From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Northern Italy is a wide cultural, historical and geographical definition, without any administrative worth, used to indicate the northern part of the Italian nation. It comprises two areas belonging to Italian First level NUTS of the European Union:
- North-East (Nord-Est) that includes the regions of: Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto
Northern Italy was inhabited by Celts and protoceltic tribes in the "Lombard Valley", while etrurian people settled in Tuscany, that, as the recent studies show, have to be identified with the "People of the Sea", a german wave in the mediterrean sea before the start of the classic age. After the roman invasion, the Lombardy ( as the northern regions and Tuscany have been called as a whole entity until the born of Italy ) became a strategic region of the Empire when the german incursions started in the late 2 AD. In this period important celtic cities, like Turin and Milan, were transformed in military settlements in order to provide with the best defense Rome and the regions of Italy. Lombardy, Austria, Bavaria and Hungary became the target of the oriental german people's invasions ( Ostroghots, Avars, Lombards ) and since this people used to adopt the language of the conquered people as well of the conquerors they mixed their language with that of the magyars, the western germans ( the first case ) and the latins( the second case ). The Kingdom of Lombards lasted two centuries. After their fall caused by the French army of Carolus Magnus, the crown of the Lombards ( The Iron Crown ) was owned by the Holy Roman Emperor. In the 13 century the Lombard league and the Tuscan League opposed themselves to the power of the emperor to gain more autonomy but they didnt leave the Empire, that was useful to limit the ambitions of the Popes in Lombardy. The several wars among the lombard states among the 14 and the 16 cent. increased the distances while each duche or republique prefered in this period to come their power from the absolute one of the divine roman emperors or from the ownership of the high virtues and qualities of the ancient roman republique, in order to get the respect of the greater european sovereigns. Lawrence of Medici the Magnificent was in late to find an equilibrium of power among the major lombard states that could preserve the lombard independence and evidenty the "roman tells" shew to be ineffecetive since from 16 cent the major european nations started the race to conquer as much as possible of the Lombardy. In the 18th cent. Austria monopolized the power and a new age of intellectual and economic renaissance started. The feelings against Austria and the disdain of the ancient states rose in the 19th cent and they were caused by the emperialism and the neoclassic trends that were inspired by the british and french conquerers in the Mediterranean Sea and their discoveries of the classic wonders. The new State that born from several wars against the Austrian Empire established Rome as the new capital. The Florence rumours that followed that choise were silenced by the army. Venice, Milan and their countrysides were looted and spoiled following the same destiny that suffered Genoa 1 century before. The Iron Crown, that Napoleon had used 50 years before to legitimize his rule on Lombardy was abandoned in the Monza Cathedral and substituted by the Sardinia Crown. A new epoque of romanization and strong emigration flows from the south to populate the lombard cities was started. A new and more geographic definition (Northern Italy or Settentrione) replaced the historical and ethnic name of "Lombardy".