From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artistry, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a time or a play is generally not considered to be modeling, regardless of the nature of the role. However, many models have also described themselves as actors. The models have to express an emotion and feeling in their photographs. Types of models include glamour, fashion, fitness, bikini, fine-art, and body-part models.
Models are frequently used for training art students, but are also employed by accomplished artists. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography. Although commercial motives dominate over the esthetics in advertising, its 'artwork' commonly employs models.
Throughout the history of Western art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most useful tool in developing the skill of draftsmanship. In some cases, the model may pose with various props, other models, props, against real or artificial background, and under various lighting conditions.
Models for life drawing classes are often entirely nude apart from visually non-obstructive personal items such as small jewelry or eyeglasses. Job advertisements seeking nude models use various terms such as "undraped" or "disrobed". Models may wear a cache-sexe to hide the genitals. Eadward Muybridge's historic scientific studies of the male and female form in motion, for example, has examples of both usages.
In Western countries, there is generally no objection to either sex posing nude for or drawing members of the opposite sex. However, this was not always so in the past, particularly prior to the 20th century. In 1886 Thomas Eakins was famously dismissed from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art for removing the loincloth from a male model in a mixed classroom. Similarly, Victorian modesty required the female model to pose nude with her face draped (illustration). European arts academies did not allow women to study the nude at all until the end of the nineteenth century. Up into the present day some rare art classes prefer male models to wear a jockstrap.
Policies vary regarding male models having an erection. Some instructors don't mind at all (especially with younger or inexperienced models), while others, including the Register of Artists' Models (RAM) in the United Kingdom, this is cause for termination.
- Academy figure
- Child modeling
- Hip hop model
- Internet modeling
- List of black fashion models
- Promotional model
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