Max Ernst  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism. He is best-known for such paintings as The Eye of Silence (1943-1944) and the collage novel Une semaine de bonté (1934).

Contents

Legacy

Max Ernst's life and career are the subject of Peter Schamoni's 1991 documentary Max Ernst. Dedicated to the art historian Werner Spies, it was assembled from interviews with Ernst, stills of his paintings and sculptures, and the memoirs of his wife Dorothea Tanning and son Jimmy. The 101-minute German film was released on DVD with English subtitles by Image Entertainment.

In 2005, "Max Ernst: A Retrospective" opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and included works such as Celebes (1921), Ubu Imperator (1923), and Fireside Angel (1937), which is one of the few definitively political pieces and is sub-titled The Triumph of Surrealism depicting a raging bird-like creature that symbolizes the wave of fascism that took over Europe. The exhibition also includes Ernst's works that experiment with free association writing and the techniques of frottage, created from a rubbing from a textured surface; grattage, involving scratching at the surface of a painting; and decalcomania, which involves altering a wet painting by pressing a second surface against it and taking it away.

Ernst's son Jimmy, a well known German/American abstract expressionist painter, who lived on the south shore of Long Island, died in 1984. His memoirs, A Not-So-Still Life, were published shortly before his death. His grandson Eric and granddaughter Amy are both artists and writers.

Ernst in modern culture

  • Many of Ernst's works from Une Semaine de Bonté are used in albums by American rock group The Mars Volta, and Barefoot In The Head, a collaboration between guitarist Thurston Moore and saxophonists Jim Sauter and Don Dietrich of Borbetomagus, features a collage from this same book.
  • The American rock group Mission of Burma titled two songs after the artist: "Max Ernst" was the b-side of their first 1978 single (now included on the CD edition of Signals, Calls and Marches), mentioning two of Ernst's paintings (The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus and Garden Airplane-Trap) and ending with the words "Dada dada dada ..." repeated many times and distorted via tape loop; their 2002 album OnOffOn features "Max Ernst's Dream".

Selected works

  • And the butterflies began to sing (Et les Papillions se Mettent a Chanter) (1929)
  • Aquis Submersus (1919)
  • Capricorn (1948)
  • Europe After the Rain (1940-1942)
  • Forest and Dove (1927)
  • La femme 100 têtes (The hundred-headed woman or The woman without a head) (1929)
  • Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (1919-1920)
  • Loplop Introduces Loplop (1930)
  • Lunar Asparagus (1935)
  • Murdering Airplane (1920)
  • Pietà or Revolution by Night (1923)
  • The Elephant Celebes (1921)
  • The Hat Makes the Man (1920)
  • The Robing of the Bride (1940)
  • The Wood (1927)
  • Trophy, Hypertrophied (1919)
  • Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale (1924)
  • Une Semaine de Bonté (1934)
  • A Friends Reunion (1922)
  • Ambiguous Figures (1 Copper Plate, 1 Zinc Plate, 1 Rubber Cloth...) (1919/1920),
  • Approaching Puberty or the Pleiads (1921)
  • Apres Moi le Sommeil (1958)
  • Birds, Fish-Snake and Scarecrow (1921)
  • Castor and Pollution (1923)
  • Corps Enseignant Pour une École de Tueurs (1967)
  • Dada Gauguin (1920)
  • Dadaville (1924)
  • Dangerous Correspondence (1947)
  • Day and Night (1941-1942)
  • Der grosse Wald (1927)
  • Design in Nature (1947)
  • Die Erwählte des Bösen (1928)
  • Ein Mond ist guter Dinge (1970)
  • Eve, the Only One Left to Us (1925)
  • Farewell My Beautiful Land of Marie Laurencin. Help! Help! (1919)
  • Fishbone Forest (1927)
  • Forêt (1927)
  • Fruit of a Long Experience (1919)
  • Grand Ignorant (1965)
  • Gulf Stream (1927)
  • Here Everything is Still Floating (1920)
  • Histoire Naturelle (1923)
  • Holy Caecilie - The Invisible Piano (1923)
  • Human Form (1931)
  • Landscape with Wheatgerm (1936)
  • L'Ange du Foyer ou Le Triomphe du Surréalime (1937)
  • L’oiseau Rose/Der Rosa Vogel (1956)
  • Men Shall Know Nothing of This (1923)
  • Mer et Soleil - Lignes de Navigation (1925)
  • Moonmad (1944)
  • Napoleon in the Wilderness (1944)
  • Nordlicht am Nordrhein (1968)
  • Oedipus Rex (1922)
  • Painting for Young People (1943)
  • Paris Dream (1925)
  • Parisian Woman (1950)
  • Paysage Arizona (1960)
  • Petite Feerie Nocturne (1958)
  • Phases of the Night (1946)
  • Rêve d'une Petite Fille Qui Voulut Entrer au Carmel (1930)
  • Seascape (1921)
  • Snow Flowers (1929)
  • Spanish Physician (1940)
  • Surrealism and Painting (1942)
  • The Angel of Hearth and Home (1937)
  • The Couple in Lace (1925)
  • The Entire City (1934)
  • The Equivocal Woman (1923)
  • The Eye of Silence (1943-1944)
  • The Garden of France (1962)
  • The Gramineous Bicycle Garnished with Bells the Dappled Fire Damps and the Echinoderms Bending the Spine to Look for Caresses (1920-1921)
  • The King Playing with the Queen (1944)
  • The Kiss (1927)
  • The Numerous Family (1926)
  • The Nymph Echo (1936)
  • The Sea (1928)
  • The Small Fistule that Says Tic Tac (1920)
  • The Table is Set (1944)
  • The Temptation of St. Anthony (1945)
  • The Weatherman (1951)
  • The Whole City (1935)
  • Tree of Life (1928)
  • Two Ambiguous Figures (1919)
  • Ubu Imperator (1923)
  • Ursachen der Sonne (1960)
  • Vox Angelica (1945)
  • Young Chimera (1921)
  • Window (1943)
  • Woman, Old Man and Flower (1923-1924)
  • Zoomorphic Couple (1933)

Ernst in modern culture

  • Many of Ernst's works from Une Semaine de Bonté are used in albums by American rock group The Mars Volta, and Barefoot In The Head, a collaboration between guitarist Thurston Moore and saxophonists Jim Sauter and Don Dietrich of Borbetomagus, features a collage from this same book.
  • The American rock group Mission of Burma titled two songs after the artist: "Max Ernst" was the b-side of their first 1978 single (now included on the CD edition of Signals, Calls and Marches), mentioning two of Ernst's paintings (The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus and Garden Airplane-Trap) and ending with the words "Dada dada dada ..." repeated many times and distorted via tape loop; their 2002 album OnOffOn features "Max Ernst's Dream".

Selected works

  • And the butterflies began to sing (Et les Papillions se Mettent a Chanter) (1929)
  • Aquis Submersus (1919)
  • Capricorn (1948)
  • Europe After the Rain (1940-1942)
  • Forest and Dove (1927)
  • La femme 100 têtes (The hundred-headed woman or The woman without a head) (1929)
  • Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (1919-1920)
  • Loplop Introduces Loplop (1930)
  • Lunar Asparagus (1935)
  • Murdering Airplane (1920)
  • Pietà or Revolution by Night (1923)
  • The Elephant Celebes (1921)
  • The Hat Makes the Man (1920)
  • The Robing of the Bride (1940)
  • The Wood (1927)
  • Trophy, Hypertrophied (1919)
  • Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale (1924)
  • Une Semaine de Bonté (1934)
  • A Friends Reunion (1922)
  • Ambiguous Figures (1 Copper Plate, 1 Zinc Plate, 1 Rubber Cloth...) (1919/1920),
  • Approaching Puberty or the Pleiads (1921)
  • Apres Moi le Sommeil (1958)
  • Birds, Fish-Snake and Scarecrow (1921)
  • Castor and Pollution (1923)
  • Corps Enseignant Pour une École de Tueurs (1967)
  • Dada Gauguin (1920)
  • Dadaville (1924)
  • Dangerous Correspondence (1947)
  • Day and Night (1941-1942)
  • Der grosse Wald (1927)
  • Design in Nature (1947)
  • Die Erwählte des Bösen (1928)
  • Ein Mond ist guter Dinge (1970)
  • Eve, the Only One Left to Us (1925)
  • Farewell My Beautiful Land of Marie Laurencin. Help! Help! (1919)
  • Fishbone Forest (1927)
  • Forêt (1927)
  • Fruit of a Long Experience (1919)
  • Grand Ignorant (1965)
  • Gulf Stream (1927)
  • Here Everything is Still Floating (1920)
  • Histoire Naturelle (1923)
  • Holy Caecilie - The Invisible Piano (1923)
  • Human Form (1931)
  • Landscape with Wheatgerm (1936)
  • L’Ange du Foyer ou Le Triomphe du Surréalime (1937)
  • L’oiseau Rose/Der Rosa Vogel (1956)
  • Men Shall Know Nothing of This (1923)
  • Mer et Soleil - Lignes de Navigation (1925)
  • Moonmad (1944)
  • Napoleon in the Wilderness (1944)
  • Nordlicht am Nordrhein (1968)
  • Oedipus Rex (1922)
  • Painting for Young People (1943)
  • Paris Dream (1925)
  • Parisian Woman (1950)
  • Paysage Arizona (1960)
  • Petite Feerie Nocturne (1958)
  • Phases of the Night (1946)
  • Rêve d'une Petite Fille Qui Voulut Entrer au Carmel (1930)
  • Seascape (1921)
  • Snow Flowers (1929)
  • Spanish Physician (1940)
  • Surrealism and Painting (1942)
  • The Angel of Hearth and Home (1937)
  • The Couple in Lace (1925)
  • The Entire City (1934)
  • The Equivocal Woman (1923)
  • The Eye of Silence (1943-1944)
  • The Garden of France (1962)
  • The Gramineous Bicycle Garnished with Bells the Dappled Fire Damps and the Echinoderms Bending the Spine to Look for Caresses (1920-1921)
  • The King Playing with the Queen (1944)
  • The Kiss (1927)
  • The Numerous Family (1926)
  • The Nymph Echo (1936)
  • The Sea (1928)
  • The Small Fistule that Says Tic Tac (1920)
  • The Table is Set (1944)
  • The Temptation of St. Anthony (1945)
  • The Weatherman (1951)
  • The Whole City (1935)
  • Tree of Life (1928)
  • Two Ambiguous Figures (1919)
  • Ubu Imperator (1923)
  • Ursachen der Sonne (1960)
  • Vox Angelica (1945)
  • Young Chimera (1921)
  • Window (1943)
  • Woman, Old Man and Flower (1923-1924)
  • Zoomorphic Couple (1933)





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