This artist lived at Washington in the winter, and his studio con- tained many portraits which are valuable as likenesses rather than as works of art. This is especially true of some portraits of Indians. He was a lover of art, and donated several thousand dollars and some pictures to Redwood Library, Newport, and left a sum of money, the interest of which is expended for musical instruction in the public schools of his native city.


KISS — KOBELL. 355

Kiss, Augustus, born at Pless (1802-1865). Educated at Berlin. This sculptor executed a great number of busts, groups, figures, and bas-reliefs in stone, bronze, and plaster. He also copied the works of antiquity, and those of the sculptor Schinkel, after whose designs he made the reliefs for the gable ends of the ch. of S. Nicholas, in Potsdam. His first great work was the " Amazon Struggling with a Panther," now in the Berlin Mus. This established his reputation everywhere. His other important statues are those of Frederick the Great, Frederick William III., and the group of " S. Michael and the Dragon."' His works are much admired, but he sometimes sacrifices good taste to energy of action.

Klerck, Henry de, born at Brussels, 1570. Pupil of Martin de Vos. His pictures are seen in some of the churches of Brussels, and throughout the Low Countries. They have considerable merit.

Klomp, Albert. Flourished 1602-1 G22. His landscapes are sometimes mistaken for those of Paul Potter. One of these is in the Brussels Gall.

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, born at Liibeck (1646-1723). A rival of Lely in portraiture. He had the honor of painting eight crowned heads, and an almost innumerable number of other persons. He studied under Rembrandt, Bol, Carlo Maratti, and Bernini. His pictures are full of mannerism. There are two very distinct opinions of his excellence, some admiring him very much, and others criticis- ing him with great severity. He painted very rapidly and often prostrated his talent for the sake of gain, but his carefully finished works show what he might have done, had he regarded fame more and money less. His design was correct, and he was especially skil- ful in painting the hair. His groups of children are, perhaps, his best works, and some pictures in which he has represented his female sitters as Madonnas, have considerable merit. A monument to his memory was executed by Rysbrach, and placed in Westminster Abbey.

Knoller, Martin, born at Steinach in the Tyrol; died 1804. Pupil of Troger in Vienna, and Raphael Mengs at Rome. He be- came one of the best German historical painters. He worked in both oil and fresco. He excelled in depicting violent action. His color is best in his frescoes. His works are in the convent of Ettal and in that of Gries in the Tvrol: in the Town Hall of Munich and in the Gall, of that city ; and in the Vienna Gall, there is a portrait of Joseph Rosa, a former director of that gallery.

Kobell, Ferdinand, born at Manheim (1 740-1 799). A good land- scape painter and engraver. His etchings number more than 230.

Kobell, William, born at Manheim (1 766-1834 ?). Son of the preceding. He also painted landscapes, and engraved. His etchings and aqua-tint engravings are much esteemed.

Kobell, Franz, born at Manheim (1749-1822). Said to have ex-


356 KOBELL — KRAFFT.

ecuted more than 10,000 pen sketches and drawings of landscapes and buildings.

Kobell, Hendrik, born at Rotterdam (1751-1782). A painter of marine subjects which were well esteemed.

Kobell, Jan, born at Utrecht (1782-1814). A son of the preced- ing, and a good painter of animals. His pictures are much esteemed. He also left a few etchings and drawings. The latter are very valu- able.

Kobell, Jan, Jr., born at Rotterdam (1800 ?-1838). Cousin of the preceding. A cattle and landscape painter. His paintings and drawings are very valuable.

Koninck, or Coninck, David de, born at Antwerp (1636-1687). Pupil of Jan Fyt, and also a painter of hunts, animals, and kindred subjects. He was powerful in color, animated in conception, and masterly in touch. His works are rare. There are two excellent ones in the Amsterdam Mus.

Koning, Salomon, born at Amsterdam (1609-1674?). An imi- tator of the manner of Rembrandt. He so closely followed that mas- ter that his pictures were often mistaken for his, though there is an inferiority manifest to one experienced in judgment. Koning painted a variety of subjects, and his works are seen in some English gal- leries, and the Berlin Mus. He also etched some plates which are decidedly Rembrandtish in effect, and are executed with a wry light point.

Koningh, Philip de, born at Amsterdam (1619-1689). One of the best scholars of Rembrandt. He painted portraits and land- scapes. The latter are especially fine, and very valuable from their rarity and excellence. His finish and impasto are admirable; his color warm and clear, and the sense of distance which he gives is very fine. His works were adorned with figures by Lingelbach, and with animals by Dirk van Bergen. Some of his finest works are in private English collections. The Amsterdam. Hague, and Arem- berg galleries have specimens; the latter is a chef-d'oeuvre. In the Painters' Gall, at Florence there is a fine portrait of himself.

Krafift, Adam. An old sculptor of Nuremberg, believed to have been born there about 1430; he died at the Hospital of Schwabach in 1507. His early history is unknown. His first works in Nurem- berg are the gable over the entrance hall of the Frauenkirche, 1642, and the Seven Stages (at which Christ fainted under the cross), on the way to the Johannis Cemetery. The first gives no promise of his later excellence, but the latter are full of strong expression. The city of Nuremberg (especially the ch. of S. Sebald) is rich in the sculp- tures of Krafft. He had great power of conception, and while there was a certain stoutness to his figures which was coarse, he gave a touching expression to the face, and sometimes reached a depth of feeling amounting to inspiration. That he could well represent the


KRAFFT — KUPETZKY.


357


ordinary events of life is seen in the relief of the " Public Scales,' ? in which the weigher stands observing the beam. Beneath it is written, " To thyself as to others." Another man adds a weight to one scale, and the merchant who is to be taxed puts his hand reluctantly into his money bag. A "Burial of Christ," in a chapel of the above- named cemetery, is said to have been his latest work, and executed in 1507. From 1496 to 1500 he was employed upon the Stone Sacra- mentsgehause for the eh. of S. Lawrence. This is one of his most artistic works, and is 62 feet in height. The lower structure is sup- ported bv the kneeling figures of Krafft and two of his associates. A slender Gothic pyramid rises from this, adorned with bas-reliefs and



ONE OK THE SEVEN STAGES OF THE PASSION OF CHRIST. BY ADAM KRAFFT.

statuettes. He was very industrious, and used his left hand as readily as his right. He was accustomed to spend his holidays in drawing with Peter Yischer, whose works, together with his own, render Nu- remberg a place of great interest.

Krug or Krugen, Lucas, called the " master of the pitcher " from his mark of the letters L. K. with a pitcher between them. His plates are very rare, and verv o-ood for the time in which he worked, about 1516.

Kupetzky, Johann, born in Upper Hungary (1666-1740). He studied with the Swiss painter Klaus, but a long residence in Italy had great effect on his style. He painted historical subjects and portraits, and the latter became very popular in Vienna; they are,



358 KUPETZKY •— LAGUERRE.

however, somewhat affected in design. Few of his works are seen in public galleries. There are specimens in those of Vienna and Berlin. He was painter to the Emperor Joseph I., and was invited to England by George II., but declined to go on account of his health.

L.

Laer, Pieter van, born at Laaren (1613-1675). He went to Rome while still young, and was called there Bamboccio, on account of his singular form. He remained sixteen years in Rome, and was the friend of Claude and the Poussins. He painted all sorts of sub- jects, but more especially peasants with their cattle. He also repre- sented peculiar effects of light and shade, such as moonlight on one side, and a torch-light on the other. His drawing was good, and the hands and feet sometimes finished with great delicacy. His color is at times clear, but many of his pictures are dark and smoky. His works are rare. They may be seen in the Louvre, Dresden, Vienna, and Cassel galleries. Those in the latter collection are fine speci- mens. Van Laer also etched twenty plates, mostly of animals; they are well executed, but his horses are badly drawn.

Lafond, Charles Nicholas Raphael, born at Paris, 1727. Pupil of Renault. He is well considered among modern French artists. His works are numerous, and are seen in both public and private collections. His subjects are various; poetical, Scriptural, and his- torical.

Lafosse, Charles de la, born at Paris (1636-1 71G). Pupil of Le Brim. He distinguished himself by his works at the " Invalides." He went to England, where he was well received and employed. His easel pictures are superior to his decorative works. He was Chancel- lor of the French Acad, at the time of his death.

Lagre'nee, Louis Jean Francois, born at Paris (1724-1805). Pu- pil of Carl Vanloo. He obtained a prize and was sent to Rome with a pension, when quite young. After his return to Paris his reputa- tion caused him to be appointed director of the Acad, of S. Peters- burg. In 1781 he was made director of the French school at Rome, amfthere executed his best works, most of which have been en- graved. His subjects are from sacred and profane history, and from the ancient poets. Napoleon gave him the cross of the Legion of Honor, and at the time of his death he was Professor-Rector of the School of Fine Arts, and honorary conservator and administrator of the Museum.

Laguerre, Louis, born in Paris (1663-1721). Pupil of Le Brum He went to England and assisted Verrio. They painted many halls and staircases. Pope mentions both these artists thus : — " Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre."


LAIRESSE — LANINL 359

Lairesse, Gerard de, born at Liege (1640-1711). He has been called the Ponssin of Belgium, and he was indeed an imitator of Niccolo Poussin, but he imitated him from a distance. His pictures arc frequently cold in color, and -when warm they are heavy. His execution is careful; his heads are in imitation of the antique profile, and somewhat monotonous; his figures are affected and frequently too short. He was most unsuccessful in Biblical subjects. His works mav be seen in the Louvre. Berlin, and Cassel galleries. He etched a large number of plates from his own designs, with spirit and free- dom, and his lights are so arranged that the eye is immediately fixed on the principal figure.

Lambert, George (1710-1775). An English landscape painter. Some of his pictures were painted in conjunction with Hogarth. Some of his landscapes are small, brilliant in color, and the trees are agitated bv the Avind.

Lana, Ludovico, born at Modena (1597-1646). He painted many religious subjects. His female figures are fine, and his landscape backgrounds very good. His works are best studied in his native city.

Lancret, Nicholas, born at Paris (1690-1743). An imitator of Watteau in his choice of subjects. His peasants courting, his women and children, are all well done, and his landscapes are pleasing. His interiors are well managed, and the accessories not too prominent. His handlino- is more broad and free than that of most painters of this class of pictures.

Landini, Taddeo. The sculptor of the Fontana della Tartarughe, in Rome, executed in 1585.

Lanfranco, Gio., born at Parma (1581-1647). One of the latest noticeable pupils of the Carracci. His best works were cupola paint- ings, and of these those of S. Andrea della Yalle in Rome and the Tesoro in Naples are the best. His greatest merit is in his color; he is a mere machinist, introducing abrupt lights and shades, unnec- essary fore shortenings, faces without expression, and groups arranged entirely according to precepts rather than nature. And yet he was one of the best of the painters of this class. When his subject al- lowed a merely naturalistic conception, he succeeded best. Among his finest works are " S. Louis feeding the Poor," in the Acad, of Venice, and the " Liberation of S. Peter," in the Colonna Pal. at Rome. His " S. Cecilia/' in the Barberini Pal., is one of his worst productions. He also executed a number of etchings in a masterly manner.

Lanini, Bernardino, born at Vercelli (about 1508-1578). Pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari and an imitator of Correggio. His chief excellence was in his delicate chiaro-scuro. His best works were his frescoes, and of these may be mentioned the Sibyls and other works in the Cath. of Novara. One of his pictures is in the National Gall., London. He was much employed at Milan.


360 LAPO — LAWRENCE.

Lapo, Arnolfo (1232-1300). A Florentine architect. His re- maining works attest his skill. Among them are the Cath. of S. Ma- ria del Fiore at Florence; the marble tribune in S. Faolo at Home, and the tomb of Card. Bruges in S. Domenico at Orvieto.

Largilliere, Nicholas, born in Paris (1656-1746). Pupil of An- toine Goubeau. He painted a variety of subjects. He was received into the French Acad, on account of his portrait of Charles le Brim, which was engraved by Edelinck. lie went twice to England, and was for some time the assistant of Sir Peter Lely. He often painted landscapes, animals, and still-life, and used these subjects as acesso- ries to his figure pictures.

Lasinio, II Conte Cavaliere Carlo, born at Trevigi, 1757. An excellent modern engraver. He made many engravings for books, illustrating the works of the old painters, such as " L'Etruria Pittrice," the " Remains of the Campo Santo at Pisa," and the " Storia della Pittura Italiana."

Lasne, Michael (1595-1667). This engraver was one of the first of his country (France), who distinguished themselves as engravers. His works arc numerous.

Lastman, Pieter, born at Ilaerlem (1562-164 9). He studied in Rome, became famous, and was summoned to Copenhagen to deco- rate a church. His besl points were vigorous color and great knowl- edge of chiaro-scuro. Rembrandt was once his pupil. He executed some etchings from his own designs, which are now rare.

Launitz, Edward von der (1797-1869). Disciple of Thorwald- sen. lie was an earnest student of the antique, which conduced to the formation of his noble style. The Guttcnburg monument at Frankfort is his most important work, and is one of the most valu- able of all the public monuments of Germany. The theatre of Frank- fort was decorated by him, and there arc other statues of his in that citv.

Lauri, Filippo, born at Rome (1623-1694). He painted a variety of subjects, and many of his works have been engraved by English engravers. His bacchanals are his best pictures. He was on the whole a pleasing painter, and the figures which he added to the land- scapes of other artists were much admired.

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, born at Bristol (1769-1830). This re- markable portrait painter commenced his career as an artist by mak- ing sketches in chalk when little more than a baby, and when ten years old was really a painter in crayons at Oxford. He used oil colors at seventeen, and in 1791, though younger than the age re- quired by law, he was made an associate of the Acad. After the death of Sir Joshua Reynolds he was appointed painter to the King, and was but twenty-two when he painted portraits of the King and Queen. He was elected a Royal Academician in 1794, was knighted in 1815, and became the President of the Acad, in 1820. He was


LAWRENCE — LELY. 361

also a member of many foreign academies, and a Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur. The Waterloo Gall, at Windsor is a splendid monument to his memory. There are very opposite opinions of his merits as a painter. By many he is admired, and by many lie is ac- cused of having founded an " evil style," and encouraged all sorts of mannerisms and faults. As usual, there is truth on both sides. His early works arc the most satisfactory; they are rich in color and well arranged. His sketches of heads, with the canvas about them un- touched, are very fine, and seem to have been done almost instantly, and never to have been retouched. He was so much the fashion that he was forced to found a school, and many of the pictures called his were mostly executed by others. His portraits of women and chil- dren are far better than those of men.

Lazzarini, Gregorio, born at Venice (1655-1730). At first a barber's apprentice, he became a distinguished painter, and has been called the " Raphael of the Venetian School." His works may be seen in his native city.

Leal, Don Simon de Leon, born at Madrid (1G 10-1 687). Pupil of Pedro de las Cuevas. He was distinguished for his historical sub- jects and portraits, and was appointed court painter. His works are still seen in Madrid.

Lebrun, Jean-Baptiste Topino. This artist was condemned to death in 1801 on account of a conspiracy against the First Consul. His picture of the " Death of Cains Gracchus" was purchased for the Mus. of Marseilles, his native city.

Lebrun, Madame E. L. Pupil of Joseph Vernet and Greuze, and a good portrait painter. She was a member of eight academies be- sides that of France. She also painted some half allegorical subjects. Lecomte, Felix, born at Paris (1737-1817.) A sculptor who gained the grand prize, visited Rome with the royal pension, and returned to Paris to make a good reputation. He was Professor in the Acad, of Sculpture, before his death. His statue of Fenelon in the Hall of the Institute, is considered his masterpiece.

Leeuw. Bryan gives an account of five painters and engravers of this name, none of whom were very celebrated. They all flourished in the last half of the 1 7th century. Peter van der Leeuw imitated Adrian van de Velde with good success.

Lefevre or Fevro, Claude, born at Fontainebleau (1633-1675). Portrait painter.

Lefevre, Robert, born at Bayeux (1 756-1831). Painted portraits and fancy pictures. One of his works in the Louvre is signed, Robert le Fevre jnvt. et pxit.

Lelie, Adrien de, born at Tilbourg (1755-1820). He painted portraits and cabinet pictures, which are much prized in Germany and Holland, and are seen in the best collections.

Lely, Sir Peter. Real name Peter van der Faes, 7 ?orn a* Soest-


362 LELY — LENAIN.

in Westphalia (1618-1680). He went to England and became the most celebrated portrait painter after Vandyck. His ' ; Beauties at Hampton Court" are too well known to require mention. He has been accused of mannerism in the treatment of the eye, but the ladies of his time affected the appearance which he gives : " The sleepy eye that spoke the melting soul." His pictures of men are not equal to those of women. The backgrounds of many of his works were painted by others. He was knighted by Charles II., and became very rich. He painted a portrait of Cromwell, who said to him, '•'Mr. Lely, I desire you will use all your skill to paint my picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all; but remark all these rough- nesses, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me, otherwise I will never pay you a farthing for it. There are a few historical pic- tures by Lely in private collections in England. lie also etched a plate of a " Shepherd and Shepherdess." lie was buried in Covent Garden, where there is a monument to his memory, with his bust by Gibbon.

Lembke, Johann Philip, born at Nuremberg (1631-1713). A painter of military subjects. His color was clear and vigorous, his conception spirited, and his execution free. His principal works are in Stockholm, where he was summoned as court painter, but there is a fine " Skirmish " in the Gall, at Vienna.

Lemoine, Francois, born at Paris (1688-1737). One of the finest decorative painters of France. He advanced rapidly in his youth, and became a professor of the Acad, in 1733. He had visited Italy in 1724 for the first time, and on his return, painted his " Apotheosis of Hercules." This work is in oil upon canvas, 64 by 54 feet in size. The clouds which form the base or ground of the picture cost, it is said, 10,000 francs for ultramarine. There are 142 figures in it, and it is probably the most magnificent pittura di mac- china of the decorative period in which it was executed. It was fixed to the ceiling of the Salon d ? Hercule, at Versailles. On account of it, Louis XV. appointed Lemoine painter to the King, but did not give him all the ancient honors of that office. This fact, together with adverse criticisms of other artists, and the death of his wife, brought on an insanity, in which he took his own life about ten months after the completion of this great picture.

Lempereur. This the name of several French engravers, of whom Louis Simon (1725) was the most eminent. He was a mem- ber of the Acad., and his plates are excellent in their execution. His wife, Catherine Elizabeth, was also a good engraver.

Lenain, Louis, Antoine, and Mathieu. These three brothers are scarcely distinguishable in their works, for the simple name of Lenain is common to all. They painted genre subjects and were good portrait painters, especially in miniature. They were all mem- bers of the Acad. Louis and Antoine died 1648, and Mathieu in 16 77, at a great as;e. Their works are in the Louvre. ■


LENS — LEPRIXCE. 363

Lens, Andries Cornells, born at Antwerp (1739-1822). A painter of little merit, as may be seen by his pictures in the Antwerp and Brussels museums. But he may be remembered as having scorned to be a member of S. Luke's Guild of Painters in Antwerp, and on his recommendation, this ancient society, to which Rubens and Quentin Massys had belonged, was dissolved.

Leochares, sculptor of Athens. Flourished about B.C. 372-338. His masterpiece was the " Rape of Ganymede." Pliny says he made the eao;le appear sensible of the value of the treasure he was bearing and to whom he bore it, so that he was careful not to wound the boy with his talons. The original was in bronze, but has been copied on gems and in marble frequently. The best existing one is half life-size, of marble, in the Museo Pio-Clementino. The one in the librarv of S. Marco, in Venice, is less well preserved. These are all imperfect, but give an idea of the refined sensuality and grace which characterized Grecian art of this period. He also made a statue of Autolycus, probably on account of his great beauty. There are several other mythological subjects and some celebrated portrait statues mentioned among the works of Leochares.

Leonardo, Juseppe (1616-1656). A Spanish painter of historical subjects. He was poisoned, it is supposed by his rivals. Some of his finest works are in the Queen of Spain's Gall.

Leonbruno, Lorenzo, born at Mantua, 1489. An important ar- tist in his time. Most of his works are lost, but three remain at Mantua, and are praised by Codde.

Leoni or Lioni, Cavaliere Ottavio, born at Rome (about 1575- 1628). A very distinguished portrait painter, and president of the Acad, of S. Luke. He also painted altar-pieces for several churches of Rome. He etched about twenty plates in a style peculiar to him- self, but very pleasing. The faces are dotted ; the shadows are as- sisted with strokes, and the draperies and hair are of strokes. Leoni was also called Padovinano, and II Cav. Padovano, on account of his family, which was of Padua.

Leopardo, Alessandro. Venetian sculptor. Flourished about 1490. After the death of Verocchio, Leopardo finished the statue of Bartolommeo Calleoni, in front of the ch. of S. Giovanni e Paolo, Ven- ice. The monument in the choir of the same church, to the memory of the Doge Andrea Vendramin, is also the work of Leopardo, who was employed with the Lombardi to decorate the chapel of Card. Zeno in S. Marco. He executed, lastly, the three bronze standard-bearers in the square of S. Mark. He was at the head of a large atelier, and together with his pupils did many works.

Leprince, Jean Baptiste, born at Metz (1733-1781). Pupil of Boucher. Spent some years in Russia. Painted landscapes and in- teriors. He was also an engraver in aqua-tinta, and published the " Traite de la Gravure au Lavis."


364 LEPRINCE — LEUTZE.

Leprince, A. Xavier, died 1826. Painted fairs, festivals, etc., so well that they have been placed in the best collections.

Leslie, Charles Robert. Son of American parents, born in Clerkenwell (1794-1859). He was early taken to Philadelphia, and when old enough was apprenticed to a bookseller. In 1811 here- turned to England and entered the Royal Acad. He had some in- structions from Allston and ^Yest. His first works were portraits, but later he painted a high class of genre subjects. His first impor- tant picture was " Sir Roger de Coverley going to Church," which was well received, and repeated for the Marquis of Lansdowne. There is a repetition of his lt Sancho Panza and the Duchess," in the National Gall. In 1826 he was elected to the Acad., and seven years later was appointed Professor of Drawing at West Point. He remained there but a short time, and returned to England. After this he did many works excellent in everything but color. He was made professor at the Royal Acad., and his lectures were published and called " A Hand-book for young Painters." He also wrote the " Life of Constable." His works are best seen in the Sheep- shanks Coll.

Lethiere, Guillaumc Guillon (1760-1831 ?). This artist had a cultivated mind, and made rapid advance in art until he became President of the Acad, at Rome. He chose such historical subjects as were associated with the overthrow of tyranny, and the establish- ment of liberty. The " Judgment of Brutus " was much admired in France and England, where it was also exhibited. Lucien Bona- parte, was his friend, and took some of his works to England, but most of them remain in France.

Leu, Thomas de, born at Paris about 1562. An excellent en- graver.

Leutze, Emmanuel, born at Wiirtemberg (1816-1868). His father came to America and settled in Philadelphia. Emmanuel de- veloped his artistic talents early, and in 1841 had orders sufficient to warrant his going to Europe. He became a pupil of Lessing at Dus- seldorf, and soon acquired a name as a painter of history. He travelled extensively in Europe, and married a German lady. In his works Ave find the result of his admiration for Kaulbach. He has been severely criticised, and has afforded much opportunity for just criticism: at the same time there is great room for admiratiou in the boldness of his manner, his dramatic effects, and his technical skill. His industry was great, and his pictures are numerous. The most important are: " Western Emigration," in the Capitol at Washing- ton; "Columbus at the Council of Salamanca;" "Columbus in Chains; " " Columbus before the Queen," and another of his recep- tion at Barcelona; " Landing of the Norsemen in America; " " Crom- well and his Daughter;" the " Inconoclast; " " Henry VIII. and Anne Bolevn; " the " Court of Queen Elizabeth; " " Godiva; " and


LEUTZE — LEYDEN. 3G5

others of like nature. His works are in most private galleries in Xew York, some in Washington, Baltimore, etc. " Columbus before the Council of Salamanca ' was purchased by the Art-Union of Dusseldorf. His admirers are very fond of him, and his enemies very severe. The character of Leutze was worked out in his pictures with wonderful exactness. He was a hero- worshipper; he was fond of adventure and of wild, gleeful fun; he was more given to vivid sen- sation than to sentiment or refinement; he acted out Emerson's Avords, " There is hope in extravagance, there is none in routine; " he was brave and cordial, and swept on to his end with a rush, like a spring waterfall, happy in freedom and in haste for the end of its course. All this is in his pictures, and while we love the works of others more, we may glean much pleasure from his.

Leyden, Lucas Van. Real name Luc Jacobez (1494-1533). Pupil of Engelbrechtsen, and one of the most remarkable of artists. He was most important as an engraver, and had made himself a reputation at twelve years of age. He also painted pictures and carved in wood. He was the friend of Albert Durer and the asso- ciate of Mabuse. He "ed a gay life with the latter, and undermined his health by his excesses. They made a journey in a sloop fitted up at Leyden' s expense, and went through Zealand, Flanders, and Brabant. Thev save entertainments to the artists in various cities? and it is to one of these that Durer referred when he wrote in his journal, in 1521, " I was invited to dinner by Master Lucas, who en- graves on copper: he is a little man, and is a native of Leyden." They exchanged prints with each other, and it is said that Durer ac- quired from Lucas his knowledge of perspective, but in this particu- lar only could Lucas assist him ; in every other point Durer was the superior. The pictures of Lucas are rare. In the Town House at Leyden there is a " Last Judgment," which is one of the most impor- tant; at Wilton House a u Card-party; " in the Munich Gall, of Cabi- nets, a Virgin and Child with Mary Magdalen, and a man praying; and in the Belvedere at Vienna a portrait of the Emperor Maximil- ian. His engravings are very scarce and valuable. His " Eulen- spiegel " is the rarest of all prints. Not more than six original im- pressions are in existence, though there are many copies. This represents a famous clown of the 14th century, and is also called " The Peasants Travelling." Lucas had a great influence on the artists who followed him, and this print, and others of homely scenes, doubtless did much to decide Teniers, the Ostades, and others, in their choice of subjects. There was an originality which character- ized all his works from first to last. His style was his own, and he did not hesitate to dress all his figures in the costume of his time, regardless of what he was representing. Thus he made his works a record of manners and customs. His " Eccc Homo " is, artistically speaking, one of his chefs-d'oeuvre, and yet it is the principal square


366


LEYDEN.


of a Flemish town, and the people seen there in the early part of the 16th century. Bartsch gives a list of 174 of his prints; the follow- ing are the principal ones.


r


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Wrs&


Xr-'Ui-ti' •


I



TEMPTATIOJS OF CHRIST. BY LUCAS VAN LEYDEN.

A set of six of the Creation and Fall of Adam and Eve. 1529.

Adam and Eve driven from Eden. 1510.

Cain and Abel. 1524.

Abraham and the Angels.

Abraham sending Hagar away; an early work; very rare.

The same subject, called " The Little Hagar.

Lot and his Daughters; fine. 1530.

Set of five of the History of Joseph. 1512.

Jephtha and his Daughter.

Samson and Delilah.

Triumph of David.


LEYDEN. 367

David praying, with an Angel appearing to him. 1520. David playing the Harp before Saul. Solomon worshipping Idols. 1514. Esther before Ahasuerus. 1516. Susanna and the Polders ; a very early work. SS. Joachim and Anne. 1520. The Annunciation. The Visitation.

Adoration of the Magi; very fine. 1513. Repose in Egypt; an early work. The Baptism of Christ ; many figures. Temptation of Christ. 1518. Resurrection of Lazarus; an early work. Set of fourteen of the Passion of Christ. Set of nine of same subject; circular. Ecce Homo; very fine. 1510. The Crucifixion; one of the best. 1517. Christ appearing to Magdalene. 1519. The Prodigal Son; fine. Virgin and Child with S. Anne. 1516. Virgin and Child with Glory of Angels. Virgin and Child seated at the Foot of a Tree. Virgin and Child in a Landscape, with two Angels; very fine. 1523.

Holy Family, with S. John presenting an Apple.

Set of thirteen of Christ and the Disciples.

Set of four; the Evangelists. 1518.

SS. Peter and Paul; half length. 1517.

Conversion of Saul. 1509.

SS. Peter and Paul in a Landscape. 1527.

S. Christopher bearing the Infant Christ; very fine. 1521.

S. John Baptist in the Desert. 1513.

Decollation of S. John.

S. Jerome, with a Book, Skull, and Lion. 1521.

Martyrdom of S. Sebastian.

S. Anthony Hermit.

Temptation of S. Anthony; very fine. 1509.

S. Francis receiving the Stigmata.

S. George and the Dragon.

S. Mary Magdalene in the Pleasures of the World ; called Mag- dalene's Dance ; very fine and extremely rare.

Mary Magdalene in the Desert.

S. Catherine; half length. 1520.

The Monk Sergius, who is sleeping, killed by Mahomet; very fine.

1508.

Set of seven; the Cardinal Virtues. 1530.


368 LEYDEN — LIBRI.

Death of Lucretia, sometimes called " The Death of Dido."

Pyramus and Thisbe. 1514.

Mars and Venus. 1530.

Minerva seated ; said to be his last plate, which he did not quite

finish.

The Standard-bearer.

A Young Man leading an Armed Company, listening to a Man who is speaking, with his Hat in his Hand: tine.

An Old Man putting the Wedding Ring on the Finger of a Young Woman; very tine etching: rare.

An Old Woman with a Bunch of Grapes.

The Musicians. 1524.

A Surgeon performing an Operation. 1524.

The Quack Doctor. 1523.

The Eulenspiegel; very celebrated. 1520.

Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I.; very fine and scarce. 1520.

Portraits of Lucas Van Leyden, inscribed Effigies Luces L<hlenxis propria inn mi incidere.

A Young Man, half-length, with Cap and Feathers, holding a Skull: this is called his own portrait, but does not resemble the

other-.

Wood- Cuts.

The Kings of Israel; in chiaro-scuro; scarce.

Illustrious Women of the Old Testament; scarce.

Four Large Tournaments: scarce.

Liberale, da Verona, born at Verona (1451-1536). He was first a miniaturist, and the effect of this occupation was always visible in his manner of finish. He was an imitator of Jacopo Bellini. A number of his works remain and are in Verona, Milan, Padua, the Berlin Mus., and Florence Gall. They have no especial merit. His miniatures are his best productions. Some of these are at Chiu>i.

Liberi, Pietro, born at Padua (1605-1 G8 7). Called Libertino, from his love of painting nude Venuses. He is considered by some as the best draughtsman of the Venetian school. He painted some- times with a free and unlabored manner, which he said was for the intelligent: and sometimes with great labor and exactness, for the innora"nt. as he declared. lie was the first President of the Acad, at Venice, where some of his great works are still preserved.

Libri, Girolamo dai, born at Verona (1474-1556). In the " His- tory of Painting in North Italy," it is said of this artist. " Beginning as a miniaturist, emulating in succession the Mantegnesque of Caroto and Morone, and the modern Veronese of Morando, he ascends to a lncrh place amongst the professors of painting in the north; and throughout his long career he never incurs the reproach of being a plagiarist or a servile copyist." His works are best seen in Verona; there are also specimens at the Berlin .Mus. and the National Gall.


LICINIO — LIPPI. 369

Licinio. See Pordenone.

Liemakere, Nicholas de, called Roose, born at Ghent (1575- 1646). Pupil of Otto Yasnius. He was excellent in composition and skilful in treatment, but his color was not good, and his heads were insignificant in expression. His works are very numerous throughout the Low Countries.

Lilienbergh, C. Nothing is known of this artist, but this signature on his pictures. He painted dead game, with the addition sometimes of fruit and vegetables. The Berlin and Dresden galleries have each one of his works. He was living in 1663.

Limborch, Hendrik van, born at the Hague (1680-1758). Pupil of Adrian van der Werff. He painted historical subjects, portraits, and landscapes. He was inferior to his master. Two of his works are in the Louvre.

Lingelbach, Johann, born at Frankfort-on-the-Maino (1625- 1687). He spent a long time in Italy, where he made many studies which srreatly assisted him after his return to Amsterdam, where he settled. He loved to represent scenes in which he could introduce manv figures, such as fairs, markets, etc. He so excelled as a figure painter, that he was sought by other artists, especially Wynants and Wouvermans, to add the figures to their landscapes. In composition, drawing, and careful execution, he excelled, but Ms color was a weak point. His flesh tones were often cold and inharmonious, while in clearness and impasto he falls far below the artists named above. His works are seen to advantage in the Louvre, Hague, and Amster- dam galleries. He also left a few slight and spirited etchings after his own designs.

Lint, Peter van, born at Antwerp (1609-1675?) He passed several years in Italy, where he was well employed. Returning to Antwerp, he executed altar-pieces and smaller works. He also painted many portraits, which are well esteemed in the Low Coun- tries.

Lint, Henry van, called Studio, on account of his industry. Son of the preceding. His Italian landscapes arc well considered. Some of his pictures are on water-color grounds, and have so little oil with the pigments, that the color is not at all durable. His works are su- perior to those of Occhiali in finish. He etched a few plates, some of which are dated 1680.

Linthorst, J., born at Amsterdam (1755-1815). Painter of fruit and flowers. He painted large flowers and leaves, nuts, and grapes well, and his works are placed in the best collections. Two fine ones are in the Amsterdam Mus.

Lippi, Fra Filippo (about 1412-1469). This artist is one who has been considered as disgracing his profession by his private life, but there are many and grave doubts as to whether the usual account of him be true, and of those doubts he should have the full

24


370 LIPPI.

benefit. The story is this : He was an orphan at an early age, and his aunt, upon whom it devolved to care for him, being poor, he was placed in the monastery of the Carmine in Florence in 1420. Here he studied painting and formed his style after that of Masaccio. But as the story goes, he could not endure restraints, broke away from the convent, and while on an excursion at sea was captured by pirates and taken to Barbary as a slave. He at last obtained his freedom on account of a likeness he made of his master, and was returned to Italy with rich presents. He landed, it is said, at Naples, and at length returned to Florence. Later in life, while employed at the convent of S. Margherita at Prato, he seduced and carried off Lucre- zia Buti, a novice, who became the mother of Filippino Lippi, and eleven years later he died from poison, administered according to one account by the relatives of Lucrezia, and according to another by those of a woman who had succeeded her in his affections. Were this story wholly true it would be best to speak only of his works, forgetting himself entirely, but while it is not possible to totally con- tradict it, there are some circumstances now known which mitigate censure, 'at feast. The name of Castagno has been freed from the stigma of murder which Vasari attached to it, and it is Vasari who accuses Pra Filippo of all his faults. From 1430 to 1432 his name is mentioned with the title of painter in the records of the convent, and it was probably during that time that he executed there the works which arc spoken of as very excellent, but of which none remain. /The capture by the pirates cannot be supported by any proof of his having been either at Ancona, from which he is said to have sailed, or at Naples, to which he returned. Again, it is not true that he for- feited his title of u Frater," for all his works which are signed bear it, and Domemco Veniziano mentions him in a letter of 1438 as " Fra Filippo." But more direct than all is the proof of a note written by himself to Piero de' Medici in 1439, when he says, "lam one of the. poorest friars of Florence," and goes on to relate that he has charge of six marriageable nieces who depend upon him. He begs Piero to let him have corn and wine on account, so that his nieces may not starve while he is absent from them. We know that in 1452 he was chaplain to the nuns of S. Giovannino at Florence, and in 1457 rec- tor of S. Qnirico at Legnaia. It would not seem that the seducer of one nun would thus have been associated with others. All these doubts one must have in reading the storv of Vasari, in whom our faith has been so justly shaken, and it is to be hoped that further re- searches may brine to liirht proofs which shall establish his innocence. As an artist he was the best master of technicalities, and the best colorist of his time, and his mode of color was original. With a full brush he created a deep impasto; he then shaded or fused the various parts into soft, rich fulness, and still preserved clear tones behind. He was much inferior to Masaccio in composition, and his


LIPPI — LIVINS. 371

■works were marred by a certain sort of bas-relief flatness, but he gave much life and feeling to his heads, which, united to his color, made his pictures very attractive. He did not advance perspective, he never foreshortened, and his architectural knowledge "was compar- atively small: on the other hand, his atmosphere supplied in part his deficiencies ; he was a good draughtsman and understood how to pre- sent the nude without the vulgarity of too great realism. His dra- peries were loaded with ornaments in gilt relief, and his love for elaborate friezes, cornices, and pilasters was remarkable. His most important frescoes were done in the Cath. of Prato, and illustrated the history of S. Stephen, and that of S. John Baptist, besides single fio-ures of saints. His works in the Cath. of Spoleto are less impor- tant. The pictures of Fra Filippo are in all the large European gal- leries, but there are more in Florence than in any other city. Fra Filippo was buried in the Cath. of Spoleto, and a monument was there erected to his memory by his son, at the expense of Lorenzo de' Medici.

Lippi, Filippino. Tt is not positively known when this artist was born, or who were his parents. He has been called the natural son of Fra Filippo Lippi and Lucrezia Buti, and said to have been born at Florence in 146o. He died in 1505. He formed his style from that of Fra Filippo and from Sandro Botticelli. He executed a great number of works, and was entrusted with those of much importance. One peculiarity of his style was his love for ornamentation of every kind, which he used in all parts of his works. He much excelled Fra Filippo in execution, and was, in truth, one of the greatest artists of his century. His women are elegant and graceful, his men dignified, and all his figures full of life, emotion, and action. His finest frescoes arc in the Brancacci chapel of the Carmelite ch. in Florence. His finest easel picture is a " Vision of S. Bernard," in the Badia at Florence. His works are seen in all large galleries of Europe, but Florence is richer than any other city, both in the num- ber and quality of his pictures.

Liverseege, Henry, born at Manchester (1803-1832). This painter was weak and deformed in body, and unable to support his active imagination, so that his life was one of suffering, and termi- nated suddenly. He at first painted portraits, but soon devoted himself to representing various characters from the novels of Scott, and other subjects of a f/enre nature. He was especially happy in his picture of Adam Woodcock, and became a favorite artist. Most of his works have been engraved, and are familiar to the public.

Livins, Jan, born at Leyden (1G07-1663). Pupil of Peter Last- man at the same time as Rembrandt. They were always friends. Livins is more important as an engraver than as a painter, and the influence of Rembrandt is most apparent in his etchings. He excelled his fellow-pupil as a draughtsman, but fell below him in every other


372


LIVIXS — LOMBARDO.


particular. His portraits were very fine. Few of his works are in public galleries. An important one represents " Jacob receiving the Blessing of Isaac," and is in the Berlin Mus. The Louvre, the Am- stcrdam, and Munich galleries also have specimens of his works. Bartsch gives fifty-six etchings by him, and they arc very excellent.

Lombard, Lambert. Real name Lambert Sustermann. Born at Liege (1506-1560). Pupil of Mabuse, he adopted the Italian style



SS. PETER AND PAUL BEFORE THE PROCONSUL FELIX. BY FILIPPIXO LIPPI.

Brancacci Chapel.

of painting, which was confirmed by a visit to Italy, where he was in- structed by Andrea del Sarto. He returned to Liege and opened a school, and in addition to painting, professed architecture, numis- matics, engraving, archaeology, and poetry. His works had consider- able merit, and are now rare. There is one in the Berlin Mus.

Lombardo, Alfonso (1488-1537). Sculptor of Bologna, where his most important works remain, in the churches of S. Pietro, S.


LOMBARDO — LOXSING. 373

Petronio, S. Domenico, and S. Maria della Yita. In the latter, a life- size clay group representing the "Death of the Virgin "is an ex- cellent composition.

Lombardo, Pietro, and his sons Tullio and Antonio. Pietro was an architect and sculptor. In 1481 he constructed the Palazzo Vendramin Calergi at Venice. This was a chef-rVceuvre of the time. A large number of sculptures are assigned to the three conjointly. Among the most important of these is the tomb of the Doge Mo- cenigo, in S. Giovanni e Paolo, and the reliefs on the facade of the Scuola di S. Marco. Tullio was the more important. The great altar relief in S. Giovanni Crisostomo, representing the " Coronation of the Virgin," is ascribed to him.

Lomi. See Gentileschi.

Londonio, Prancesco, born at Milan (1 723-1783). Best known for his etchings of landscapes and animals. He also painted, and his pastoral subjects are seen in fine collections in Milan, Genoa, and Naples.

Longhi, Luca, born at Ravenna. Flourished about 1580. His principal work was a " Marriage at Cana," in the refectory of the Camaldolese at Ravenna. Some of the heads are fine, but his whole manner was somewhat affected. His pictures are in the churches of Ravenna, Mantua, and Ferrara. He inclined to the manner of Francia; his finish is excellent and his color agreeable.

Longhi, Francesco. Son and pupil of the preceding, to whom he was inferior as an artist.

Longhi, Giuseppe, born at Monza (176G-1831). A distinguished engraver. He studied under Vangelisti, professor of engraving at Milan, whom he afterwards succeeded. He also studied in Rome, where he was acquainted with Raphael Morghen. His chief object in his work was to represent the style of the original artist. He excelled in light and shade. He engraved some of the choicest works of the best Italian masters, and executed some superb por- traits. His skill in handling the graver was wonderful. In 1827 he commenced to engrave the " Last Judgment," after Michael Ano-elo: it was well advanced at his death, and finished by one of his scholars.

Lonsdale, James, born in Lancashire; died 1839. A portrait painter of no especial merit, who painted some men so distinguished as to render the pictures valuable. He was successful in represent- ing the characteristics of his sitters.

Lonsing, Francois Joseph, born at Brussels (1743-1799). He entered a regiment of cadets, and while in garrison at Antwerp attracted the attention of Prince Charles de Lorraine to his love of art. Under the patronage of the Prince he studied in the Acad, he had organized, and obtained a prize. The Prince and the Count Cobentzel then sent him to Rome, where he entered the school of Raphael Mengs. He engraved several prints for Sir W. Hamilton


374 LOOSING — LORENZETTI.

in 1772, and went from Rome to Paris, Lyon?, and Bordeaux, and died in the latter city, where most of his works remained. His por- traits have been engraved. His easel pictures are rare and are well esteemed. There is a mixture of the Flemish and Italian in his works, which gives them a peculiar appearance.

Loo, Peter Van, born at Haarlem (1731-1784). A painter of flower pieces. He commenced by painting choice flowers for the florists, and thus acquired the habit of exactness in his representa- tions. He is sometimes confounded with artists by the name of Vanloo.

Looteii, Jan, died in London, 1681. A Dutch painter of land- scapes. His composition was good, but his coloring was heavy and inky. The Berlin Gall, has a landscape with a stag hunt, signed Jan Loot en, 1G59.

Lorenzetti, Pietro, flourished about 1340. A contemporary of Simone of Siena. He was chiefly noticeable for the spirited action of his figures, but his pictures as a whole are so conformed to the art conventionalities of his time that they seem tasteless to us. Vasari calls his pictures in the Cath. of Arezzo, now destroyed, the best that had then been done in Italy. His " Fathers and Hermits in the Wil- derness," painted in the Campo Santo at Pisa, are still preserved there. In the Uffizi there is a "Madonna and Child with Angels," signed by him, and dated 1340. His later pictures are his best, and show an attempt to free himself from the prejudices of his time. In 1342 he painted a " Nativity "for the Cath. of Siena, now preserved in the sacristy ; another altar-piece is in the Pieve of Arezzo; he also painted at Assisi, and fragments of his large works are in the Acad, of Siena, in the Vatican, and other places, one of them being in England. He excelled in imparting strong expression to his faces, such as that of pain, fear, etc., and was, all in all, an artist of great talent, a close student of nature, and remarkable in his power to render movement and expression.

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio. Brother of Pietro. Lorenzo Ghiberti praised this artist very highly. His earliest works were frescoes in S. Francesco of Siena, of which but two fragments remain. In the Acad, of Arts at Florence are two small predella panels by Am- brogio, and a " Presentation in the Temple," dated 1342. In the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena he executed three immense allegorical pictures, intended to present the benefits of good, and the evils of bad government. These works are very curious and interesting in design, and although much injured, enough remains to prove Ghiberti to have been wise when he placed Ambrogio before Simone. Pietro ought to receive the same praise. These brothers worked together, seem to have been of nearly the same age, and their names appear and disappear from records at the same time. They approached more nearly to Giotto than any others of Siena. Besides the world


LORENZETTI — LORRAINE. 375

of Ambrogio already mentioned, there are those attributed to him which are not dated, and may have been done by his pupils. Some of these are in the Berlin Gall. There is, however, another gen- uine Ambrogio in the Acad, of Siena, finished in 1344, representing the " Annunciation." There were a number of Sienese artists by the name of Lorenzetti, who flourished in the loth century.

Lorenzo, Fiorenzo di. An artist of Perugia who flourished about 1487. His works are rare; there are four specimens in the churches and Palazzo del Consiglio of Perugia, and one in the Berlin Gall. His composition was good, and his conception more refined than that of the Perugian artists of his time. Certain characteristics indicate his acquaintance with Paduan art, especially the "Madonna" at Berlin, which is hard in expression.

Lorenzo da S. Severino. There were two Umbrian painters by this name who flourished in the loth century. The first one was the best artist, and was twenty-six years old in 1400, as is shown by his inscription on a picture now almost destroyed, belonging to the Cistercians of S. Severino. Some of his works also remain in S. Gio. Battista, at Urbino. He was an average Umbrian painter for his time. Lorenzo u the Second " flourished about 1483. One of his pictures, a "Marriage of S. Catherine," is in the National Gall.; others are at Pansola and Sarnano. Little can be said in their praise.

Lorme or Do LOrme, A. A painter of the interiors of Dutch churches, who flourished late in the 17th century. His works, are rare, and in some respects fine; his color, being always the same, gives a monotony to his pictures, but his perspective and his light and shade are excellent. His best works have figures by Terburg and other artists.

Lorraine, Robert le, born at Paris (1666-1743). A sculptor who entered the school of Girardon at eighteen, and was employed by him on very important works. In 1690 he went to Rome, and afterwards completed some works at Marseilles, which Puget had left unfinished at his death. In 1717 he was chosen Professor of Sculpture, and in 1737, Director of the Acad. His " Galatea " is much admired, as are also his works in the Episcopal Pal. of Saverne. He made statues for the gardens of Versailles and Marly.

Lorraine, Claude, real name Claude Gelee, born at Champagne in Lorraine (1600-1682). This artist is the prince and poet of land- scape painters. The following extract from Liibke is comprehensive and full of truth : " Far more profoundly than these and all other masters, did Claude Gelee penetrate into the secrets of nature, and by the enchanting play of sunlight, the freshness of his dewy fore- grounds, and the charm of his atmospheric distances, he obtained a tone of feeling which influences the mind like an eternal Sabbath rest. In his works there is all the splendor, light, untroubled brightness, and harmony of the first morning of creation in Paradise. His


376 LORRAINE.

masses of foliage have a glorious richness and freshness, and even in the deepest shadows, are interwoven with a golden glimmer of light. But they serve only as a mighty framework, for, more freely than with other masters, the eye wanders through a rich foreground into the far distance, the utmost limits of which fade away in golden mist." One of the striking exeellences of the works of this artist is the immense space he represents; another is his color; he seems to have first used much silvery gray, over which he painted, and this foundation color gives a peculiarly atmospheric effect. His architec- tural representations are unexceptionable, but he never succeeded in animals and figures, and was wont to say that he sold the landscape, but gave away the figures. Even before his death, his pictures were so much admired, that other artists attempted to imitate him and to dispose of their works as his. In order to prevent this, he kept a book of drawings by which to identify his pictures. This he called, " Liber Veritatis." At his death there were six of these, one of which, containing 200 drawings, is at Chatsworth, and has been re- produced by Earlom. All the principal European galleries have pictures by Claude, but England is especially rich in his works, which are not only in public, but in numerous private collections. 1 Enormous prices arc now paid for them, whenever they are sold. The life of Claude began in poverty. His parents were very poor, and died while he was still young. He was apprenticed to a pastry cook, and travelled to Rome as valet to some young artists. Soon after ho ar- rived there, he entered the service of Agostino Tassi, for whom he cooked and prepared colors. He at length began to paint, and was a most assiduous student of nature. He was accustomed to sit whole davs watching a scene and studying the effects of light at the differ- ent times of day. and so faithful was his memory, that he could repro- duce them exactly upon his canvas. But few of his works are an exact picture of any one scene ; they are rather composed of pictur- esque materials gathered from different points, united with consummate taste and skill, and poetized or idealized by his exquisite imagination. There is another account of his early life, which says that he journeyed to Rome with a relative, and says nothing of his having been a pastry cook; but the fact that Sandrart was his personal friend, and published the first account, while Claude still lived, is strong proof in favor of its truth. It is also said that he studied in [Naples with Godfrey Waal before he became the pupil of Agostino Tassi. His reputation, which was already good, was fully established by some works executed for Urban YIII. soon after 1627. From this time, he received commissions from the most appreciative patrons of art in all parts of Europe. In character, he was unimpeachable, amiable in disposition, and tender in feeling. His personal appear-

1 An original Claude Lorraine, belonging to Mr. William Philip?, was burned in Boston, November 9, 1872.


LORRAINE —LOTTO. 377

ance was attractive, though his expression was grave. He suffered much from gout, and was often unable to paint. It would seem that he should have left a goodly fortune, but ir was 10,000 scudi only. It is believed that his charities to his needy relatives had made it thus small. Smith's Catalogue Raisonnc gives a descriptive list of more than 400 works by this master.

ENGRAVINGS AFTER THE WORKS OF CLAUDE LORRAINE.

Engraver, Bas, James Philip le. The Port of Messina; fine. An Italian Landscape; fine.

Engraver, Browne, John. A Landscape, with Procris and Ceph- alus.

Engraver, Byrne, William. Evening; a fine landscape.

Engraver, Canot, Peter Charles. A Landscape. Sunrise; a ma- rine view.

Engraver, Godfroy, Francois. A Landscape.

Engraver, Lerpiniere, Daniel de. Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt. Landscape, with S. George and the Dragon. Grand Landscape, with the Israelites worshipping the Golden Calf.

Engraver, Morin, John. Landscape, with Ruins.

Engraver, Vivares, Francis. Landscape, Morning. Landscape, Evening. The Enchanted Castle. View near Naples.

Engraver, Wood, John. Two Italian Landscapes.

Engraver, Woollett, William. The Enchanted Castle. The Temple of Apollo. Roman Ruins. Landscape, with the Meeting of Jacob and Laban.

Lothener, Stephan. An old artist of Constance, who belongs to the school of Cologne, where he owned a house. He flourished most from 1442 to 1451. He was the painter of the well-known triptych in a chapel of the choir of Cologne Cath. This represents (when open) in the centre, the " Adoration of the Magi; " on the insides of the wings, " S. Gereon and his Warriors," and " S. Ursula and her Maidens; " the outsides of the wings, the " Annunciation." This is a most interesting work ; it is characterized by an ideal "race and beauty, solemn and simple dignity, force and depth of tone, and has a remarkably good color for a tempera of its age. In the Darmstadt Mus., there is a " Presentation in the Temple," dated 1447, by Meis- ter Stephan, and in the Coll. at Kensington, a picture of SS. Cather- ine, Matthew, and John the Evangelist. In the Mus. of Cologne, there is a Madonna, and another colossal "Virgin and Child," in the Coll. of the Archbishop of Cologne. Stephan may have been the pupil of Meister Wilhelm; it is plain that he formed his style after that master. There are other works executed bv him and under his direction, in the chapel of S. Maurice, at Nuremberg, and in the Cologne, Munich, and Berlin galleries.

Lotto, Lorenzo, was probably born at Bergamo, although he is


378 LOTTO — LUIGL

sometimes called a Venetian (1480 ?-15.*8 ?). Tassi says he studied under Andrea Previtali and Gio. Bellini. He was one of the most important second-rate artists of his day, and to be called but second- rate in that era is high praise. He was not original, but followed whatever artist he admired most at the time, and as his standard changed, so changed his manner; the result being that at different times his works resemble Bellini, Giorgione, and Titian. He executed an immense amount of work in oil and fresco. His pictures arc in the churches and galleries of numerous Italian cities and towns, and in almost all European collections from St. Petersburg to Madrid. He resided for a time in Venice, Treviso, Recanati, Bergamo, Trescorre (where he first painted in fresco), Ancona, and Loretto, where he died. Besides his Scriptural and historical series and single subjects, he painted many very excellent portraits, some of which have been at times (as probably others still are), attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Leonardo, and Pordenone. That they could be thus assigned is suf- ficient praise, and tells how excellent they must be. These portraits are in the Borghese Pal. , in the Brera, the Vienna Gall., the National Gall., etc. His principal large works are at Venice, Bergamo, and Recanati. During the later years of his life he was the friend of Titian, and assimilated his style more and more to his. Aretino writes of him that he became very religious, and as he was employed at Loretto and dwelt in the sanctuary, it is probable that the hours not given to art were spent in devotion.

Loutherbourg, Philip James, born at Strasburg (1740-1812). Settled in England in 1771. lie painted landscapes, marine and battle scenes, and was also employed as a scene-painter. He con- tributed largely to the Royal Acad, exhibitions. The " Fire of Lon- don," the-' Destruction of the Spanish Armada," and " Lord Howe's Victory." are among his principal works. His battle subjects have an historical interest, and his naval pictures are finished with great care, but his color was neither fine nor natural. His cabinet land- scapes are his most pleasing works, and some of them are excellent.

Lowry, Wilson, died 1824. An English engraver who excelled in mechanical and architectural subjects. He engraved many plates for books, such as Crabbe's Technological Dictionary, Nicholson's Architecture, etc.

Lucatelli or Locatelli, Andrea. A Roman landscape painter who flourished late in the 17th century. Many of his pictures are in England. His river water is better painted than his seas. Some of his works are highly and delicately finished, and are pleasing in effect.

Lucchesino. See Testa.

Luigi, Andrea, called LTngegno. Probably a pupil of Niccolo Alunno. Very little is known of his history. He was established as an artist as early as 1484. He was a native of Assisi, and there are various pictures on the walls of houses there ascribed to Luigi.



PICTURE OF S. URSULA, IN THE CATH. OF COLOGNE. BY BTEPHAK LOTHESBE.


LUIGI — LUTMA. 381

A Madonna with saints and angels, in the Louvre, is called his, also a beautiful Madonna, dated 1505, in S. Spirito at Florence, but there are grave doubts about the latter. He relinquished painting and gave himself to civil affairs.

Luini or Lovini, Bernardino, born at Luino on Lake Mao-o-iore (about 1460-1530). If not the pupil, he was the most successful fol- lower of Leonardo da Vinci, indeed, many of his works have been attributed to Leonardo. But his pencil was less masculine than that of his master. His coloring; was clear and warm, his figures beau- tiful, and his conceptions full of grace and tender feeling. His best works are elaborately finished. He is not as great as Leonardo, but he has scarcely received the attention and admiration he merits. The " Herodias," in the Tribune of the Uffizi, and the half-length of the " Infant Baptist playing with the Lamb," in the Ambrosian Gall, at Milan, were long credited to Leonardo; a Madonna between SS. Catherine and Barbara, in the Esterhazy Gall. , is still inscribed with his name, but competent judges ascribe not only these, but also " Christ disputing with the Doctors," and " Vanity and Modesty," to Luini. He executed many frescoes. The Brera is rich in those which have been removed from the walls Avhere they were painted; it has also many of his easel pictures. The Ambrosian Library, the Casa Silva, and the Monastero Magcriore (S. Maurizio), all at Milan, have fine works by Luini. His frescoes in the ch. of Saronno, exe- cuted about 1530, are well preserved and very fine. His works at the Cath. of Como contain some figures of surprising beauty.

Lundens, Gerrit or Gerard. A Dutch painter who flourished prob- ably late in the 1 7th century. Nothing is known of his life. He painted interiors and merry-makings. His works were formerly only seen in Holland, but of late a few have been brought to England.

Luti, Cavalierc Benedetto, born at Florence (1666-1724). It is to be regretted that this artist spent much time in working with cray- ons, which are so perishable. The Grand Duke gave him the means to visit Rome, where he attracted the attention of Pope Clement XI, from whom he received commissions and the Order of the Cross. His works are in several churches of Rome, but the " Vest of S. Ra- nieri," in the Cath. of Pisa, is considered his chef-d'oeuvre. He also left the two following etchings, which are now scarce : —

The Crucifixion, with S. John and the Magdalene at the foot of the Cross.

A Landscape; after Guercino.

Lutma, Janus or John, born at Amsterdam. An engraver and goldsmith. There are a few plates by Lutma which are scarce and much esteemed. They are as follows : —

Portrait of his Father; Janus Lutma, Posteri fati ; opus mallei per Janune, fee.

His own Portrait; Janus Lutma Batavus, per se. opere mallei 1681.


382 LUTMA — LYSIPPUS.

J. Vondelius ; Olor Batavus ; opus mallei, per J. Lufma.

P. C. Hooft; Alter Tacitus : opus mallei, per J. Lutma.

The above were executed in a peculiar manner, with a chisel or punch and a mallet. This he called opus mallei. The two following are engraved in the manner of Rembrandt, and are much admired : —

Joannes Lutma, Aurifex. It is a likeness of his father in a furred robe ; he has his spectacles in one hand, and a porte-crayon in the other; signed, Joannes Lutma, Junior, fecit Ao. 1656.

Joannes Lutma, Junior ; seated at a table drawing, with a large hat which overshadows his face ; very scarce.

Lutzelburger, Hans, called also Hans Franck. An old wood-en- graver who engraved principally the works of Hans Holbein. He lived early in