Architecture of Italy
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Architecture of Italy, often called Italian architecture refers to all forms of this art in Italy. Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, due to Italy's division into several city-states until 1861. However, this has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs. Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structure during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th century, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States of America during the late-17th to early 20th centuries. Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum, the Duomo of Milan, Florence cathedral and the building designs of Venice are found in Italy. Italy has an estimated total of 100,000 monuments of all varieties (museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains).
Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. Italianate architecture, popular abroad from the 16th to mid-20th century, was used to describe foreign architecture which was built in an Italian style. British architect Inigo Jones, inspired by the avant-garde designs of Italian buildings and cities, in the early-17th century, brought back these ideas with him to London, and ever since, this Italianate architecture has been popular in construction designs all over the world.
Post–World War II and modernist architecture
Two Italian architects have received the Pritzker Architecture Prize: Aldo Rossi (1990) and Renzo Piano (1998). Some of the main architects working in Italy between the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st are Renzo Piano, Massimiliano Fuksas and Gae Aulenti. Piano's works include Stadio San Nicola in Bari, Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome, the renovation works of the Old Port of Genoa, Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church in San Giovanni Rotondo; among Fuksas' projects (Template:Asof) are Grattacielo della Regione Piemonte (skyscraper of Piedmont Region) and Centro Congressi Italia Nuvola at EUR, Rome. Gae Aulenti's Italian works feature the renovation works of Palazzo Grassi in Venice and the Stazione Museo ("Museum Station") of Naples Metro.
Other remarkable figures for contemporary architecture in Italy are the Swiss Mario Botta (Museo d'arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto, renovation of La Scala in Milan), Zaha Hadid (National Museum of the 21st Century Arts in Rome, skyscraper "Lo Storto" in Milan), Richard Meier (Jubilee Church and cover building of Ara Pacis, both in Rome), Norman Foster (Firenze Belfiore railway station), Daniel Libeskind (skyscraper "Il Curvo" in Milan) and Arata Isozaki (Palasport Olimpico in Turin, together with Pier Paolo Maggiora and Marco Brizio; skyscraper "Il Dritto" in Milan).