Italian Painters  

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"Except the face, probably no part of the human body is more characteristic, individual, significant, and expressive than the hand; to represent it satisfactorily has ever been one of the chief difficulties which artists have had to contend with, and one which only the greatest have been completely successful in overcoming. Of this, both painting and sculpture afford us ample proof. I have given a few examples of characteristic hands." --Italian Painters[1]

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Die Werke Italienischer Meister, (1870s, "The work of the Italian masters") is a work on early Italian painting by the Italian Giovanni Morelli. It was translated as Italian Painters.

It appeared under the anagrammatic pseudonym "Ivan Lermolieff".

Full text[2]

ITALIAN PAINTERS


PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE A_XD CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE

LONDON

1

ITALIAN PAINTERS

CRITICAL STUDIES OF THEIR WORKS

By GIOVANNI MORELLI

(IVAN LERMOLIEFF)

THE BORGHESE AND DORIA-PAM FILI GALLERIES IN ROME '


TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY

CONSTANCE JOCELYN FFOULKES

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

THE EIGHT HON. SIR A. H. LAYARD, G.C.B., D.C.L.

COBRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE INSTITUT DE FRANCE

MEMBER OF THE PRUSSIAN ORDER OF MERIT

TRUSTEE OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY, ETC.


WITH ILLUSTRATIONS


LONDON JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMARLE STEEET

1892




'Ill


THEGE . >.t£lN.TER


CONTENTS.


PAGK

LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS vii

i

INTRODUCTION BY SIR H. LAYARD [l]

PREFACE [41]

PRINCIPLES AND METHOD 1

THE BORGHESE GALLERY 64

TUSCAN SCHOOL 82

LOMBARD SCHOOL 151

FERRARESE SCHOOL ....... 200

VENETIAN SCHOOL 234

NORTHERN MASTERS 246

THE DOBIA-PAMFILI GALLERY 250

TUSCAN PAINTERS 253

VENETIAN PAINTERS 259

INDEX . 325


LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.


FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE MADONNA AND CHILD, BY SODOMA ; IN THE BRERA . . . [26]

MADONNA AND CHILD, BY GIULIO ROMANO ] IN THE COLLECTION OF

MISS HERTZ, ROME ' . [2c]

THE SO-CALLED FORNARINA, BY SEBASTIANO DEL PIOMBO ; IN THE

UFFIZI .39

THE DONNA VELATA, BY RAPHAEL ; IN THE PITTI . . . . 62

THE FORNARINA; IN THE BARBERINI GALLERY . . . .65

THE VIERGE AU SEIN, BY BACCHIACCA 105

PORTRAIT OF A BOY, BY BACCHIACCA, ATTRIBUTED TO RAPHAEL ; IN

THE LOUVRE 106

ADAM AND EVE, BY BACCHIACCA ; IN THE COLLECTION OF DR.

FRIZZONI, MILAN 106

CARTOON BY PERUGINO, FOR HIS PICTURE APOLLO AND MARSYAS,

IN THE LOUVRE ; IN THE VENICE ACADEMY . . . .106

MADDALENA STROZZI AS ST. CATHERINE ; IN THE BORGHESE

GALLERY 118

PEN-DRAWING FOR AN ENTOMBMENT, BY RAPHAEL; IN THE COLLEC- TION OF HERR HABICH, CASSEL 137

THE ADORATION OF THE INFANT SAVIOUR, DRAWING BY PERINO DEL

VAGA ; IN THE ALBERTINA, VIENNA 140

PEN-DRAWING BY RAPHAEL FOR HIS FRESCOES IN THE FARNESINA ;

COLOGNE GALLERY 143

THE TRIUMPH OF S1LENUS, DRAWING BY PERINO DEL VAGA ;

ALBERTINA . . . . . . . . . . . 145

SKETCH BY PERINO AT WINDSOR FROM A COMPOSITION BY RAPHAEL

FOR THE " DISPUTA DEL SACRAMENTO " , . . . . 145


viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

TAGS THE DESTRUCTION OF PHARAOH AND HIS HOST, DRAWING BY

PERINO ; IN THE LOUVRE 146

JOSEPH INTERPRETING HIS DREAM, DRAWING BY PERINO FROM A

SKETCH BY RAPHAEL ; ALBERTINA 146

LEDA, COPY AFTER SODOMA J IN THE BORGHESE GALLERY . . . 152

PEN-DRAWING BY SODOMA, FOR LEDA ; AT WEIMAR . . .156

PEN-DRAWING BY SODOMA, FOR LEDA ; CHATSWORTH . . . . 156

SKETCH FOR LEDA, BY SODOMA ; WINDSOR 156

PEN-DRAWING FOR THE HEAD OF LEDA, SODOMA ; WINDSOR . . 156

PEN-DRAWING BY SODOMA FOR THE MARRIAGE OF ALEXANDER ; IN

THE UFFIZI 158

THE COLOMBINA, BY GIANPIETRINO ; IN THE HERMITAGE, ST.

PETERSBURG 162

TWO STUDIES IN RED CHALK FOR THE INFANT SAVIOUR, BY CESARE

DA SESTO J WINDSOR 168

THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. SEBASTIAN, BY CESARE DA SESTO ;

DRAWING AT WINDSOR 168

PORTRAIT OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN, BY AMBROGIO DE PREDIS ',

VIENNA 180

PORTRAIT OF AN UNKNOWN LADY OF THE HOUSE OF SFORZA, BY

A. DE PREDIS ; AMBROSIANA 186

PORTRAIT OF LODOVICO SFORZA, BY A. DE PREDIS ; IN THE

" LIBRO DEL JESUS," TRIVULZIO PALACE, MILAN . . .186

DRAWING FOR THE PORTRAITS OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN AND

HIS WIFE, BY A. DE PREDIS ; IN THE VENICE ACADEMY . . 187

MADONNA AND CHILD BY BENARDINO DE' CONTI ; ST. PETERSBURG 192

PORTRAIT OF MASSIMILIANO SFORZA WHEN A CHILD, BY B. DE'

CONTI ; AMBROSIANA . . . . . . . . . 193

MADONNA AND CHILD, BY CARLO CRIVELLI J IN THE GALLERY AT

VERONA 27G

WOODCUTS IN TEXT.

FAUN, BY SEBASTIANO DEL PIOMBO 42

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, IN THE LOUVRE 44

EAR OF SEBASTIANO DEL TI0MP.0 44


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. IX

PAGE TWO FIGURES BY MICHAEL ANGELO ; FROM THE CEILING OF THE

SISTINE CHAPEL 45

THE BALL OF THE THUMB IN TITIAN'S PICTURES .... 47

HANDS (FRA FILIPPO LIPP FILIPPINO, ANTONIO POLLAJUOLO, BER- NARDINO DE' CONTI, GIO ANNI BELLINI, COSIMO TURA, BRA-

MANTINO, BOTTICELLI) 77

EARS (FRA FILIPPO, FILIPPINO, SIGNORELLI, BRAMANTINO, MAN-

TEGNA, GIOVANNI BELLINI, BONIFAZIO, BOTTICELLI) . . .78

EAR AND HANDS OF BOTTICELLI 82

EAR OF LORENZO DI CREDI 90

EAR OF TOMMASO 90

EAR OF SIGNORELLI 93

THE HANDS IN THE PORTRAIT OF COSIMO DE' MEDICI, BY PON-

TORMO . . . . . . . . . . . 129

EAR OF ANTONELLO DA MESSINA 245

EAR OF GIOVANNI BELLINI 245

ST. ANTHONY, BY PESELLINO ; IN THE FLORENCE ACADEMY . . 256

PESELLINO'S FOLDS 258


Errata.

Page 86, paragraph 12, line 2, for 578 read 125.

95, note 4, line 8, for Turin Academy read Turin Gallery.

119, line 1. for Abozzo read Abbozzo.

121, note, line 7, and elsewhere, for Eoselli read Rosselli.

198, line 25, for of about 1554 read of 1554.

279, line 8, for Signor read Count.


INTRODUCTION.


I have been asked to write an introduction to the following translation from the German, by Miss Jocelyn Ffoulkes, of the well-known studies on early Italian painting by the late Senator Giovanni Morelli, published by him under the pseudonym of ' Ivan LerinolieftV A close friendship, extending over nearly forty years, with that remarkable and highly-gifted man, with whom I was in constant correspondence, and to whom I owe, to a great extent, such acquaintance as I have with Italian art, enables me to speak with some confidence of his character, his views, and his work. I the more willingly avail myself of this opportunity to say something with respect to them as they have been misunderstood, and, I fear, sometimes maliciously misrepresented. I feel, indeed, almost called upon to do so in consequence of a personal attack upon my departed friend which appeared in the ' Fortnightly Review ' of last October, from the pen of Dr. William Bode, the director of the Berlin gallery, a gentleman of some repute as a ' professional art-critic,' and the leader of that small band of connoisseurs who reject the opinions and method of Morelli. It was hoped by Morelli's friends that, when the grave had closed over him, the controversy in which he


[2] INTRODUCTION.

had been engaged -with the German professor would have ceased ; and certainly a generous and chivalrous opponent would have been silent over his tomb. Not that he would have been in any way hurt or offended by Dr. Bode's attack upon him. It would, on the contrary, have afforded him no small amusement. He was not in the habit of noticing mere scurrilous abuse, although he was never backward in answering, with merciless logic, those who, engaged in the same pursuits as himself, differed from him in opinion, and sometimes expressed their dissent with unnecessary warmth. He adopted, it is true, a bantering and somewhat sarcastic tone in his criticisms on his opponents, calculated to cause offence, and this is, perhaps, to be regretted. His banter and his irony were, however, consistent with his assumed character of an ignorant Eussian, who sought instruction in art from those who professed to be the highest authorities on the subject, but whom Morelli believed to be pretentious pedants, little acquainted with its true principles, and who consequently were guilty of egregious and misleading mis- takes. But he avoided personalities. It was the class, not the individual, against which his shafts were directed, and he fought like a gentleman with a polished rapier, and not like a clown with a bludgeon. He never conde- scended to ill-mannered vituperation, and with his amiable and kindly nature he would have shrunk from causing pain to any human being. Br. Bode denounces him as a ' Swiss physician who was educated in Germany, and had of late taken his seat in the Senate at Borne, and who had strung together into a theory his experiences as an


INTRODUCTION. [3]

old and lucky hand at collecting,' and as a ' quack doctor ' who ' extolled his method with an air of infallibility.' Morelli's irony, when playfully turned against those pro- fessors and experts who, whilst pretending to infallibility, have added spurious works to the institutions over which they preside, was no doubt keen and cutting. That it touched and vexed those who felt that they had exposed themselves to it is sufficiently proved by the tone and temper of the article in the ' Fortnightly Keview.' But it is somewhat surprising that the director of a renowned German gallery should thus seek to revenge himself upon his critic after his death. That the taunts launched by Herr Bode and others against Morelli are not only un- founded, but contrary to the truth, those who knew my friend are well aware. How little he deserved to be called a 'Bomanised Swiss,' a ' quack doctor,' and a mere ' amateur,' will be seen by the following sketch of his life and labours. Giovanni Morelli is said to have been descended from a Protestant family which had fled from the south of France to escape the persecution to which the Huguenots were exposed in the reign of Louis XIV., and had sought refuge in Geneva. Such is the statement of the Marquis Visconti Venosta in a touching obituary notice of his deceased friend, contributed to the ' Perseveranza ' newspaper ; and he must have had good grounds for making it, although I am assured that there is no evidence to support it. Morelli himself affirmed that his ancestors were members of an illustrious Venetian patrician family, who had professed the Lutheran faith at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and had been compelled to fly from Venice to the south of


[4] INTRODUCTION.

France. To escape detection they assumed the name of Morelli, which was that of one of their servants. His father, a native of "Woeschbach, on the Lake of Constance, crossed the Alps and settled at Verona, where he success- fully engaged in some industrial enterprises, and became President of the Chamber of Commerce. He married a lady of Bergamo of a Protestant family of the name of Zavaritt. His son was born at Verona on February 25, 1816 ; but, having been left an orphan at an early age, was taken by his mother to her native city, where he was brought up. As he dwelt there for many years of his life, Morelli came to consider himself a native and citizen of Bergamo, for which picturesque and famous city he ever retained the most lively attachment. He was accus- tomed to boast, in his pleasant manner, that he was a thorough Bergamesque, with some of the good qualities and most of the peculiarities which form the comic side of the character of that sturdy race.

Morelli was destined for the profession of a physician, and after receiving his preliminary education in German- Switzerland was sent, when twenty years of age, to Munich to complete it — for in those days the Italian colleges were closed to Protestants. ' The young Italian,' says a writer in the ' Quarterly Keview,' 1 ' soon gave proof of his many- sided attractiveness. The Eector, Ignatius Dollinger, im- mediately took to him, advised him to study comparative anatomy, accepted him as his pupil, and finally as his assistant ; Von Schubert, the Professor of Natural History,

1 See ' Giovanni Morelli : the Patriot and Critic,' in the Quarterly Beview for July 1891.


INTRODUCTION. [5]

looked equally kindly upon him and encouraged him to frequent his house ; Frederick Biickert, the poet, conceived an ardent friendship for him, and read him his unpublished verses ; and, as a crowning tribute, Genelli, the sculptor (painter), engaged on the subject of Prometheus, persuaded him to stand for his model.' After passing his medical examination he went to Berlin, where he was admitted into the best literary and scientific society, and was espe- cially welcomed by Bettina von Arnim, who was deeply in- terested in him. It was thus that he attained a complete mastership of the German language, in which his published works are written. The late Count Usedom, the well-known diplomatist, and subsequently at the head of the museum of Berlin, once observed to me, speaking of Morelli, 'he has not only taught us art — he has taught us our language.'

After accompanying Agassiz in some of his glacier ex- peditions in Switzerland, Morelli spent some time at Paris, continuing his scientific studies. It was there, I believe, that the great collections of the Louvre first induced him to turn his attention to the fine arts, and led him to visit Kome and Florence with the object of seeing the famous galleries in those cities.

Morelli, a true Italian, with his generous and noble nature, could not be other than an Italian patriot. When, therefore, the revolutionary movement broke out in Italy, in 1848, he abandoned medicine, which he never practised, and hastened to take part in the events which led to the expulsion of the Austrians from Lombardy. He placed himself at the head of a corps of volunteers formed at Bergamo, and distinguished himself by his enterprise


[6] INTRODUCTION.

and bravery, storming the Austrian barracks at Monza, and one of the gates of Milan. The rare qualities of the young man, his great intelligence, his courage and fervent patriotism, were soon recognised by the national provisional government established at Milan, which included amongst its members some of the most eminent men in Italy. Availing themselves of his intimate acquaintance with the German language and with the German character, they sent him to represent them at the national German Parliament then assembled at Frankfort. When there he wrote and pub- lished, in the form of a pamphlet, entitled ' "VVorte eines Lombarden an die Deutschen,' an eloquent appeal to the Germans for their aid and sympathy in the struggle for independence and unity then taking place in his native land — a struggle in which the Germans themselves were engaged. In it he dwelt upon the friendship which should exist between two nations both equally cultured, both endowed with the most splendid traditions of art and literature, and consequently, both equally worthy of liberty. It is somewhat curious that amongst the argu- ments he used to enforce this appeal was one founded upon the superiority achieved by both races in the realms of art. I cannot refrain from quoting the following strik- ing and prophetic passage from it : —

  • In those days when the most virulent of hatreds — that

of religion — divided our respective countries, the noble Raphael was in friendly correspondence with Albert Dvirer, Galileo with Kcppler. Thus, too, in those years when our most illustrious men languished in chains in the dungeons of Spielberg, Goethe addressed kindly and respectful letters


INTEODUCTION. [7]

to Manzoni. That love for the sublmiest of arts and for pure science, which seems to have been more liberally bestowed by Providence as an heritage upon the Italian and German races than upon any others, thus kept them united when savage instincts led powerful rulers to find their advantage in throwing the bloody torch of discord be- tween them. The world nevertheless does not stand still : it moves onwards, although slowly, and at every advancing footstep the light becomes clearer within and around. Through the darkness of barbarism we already see the dawn which foretells a bright day to all nations. And when that day appears, art and science and a flourishing commerce will closely unite Germany and Italy, and a common culture and prosperity will assure the happiness of both nations.'

It will be thus seen that at an early period of his life Morelli had turned his attention to the fine arts — and especially to the Italian masters — and that he had a high appreciation of the intellectual development of Germany, and of the best qualities of the German race. An answer is thus conclusively given to those who, like Dr. Bode, sneer at him as a mere ' amateur,' who had recently picked up his knowledge of art by frequenting the shops of dealers in pictures and antiquities, as well as to those who attribute his somewhat severe criticisms on German directors of picture-galleries, and on German professional art-critics, to a hatred of Germany and the Germans. To this latter accusation he has himself given the following answer in his address to the German people, from which I have already quoted : ' He who appeals to you in the name of his

a


[8] INTRODUCTION.

fellow-countrymen has passed amongst you six of the best years of his youth. Ties of the most intimate friendship and of the deepest gratitude bind him to the comely land to which he owes the cultivation of his heart and of his intellect, and to which he would give the name of his second country if that love of country which is the most sublime, the most ardent, sentiment of man could brook division.' He had, it is true, a deep hatred of pedantry and pretension wherever he detected them. If he denounced the claim to infallibility and the blunders of German professors, he was not less hard upon his own countrymen when they exposed themselves to similar treatment. At the same time, he never hesitated to admit that the study of the fine arts was pursued in Germany with far more industry and scientific method than in Italy or elsewhere in Europe, although he was led to believe that there was a want of method in their manner of dealing with works of art, which offended his independent judgment and the scientific turn of his mind. However antipathetic some pedantic and self-sufficient German professor might be to him, he had the most profound contempt for the directors of Italian galleries and for Italian professional connoisseurs, part of whose business it is to certify to the genuineness of spurious pictures, and to help the dealer in imposing upon the credulous foreigner. He took a malicious pleasure in hold- ing both up to ridicule, which he was in the habit of doing with infinite humour and wit. 2

Morelli's political mission to Frankfort being without

- I remember once going with to which he desired to have Morelli's him to see a picture which its owner opinion. After looking at it for a attributed to Luino, and with respect moment Morelli said very gravely,


INTRODUCTION. [9]

result, lie returned to Italy, and hastened to Venice, then besieged by the Austrians, and took an active part in the defence. After the fall of the city and the re-establishment of the Austrian rule in Lombardy, convinced that the future of Italy was with Piedmont, he joined that group of illustrious statesmen who had gathered round Cavour, and were the founders of their country's unity and independ- ence. He became the valued friend of the poet Manzoni, of Gino Capponi, the patriot -historian of his native Florence, of the dramatist Niccolini, of Marco Minghetti, the future prime minister of United Italy, and of other pro- minent liberal leaders, with whom he carried on an active correspondence, parts of which have been published, and bear high testimony to his statesmanlike views as to the condition and prospects of Italy at a time of general illu- sions, to his political foresight, and to the wisdom and moderation of his opinions ; for he had no confidence in, or sympathy for, extreme revolutionists, who were eager to plunge their country into fresh troubles, regardless of the means which they employed, and of the blood which they caused to be shed. This feeling may be traced in the occasional bantering allusions to the advanced radical and republican parties which occur even in his treatises on art. Nevertheless, when in 1865 the war with Austria was renewed, Morelli placed himself at once under Colonel Guicciardi, who, at the head of a body of volunteers, was engaged in defending the Valtellina against an Austrian

' Lui-no,' with a slight emphasis on been pronounced genuine by the the ' no.' The owner was delighted, great connoisseur, and boasted that his picture had

a 2


[10] INTRODUCTION

invasion. In this mountain warfare he distinguished himself by his intrepidity, activity, and military qualities. I joined him when he was so engaged at Bormio. He had pro- mised to organise a bear hunt for me, which, however, from the failure of the chief performer to appear, never came off.

I made Morelli's acquaintance in the house of Sir James Hudson, the British Minister at Turin, who had the greatest regard and esteem for him. The British Legation was then a privileged place of meeting for Cavour and his political friends, and the most distinguished liberals from all parts of the Peninsula. Morelli was admitted to their counsels, and took part in the great work in which they were engaged — that of preparing the way for the redemption of their country. But he had no taste for politics, which in Italy, at that time, and perhaps necessarily, comprised intrigues and conspiracies repugnant to a man of his upright and honourable character. He turned to art as a solace and a source of occupation to divert his thoughts from the sufferings of his native land under the cruel rule of the stranger. He devoted himself to its study with the earnest- ness and thoroughness of a German, and the acuteness and imagination of an Italian. He made himself acquainted not only with the contents of the principal galleries in Europe, but there was scarcely a village church in Italy containing a picture of any note which he did not visit, sometimes travelling on horseback or on foot in remote and even dangerous parts where there were no roads, and meeting with many adventures, which he would relate in his lively and graphic manner.

When I first met him he was already recognised by


INTRODUCTION. [11 J

those who knew him, and were acquainted with the ardour and success with which he had pursued his studies, as the highest authority in matters connected with Italian art- He had formed a friendship with Mr. Miindler, a distin- guished German connoisseur, at one time connected with our National Gallery, to which he rendered signal services ; and with Sir Charles Eastlake, who, accompanied by Mr. Miindler, was assiduous in visiting public and private collections in Italy in the interests of that great institution of which he was the director. Sir Charles gladly availed himself of Morelli's knowledge and advice. On the other hand, Morelli formed the highest opinion of Sir Charles's taste and critical judgment in matters of art, and of his extensive acquaintance with its history and literature. The value he attached to Mr. Miindler' s opinions as a critic and connoisseur is shown by the frequent reference he makes to him in his works, and by his readiness to accept the views and decisions of even a German, when he believed them to be well-founded, and not arrogantly and dogmatically expressed.

Morelli's means did not permit him to be a collector, but he possessed in his house at Bergamo a few pictures of considerable merit, which his intimate knowledge of the Italian masters had enabled him to discover in the hands of dealers and others who were ignorant of their value. He once told me that one of the greatest sorrows he had experienced in life was when, as a young man having been induced to gamble, he lost a sum of money which he was only able to pay by selling a picture by Mantegna, which he had been fortunate enough to ' pick up,' and which he


[12] INTRODUCTION.

highly prized. The choice and interesting collection of pictures which he bequeathed to the city of Bergamo had been for the most part left to him by a friend, who, however, had collected them under his advice.

In January 1860, King Victor Emanuel, in recognition of Morelli's distinguished services to the national cause, named him a citizen of the Sardinian kingdom. In April 1861 he was chosen to represent Bergamo in the Italian Chambers, and was re-elected to three subsequent Par- liaments. His election was the more remarkable as he was a Protestant. The bishop of the city was amongst his warmest supporters, which proved the general esteem felt for his character ; and one of the highest eulogiums upon him, after his death, appeared in the local organ of the clerical party, which extolled his justice, impartiality, and toleration in matters of religion and the interest he took in questions concerning the welfare of his Roman Catholic fellow-citizens. He joined the party — the ' Right ' as it is termed — which was led by the men who had been followers of Cavour, and who adhered to the views and principles of that great statesman. But he was unwilling to take any active part in politics, although always ready to give his advice to his political friends, by whom he was constantly consulted. It was to his favourite subject — the fine arts — that he devoted himself, thinking that he might be more useful to his country by doing so than as a professional politician. He consequently availed himself of an early opportunity to call the attention of the Chambers to the neglect with which the public galleries and museums in Italy were treated, to the gross ignorance displayed by


INTEODUCTION. [13]

those who were in charge of them in naming and classify- ing their contents, and to the fraudulent manner in which pictures and works of art belonging to religious and other public institutions were sold to dealers, to be sent out of Italy. To put a stop to this flagrant abuse Morelli induced the Minister of Public Instruction, in 1862, to appoint a commission, of which he was named a member, to prepare a law for the conservation of works of art — a law which bears his name, and forbids the heads of such insti- tutions, under severe penalties, to alienate what was justly to be considered public property. He has been accused of wishing to prevent the sale, and exportation from Italy, of works of art belonging to private individuals. But so far from such being the case, no one condemned more strongly than he did the illiberal and shortsighted regulations, pro- mulgated by the Italian Government, to prevent the owners of pictures from disposing of them to private persons or to public galleries, and forbidding their exportation — regu- lations which only cause trouble to honest people, and give occasion to the employment by unscrupulous persons of fraudulent means for evading them. Morelli was proud of seeing the art in which his countrymen had excelled, and to which Italy owed so much of her renown, worthily repre- sented in foreign collections, and pictures were not unfre- quently purchased for them on his recommendation. It was only when some work by a very rare and important painter was about to leave the country that he interfered. Thus, when the owners of the Manfrin gallery at Venice were about to sell to the Berlin museum one of the very few genuine works by Giorgione, he urged the Italian Government


[14] INTRODUCTION.

to exercise their right of pre-emption by acquiring it. On then declining to do so, on the ground of want of funds, he induced his friend, the late Prince Giovanelli, to advance the money and to keep the picture, on condition of ceding it to a national institution when the Government was able to refund the price paid for it — a condition which the prince was unwilling, after he had been offered many times the amount, to fulfil.

In consequence of Morelli's representations a com- mission had been appointed by the Italian Government, in April 1861, of which he was named the president, to make a register of all works of art possessed by public institutions in Umbria and the Marches, with power to visit churches, convents, and monasteries, in which such works were believed to exist, for the purpose of making a list of and describing them. Those who attempted to sell or remove them were threatened with severe penalties. With this commission Signor Cavalcaselle was associated, as secretary I believe, and from the facilities which he was thus afforded of seeing and examining pictures, and from the teachings of his dis- tinguished chief, he acquired much of the knowledge which enabled him to publish, in conjunction with Mr. Crowe, his well-known works upon the Italian schools of painting.

The power thus conferred upon Morelli to visit even convents of women, from which men were strictly ex- cluded, gave rise occasionally to amusing incidents, which he was fond of relating. I happened to accompany him on one of these visits. He had heard that there existed in a convent a signed picture by a somewhat rare master — Marco Marziale — which he was desirous of examining.


INTRODUCTION. [15]

We knocked at the door, and a nun came to a small lattice to inquire our business. When told of it, she declared that it was quite impossible for us to be admitted. Morelli having informed her of his authority to enter, she went to consult the superior, who shortly afterwards ap- peared, and, yielding with a good grace to the requirements of the law, directed the door to be unlocked. We entered a long corridor into which opened the cells occupied by the nuns. On its walls were hung very indifferent pictures, representing subjects of classical mythology, little fit for the eyes of chaste recluses. Morelli inquired of the superior, in his arch manner, whether they represented the branch of art which was principally studied by the inmates of the monastery ; adding that it was not such pictures that he expected to find in it, but pious representations of the Madonna and Saints. The old lady replied that these pictures had been there from time immemorial. ' There can be no possible objection to your disposing of them,' observed Morelli gravely, ' and perhaps the sooner you get rid of them the better.' She then led us into a parlour in which we found the picture of which we were in search. By this time Morelli had so captivated our guide by the charm of his manner and conversation, that she insisted upon entertaining us with sweetmeats and liqueurs.

Morelli next turned his attention to the reform of the administration of the Italian museums and galleries. He endeavoured to obtain the appointment to them of more competent] directors than those who had been named to the office, chiefly through political or personal favour and intrigue. When his political friends were in power they


[16] INTRODUCTION.

wished him to hold a position which would have given him the supreme direction of all such public institutions, and he was warmly urged to accept it. But he declined to undertake a task which, he was convinced, would have exposed him to constant vexation, and in which he would have had to contend in vain with intrigue, jobbery, and favouritism of every description. He was then offered the more limited office of director of the Florence galleries, which he also refused. His remonstrances, however, as to the neglect with which the Italian galleries were treated, and as to the ignorance displayed by those who had the charge of them in the naming and classifying of pictures, produced some effect. It is difficult to conceive what this ignorance was — and in some instances still is. Spurious works and manifest copies were ascribed to the greatest masters. No distinction was made between the different schools of paint- ing. Pictures, whose authors would have been evident to the merest connoisseur, were attributed to painters with whom in manner they had no connection whatever, and who belonged to entirely different schools. The student sought in vain for instruction ; and the public was only misled. The directors of some galleries were shamed by Morelli's ex- posure into making changes, and his remonstrances have led to improvement ; but the confusion and ignorance which still prevail may be judged of by published catalogues, and by the manner in which the pictures are in some places exhibited, as, for instance, in the Correr museum at Venice, where highly interesting works of the old masters are jumbled up with productions of the last and present century of the vulgarest and most common-place description, hung


INTRODUCTION. [17]

■on a level with the eye, whilst those of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are, in Academy phrase, ' skied ' and beyond the reach of examination.

Another of Morelli's suggestions, adopted by the Govern- ment, is the entrance fee to the galleries and museums paid by visitors, who had previously been exposed to constant annoyance from the attendants and others connected with them, asking for 'buona mano.' From this source funds were to be furnished for the purchase of works of art for the national collections, which in some instances have been judiciously applied to the purpose, but which in others have been wasted owing to the want of intelligence of their directors.

In the later years of his life Morelli dwelt principally at Milan, where he occupied a modest apartment, which contained his choice collection of pictures. He was, however, frequently absent, visiting, over and over again, Germany, France, and England, to study the galleries and private collections of pictures and drawings in those countries. He attended the meetings of the Chambers at Eome when business of importance, or any question in which he was interested, and on which he considered that his vote might be useful to his political friends and to the party to which he belonged, was under discussion. After his elevation to the Senate, which took place in 1873, it was less necessary for him to take an active part in public affairs, and he could devote more time to his favourite pursuit. Although for many years he had been a most diligent and assiduous student of ■ the fine arts, it was not until he was nearly sixty that he ventured to publish


[18] INTRODUCTION

any of the results of his researches. His modest and retiring nature restrained him from doing so, until he hoped that he had attained to some maturity of experience and judgment. His first publication consisted of a series of essays which he contributed in 1874, 1875, and 1876, under the assumed name of ' Ivan Lermolieff,' to a German periodical, ' Liitzow's Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst.' They were written in German, and purported to be a critical description of pictures in the celebrated Borghese gallery at Borne ; but they dealt with many interesting questions relating to the history of Italian painting, and to the works of the early Italian masters. These essays, from the originality of the writer's views, his profound knowledge of his subject, and the boldness of his criticisms, caused a lively sensation in the German artistic world, and much curiosity as to the writer, who, however, successfully preserved his incognito. The success that they achieved induced him to publish in 1880 a volume containing remarks and criticisms on the contents of the galleries of Munich, Dresden, and Berlin, and on the works of the old Italian masters in general. Like his first essays, it was written in German, with the title of ' Ein kritischer Versuch von Ivan Lermolieff ins Deutsche iibersetzt von Johannes Schwarze.' 3 Morelli thus retained his pseudonym, and the whole title was a mystification. ' Lermolieff' was an anagram of his own name with a Bussian termination. ' Johannes Schwarze,' John Black, was Morelli himself —

3 A translation in English by on the Italian Picttcrcs in the

Mrs. Richter was published in 1883, Galleries of Munich, Dresden and

under the title of Italian Masters in Berlin, by (.liovanni Morelli, member

German Galleries : a Critical Essay of the Italian Senate.


INTRODUCTION. [1 9]

Iris name being a diminutive of ' Moro ' (black) — and the place in Eussia from which he pretended to come (Gorlaw) was a small property (Gorli) he possessed in the Brianza, also with a Eussian termination. I have heard that a conscientious and erudite German professor spent much time in a fruitless search for the place in Eussian maps.

The criticisms which this book contained on the directors of these galleries, and its exposure of the way in which spurious works and copies of pictures by the great Italian masters had been unhesitatingly accepted by them as originals, and had consequently been imposed as such upon an ignorant and credulous public, caused an explosion of wrath in Germany against Morelli, who was speedily detected under his assumed name. He was denounced as an impostor with a mere superficial knowledge of art, and his suggestions and criticisms were treated by great pro- fessional art-authorities with indignant contempt. But he took no notice of the attacks upon him, confident that the truth would prevail in the end. It was not long before his confidence was justified. The wrath of the irate German professors gradually cooled, and Morelli secured a triumph which it has been given to few men of letters to enjoy. Some of his most violent opponents became his pupils, catalogues of German galleries had to be rewritten to alter the attribution of pictures according to his views, 4 and even Dr. Bode, considered in Germany a great authority, was not slow, I suspect, in availing himself of Morelli's

4 For instance, the able and con- of 56— of his suggestions, only re- scientious director of the Dresden erving the remainder for further gallery adopted no less than 46— out consideration.


[20] INTRODUCTION.

criticisms and suggestions. The ' Lermolieff mania,' as the learned doctor sarcastically terms it in his article in the ' Fortnightly Review,' had set in, and Morelli came to be recognised in Germany, and in all European countries, by those who were competent to judge, as the greatest con- noisseur and critic of Italian art of his or, indeed, of any other time.

To the very end of his life Morelli was indefatigable in visiting public and private collections and in studying then- contents. The picture gallery in the Imperial Palace at St. Petersburg and those of Copenhagen and Stockholm were, I believe, the only ones of any importance that he had not seen. He was frequently in London, and was in- timately acquainted with our splendid national collection, which he considered the most complete in Europe in the representation of the Italian schools of painting, and con- sequently the most instructive to the student. He specially approved the judgment and care with which the pictures had been selected and their arrangement and classification, which, he considered, reflected the greatest credit upon those who had had its direction and management. He enjoyed the friendship of its three consecutive directors, Sir Charles Eastlake, Sir William Boxall, and Sir Frederick Burton, all of whom set the highest value upon his knowledge and critical judgment, and were ever ready to profit by his advice. In 1872 he spent some time with me in Spain, visiting the churches and galleries of Madrid, Seville, Granada, and other Spanish cities. Besides adding to his knowledge of art, he furnished, I have reason to believe, valuable information to King Victor Emanuel as to the


INTRODUCTION. [21]

prospects of his son Amadeo, who was then on the Spanish throne. In the fine gallery of the Prado, in which he spent many long days, he made several interesting and important discoveries, amongst others that of a fine picture by Gior- gione, which had previously been ascribed to Pordenone, and one by Lorenzo Lotto, which passed for a work by Titian.

Morelli not only turned his attention to pictures by the old Italian masters ; he made a most careful and minute study of their original drawings and sketches. He main- tained that the information derived from such a study afforded the best means of identifying the authors of pic- tures which had for the most part been so ' restored ' and repainted, and even rubbed down to the very priming in the process, that, although little of the original work might remain, yet in the forms of parts of the human frame and in the mode of treatment the master might still be traced. For the whole race of picture cleaners and restorers Morelli had an intense and almost amusing detestation, as if they were not only his personal enemies, but the enemies of those great masters whom he so deeply venerated, and whose works they had without pity destroyed, or so transfigured that serious wrong was done to their memories. And he was justified in this feeling, as the mischief and havoc caused by the cleaner and restorer are incalculable and irremediable.

In pursuing this branch of his studies he had examined almost every collection of the drawings of the old Italian masters in Europe, and had formed an important one himself. He intended to conclude the work, of which


[22] INTRODUCTION.

the two volumes translated into English now about to be published form the first part, by a third which was to treat of the Berlin gallery. An additional volume was to be specially devoted to the subject of the original drawings and sketches of the Italian painters, his criticisms and suggestions with respect to which would, I am disposed to believe, have formed the most important and original portion of his great work. It is deeply to be regretted — although it may be fortunate for Herr Bode — that death prevented the execution of his design.

The discoveries made by Morelli in pursuing his studies and researches are innumerable, and some are of the highest importance to the art-student, who should always have his works at hand. Amongst his many suggestions may be mentioned the attribution to Pintoricchio of the drawings from the famous so-called ' Baphael's Sketch- book,' preserved in the Venice Academy — an attribution, however, which the directors of that gallery have not thought fit to accept. Morelli's announcement that they were not by Baphael, but by Pintoricchio, was at first received with ridicule by well-known writers on the great Umbrian painter. How dared a mere ' amateur ' call in question Baphael's studies contained in his own sketch- book, and the authenticity of which had been recog- nised by the highest authorities, dead and living, and proved by the most unquestionable evidence ! Morelli showed to demonstration that no such evidence existed, and that several of these sketches were studies for existing works by Pintoricchio, which had been executed by that painter whilst Baphael was an infant, or before he was


INTRODUCTION. [23]

born. The name of ' Eaphael's Sketch-book ' had been simply invented by one Bossi, a Milanese artist and collector, living in the first half of this century, who, having acquired what he considered a priceless treasure, boldly pronounced the drawings to be by Eaphael, and as such sold them to the Austrian Government for the Venice Academy. Those who maintained their authenticity against Morel! i first commenced a retreat by admitting that some of them might be by Pintoricchio, whilst others were undoubtedly by Eaphael — it is somewhat curious that the two painters, one a man of middle age and the other an infant, should have used the same sketch-book ! — and that some again were studies by masters of the Florentine school, by Polla- juolo, Luca Signorelli, and I know not whom. 5 Beaten out of this position by Morelli, they have for the most part been compelled to allow that he was right in ascribing all of them to Pintoricchio. This ' Sketch-book ' has been the foundation of many theories respecting Eaphael's life and works, which are now consequently exploded. A drawing, believed to be from it, for the little picture of Apollo and Marsyas, which belonged to the late Mr. Morris Moore, and which he sold for a large sum to the Louvre, upon the condition, very improperly acceded to by the authorities connected with that institution, that it should always be exhibited as a genuine work by Eaphael, furnished that gentleman with what he considered triumphant evidence of


5 Amongst the sketches said to two (on one sheet) undoubtedly by

have been taken from the so-called Eaphael ; but they formed no part

Eaphael's ' Sketch-book ' exhibited of this volume, and are on paper of

in the Venice Academy, there are a different size.


[24] INTRODUCTION.

its authenticity. But it did not even form part of the

  • Sketch-book,' and is on paper of different size and fabric

from that used by Pintoricchio, and is not executed, as his sketches are, in pen and ink. Morelli attributed both sketch and picture to Perugino.

It would take up too much space to recapitulate the numerous discoveries — for such indeed they may be called — made by Morelli in the European picture galleries, and which are described in his published works. I may, how- ever, mention that he was the first to point out, and prove, that the celebrated reclining Magdalen in the Dresden Museum, which had been accepted by learned professional art-critics and connoisseurs as a genuine work by Correggio, and had been the admiration of the public as such, could not possibly be by that master ; but only at most the copy of a lost picture by him, or, perhaps, even an original work by some Flemish painter of the time and school of Vanderwerf; and that a Venus of the utmost beauty, which had been hung almost out of sight in the same gallery— as a copy by Sassoferato of a picture by Titian (!) — was a genuine work by Giorgione, and was to be ranked amongst the finest productions of this great artist. In this case his sagacious judgment was confirmed by a curious piece of evidence. Giorgione's ' Sleeping Venus ' had been described by an anonymous writer of the sixteenth century as being in the possession of the Venetian patrician family of Marcello. To it, this writer states, Titian had added a Cupid seated at her feet. The absence of this Cupid in the Dresden picture was held to be fatal to Morelli' s attribution. In the archives of the gallery, how-


INTRODUCTION. [25]

«ver, has since been found a document which proves that "when the picture was bought the missing Cupid stiU existed, but in so damaged a condition that it was thought best to remove it altogether. This marvellous work, which Titian and other great masters of the period took as their model for their numerous reclining and sleeping Venuses and nude female figures, now forms one of the principal treasures of this famed collection, and is duly honoured by- being suitably hung. It was Morelli, too, who first assigned to Titian the fine picture of " The Daughter of Herodias " in the Doria-Pamfili gallery — one of the master's most delightful works — which had previously been attributed to Pordenone.

Another remarkable instance of the sagacity of Morelli was his discovery — in establishing which he was much engaged during the latter years of his life — that many so- called originals by Eaphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and other painters of the best period of Italian art in public and private galleries, were copies or imitations of their works by highly skilled Flemish artists, who studied in Italy, and made a traffic of them. They have deceived even the practised eye of so eminent a connoisseur as Dr. Bode.

I may mention a further instance of Morelli's almost intuitive recognition of the author of a painting, and of the correctness of his judgment. Last year a collection of pictures was to be offered for sale by auction at Cologne. Small and ill-executed photographs of those of the Italian schools were sent to him. He detected amongst them at once two of importance — one by Bazzi or Sodoma, and one by Giulio Bomano. He wrote to me on the subject,

b2


[26] INTKODUCTION.

and urged me to go to Cologne to see them, which I was unable to do. He then called the attention of two of his German friends to them. On his advice, although he had never seen them, the one he attributed to Bazzi was pur- chased by Herr Habich of Cassel — himself a successful collector and one of Morelli's followers — and proved to be so fine an example of this rare and original painter that, at Morelli's request, Herr Habich generously ceded it to the Brera at Milan, of which it is now one of the principal ornaments. The ' Giulio Romano,' acquired by Miss Hertz, proved to be a charming work of his early time, when he was under the direct influence of his great master. Although German professional experts and con- noisseurs, including, I believe, Dr. Bode, had flocked to Cologne to examine this collection and to attend the sale, they had failed to detect these works, which would have formed a most valuable addition to any public gallery. I give illustrations of both of them. Morelli may further be said to have rehabilitated, if he did not discover and resuscitate, several painters of great merit, whose names had been almost forgotten, and whose works were attributed to other masters. Amongst them may be men- tioned Bernardino de' Conti, Ambrogio Preda or de Predis, and Giovanni Pedrini or Gianpietrino — who have been confounded with Leonardo da Vinci — and Bomanino and Cariani, whose works had been ascribed to Giorgione and Palma Vecchio.

Morelli was no less successful in his criticisms on the history of Italian painting than he had been in the identi- fication of the works of the Italian masters. He proved that



Madonna and Child with Lamis. Sodoma.


To face p. 26.



"Virgin and Child." By Giulio Romano.

(In the possessicm of Miss Hertz.


To face p. [26] of Introduction,


INTKODUCTIOK [27]

in many cases it consisted of mere traditions, not only- unsupported by evidence, but opposed to patent facts. He condemned Vasari, of whose literary abilities, however, he was fully sensible, for having inserted in his biographies of the Italian painters vague gossip and mere reports respecting them, which had reached him second-hand, and for having been too frequently influenced in his judg- ments of their works and character by personal enmity or dislike, or by a desire to extol the merits of those who came from his own part of the peninsula, at the expense of others of equal if not superior merit— a common form of Italian patriotism. A striking instance of this tendency of Vasari is furnished by his unjust treatment of Pintoricchio, one of Morelli's favourite masters, whose cha- racter he has successfully vindicated, and to whose great merits he has called attention, proving that he was the author of works attributed to other painters, such as two frescoes in the Sistine chapel — the "Baptism of Christ" ascribed to Perugino, and the "Journey of Moses," given to Luca Signorelli — and frescoes in the Library of the Duomo at Siena assigned to Eaphael. 6 One of Morelli's most valuable contributions to art-history is his exposure •of the erroneous statements of Vasari concerning the early life and education of Eaphael, which have misled all subsequent biographers of the painter. He proved that not Pietro Perugino, as alleged by that writer, and as generally supposed, had been his first master, but Timoteo Viti, whom Vasari had made his pupil. He supported

6 See Italian Masters in German Galleries, pp. 265-269.


[28] INTRODUCTION.

this view by such a mass of evidence and such conclu- sive arguments that it has now been generally accepted.

It is, I think, to be regretted that Morelli insisted upon publishing his later works under his pseudonym of 1 Lermolieff,' although he allowed Mrs. Richter to give his name in her translation of his * Italian Masters in German Galleries ' as that of the author of the original work. Knowing him as I did, I can understand why he used it when he first appeared as an author. He had a kind of horror of ' appearing in print.' Moreover, his love of fun and his delight in mystifying pretentious pedants induced him to assume the character of an ignorant and simple 1 son of the Steppe,' who, having commenced in his own country the study of art, sought in Germany and Italy instruction from learned professors and professional art- critics. He soon finds that their teachings are full of contradictions, and are manifestly absurd even to his own inexperienced judgment. Thinking for himself, and his eyes having been opened by an intelligent but unpro- fessional Florentine art-critic, he, with much humour, and sometimes, it must be admitted, with cutting, and perhaps needless, sarcasm, exposes the ignorance of those who pre- tend to be infallible teachers and guides in matters of art, and have sometimes the arrangement and direction of great public galleries. Having succeeded in his object, and having been detected in his disguise, he might have thrown it off and appeared in his true name. But he resisted the persuasions of his friends who endeavoured to prevail upon him to do so.

He commenced writing, and continued to write, in


INTRODUCTION. [29]

German — a language as familiar to him as his own — because he felt that it was in Germany that the study of art was the most generally and seriously pursued, whilst in Italy the subject was one which created little interest, and was- in the state which Signor Frizzoni, his friend and pupil, has denned as ' civilta cinese ' ; and because it was in Germany that were to be found the chief opponents of his views. He was, moreover, desirous of showing German critics that in Italy there were persons able to discuss matters of art on the ground which they were disposed to claim as ex- clusively their own.

I must now shortly refer to what Morelli terms his ' Principles and Method.' He has himself denned them in an imaginary dialogue — his favourite mode of expressing his views — between the Eussian seeker after knowledge and an aged Tuscan gentleman with whom he casually makes acquaintance when in the Florence galleries. This gentleman, who, as an ' amateur,' has devoted himself to the study of art, and much despises professors and pro- fessional art-critics, maintains that to form an opinion upon the authenticity of a picture, to judge of its merits, and to determine first the school of painting to which it belongs,, and then by whom painted, it is not merely necessary to collect a number of facts concerning the life of the pre- sumed author, to discover the exact dates of his birth and death, and to point out the misstatements of Vasari and other writers with respect to him. His identification and the genuineness of the work attributed to him should depend upon scientific analysis, upon an accurate know- ledge, derived from long and careful study, of his manner


[80] INTRODUCTION.

and style, and especially of his delineation of the different parts of the human body — or what Morelli denominates ' his treatment of form ' — and of his peculiar sense of colour. In addition, the student should endeavour to associate himself in spirit with the painter to whom he would ascribe a work, and to ascertain whether the mental disposition of the master would have led him thus to treat his subject. This he terms ' the experimental method ' such as employed by Darwin in his scientific researches. He warns the student not to be led away by first impres- sions, and not to depend upon mere guess-work, or upon traditions and doubtful documentary evidence. He exposes the worthlessness of many such traditions which had long been accepted as indisputable facts — such as the attribution of the so-called " Fornarina," in the Tribune of the Uflfizi at Florence, and other pictures in that collection, to Kaphael. He exemplifies the danger of trusting to documentary evidence by various instances, such as that of a distin- guished searcher in the Florence archives, who, because he had found that Fra Diamante, a very inferior follower of Filippo Lippi, had painted at Eome a picture representing "Christ delivering the Keys to Peter," at once jumped to the conclusion that the celebrated fresco in the Sistine chapel of the same subject by Perugino — a master of a totally different school — was really by this almost unknown artist, and hastened to announce his great discovery.

The accusation brought against Morelli by Herr Bode, that he disparaged, and held up to contempt, Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle is unfounded. He fully recognised their industry in collecting facts relating to early Italian art


INTRODUCTION. [31]

and the services which they have rendered to its history. But he disagreed with them as to the manner in which they made use of the data they had collected, or in what he termed their 'method.' He was wont, when in a joking mood, to say of them, and of others whose diligent re- searches in the Italian archives have led to the discovery •of numerous facts relating to the early Italian painters, that they were like truffle-dogs, which found the truffles, but did not know how to make use of them when found. In his later works Morel] i has expressed, it is true, much dissatisfaction with the manner in which Signor Caval- caselle has discharged his official duties as director of the art department in the Ministry of Public Instruction — attributing to him the destruction of the frescoes by Mantegna at Mantua and of other important early wall- paintings, in consequence of the incompetency, if not some- thing worse, of the men he has employed to restore them.

Dr. Bode ventures to write in the article to which I have referred that Morelli, as ' a surgeon,' having had his attention directed to the form of the human body, ' issued a catalogue of the ears, noses, and fingers, the former property of Sandro (Botticelli), Mantegna, Baphael, Titian & Co., and with this schedule in hand every lover of art is to patrol the picture galleries, when he will be able to single out unerringly the different masters in spite of all the wretched mistakes of the directors.' I am surprised that a man of Dr. Bode's intelligence and, it may be presumed, sense of truth should have committed himself to such a statement. It proves how keenly he feels the justice of Morelli's criticisms with respect to himself. It is true that


[32] INTRODUCTION.

Morelli attached much importance to the study of 'form,' and of the manner in which painters were accustomed to delineate the different parts of the human frame, as one of the clues to assist a student in identifying the author of a picture — as a specialist in handwriting identifies the author of a written document by the peculiar forms of some of the letters. He says himself of his method, in the introduction to the second volume of this work, ' it has been asserted in Germany that I profess to recognise a painter and to estimate his work solely by the form of the hand, the finger-nails, the ear, or the toes. Whether this state- ment is due to malice or to ignorance I cannot say ; it is scarcely necessary to state that it is incorrect. What I maintain is, that the forms, more especially those of the hand and ear, aid us in distinguishing the works of a master from those of his imitators, and control the judgment which subjective impressions might lead us to pronounce.' This mode of judging as to the authenticity of a picture has now been generally adopted by serious art-critics and students, as furnishing a valuable, but certainly not the only, test to those who know how to avail themselves of it. Morelli possessed all the qualities required in a con- noisseur and critic — a most extensive knowledge not only of the history of his own country and of others, but of the local history of almost every city and province in Italy, considerable scientific acquirements, an intimate acquaint- ance with nearly all the public and private collections in Europe, a marvellous memory, which enabled him to re- member even the smallest details of a picture that he had once seen, the place it occupied if hung in a gallery, and




INTRODUCTION. [33]

the number it bore, a wonderfully trained eye, unwearied industry, a most refined taste, and a passionate love for all: that is truly great and beautiful. Yet 'the professional critic,' generally an incompetent and unsuccessful artist, sneered at him as ' an amateur.' He has himself answered the sneer in an amusing dialogue which he pretends to have overheard between two gentlemen standing before the well- known double portrait by Eaphael of Beazzano and Navagero, usually known as " Bartolo and Baldo," in the Doria- Pamfili gallery at Borne. One of these gentlemen, a learned professor from Berlin, whom we have little difficulty in identifying, does not hesitate to pronounce dogmatically that the picture is a copy ; the other — Morelli in the garb of an Austrian baron— maintains its genuineness by arguments, to which his antagonist can only reply by a contemptuous shrug of the shoulders. 'My dear Baron,' said he, ' you must admit that you are only an amateur, and have no claim to be a professional art-critic' ' Pro- fessional or not,' replied the other warmly, ' I hold that amateurs who have a real love of art, and who, like myself, have a collection of their own, are quite as much entitled to express an opinion on a work of art as — nay, even better entitled to do so, than — so-called professional critics, who really care no more about a picture than the anatomist cares about the dead body he is dissecting.' Morelli further, in his ' Principles and Method,' thus modestly describes his own qualifications : ' I should never claim for myself either knowledge or endowments sufficient to warrant my setting myself up above my fellows. Yet, considering the years of honest study I have devoted to the subject, I think I


[34]


INTRODUCTION.


have at least as much right to express my opinion as the scores of superficial writers on art in Italy and else- where, especially when I see how charlatans manage to pass themselves off as critical judges of Italian art.'

Whilst adhering tenaciously to opinions which he had formed after long study and mature consideration, he was ever open to conviction, and ready to abandon or modify them when persuaded that they were erroneous. He willingly listened to those who differed from him, although their knowledge and experience might be infinitely inferior to his own. His readiness to receive young men, to pour out to them the treasures of his knowledge when he saw that they were in search of truth, and were inspired by a genuine love of art, and his polished courtesy to strangers — amongst them many German students and professors — who sought his advice, were remarkable and lovable traits in his character. They endeared him to all who were brought into contact with him. He was a true ' capo-scuola.' Never was a man more beloved and esteemed by his friends and pupils, and never was there a more delightful com- panion. To visit with him a picture gallery, or to examine a collection of the drawings of the old masters, was an intellectual treat which those who have enjoyed it are not likely to forget. The patience and clearness with which he imparted his views, his wit and humour, the droll manner in which he would illustrate his meaning by racy Italian proverbs and popular sayings, his extensive know- ledge, and his memory stored with facts of all kinds, rendered him the most agreeable and instructive of teachers. The accomplished author of the article in the ' Quarterly


INTRODUCTION. [35]

Eeview,' to which I have referred, who knew Morelli well,, describes him as a man of ' rare, grand, complete character, a patriot and a statesman, gifted, highly cultivated, genial and enlightened, noble in mind and person, and with an individual charm which all, men and women alike, who knew him will acknowledge.' It is not surprising that a man so endowed should have had a host of devoted friends and followers in his own country and abroad. Marco Minghetti, the statesman and Italian Prime Minister, became his pupil, and wrote a life of Raphael in accordance with his views. The Marquis Visconti Venosta, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, explained Morelli's theories on Italian art and taught his method in several able articles contributed to the Italian art-journals of most authority. The fascination which he exercised over women was something extraordinary, and amongst his most attached and warmest friends were some of the most highly-endowed and charming of his countrywomen. He was ever a welcome guest in the most cultivated circles and in the houses of the best families of Italy — in those of the Eoman Princes, and of the ancient aristocracy of the Milanese. The Emperor and Empress Frederick, who had long known him, delighted in his society, and had for him the highest regard. On the other hand, for the noble-hearted emperor Morelli had a profound veneration, and for the artistic knowledge and taste, and for the varied acquirements and amiable character, of the empress the truest admiration. Even the German professors and 'gallery-directors,' against whom, I am afraid, he took a malicious pleasure in poking fun, which according to Herr Bode ' embittered their


[36] INTRODUCTION.

lives,' ended by yielding to his charm, and became his sincere friends, and even, in some instances, his enthusi- astic disciples. Amongst them may be mentioned the distinguished critics and connoisseurs Herr Woerman, the director of the gallery of Dresden, the late Dr. Thausing, the learned curator of the ' Albertina ' at Vienna, Eisen- mann, Liitzow, Dr. Eichter, and many others. Eobert Browning, the poet, to whom I introduced Morelli, was charmed by his conversation, and pronounced his books to be amongst the most delightful and instructive that he had ever read ; and Browning, from his knowledge of the early Italian painters and of their works, had some claim to be a judge.

During the winter of 1890-91 Morelli suffered from a distressing difficulty of breathing, which he attributed to asthma and a bronchial attack. About the end of Feb- ruary I received a letter from him which caused me much anxiety. He told me that his medical adviser had found that his heart was seriously affected, and had ordered him complete rest, forbidding all mental as well as physical exer- tion. I wrote at once to his friend Dr. Frizzoni, to ask whether there were grounds for alarm. His answer confirmed the account that Morelli had given me of himself. A day or two later I received a letter from this gentleman, written at Morelli' s dictation, asking me to examine a picture in the Venice Academy which he believed to be an old copy of a lost original by Giorgione. From his description, I had no difficulty in finding it. My reply- reached him on his death- bed. In his wanderings he constantly talked of his favourite painter, whose name was almost the last word upon his lips.


INTRODUCTION. [87]

Morelli died on February 28, 1891. As a senator he would have been entitled to a public funeral, and the people of Milan and Bergamo would have hastened to show their respect and esteem for their illustrious fellow-citizen by doing honour to his remains. But his modest nature was opposed to all display. He requested by his will that he should be quietly and privately buried in the public cemetery of Milan at five o'clock in the morning — an hour at which only a few relations and attached friends were likely to be present. His wishes in this respect were strictly attended to.

Expressions of sorrow at his death came from all parts of Italy. The Minister of Public Instruction, Signor Yillari, the eminent historian of Savonarola and Macchia- velli, sent the following touching telegram to the Marquis Visconti Venosta : ' I am deeply grieved by the death of the Senator Giovanni Morelli, my dearest friend, the valiant soldier of his country, the learned and original illustrator of Italian art. I request you to represent the Ministry at the funeral of the illustrious departed.' The town-council of Bergamo at once met to testify their sorrow at the death of their adopted citizen, who had brought fame to then city, and to express their regret that in obedience to his desire they were unable to do him further honour by attending his funeral. Signor Farini, the President of the Senate, in announcing to that body the decease of then colleague, thus spoke of him amidst general and unusual signs of sympathy and approval. ' Although his nature forbade his taking part in the daily struggles of political life, he was never absent from solemn debates concerning the highest interests of the State. A true appreciation of facts, moderation


[38] INTRODUCTION.

■without weakness, a firm faith in his own principles and in his friends, guided his conduct in the two branches of the Legislature. . . . Modesty, fortitude, rectitude, gave to the life of Morelli a wonderful moral completeness. His will,' the President added, ' was an epilogue worthy of his lofty character, his generous heart, and his patriotism.' By this will he bequeathed his choice collection of pictures to the city of Bergamo, a considerable sum to its charities, and 100,000 francs to be invested, the accumulated interest of which was to be given every three years to the youth — a native of the city or province of Bergamo — w r ho had most distinguished himself in scientific studies ; the prize to be 5,000 lire, to^ go towards completing his studies in one of the German Universities. His valuable collection of drawings he left to Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni ; whom he also appointed custodian of the pictures he had bequeathed to the city of Bergamo. As Dr. Frizzoni is in possession of the materials which Morelli had collected for his third unpublished volume, and for that on the drawings of the old masters, it is to be hoped that he will be able to complete his master's work.

I know of only three portraits of Morelli : one a drawing in chalk by the Empress Frederick, which has been repro- duced in the ' Archivio Storico dell' Arte ' for March and April 1891, and two by the celebrated German painter Lenbach, which convey some idea of his features but none of his character. 7

That the translation of Morelli's last w T ork now published will prove a most valuable contribution to the history of Italian art I cannot doubt. No one could engage in a study

7 A photograph taken of him after death well represents his noble features.


INTKODUCTION. [39]

of Italian painting, or could pretend to connoisseurship, or could even fully enjoy the pictures of the great Italian masters, without availing himself of it as a guide and text- book. A highly competent critic, Mr. Claude Phillips, has justly observed 8 that it would be as absurd to return to a pre-Morellian period of criticism, as it would be to study natural science without profiting by the discoveries of Darwin, and has written of his last work that it is worthy to take its place as a succinct, but none the less invaluable, book of reference, an acquaintance with the conclusions of which will be indispensable to those who pretend to any systematic study of Italian art in its greatest and more representative phase. The fame of Morelli as the most accomplished of art-critics and connoisseurs will increase as time rolls on, and his name will be honoured when those of his detractors will only be remembered by the blunders which they com- mitted and which he exposed.

Such was Morelli, the ' quack doctor ' and ' Eomanised Swiss ' of the German professor, but the gifted critic and true patriot of his own countrymen and of those who are capable of appreciating his worth.

A. H. LAYAED.

Venice : December 1891.

8 See The Academy of May 3, 1890.


PEEFACE.


The present work relates principally to two Eoman galleries and to pictures in Italy ; in time I hope to supplement it by two further volumes, dealing with the galleries of Munich, Dresden and Berlin, and though each volume may be regarded as independent and complete in itself, the three together will form a single work, comprising all my ' Critical Studies on Italian Painters,' added to and in part rewritten.

The notice of the Borghese gallery is a much- altered and revised edition of some articles, which originally appeared in Von Lutzow's ' Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst,' in the years 1874, 1875, and 1876. If report is to be trusted, they were more favourably re- ceived at the time of their publication by the younger, and consequently less biased, students of art than I had any reason to expect, considering the dryness of the subject ; but I never doubted for a moment what would be the opinion of older critics with regard to them. I might have predicted that they would either


[42] PREFACE.

pay no attention to my views and suggestions, or would dismiss them with an incredulous smile, if indeed — a not unprecedented occurrence — they did not claim them as their own. It was therefore to the younger generation of art-students, Eussian, German, and English, that I hoped to appeal in these essays, and also to those few persons who visit Italy in order to fit themselves for the scientific study of art, and who might desire their judgment to be free and independent in a picture gallery, instead of allow- ing it to be guided by others. I should never, however, have thought of reprinting these papers, had not indulgent readers of my book on * Italian Masters in German Galleries,' which appeared some years later but has long been out of print, urged me to republish it together with the articles on the Borghese gallery. I felt disposed more readily to accede to their request as, since they were written, I am conscious of having made some progress in knowledge of art, and am thus enabled to rectify mistakes that I may have previously committed. The articles have now been almost entirely rewritten ; a notice of the Doria gallery has been added, and pictures in other Eoman and Italian collections have been incidentally mentioned. I have also endeavoured, in a kind of introduction, entitled ' Principles and Method,' to give my younger fellow-students an account of the curious circumstances which first led


PKEFACE. [43]

me to become an art-critic. Practically, therefore, this volume may be regarded as a new work. This introduction, it should be observed, is not intended for persons well-versed in the history of art, and may be omitted by them. What I have said on former occasions must be repeated here, namely, that, far from regarding my own opinions and judg- ments as infallible, I am quite ready to admit that, even in this new and revised edition, I may have committed mistakes ; but, as in the attribution of Italian pictures confusion still reigns supreme, and is seemingly on the increase, I think I may be per- mitted to state my views, and to give my readers an opportunity of testing them. The entire respon- sibility for the opinions I have expressed, however, rests with me ; hence, in order that the student may always know with whom he has to deal, every picture and drawing renamed by me is marked throughout this work with a cross, (f)

If, in course of time, it is evident that my attri- butions are incorrect, the blame will attach to me alone ; if, on the other hand, they stand the test and prove sound, the merit will be due to me — "that is to say, to the experimental method which I recommend. Some of my opponents in Italy, indeed, maintain that this method is by no means new, but was adopted by Padre Lanzi, and by the brothers de Goncourt of Paris. I will not question


[44] PREFACE.

this statement, for, as there is nothing new under the sun, it may eventually transpire that this identical method was well known to some Chinese art-historian three or four thousand years ago ; only it appears to me that, whatever the method may be, everything de- pends upon the way in which it is applied. But, suppos- ing my opponents to be correct in their assertions, how comes it, I would venture to ask, that the erroneous names formerly borne by many pictures in the gal- leries of Europe, and now for the most part cor- rected at my suggestion, were not rectified years ago by Padre Lanzi, the brothers de Goncourt, and others? And, moreover, were this statement well-founded, how is it that some of my other opponents, more especially in Germany, have sought to make this method for the decisive identification of the author of a picture appear ridiculous, by proclaim- ing that I am insensible to every deeper quality in a work of art, and regard only its external features, laying particular stress upon the form of the hand, the ear, and even, horribile dicta, of the finger-nails ? As in the human eye we discriminate between long and short sight, so among those who study art we find that there are some who have eyes to see, and others whom the most powerful of glasses would not benefit in the slightest degree, because there are practically two kinds of sight — physical and mental. The first is that of the public at large, and writers on


PEEFACE. [45]

art have at all times traded on the boundless cre- dulity of this class ; the second belongs to a very few intelligent and unprejudiced artists and students of art. Endowed with natural capacity, it is the privilege of the latter, after long and careful study, to discern in the features, in the form and movement of the hand, in the pose of the figure — in short, in the whole outward frame — the deeper qualities of the mind ; while the other class of observers, even should they happen to notice these particulars, would look upon them as meaningless. The right understanding of the outward form in a work of art, to which I attach especial importance, is not accorded to everyone. This outward form in the representation of the human figure is by no means accidental, as many contend, but is determined by inward conditions ; whereas the mannerisms of some artists are simply the result of chance or habit. The typical, or fundamental, form (Grundform) of hand and ear is characteristic in the works of all independent masters, and affords valu- able evidence for identifying them, while manner- isms may, at most, serve to distinguish those of painters wanting in individuality.

Among those critics who have openly combated my theories and my judgments on pictures, the one most deserving of notice, both on account of his official position and of his energy and activity, is Dr. William Bode, director of the Berlin gallery, who


[46] PREFACE.

enjoys a considerable reputation in his own country and in Paris.

I may have secret foes, more relentless perhaps, as Dr. Bode has observed, than himself ; let me hope so at least, for I hold that, under existing circumstances, writings on art which do not raise a storm of oppo- sition can have little real merit. Dr. Bode attacks me, among other reasons, because I venture to differ from Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, his teachers and guides, and to characterise their writings as misleading. He accuses me, as a former student of medicine, of being a mere empiric ; and further, though following me closely in my own studies, he affirms that I have no knowledge of Leonardo da Vinci or of the Milanese school and its principal representatives — Sodom a, Boltraffio, Gian- pietrino, Solario, Ambrogio de Predis, and Bernardino de' Conti ; that I am equally ignorant of Timoteo Viti and Eaphael in the Umbrian school, of the Pollajuoli, Verrocchio, and Raffaellino del Garbo in the Florentine, and of Jacopo de' Barbari and Mantegna in the Venetian. In short, he would give his readers to understand that I am a mere interloper, wholly unqualified to speak on the subject of Italian painting, and that my superficial teaching ' must necessarily lead to the most fatal dilettanteism.' From his point of view Dr. Bode is no doubt in the right ; for, if my theories and opinions are correct, then


PEEFACE. [47]

his must of necessity be radically wrong, and vice versd, as in everything we are unfortunately diametrically opposed. What appears black to me is white to him, and pictures which in his eyes are masterpieces of art, in mine are, as a rule, simply feeble works of the school. Yet neither of us is guided by party feeling, but solely by a love of truth, and we each estimate and describe things exactly as we see them. This curious psychological problem may perhaps be explained, partly by the diversity of our individual training — Dr. Bode having originally been destined for the law and I for a medical career — and partly by the action and in- fluence of climate and surroundings. Karl Bitter, the most celebrated geographer of our day, has pro- pounded a theory that the human species in its most perfect form is developed in North Germany ; if this were the case, Dr. Bode would, of course, if only from the accident of birth, have a considerable advantage over me. As, however, the eminent North-German geographer's argument cannot, I think, be accepted as conclusive, and should, moreover, be taken in a general and not in an individual sense, I will say no more on the subject. ' Every one has his fancy,' and every one, I may add, thinks he knows best. This being the case, it does not require much foresight to predict, that the confusion resulting from such conflicting opinions about the same pictures

d


[48] PREFACE.

must be disastrous to the study of Italian art. I would advise Dr. Bode therefore to follow my exam- ple, and to refer the decision of all such points on which we cannot agree to intelligent and un- prejudiced arbiters, qualified for the task. What- ever be their verdict, we may console ourselves with the thought that the scientific study of art, which we both have so much at heart, will eventually be furthered by these means. Hence, in the following studies I have quoted Dr. Bode's views, as expressed by him in the fifth edition of Burckhardt's ' Cicerone,' placing them side by side with my own opinions.

When mention is made of the works of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, I refer to the original English edition of ' A New History of Painting in Italy ' 1 and of ' A History of Painting in North Italy.' 2 When I quote Passavant's ' Eaphael ' it is from the French edition — 'Eaphael d'Urbin et son pere G. Santi, par J. D. Passavant. Edition francaise, refaite, corrigee, et considerablement augmentee par l'auteur, et revue et annotee par M. Paul Lacroix.' 3

For quotations, &c. from Vasari, Le Monnier's Florentine edition has always been used. 4

One word more respecting the illustrations in this work. Some of my readers may consider that they are too few in number, others that they are too many.

1 3 vol . London, lSGG. • 1 2 vols. Paris, 18(')0.

2 2 vols. London, 1871. ' 13 vols. 1S4C.


PEEFACE. [49]

It was no easy task for me to keep within the limits which a book of this kind should not overstep. My choice was, of course, mainly guided by the idea that the illustrations were to render the meaning of the text as plain as possible to the reader. I confined myself, therefore, to such as appeared to me strictly necessar}^ assuming that they who intend to make a more serious study of the forms would go to the works of art themselves. For the purpose of the book, the number of illustrations is, I think, sufficient. I take this opportunity of expressing my grati- tude to Dr. J. P. Eichter, and to my publisher Herr Brockhaus. The former was good enough to look through my manuscript, and to point out various deficiencies ; he also undertook to make a full and complete index — a task which he has admirably ful- filled. The latter spared neither trouble nor expense to meet my views, and it is due to his knowledge of the subject that the illustrations are so satisfactory.

IVAN LEBMOLIEFF.

Gorlaw : October 1889.


NOTICE TO THE READER.

Whilst this volume was passing through the press the Borghese gallery was removed to the Villa Borghese outside the walls of Rome ; the pictures have been re-arranged and re- numbered, and some are no longer to be found in the collections. Considerable changes have also taken place in the Doria-Pamfili gallery. The Translator has obtained, through the kindness of the Rev. H. W. Pullen, the information required to enable her to make the necessary alterations in Signor Morelli's references to pictures in these two collections. Those mentioned by him which have disappeared have been marked with a * .

It is reported that the celebrated " Violin Player " attributed to Raphael, and other well-known pictures formerly in the Sciarra-Colonna gallery, have been sold and sent out of Italy.

Unfortunately the process of re-arrangement and re-numbering of pictures has recently been going on to a greater or less extent throughout the galleries of Europe, and it has been impossible for the translator to readjust them in all cases ; but Signor Morelli's descriptions are so lucid that she does not anticipate that the reader will have any difficulty in identifying the various pictures to which he refers.


PBMJIPLES AND METHOD.

Dans les ckoses du monde presque toute question n'est qu'une question de me'thode. — La Beuyebe.

As I was leaving the Pitti one afternoon, I found myself descending the stairs in company with an elderly gentle- man, apparently an Italian of the better class. I had frequently noticed him in the galleries, either alone or with several younger companions, and his unusual intelli- gence in observing and discussing pictures had often struck me. On that particular afternoon I was greatly impressed by all I had seen : by the splendour of the rooms, by the masterpieces of art, more especially a landscape by Eubens which I had studied just before leaving, and by the beauty of the gardens with their pines, cypresses, and ilex groves. As we left the palace, I could not refrain from expressing to this gentleman my admiration of Brunelleschi's stately pile.

'I never should have believed,' I added, 'that so magnificent an edifice could have been erected under a Republic'

' And why not ? ' inquired my companion smiling. ' Do you suppose that art is dependent on the form of govern- ment ? Provided outward circumstances be favourable, I should imagine that art, like religion, will flourish equally under republican or despotic rule. As you seem to appre- ciate our great architect,' he continued, 'may I invite you to accompany me to the Villa Eucciano, also built by


2 PEINCIPLES AND METHOD.

Brunelleschi for his wealthy fellow-citizen, Luca Pitti ? It is not far off, and the evening is fine and balmy.'

I thanked him for his kind proposal, and observed that, being a Russian, and in Italy for the first time, I had never heard of the Villa, which was not even mentioned in my guide-book.

1 Guide-books,' he remarked in a slightly ironical tone, ' are written for the great body of tourists who have no desire to be overdone with sightseeing. Travelling in these days is regarded more as a duty than as a pleasure. The modern tourist's first object is to arrive at a certain point ; once there, be disposes of the allotted sights as quickly as possible, and hurries on resignedly to fresh fields, where the same programme is repeated. In the way we live nowadays, a man has scarcely time to collect his thoughts. The events of each day glide past like dissolving views, effacing one another in turn. There is thus a total absence of repose, without which enjoyment of art is an impossibility.'

' Too true unfortunately,' I rejoined ; ' I myself travelled from Munich to Florence, rid Verona and Bologna, and did not stop to see either of these places even superficially, though no doubt they are both full of interest. As an excuse, I must plead that the endless books on art and aesthetics, which I read in Germany and Paris, had given me such a positive distaste for the subject and all connected with it, that I came to Italy vowing not to visit a single church or picture gallery. Florence, however, soon forced me to abandon this resolution.'

' Then you were formerly an admirer of art, and it was your sojourn in Germany and Paris which gave rise to this aversion to it ? '

'Distaste, perhaps, but scarcely aversion,' I rejoined.

' Brought on probably by too much reading,' said my


GERMAN CRITICS. 3

new friend. ' The truth is, art must be seen, if we are to derive either instruction or pleasure from it.'

' A very different view is taken in Germany, my dear sir,' said I. ' There people will only read, and art must be brought to public notice, not through the medium of brush or chisel, but through that of the printing press.'

' Unhappily,' resumed the Italian, ' we live in an age when writing and publishing are epidemic in Europe ; when every one appears to think it his bounden duty to proclaim his own ignorance in this manner.'

' Yes,' I said, ' these unfortunate people ruin their eye- sight and fritter away the best part of their time in read- ing and writing, and how few among them understand the art of living ! '

' Climatic conditions may have something to do with this psychological phenomenon,' observed my guide ; ' raw foggy days, and long cold evenings, are an incentive to men to study, and Germany, from its geographical position, is peculiarly fitted to be the parent of a nation of thinkers, writers, and readers, just as sea-girt lands develop a race of merchants and sailors. In my youth — now, alas ! long past — I spent some years in Germany. I have a great regard for the Germans ; they are a most estimable and learned race, and no other nation under the sun has applied itself with equal ardour to the study of our great painters. Their weak point is, that they write far too much about them, and, worse still, publish their writings too hastily, unmindful of the counsel of Horace to Piso : nonumque prematur in annum, though it appears to me that these words apply to writers on art, even more than to poets. A bad poem is like an empty nut, we simply throw it away and there is an end of it ; but the publication of erroneous views and false criticism concerning works of art does in- calculable harm : they are taken up and repeated by the


4 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

ignorant multitude, and the author, if only from sheer vanity, will not recall his words.'

'You are perfectly right,' I said; 'such superficial writers always appear to me the impersonation of vanity.'

1 These youthful seekers after knowledge,' he continued, ' come nocking over the Alps, and you may see them any fine morning armed with red and brown guide-books, hun- gering and thirsting for information, and taking stock of churches and galleries with irrepressible ardour. It is positively delightful to watch them ! And you may occa- sionally find amongst them really competent connoisseurs, who can appreciate our old masters far better — to our shame be it said — than we ourselves, who live on the spot.'

' For Heaven's sake ! ' I cried, ' don't speak to me of art-connoisseurs. I read so many controversial publications about them when hi German}', that I am sick of the subject. You must know,' I added, seeing that my friend seemed startled by my vehemence, ' that the professors who bring out volumes on the history of art are the bitterest foes of the connoisseurs, while the painters in then turn abuse both. It has been said, sarcastically, that the art- connoisseur is distinguished from the art-historian by knowing something of early art. If he happens to be of the better sort he abstains from writing on the subject. On the other hand, the art-historian, although writing much upon art, really knows nothing about it ; whilst the painters who boast of their technical knowledge are neither competent critics nor competent historians.'

The Italian, who apparently had never heard of this paper war in Germany, laughed heartily at my descrip- tion, but observed, as he paused for an instant to muse on the matter, that the subject seemed likely to foster an interesting controversy. Then he went on his way for a time in thoughtful silence, till, reaching a green spot near


CONNOISSEURS. 5

the Arno, he suggested that we should sit down and rest. It was a beautiful autumn evening ; the dark slender tower of the Palazzo Vecchio shot up proudly into the sky ; in the distance lay the blue hills of Pistoia and Pescia, bathed in golden light.

As we sat down, he began again : ' You say that in Germany and Paris art-historians do not acknowledge art-connoisseurs, and vice versa ? '

' No, no,' I said, ' art-connoisseurs say of art-historians that they write about what they do not understand ; art- historians, on their side, disparage the connoisseurs, and only look upon them as the drudges who collect materials for them, but who personally have not the slightest knowledge of the physiology of art.'

' It appears to me,' said my companion, ' that the French and German professors have been rather hasty in their judgment, and have hardly given the matter due attention. The controversy is one of very long standing, and by no means without interest, but deserves unbiased and impar- tial criticism. What is an art-connoisseur after all,' he added, ' but one who understands art ? '

' Decidedly so, to judge by the name,' I said. ' An art- historian, on the other hand,' I continued, 'is one who traces the history of art from its earliest development to its final decay, and who describes the process to us. Is it not so ? '

'It certainly ought to be,' rejoined the Italian. 'But in order to write or discourse about the development of any subject, we ought first to be thoroughly acquainted with it. No one, for instance, would dream of writing on physio- logy without having first mastered anatomy.'

' Of course not,' I replied.

' The botanist is bound to understand plants,' he pro- ceeded, ' and the zoologist animals, so as to be able to


6 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

distinguish a fig from a pumpkin at a glance, or the young lion from the domestic cat ; in the same way the art-historian must be well acquainted with architecture, sculpture, and painting if he would gain a clear idea of his subject, and give his listeners or readers a correct summary of it. An early writer has observed : " He who climbs a mountain before becoming familiar with the plain is unable to say, when he reaches the top, whether the trees he looks down upon are olives, cypresses, poplars, or willows ; whether the character of the landscape, in short, is southern or northern." I take it, therefore, that we must first know something of the plain, if we are to form a general impres- sion of, or to describe, the country around, as seen from a height. Otherwise our description would be merely a string of empty, pointless phrases and high-sounding plati- tudes, which would apply equally to any other landscape.'

' You may say the same of most of the books dealing with the history of art,' I rejoined.

'In former days, I admit, this was the case all over Europe,' said the Italian. ' The history of art was then commonly taught by men absolutely devoid of any real feeling for art, mostly aesthetic literati or pedantic archae- ologists, who had gleaned all their information from the writings of their predecessors, or had picked it up from the discourses of the professors in the academies. But nowa- days, I hear, things are very different in England and France, and especially in Germany, where every university has its art-professorship filled by distinguished and learned men, who year by year train up a certain number of able scholars to follow in then' steps.'

'Alas! far too many,' I replied. ' Even in Germany, that hotbed of learning, your type of professor is the excep- tion and not the rule, and even there the text, " by their fruits ye shall know them," is by no means inapplicable.


TEACHEES OF AET. 7

Take, for example, the man whose enthusiasm for art has been stimulated in the lecture-hall — how does he behave in a picture gallery ? Very much like a rustic in a menagerie ; or, if he be one of the learned and cultivated,, he approaches the pictures in a kind of aesthetic abstrac- tion, not knowing exactly what to make of them. The lecturer's elaborate definition of the " beautiful " debars one scholar from seeing any beauty in the painting before him, whether by Titian or Correggio. The different names of the artists so bewilder another, that he finds it impossible to think of the pictures at all. The un- fortunate youth is struggling vainly to recollect whether he is to rank Perugino above Botticelli, or Titian above Giorgione, and vice versa ; and you must remember that I am only speaking now of the most cultivated classes. As to the general public who throng picture galleries, all they care for in painting and statuary is to compare the counterfeit with its prototype, true to the principle that art should be nothing but the ape of nature. Needless to add, that for a portrait by Denner or Seibold; these worthy people would pass by a Titian or a Holbein hanging near.'

' Unfortunately,' observed my companion, ' this is very much the case with us, though every educated man ought to have gathered enough from his instructor to enable him to appreciate a picture, or a statue, as much as a good poem or novel.'

'How can you expect this, my dear sir,' I broke in, ' if the teacher himself is ignorant of the language of art ; if he crams his audience with a series of aesthetic platitudes, and can produce nothing for their benefit but a string of dry names and dates, and untrustworthy bio- graphies ? I should have thought that his first duty would be to point out to his pupils the characteristic features in a work of art. They should be taught to feel at


PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

home among the dry, archaic, quattro-centisti painters, and to hold intelligent converse with them. By this means their enjoyment would be heightened when they came to see the glorious works of Eaphael, Titian, Giorgione, or Oorreggio. How is it that, even in Germany, educated people know so little what to make of the great Albert Durer ? Simply because they have not learnt to see ; because Durer' s mode of expressing himself — angular and often unlovely as it is, yet always full of character — is unintelligible to them.'

' All this is very depressing,' said the Italian, ' but I should have said it was only in Italy, where the proverb inertia est sapientia still holds good, that education was so backward, and that everywhere else in Europe, and espe- cially in Germany, great strides had been made in knowledge of art, just as much as in other sciences. I fear, however,' he added, smiling, ' that you take pleasure in pamting the case blacker than it really is. It is easy to understand that dilettanti, not only in Italy but in France, Eussia, England and Germany, should prefer the sweets of material enjoyment, both in art and literature, to the pure delight which real knowledge has to offer, for only through prolonged and arduous toil is that to be at- tained. We cannot possibly hope to understand a work of art unless we have first succeeded in analysing it, and from the analysis have passed to the synthesis ; though such refinement of perception is not to be expected of the multitude. The educated public in Germany, however, is a very large body, larger than that of all the other countries of Europe put together, and I scarcely think that they would read so many books on art unless they hoped to derive from them something beyond mere satisfaction to the senses, and '

' My dear sir,' I interrupted, ' an educated man, who has


TEACHEES OF AET. 9

the patience to wade through the ponderous tomes on art r which are annually recommended to his notice, knows about as much of the subject by the time he has got to the end of them as he knew at the beginning ; this, at least, is my personal experience. He may have revelled in the fine writing, and no doubt may have acquired quite a stock of new painters' names, and a string of the latest and most approved art-terms, with which to do great execution at the next social gathering ; but, beyond that, all these names and dates, these well-turned sentences and fine theories, are mere empty nothings, and practically worth- less.'

' If I am to believe you then,' said the Italian, ' really competent professors of the history of art are very scarce in Europe, and for the simple reason that men still go on in the old groove — studying art from books only, instead of from the works of art themselves.'

'This may be one reason,' I replied; 'the superficial dabbler, who causes confusion and anarchy in science, just as much as in politics, owes his existence to the pernicious influence of many inferior teachers.'

' Very true,' returned my companion ; ' I have always felt that men who set up to teach others should first get a clear idea themselves of the works which prac- tically constitute art, should study these works, be they of painting, sculpture, or architecture, with intelligence, analyse them, distinguish between good and bad specimens — in a word, should thoroughly understand them.'

'I suppose you refer to'_ what may be termed " art morphology," that is, to the understanding of the outward forms in a work of art ; and in a measure, I allow that you are right. But a^German art-philosopher would tell you that the idea existed in the mind of the artist long before the visible part _of his work took shape ; that the task of


10 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

the art-historian is to grasp, fathom, and explain this idea — the main problem he has to solve being, how to attain to a fundamental understanding of a work of art. The historian himself would tell you that the history of art should direct attention, not so much to the works of art themselves, as to the culture of the people under whose influence and auspices these works origi- nated.'

' Then, in that case,' rejoined the Italian, ' setting aside the fact that it is almost impossible to penetrate to the inward part of anything without being first acquainted with its outward conditions, the history of art may be said to resolve itself into a physiological treatise on art on the one hand, and a history of civilisation on the other ; both excellent branches of philosophy in their way, but scarcely adapted to promote a taste for art, or to further its know- ledge. I do not deny that the causes of certain changes in style can only be satisfactorily explained by reference to the history of culture, though such cases are not so common as is usually asserted. You must not suppose, however,' he added promptly, ' that I am not fully aware how desirable it is for a professor to lead his scholars from time to time into higher regions of thought, and, for the nonce, to leave alone the study of form and technical execution. I consider that the instructor should then direct the attention of his pupils, not to the details, but to the work as a whole ; should explain to them the links connecting the epochs of de- velopment in art, and should teach them finally to rise above mere facts, and to measure their value. Such flights, how- ever, should only be taken within proper limits and at a favourable moment : otherwise the scholar is apt to relapse into the old error of approaching a work of art with pre- conceived notions, of seeing in it his own ideas, instead of allowing it to speak for itself. A question earnestly and


THE STUDY OF ART. 11

intelligently asked of a painting or statue will undoubtedly evoke an answer. The first thing, therefore, for a scholar to learn is, how to put that question with intelligence. Thus we come back again to the main point, that the basis of all art study is the form and the technic. Observation and experience,' he added, ' are the foundation of every science : Per varios usus artem experientia fecit, exemplo monstrante viam.'

' All this sounds well enough,' I answered, ' and may be very desirable, but you do not appear to consider the expenditure of time and money your method is likely to entail. In all probability it would scare away most begin- ners from the study of art — for who could afford to become an art-historian at that rate ? — and hundreds of persons would thus be deprived of their daily bread.'

' We will leave " daily bread " entirely out of the question," said my companion drily. ' Those who treat art or science as a milch cow, which is to furnish them with the means of subsistence, had better turn banker, lawyer, innkeeper, or chemist. The pursuit of art as I understand it does, undoubtedly, require long years of study ; but I think you rather overrate the pecuniary cost. As the botanist lives among his fresh or dried plants, the mineral- ogist among his stones, the geologist among his fossils, so the art-connoisseur ought to live among his photographs and, if his finances permit, among his pictures and statues. This is his world, and here he learns to see with the trained and cultivated eye of an artist, for visus, qui nisi est verus, ratio quoque falsa sic omnis. Yet, for all this, he must never neglect the study of nature. To understand a work of art thoroughly he must be an artist himself— that is to say, he must learn to look at all around him with an artist's eye.'

'You expect too much from a young connoisseur,'

c 2


12 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

said I, ' and I think lay yourself open to attack. Let me ask you one thing : how do you expect a beginner in the study of art to distinguish the photograph of a genuine work from that of a spurious painting ? for in these days good and bad, weeds and flowers, are all photographed promiscuously.'

' Why,' returned the Italian, ' of what use are lectures on the history of art if not to make us think and see for ourselves ; to teach us how to distinguish true from false, important from worthless ? Why do we go to school ? Not merely to be told by word of mouth what we could read for ourselves at home with infinitely less trouble ; but in order that the stirring and suggestive words of the teacher may in- spire us with enthusiasm for art ; that we may learn, by the examples he brings forward, how to discriminate merit in a work of art, and to recognise the characteristic features of each master, his peculiarities in the choice and conception of his subject, in the representation of form, and in the harmony of colour.'

' But we have already seen,' I remarked, ' that the teacher, such as you would have him to be, is very difficult to find, and I think that on the whole you are too exacting in what you require from art-historians. How can anyone in our short life attain to a comprehensive knowledge of all the old masters, and least of all a professor or a director of a gallery, who, in addition to all his other labours, has to bring out his books and catalogues ? How, in the name of reason, is he to find time to examine and test everything himself, and moreover to extend his studies even to second- and third-rate painters ; and how, unless he be a con- noisseur himself, is he to decide whether the discoveries of others are of any value or not ? for you must bear in mind that there are quite as many ciphers among connoisseurs as among art-historians. No ! what we have a right to


THE STUDY OF AET. 13

require of them is, that they should be conversant with the founders and principal masters of each school, and be able to discriminate between their genuine works and those of their pupils and imitators, so as not to fall into the errors, common enough in these days, of making Michael Angelo responsible for statues, and Verrocchio, or even Leonardo, for paintings, which, when examined with the eye of common sense, prove to be nothing but feeble works of the school.'

' What you say is fair enough,' returned my companion ; ' the question is, whether one condition can be attained without the other. We can only judge of a man's nature and merits aright by comparing him with others — either with his superiors or his inferiors. Let us take a very common case : suppose your art-historian visits a picture gallery mainly to study Titian ; would it be possible for him, if he be really in earnest, to neglect the works which he meets with at every turn, by the great forerunners and contemporaries of the master ? I should imagine that his thirst for knowledge would naturally lead him from the study of Titian's works to those of the Bellini, of Carpaccio, Giorgione, Lorenzo Lotto, Pordenone, Palma, &c. But setting this aside, you allow, do you not, that every art-historian is bound to know enough about the great representatives of each school to distinguish them from their pupils and imitators with some amount of certainty ? '

' Yes,' I replied, ' that seems little enough to expect.' ' And do you suppose,' said my companion, stopping and looking at me with a smile, ' that it is such a simple matter ? The study of the works of Baphael or Leonardo presupposes a thorough acquaintance with all the other Italian schools. To gain a more intimate knowledge of these two great artists, to form a right judgment of


14 PEINCTPLES AND METHOD.

their merits, and to be able to indicate what special benefits they conferred on their schools in point of conception, representation, and technic, we must both study every example of the school whence these masters emanated, and must learn to estimate the merits of their predeces- sors and contemporaries, as well as of their immediate scholars. Unless our judgment rests on this sure and solid foundation, it will always remain one-sided and deficient, and we cannot lay claim to any real understanding of art.'

'But, my dear sir,' I broke in, 'the elaborate and tedious course of study which you appear to think incumbent on an art-historian would end by turning him into a mere connoisseur, and would leave him no time at all for study- ing the history of art itself.'

The Italian smiled. ' You have hit the right nail on the head,' he said; 'true enough, your art-historian will gradually disappear (no great loss either, you will admit), and in due course of trine, as the larva develops into the butterfly, the connoisseur will emerge from his chrysalis state.'

This triumphant rejoinder caused me rather an un- pleasant surprise. ' I cannot agree with you here,' I said, ' and as a proof that you are in the wrong, or, at all events, that you expect far too much from art-historians, let me mention two of the most recent publications about Eaphael, which have appeared respectively in Paris and Berlin — the two great centres of all historical research in matters of art. The first is a magnificent volume, and was received with acclamation, not only in Paris, but I may almost say throughout the whole civilised world. The second, the work of a professor of art at Berlin, was greeted with rapturous applause, at all events on the banks of the Spree. Both writers are art-historians of the first water, but by no


THE CONNOISSEUR 15

means connoisseurs ; indeed, both would be mortally offended if you were to characterise them as such, for even to look at pictures irritates them.'

The Italian burst out laughing. ' I should never dream of such a thing,' he said. ' No, no, my dear sir,' he con- tinued with growing excitement, ' it is only after profound and earnest study that a lover of art develops, gradually and insensibly, into a connoisseur, and finally into an art- historian, provided he has it hi him, which of course is a conditio sine qua non. Every young man may begin life with the intention of becoming a priest, a lawyer, a professor, an engineer, a land-surveyor, or a doctor ; if he be well off he may even aspire to become a deputy to the Parliament ; but it would be simply ludicrous if a youth of twenty or twenty-four were to say : ' I am going to be an art-critic, or perhaps even an art-historian.'

' And yet,' I observed, ' this is what constantly occurs, especially when a man has been unsuccessful in other professions.'

' Such cases are of no great consequence,' said my com- panion, ' so long as they are the exception and not the rule ; they will occur in every department of knowledge, in science as well as in art. But, to resume our discussion. All that I wish to contend is that the germ of the art- historian, if it exist at all, can only develop and ripen in the brain of the connoisseur ; in other words, it is absolutely necessary for a man to be a connoisseur before he can become an art-historian, and to lay the foundations of his history in the gallery and not in the library.'

' The view you take is the one that has always appeared to me the most rational,' said I ; ' namely, that no one should take up the study of art who has not a very decided capacity for it, and that the study of the works of art


16 PEINCIPLES AND METHOD.

themselves can alone fit a man for the task of writing a history of art. Theoretically a man may be possessed of the highest cultured taste and yet be devoid of a spark of real feeling for art. Exempla sunt odiosa.'

' True enough,' said my companion ; ' yet nearly all recent writers on art in Italy are " aesthetes," and for the most part of an extremely uninteresting race. The aim and object of their writings is to dazzle and mislead the reading public by fine language, high-flown descriptions of the pictures, and more or less piquant analogies. There may be some who appreciate this kind of thing, but a reader who is really in earnest will soon find that there is no lasting benefit to be gained from it ; it only bores him and blunts his perceptions. Italian art-his- torians, more especially local investigators, and persons employed by Government in public institutions and gal- leries, cling to tradition with the most dogged pertinacity, no matter how puerile and absurd it may be.'

' I can assure you,' said I, ' this state of things is not peculiar to Italy, it is just as bad in Russia. If you have managed to secure any official post, it would be as much as your place was worth to cast any slur upon tradition. You would completely ruin yourself by trampling on the cherished prejudices of all your patrons and clients.'

' Tradition is not to be altogether despised,' said the Florentine ; ' I only wish to protest against its being taken for gospel and made to stifle the voice of criticism. As an aid to identifying works of art, it has certainly little claim to be trusted. How many absurd tales about L men and events, even in the history of our own times, after being freely circulated, have been invested with the halo of tradition ! How often, again, has not recent criticism exposed the falsity of legends which have come down to us as "tradition," and has rooted them out from the history


TEADITION. 17

of nations where they had flourished for so long. Years of experience have taught me to regard this fungus-growth of tradition, which surrounds so many works of art, and the personality of so many old masters, with extreme sus- picion, and I think my distrust is not altogether unfounded. For the origin of these traditions is not far to seek. Often it may be traced to carelessness or to party-feeling, occa- sionally even to man's natural tendency to invest the most trivial incidents concerning himself with interest, mis- representing, and even sometimes distorting them past recognition, by exaggeration or the reverse. The value of such traditions in the history of all nations is not great, and in the history of art it is even of less importance. A few examples may serve to convince you that this kind of testimony, so dear to art-historians, is only to be accepted with the greatest caution. According to tradition, the painter Andrea del Castagno murdered his friend and fellow-worker, Domenico Veneziano, till a document, dis- covered by Signor Milanesi, the well-known director of the Florence archives, proved beyond a doubt that the supposed murderer died before his victim. Tradition, again, relates that Leonardo da Vinci expired in the arms of the art-loving Francis I. It has, however, been incontestably shown that on the day of Leonardo's death the French king was not near the spot where the master breathed his last, and probably had other things to do than to perform the last offices for the dying painter. Tradition, using Vasari as a mouthpiece, proclaimed that Eaphael's father had himself commended his son to Perugino. Tra- dition told how Giovanni Bellini, disguised as a senator, watched Antonello da Messina at work, and thus stole his secret of painting with oil as a vehicle ; how Eaphael made the drawings for the frescoes of his master Pintoric- chio in the library at Siena ; and, finally, how the much-


18 PKINCIPLES AND METHOD.

extolled study of a beautiful Roman girl in the Barberini Gallery was the portrait of Beatrice Cenci, painted from life. As to the ridiculous names still borne by many pictures, thanks to tradition, I will not comment upon them, as I should infallibly bore you by so doing.'

' Very likely,' I replied.

' In these days,' he resumed, ' a more intelligent and unbiased method of criticism has done something towards dispelling some of these pointless and even childish fabri- cations ; but much still remains to be done. For the present we may leave this comparatively subordinate study alone, and go back to our former theory — that the history of art can only be studied properly before the works of art themselves. Books are apt to warp a man's judg- ment, though at the same time I am quite ready to admit that good reproductions and representations of the art of the Egyptians, the Hindoos, the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Phoenicians, Persians, &c, and of the earliest examples of Greek art, are of the greatest value from an educational point of view, and as a means of deepening and increasing our feeling for art. But the art which we can best understand and appreciate is that which stands in the closest relation to our own era of civilisation, and books and documents will not suffice for studying it ; we must go to the works of art themselves, and, what is more, to the country itself, tread the same soil and breathe the same air, where they were produced and developed. For does not Goethe say ? " Wer den Dichter will verstehen muss in Dichters Lande gehen." '

' Your theory, then,' I observed, 'is that a true knowledge of art is only to be attained by a continuous and untiring study of form and technic, that no one should venture into the domain of the history of art without being first an art-con- iioisseur. All your arguments may be correct enough, but


STUDY OF FOKM. 19

my own studies are too elementary for me either to agree with, or to differ from, you at present. One thing, however, I may confidently affirm, namely, that all the art-historians and connoisseurs whom I have met in Europe would treat with contempt your theories. They would tell you that he whom Nature had destined for a true art-historian or critic, need not "think of troubling himself about the details upon which you lay so much stress ; in his eyes it would be sheer waste of time, and would simply deaden his in- tellect to do so. The general impression produced upon him by a work of art, be it picture or statue, is quite sufficient to enable him to recognise the master at the first glance, and beyond this general impression or intuition, and tradition, he only needs the testimony of a ivritten document to arrive at complete certainty as to its author. All other ex- pedients could, at most, be of service only to those who know nothing of their business — like the life-belt to the man who cannot swim — if, indeed, they do not make confusion worse confounded in the study of art, and foster " the most fatal dilettanteism." '

' The same objections are raised here,' replied the Italian, 'against the study of form and technic — that is, against analytical research; and the loudest protests are made by those who have neither the disposition, nor the capa- city, for studying anything thoroughly. I know persons, by no means deficient in intelligence or culture, who consider that understanding a subject means degrading it, and are as violently opposed to the study of form and technic in works of art as are priests, for the most part, to physical science. Let us weigh the matter dispassionately. You say, if I have rightly understood you, that art-historians in Germany and Paris only attach importance to intuition, and to docu- mentary evidence, and regard the study of works of art as purposeless and a waste of time. It is quite possible, I admit,


20 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

that the general impression or intuition may often be suf- ficient to enable an astute and well-trained eye to guess at the authorship of a work of art. But the Italian proverb is frequently verified in these cases : " l'apparenza in- ganna " — appearances are deceitful. I maintain, therefore, and could support my assertion by any amount of evi- dence, that, so long as we trust only to the general im- pression for identifying a work of art, instead of seeking the surer testimony of the forms peculiar to each great master with which observation and experience have made us familiar, we shall continue in the same atmosphere of doubt and uncertainty, and the foundations of the history of art will be built as heretofore on shiftmg sands. Accord- ing to these writers then, art-criticism, like art itself, is inborn ; is that so ? '

' Yes,' I replied, ' this certainly is the view taken by many leading critics in the present day.'

' Such theories should, I think, be taken cum yrano,' said my companion. ' Artistic talent is inborn in so far that very many people come into the world without a spark of disposition either for art or for science ; but even with suffi- cient ability no one will attain to any results in either branch without study, and unless surrounding circum- stances be favourable. One man may be endowed with considerable talent for art, another with a greater capacity for science ; but without study and unremitting practice both will remain dunces. Our greatest masters — Ghiberti, Pollajuolo, the Bellini, Correggio, and others, — and Baphael himself — were, for the most part, the sons of artists, and were destined and trained from their earliest youth for an artist's career. Without this home influence many of them, even Raphael perhaps, might have found their vocation in trade, or in a scientific calling ; and so it is with connois- seurs. They must undoubtedly have, above all things, the


STUDY OF FOEM. 21

perceptive faculty, and, besides, an eye for colour, and a feeling for beauty of form, and must not be addicted to philosophical crotchets ; but, for all that, inborn feeling, which with practice becomes intuition, will not suffice for the science of art unless trained and developed by a study of the works of art themselves. Leonardo da Vinci said : " Fuggi i precetti di quelli speculatori, che le loro ragioni non sono confermate dalla sperientia " — " Beware of the teaching of these theorists because their reasoning is not confirmed by experience." 1 I can speak from personal experience. Educated in this country, where un- fortunately such maxims have long been rife, I must plead guilty to having held the same views which you describe as prevalent in Germany and Paris — for we have been accustomed to take our cue from beyond the Alps. For years I thus groped about in the dark, trusting solely to intuition and regarding my own judgment as infallible, and I was very wroth if I happened to come across anyone who presumed to differ from me, for our judgment is governed far more by our will than by our reason. But re- peated failure ended by discouraging me, and I then began to examine pictures more carefully, and to compare the painters one with another, with the result that I believe I have at length found a path which, if rightly pursued, will eventually lead us to the truth. A closer study of form and technic soon convinced me, to my great satisfaction, that this is the only road which in most cases — I will not say in every case — leads to the goal. As a matter of fact, all art-historians, from Vasari down to our own day, have only made use of two tests to aid them in deciding the authorship of a work of art — intuition, or the so-called general impression, and documentary evidence ; with what result you have seen for yourself. You say that,

1 See Leonardo da Vinci by J. P. Eichter, ii. 304.


22 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

after reading much literature on art and art-criticism in Paris and Germany, you came to the conclusion that every critic thinks it necessary to set up a theory of his own.'

'Yes, unhappily this is the case,' I replied; 'all these books and pamphlets had the effect of setting me against the study of art.'

' I allow,' continued my companion, ' that a general impression is sometimes sufficient to determine whether a work of art be Italian, Flemish, or German ; and, if Italian, whether of the Florentine, Venetian, or Umbrian school ; and that intuition alone may occasionally enable a practised eye to identify the author of a painting or statue (even the most ordinary art-dealer possesses this kind of shrewd- ness), for in all intellectual matters the general conditions govern the particular. If this main question be settled, and it be assumed that the painting, or drawing, belongs to the early Florentine school, we must then make up our mind whether it be by Fra Filippo Lippi, Pesellino, Sandro Botticelli, or Filippino Lippi, or by one of the many imi- tators of these masters. Further, if the general impression convinces us that the painting is of the Venetian school, we must then decide if it be of the school of Venice itself or that of Padua, or, again, if it belong to that of Ferrara, or to that of Verona, &c. To arrive at a conclusion (often by no means an easy matter) the general impression is not sufficient. I have myself experienced the difficulty. Do we not find many a picture by Giovanni Bellini, even in public collections, attributed to Mantegna ? Quite recently, one in the Uffizi was even ascribed to Basa'iti (No. 631), and in the gallery at Verona one, still more strangely, was transferred to the Florentine school (No. 77, Sala Bernasconi). Agam, do we not find early works by Correggio assigned now to Titian (Uffizi, No. 1002), now to Francia (Pa via) ; pictures by Fra


STUDY OF FOKM. 23

Bartolommeo ascribed to Albertinelli (Louvre, 1115) ; by Giulio Eomano to Bagnacavallo (Louvre, 1438) ; and by Botticelli to Filippino Lippi (English National Gallery) ; Sodoma confounded now with Leonardo da Vinci, now with Sebastiano del Piombo, and even recently with Jan Scorel (Frankfort) ; while in the Albertina 2 and at Pesth (Boxana) his works are given to Baphael ? Only by gaining a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of each painter — of his forms and of his colouring — shall we ever succeed in distinguishing the genuine works of the great masters from those of their pupils and imitators, or even from copies ; and though this method may not always lead to absolute conviction, it, at least, brings us to the threshold.'

' That may be,' said I, ' but you must recollect that every human eye sees form differently.'

' Exactly so,' said the Italian, ' and, for this very reason, every great artist sees and represents these forms in his own distinctive manner ; hence, for him they be- come characteristic. For they are by no means the result of accident or caprice, but of internal conditions. You had better say,' he continued, smiling, ' that most persons, and pre-eminently art-historians, and " art-philo- sophers " as you call them, do not see these various forms at all. Preferring, as their practice is, mere abstract theories to practical examination, it is their wont to look at a picture as if it were a mirror, in which, as a rule, they see nothing but the reflection of their own minds. It is no easy matter, I admit, to see form correctly — I might almost say to feel it aright ; this is partly due to the physical con- formation of the eye ; but I feel convinced that, with appli- cation and perseverance, a man of ability may attain to a good deal. Every kind of study takes time, and our most

2 The fine red chalk drawing in the Albertina has now been rightly attributed to Sodoma.


24 PKINCIPLES AND METHOD.

precious endowments are not a free gift of the gods, but must be won through toil and sacrifice. The Greeks knew this, and Leonardo da Vinci himself often exclaimed when at work : " Tu, o Dio, ci vendi tutti li beni per prezzo di fatica " — (Thy blessings, God, we receive not as a free gift, but we earn them by toil). For myself, I am bound to confess that twenty years of study scarcely carried me beyond the first principles of the language of form. But of course, in this, as in every other science, it depends upon the capacity of the individual whether the progress be slow or rapid. Unfortunately I only took up this interesting study comparatively late in life, when the organs of sight are not as keen as they once were, and when memory is apt to play us tricks. Like the language of a nation, the phraseology of form and colour can only be properly learnt and understood in the land of its birth. There is not the slightest doubt about that. National pre- judices affect our mental vision as well as our physical sight ; but in a foreign country we must gradually divest ourselves of home prepossessions. We must be in harmony with the intellectual atmosphere, as well as with the out- ward conditions, of the land we are in, if we are ever to feel at one with its people and its products.'

'Art and science,' I interrupted, 'are the heritage of all mankind, and acknowledge no nationality.'

' No doubt,' said the Italian, ' though the saying is one which again must be taken cum grano, for I maintain that each nation has its distinctive conception of science, art, and religion. Every country swears by its own lawyers, by its own philosophers, and even by its own picture- restorers, and has far more confidence in their wisdom than in that of foreigners.'

' And do you wish to make out,' I cried in amazement, ' that it takes nearly a lifetime to learn this language of


STUDY OF FOKM. 25

form ? Well, all I can say is, that you will not make many converts to your views.'

'No matter,' replied the Italian indifferently; 'there is no need for anyone to climb the mountain who has neither inclination nor capacity for the task. Let him stay at its foot in luxurious idleness, and jeer at those who are toil- ing upwards if he will. For such as these the great masters assuredly did not paint. Can we possibly understand all the subtleties of poetry without first mastering the language of the poets ? '

' Perhaps not,' I said, ' but the general public will never take to your so-called language of form. The multitude can hardly distinguish between an intellectual countenance in nature and a commonplace one ; at most they may notice that one man has a wart on his forehead, that another has a hare-lip, a snub-nose, or perhaps blue eyes ; but they scarcely observe anything further.'

' I am perfectly well aware,' said my companion, ' that the full enjoyment of art is reserved only for a select few, and that the many cannot be expected to enter into all the subtleties, whether of the art of the Greeks and Romans, or of Dante, Shakespeare, Ariosto, Goethe, Giotto, Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgione, Raphael, Diirer, or Correggio. An unusually high degree of culture is re- quisite for this ; but I contend that by means of a better system of education than that introduced by the Jesuits throughout Europe, a higher standard might be attained than is at present possible.'

' I suspect that your select few have always been re- markably rare,' said I. ' Every age has its manners, its customs, and its art. The general public, whose mental horizon is bounded by the narrow limits of their own epoch, may be incapable of understanding the art of former times ; but they are, on the other hand, fully competent to appre-


26 PKINCIPLES AND METHOD.

ciate the art of the present day — battle-pieces, genre, landscape, the representation of animals and still-life, the socialistic novel, and, above all, the illustrated newspapers. As to the works of the old masters, they are usually so much damaged, that I believe good copies would prove just as attractive to the public, that is to the uninitiated, as the originals themselves.'

' If not more so,' replied my companion quietly. ' I am quite of your opinion on that score. The nearer the copyist, who, of course, reproduces the original after his own manner, approaches to the taste and feeling of our own day, the greater will be the appreciation of his work b} 7 the public. Correggio's Magdalen, and the Holbein Madonna at Dresden, are instances of this, and I could cite many others equally striking.'

'I have long had the same opinion,' I said warmly, 'of the people one comes across in picture galleries.'

' We have rather drifted away from our subject,' said the Italian as he rose from the bench. ' I think, however, we are pretty well agreed, both as to the value of what is termed " tradition," and as to the state of indecision in which the general impression leaves us when we wish to identify an old picture.'

' Say, rather, we are entirely agreed,' I rejoined. ' I sup- pose, however, that you respect documentary evidence ? '

' Written documents,' he replied, ' are only of value in the hands of a scientifically trained and competent critic ; in those of a novice in the study of art, or of a keeper of archives who understands nothing of the subject, they arc not only useless, but misleading.'

' Do you mean to say,' I exclaimed, ' that you are even going to cast doubts upon the value of records which all art-historians prize so highly ? '

' The only true record for the connoisseur,' he replied


FALSE SIGNATUKES. 27

calmly, ' is the work of art itself. You may think this a bold and sweeping assertion, but I can assure you that it is not so, and I can prove it by several examples. Is there any document more likely to inspire confidence, more apparent to every spectator, than that bearing the master's own name on a picture, which we call in Italian a cartellino ? '

' Well,' I replied, ' if every painting were signed with its author's name, there would certainly be no great merit in being a connoisseur.'

' There I cannot agree with you,' said the Italian ; ' art-historians and gallery-directors are still duped by records and cartellini, just as in the good old days, when passports were an absolute necessity, the police were taken in by the greatest scoundrels. I could mention dozens of forged cartellini, of old standing and of recent date, on pictures in some of the principal galleries ; the follow- ing, however, may suffice for the present. In the Doria gallery in Borne, and in the Louvre, you will find pictures by Niccolo Eondinelli of Ravenna, given to Giovanni Bellini, 3 and described and extolled as such by art-historians, misled by a forged signature. Paintings by other pupils and imitators of the master also bear the name of Giovanni Bellini ; for instance, a small Madonna in the Borghese gallery, 4 and a ' Pieta ' in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection at Milan, 5 two ' Madonnas ' in the gallery at Padua, 6 and a ' Pieta ' in the collection at Bergamo. 7 Again we find Andrea del Sarto's monogram on pictures which can only be regarded as feeble copies of originals by that great master — notably in the Doria-Pamfili and Borghese galleries. Piecently, a much- darkened and unattractive painting of

3 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 5 Ibid. i. 144, 1.

History of Painting in North Italy, 6 No. 755 and No. 1273 (Legato

vol. i. 185, 3. Creseini).

4 Ibid. i. 193, 3. 7 Crowe and Cavalcaselle, i. 143,3.

d 2


28 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

the school of Perugia, in the Turin gallery, has been taken by many a superficial and uncritical writer for the work of Timoteo Viti, merely because of its forged signature ; hence this charming painter of Urbino was condemned as un- worthy to have been the master of Eaphael. The great window in the church of S. Giovanni in Monte, at Bologna, is another proof of the value of documentary evidence ; it represents St. John the Evangelist, and bears the initials, C. A. F. No one who has the least acquaintance with the Ferrarese school can fail to recognise in it the serious spirit and massive forms of Francesco Cossa, which differ so widely from those of Lorenzo Costa, as well as his characteristic drapery with its peculiar folds. Nevertheless art-historians and guide-books 8 alike ascribe Cossa's work to Lorenzo Costa, and why ? Because they are incapable of reading the painting itself, and thus of interpreting the " written document" aright; perhaps, too, because Vasari constantly confounded Cossa, of whom he knew little, with Costa, a younger Ferrarese painter, of whom he knew rather more. On another Ferrarese painting, representing St. Sebastian, has been inscribed by some forger the name " Laurentius Costa " in Hebrew characters. Everyone accordingly as- signed the picture to this master, though a practised eye would have seen at a glance that it was by Cosimo Tura, of whom, moreover, it is a most characteristic example. I could enumerate many more such " documents," which have been wrongly interpreted by the unlearned, and many signatures which were inscribed upon pictures even cen- turies ago with intent to deceive. Art-historians consider that their antiquity attests their genuineness; and base profound and elaborate dissertations upon them.'

1 The less we understand of a subject,' I observed, ' the

8 Signor Gorrado Ricci, the author agrees with me, and cites this window of the latest guide-book of Bologna, as the work of Francesco Cossa.


DOCUMENTAKY EVIDENCE. 29

louder and more emphatic will be the admiration we ex- press for it.'

' Now,' continued my companion, ' I must mention another kind of document — those in archives, which are constantly being reclaimed from dust and oblivion by diligent and praiseworthy inquirers. Keepers of archives, in Italy and Belgium especially, have been most indefatigable in their search for documents relating to artists and their works. Many of these records have already been, and no doubt may still be, the means of throwing light on obscure points, and of discovering the names of hitherto unknown artists. Art-history owes a debt of gratitude to these persons, among whom I may mention Gaye, a Danish writer of great learning and considerable knowledge of art ; Signor Gaetano Milanesi ; the late Michelangelo Gualandi of Bologna ; the late learned Marchese Campori ; Adolfo Ven- turi of Modena, a young author of merit ; Signori Braghi- rolli and Bertolotti of Mantua ; and the late Signor Cechetti of Venice, a most careful and intelligent writer, whose recent death is much to be regretted. On the other hand, many of these documents, interpreted by archivists in their own way, have been the means of propagating the gravest errors. It is, of course, hardly necessary to add that these records only make mention of large and important works executed for churches, or by order of princes. Paintings in public and private collections are for the most part small easel pictures, and documents relating to their authorship and pedigrees will scarcely be forthcoming. We are thrown either upon tradition, or upon the general impres- sion when we have to pass judgment on them, and as the intuitive faculties differ in each individual, the conclu- sions arrived at must necessarily be of the most varied nature. I will cite a few examples to show you that I have not exaggerated. About 1840 a large fresco of the


30 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

"Last Sapper" was discovered at Florence, in the sup- pressed convent of S. Onofrio, under a coating of white- wash. Writers on art, connoisseurs, and painters formed different opinions with regard to it ; some even went so far as to ascribe it to Raphael, and it was engraved as his work by the late Signor Jesi. More judicious critics pro- nounced it to he of the school of Perugia. One day, how- ever — in the Strozzi library, if I mistake not — a painter came upon a document from which it appeared that, in 1461, Neri di Bicci, an indifferent Florentine artist, had been commissioned to paint a "Last Supper" in the con- vent of S. Onofrio. Eureka ! cried the happy finder, and immediately published his precious document. The more intelligent connoisseurs turned the discovery into ridicule. Indeed one of the best known and most distinguished archivists in Italy considered it so absurd, that he thought it his duty to make an example of the discoverer by publicly taking him to task. At the same time he availed himself of the opportunity to express his own individual opinion that it was the work of Eaffaellino del Garbo, a later Florentine painter, and a pupil of Filippino Lippi. But by doing so he showed that his own knowledge of art was on much the same level as that of the painter who, on the strength of his document, had maintained that Neri di Bicci was the author of the fresco.'

' And to whom is the fresco now attributed '? ' I asked.

' Passavant gave it to Giovanni Spagna, Signor Caval- easelle to Gerino da Pistoia ; both critics therefore con- sidered it to be by a pupil of Perugino.'

' And what is your opinion of these attributions ? '

1 1 too believe it to be the work of a pupil of Perugino, who was inspired by a Florentine engraving of the fifteenth century, and executed the painting from drawings by his master. It may be by Giannicola Manni, Perugino's well-


DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE. 31

known assistant. But we need not trouble ourselves with these questions of detail now. Let me give you another still more striking instance of the very problematic value of a document in the hands of a man who does not understand the phraseology of art. The same distinguished archivist I mentioned just now, who has rendered good service in his particular branch of research, had the misfortune to discover a document some years ago in our city archives, which records that Fra Diamante, an inferior painter of the middle of the fifteenth century, the pupil and assistant of Fra Filippo Lippi, was commissioned to pahit a fresco in the Vatican, of "Christ delivering the keys to St. Peter." Jubilant at his great discovery, he gave vent to his mingled excitement and scorn in the following terms : " How little you art-critics know of your business ! From Vasari down- wards you have all ascribed the large fresco in the Sistine chapel representing "St. Peter receiving the keys " to Perugino, and yon profess to see his manner in it. But let me tell you that you are quite on the wrong tack ; for it is not the work of an Umbrian at all, but of our Floren- tine, Fra Diamante. Be as incredulous as you like, but you will be bound to believe me in the end. Here it is in black and white in my document, as clear as noonday, and before such evidence criticism and strife must cease." '

' As I have not been in Piome I cannot say anything about this fresco,' said I. ' Do you consider it to be the work of Perugino ? '

' His best work,' replied the Italian emphatically, with an air of complete conviction.

' I must confess,' I observed, 'that you have persuaded me of this much, that the work of art itself is, after all, the only trustworthy evidence for purposes of identification. You must allow, however, that the technic may be of great service to a trained eye in distinguishing one master from


32 PKINCIPLES AND METHOD.

another. In Germany there is a school of connoisseurs who consider a knowledge of the technical qualities of a painting a most important point, if indeed it is not the chief guide in determining its authorship.'

' It is rather a bold venture,' said the Italian with a laugh, ' to pretend to recognise the technical qualities, such as the several pigments employed, in pictures of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which, for the most part, are entirely disfigured by repainting. Since the days of the French artist Largilliere, however, it has become the fashion to do so with many painters and connoisseurs, and even with some art-historians. No wonder, therefore, that the more sensible among modern painters should ridicule the pretensions of some recent writers on art. All these gratuitous suppositions as to method only serve to throw dust in the eyes of a credulous public. Ask any honest and competent picture-restorer, and '

' Are there any in existence ? ' I interrupted.

' They certainly are, as we Italians say, as rare as white flies,' he replied, smiling ; ' yet I have had the good fortune to meet with a few in my time, and not one of them ever ventured confidently to say what particular colours or varnishes the painter had made use of ; they could hardly even decide whether the picture was painted entirely in tempera or finished with glazes of oil.'

Evening had now closed in, and we found ourselves again at the Ponte Vecchio. My companion, who lived in the Via S. Frediano, prepared to bid me good-bye, regret- ting, at the same time, that his lengthy dissertation should have prevented us from reaching the Villa Eucciano, which was to be the object of our walk. I thanked the old gentle- man for his kindness, and for the trouble he had taken to explain his views upon many a vexed question in the realm of art-criticism, and asked him whether he would be dis-


PICTUEES BY EAPHAEL. 33

posed to accompany me on the following day to the Uffizi and the Pitti, should he have nothing better to do.

'With the greatest pleasure,' he replied, ' but you must not look upon me as an authority, or upon my judgment as infallible. I would never claim for myself either know- ledge or endowments sufficient to warrant my setting myself up above my fellows. Yet, considering the years of honest study I have devoted to the subject, I think I have at least as much right to express an opinion as the scores of superficial writers in Italy and abroad, especially when I see how many charlatans manage to pass themselves off as critical judges of Italian art.'

And so we parted, having arranged an hour for meeting on the morrow in the Tribune.

The following morning at the appointed time I mounted the steep flights of stairs leading to the Uffizi gallery, and in the Tribune I found my new friend awaiting me. He greeted me cordially, probably flattering himself that he was going to make an easy convert of me to his theories about art.

' There are a good many pictures here,' I said, looking round, ' bearing the name of Raphael — one, two, three, four, five, actually six ; will you be so good as to illustrate by them the practical value of your theory of form ? '

' A very natural request,' said the Italian, smiling ; ' but, supposing the forms in these six pictures ascribed to Raphael should not resemble the master's typical forms- — nay, supposing they should not even coincide with each other — what would you say then ? '

' That a theory which breaks down at the first test can have no practical value,' I answered promptly.

' As you confess yourself an amateur, and acknowledge that you have not yet learnt to see,' he said, ' I had no


34 PKINCIPLES AND METHOD.

right to expect any other answer. My opponents denounce my theory in the same way ; but the question is, would a thoroughly qualified critic consider that they are justified in doing so ? I think not. When two Greek scholars fail to agree about the meaning of a passage in the classics, the reason may be that one has more discernment than the other. The reader may side with the more able or with the less competent exponent, whichever is the more congenial to him, yet he would never doubt for a moment that both were equally well versed in the Greek grammar.'

' Of course not,' I answered.

'Very well,' continued my companion, 'yet this is by no means the case with art-historians and art-critics so-called. The first superficial writer on art who happens to notice my theory treats it with lofty scorn, notwithstanding that it is based both on long experience and on profound research. He rejects my views with his wonted assurance, though unable to produce a single reason for so doing, and being himself without the requisite knowledge and capacity for understanding my method. The public, who have the greatest respect for everything in print, have no discrimi- nation — resembling the peasant, who, when a parrot called out to him " Good morning," from a window, took off his hat to it. They of course know not which opinion to accept — mine, the result of a prolonged study of the grammar of art, or that of the improvised art-critic, who either sweepingly condemns my conclusions, or even occasionally gives them out as his own discoveries !

' For a beginner like yourself, 'he continued after a pause, and in a calmer tone, ' it would be advisable first to study some of the quattro-centisti ; for instance, Antonio Pollajuolo, Signorelli, Fra Filippo Lippi or his pupil Sandro Botticelli, for in the works of these early masters the bones and muscles are less hidden by the flesh, and the distinctive


SAM)RO BOTTICELLI. 35

and characteristic forms of each master are therefore more apparent, than is the case with the painters of the cinque- cento, especially "with Raphael, whose refined feeling for beauty always led him to conceal as much as possible what was bony or angular, without impairing the character of the form. I will, however, comply with your request as far as I can ; but before examining the six pictures ascribed to Eaphael, I should like to draw your attention to two others which are attributed to Fra Filippo Lippi in the catalogue, though I consider one of them to be the work of his pupil Sandro Botticelli.'

I followed my active guide into the next room, where we found a small picture, No. 1179, representing St. Augustine in his study.

'Look at this painting carefully,' he said, as he placed me before it in the best light. ' Among Sandro Botticelli's characteristic forms I will mention the hand, with bony fingers — not beautiful, but always full of life ; the nails, which, as you perceive hi the thumb here, are square with black outlines, and the short nose with dilated nostrils, which you see exemplified in Botticelli's celebrated and undisputed work hanging close by — " The Calumny of Apelles " (No. 1182). Note, too, the peculiar lengthened folds of the drapery, and the transparent golden red colour in both pictures. If you like, you may also compare the nimbus round the head of St. Augustine, with the glories of other saints in authentic works of the same period by the master, and you will, I think, be forced to acknowledge that the painter of the " Calumny," and of the large " Tondo " (No. 1267 bis.) in the next room, must also have been the author of this St. Augustine.'

This matter-of-fact way of identifying works of art by the help of such external signs savoured more of an anato- mist, I thought, than of a student of art, and was moreover


36 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

entirely opposed to the usually accepted method. Neverthe- less I answered : ' You seem to be right in your con- jectures ; but how is it that the picture came to be ascribed to Fra Filippo and not to Botticelli '? '

' Because those who named the pictures in this gallery were only guided by the general impression, and were not in the habit of comparing the works by different masters of the same school ; the principal reason, however, was that Vasari, in his life of Fra Filippo, records that the Frate painted a " St. Augustine in his Study " for Bernardo Vecchietti.'

' As if no other artist could have treated the subject ! * I exclaimed.

' Exactly,' said my companion, evidently well pleased. ' You see, therefore, in this case again, how little is the value of a written document or of tradition, when we are not capable of questioning the work of art itself as to its author.'

' But now,' said I, ' in order to convince me fully, you must be good enough to show me an authentic picture by Fra Filippo, that I may compare it with this St. Augustine.'

' Come with me,' he answered, and taking my arm he led me into the last room in that part of the gallery, and showed me a Madonna adoring the Infant Saviour, whom two Angels support (No. 1307). 9

' In this picture,' he remarked, ' you must first observe the dissimilarity in the tone of the colours. Compare the light blue of the Madonna's mantle with the darker scale of colour in Botticelli's works ; then the forms with those in Botticelli's paintings — the hand, the ear, the nose, the head, the drapery — and afterwards give me your candid opinion.'

I examined Fra Filippo's work as closely as I could,

9 An old copy of this picture, forgery, is in the Uffizi (Case 39,

entirely disfigured by repainting, is 184). Messrs. Crowe and Cavalca.

in the collection of Prince Torlonia, selle, however, describe it as an

in Rome ; and a drawing, a palpable ' admirable drawing ' (ii. 347-8).


PICTUEES BY EAPHAEL. 37

and indeed as I had never before studied any picture, and finally I was obliged to admit that the painter of it could not possibly have executed the " St. Augustine." My companion appeared satisfied, and took me back into the Tribune, where Eaphael's charming " Madonna del Cardel- lino " first riveted our attention. The picture attracted me more than any of the other works by Eaphael in this room, and seemed to me overflowing with youthful tender- ness and grace. I could not refrain from expressing my admiration of it to my amiable cicerone.

'I entirely agree with you,' he said; 'this picture has always struck me as one of the most charming of Raphaels early works, and I have studied nearly all his Madonnas. For the present, however, we will not think of the aesthetic value of the painting, but, keeping to our method, consider the forms only ; the hand and ear, for instance. Look at this Raphaelesque type of ear in the children. See how round and fleshy it is ; how it unites naturally with the cheek and does not appear to be merely stuck on, as in the works of so many other masters ; observe the hand of the Madonna with the broad metacarpus and somewhat stiff fingers, the nails extending to the tips only. You will find this type of hand in other authentic contem- porary works of Eaphael, for instance, in the " Marriage of the Madonna," in the Brera ; the "Madonna de' Tempi" at Munich ; the small Madonna belonging to Lord Cowper, and in others.'

' For goodness' sake,' I cried, ' leave such unsightly things as nails out of the question. The German and French critics would inevitably ridicule you if you were to tell them that even the nails were characteristic of a great master.'

' Everything may be turned into ridicule,' replied the Italian rather testily, ' especially by people who understand nothing of the subject. And, may I ask, are the nails more


38 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

unsightly than any other part of the human frame, in the eyes of an anatomist ? May not the form and shape of the nails be of service to us in discriminating between a northern (Flemish or German) and an Italian picture; between a work by Mariotto Albertinelli, and one by his prototype Fra Bartolommeo ; in recognising the hands of Bernardino de' Conti, of Bartolommeo Montagna, and of other masters, and in distinguishing them from those of their contemporaries l and fellow- workers ? But, out of consideration for you and your German and French friends,' he added, ' I will leave the " unsightly " nails out of the question, and direct your attention only to the nobler parts of the human frame. I must now beg you to compare the forms which we have just noted in this painting by Raphael, with those in a picture hanging close by, called the "Madonna del Pozzo " (No. 1125). Is not the ear quite different in form, and the hand with its short stumpy fingers ? Are the children of the same type as in Raphael's painting ? And does the hard and some- what over-smooth colouring at all resemble Raphael's flesh-tints, which are still discernible in the " Madonna del Cardellino," notwithstanding the injury it has suffered from restoration ? '

' Certainly not ; I can see all this plainly,' I replied at once ; ' and how different is the landscape, with its peculiar treatment of trees and shrubs, from Raphael's !

1 To cite a few out of many in- pictures, though it frequently occurs

stances, we find in Oxford a sheet in northern paintings. It resembles

containing, amongst other studies, a section of an octagon more than

the head of a young man and anything else, and appears as if it

a hand, ascribed to Raphael and had had three clean cuts with the

reproduced as such in the pub- scissors. At Chatsworth we also

lications of the Grosvenor Gallery find a study of two hands, which,

(No. 1'.)). It is just this hand, how- notwithstanding their decidedly

ever, which reveals the northern northern character, are ascribed

master, for the thumb-nail is of a to Panneggianino. form which we never find in Italian



To face p. 39.


The so-called "Fornarina." By S. del Piombo.

(In the Vffizi.)


THE "FORNAEINA." 39

How unpleasing is the grouping of the figures, and how ugly the position of the Madonna's right leg — Eaphael would certainly have had more feeling for line ! The scale of colour, too, is very unlike that in the " Madonna del Cardellino." '

' This painting,' pursued my companion, ' was pro- nounced by Passavant, by Miindler, and finally even by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, to be unworthy of Eaphael ; and is it not a disgrace to the authorities of the gallery that they should still allow the master's name to appear upon it ? '

' And to what painter do all these critics ascribe it ? '

' Wicar, Passavant, and Signor Cavalcaselle gave it, very rightly, I think, to Franciabigio.'

' As critics and non-critics are apparently agreed that it is not by Eaphael, we need not pursue the question any further. Will you now tell me your opinion about the " Fornarina," which hangs beside it ? '

' Willingly,' he replied. ' First I must tell you that this picture long passed as a Giorgione ; but in the begin- ning of this century Puccini, then the director of the gallery, to whom the attribution to Eaphael of the " Madonna del Pozzo " is due, imagined that he could detect in this portrait the features of the mythical " Fornarina," and therefore attributed it to Eaphael. Later and more intelligent critics, however, have assigned it to the school of Giorgione.'

'I know too little of Eaphael's manner,' said I, 'to venture on an opinion in the face of modern criticism. But I must tell you frankly that, at the first glance, the picture seemed to me pervaded by a breath of Eaphael.'

' A breath indeed ! ' said the Italian ; ' like all ama- teurs you are simply guided by the general impression. To a critical mind this "breath of Eaphael " indicates little or nothing. Still, I will allow that at a distance the type of this Eoman woman recalls several heads in Eaphael's


40 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

works. Why is Titian so frequently confounded with Palma Vecchio by amateurs ? Because the two painters used the same, or very similar, Venetian models. Observe the forms in this picture more closely : the fleshy arm, the imperfect modelling of the mouth, the position of the fingers so unlike Raphael, and the black shadows which you will not find in a single painting by the master, either of his Florentine or Eoman period ; and if you look at the few traces of original colour remaining in this portrait, you will certainly be obliged to modify your first impression. The stiff and somewhat academic hand is certainly not treated in the manner of Giorgione and still less in that of Eaphael ; the accessories, and the date 1512 in gold, also show that it is not by the latter master, for after the " Entombment " of 1507, I do not know of any authentic work by him bearing a date.'

' Surely the " Violin Player " in the Sciarra-Colonna gallery is of 1518,' I remarked. ' I only know it from the engraving, but I believe I am not mistaken in saying that it is dated 1518.'

' You are quite right,' said the Italian, ' but the date appears to me later than the painting, 2 and the name of Raphael was not given to it for many years after the master's death. Vasari makes no mention of the picture. The stone parapet against which the young man leans, and on which is the misleading date, the modelling of the face and the treatment of the fur, all recall the school of Giorgione. If you compare this delightful picture of the " Violin Player " with the so-called portrait of the " Fornarina," and with various heads in the altar- piece in S. Giovanni Crisostomo at Venice, I think you will agree with me, that the " Violin Player "is an early work

'-' Baron Rumohr asserted that the date, lf)18, was painted in the ' im- paste- ' (iii. 137).


THE "VIOLIN PLAYEE." 41

by Sebastiano del Piombo, 3 and cannot be by Eaphael. Stone parapets, such as we see here, only occur in Venetian portraits ; for instance, in the so-called "Bella di Tiziano," by Palma Vecchio, also in the Sciarra gallery ; in a female portrait by Bernardino Licinio, of 1524, belonging to the Andreossi family at Milan, and in other portraits. But to return to this " Fornarina." About 1512 Baphael painted his celebrated " Madonna di Foligno." Compare the hands in that painting with the hand of this woman ; you cannot fail, I think, to see the great dissimilarity be- tween them even though you have not yet applied yourself to the study of form. Look too at the liquid colouring, purely Venetian, not in the face, which is entirely repainted, but in the bodice with its tones of light blue and dark red ; such chords of colour do not occur in any of Baphael's paint- ings, nor indeed in those of any contemporary Florentine, though we find them in several works of Fra Sebastiano' s Venetian period ; for instance, in his large picture here, the " Death of Adonis " (No. 592), which the catalogue ascribes to Moretto, and in the lunettes by him in one of the lower rooms of the Farnesina at Kome. Compare too the treat- ment of the fur, with that in a male portrait in the Pitti (No. 409), and I think youmustbe convinced that both this " For- narina " and the " Violin Player " are by Fra Sebastiano del Piombo, and have nothing whatsoever to do with Baphael.'

'And does the form of hand in this portrait really coincide with that in all Fra Sebastiano's authentic works ? ' I asked.

' By no means,' replied the Italian, seemingly rather astonished at this question. ' Sebastiano del Piombo's forms are very different in the various epochs of his artistic

3 If I am not mistaken, it was gested Sebastiano del Piombo as the Professor Springer who first cast possible author of the portrait, doubts on this "Eaphael," and sug-

E


42


PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.


career. For I consider that he, like Girolamo Genga, is to be regarded as one of the first of the Eclectics. As the influence of Signorelli drew Genga after him, so Sebastiano, though first swayed by Eaphael, was afterwards led out of his natural course by Michael Angelo. In an early work, the " Pieta," belonging to Sir Henry Layard at Venice, he follows in the steps of Cima da Conegliano, and his forms and types are severe like those of that master. Later, he felt the overpowering influence of the great Giorgione, and his types, forms, and method of painting then recall this master, as in the altar-piece I mentioned to you just now, in S. Giovanni Crisostomo, and in the four Saints in the Church of S. Bartolommeo di Eialto at Venice (SS. Bartholomew, Sebastian, Sinibaldo, and Louis), and finally in the "Violin Player" of the Sciarra gallery. 4

4 In the collection at Lille there senting a Faun (see wood-cut ; is a characteristic drawing repre- Braun, No. 39) which dates from



FAUN BY SEBASTIANO DEL PIOMBO.


THE 'ST. JOHN" IN THE LOUVEE. 43

About 1510 Agostino Chigi summoned him to Eome, and probably through him Sebastiano made acquaintance with the young Eaphael, then rapidly becoming the prime favourite of the Eoman patrons of art. It is not surpris- ing, therefore, that the types and forms in Sebastiano's works of that period should have some affinity with those of Eaphael, which we fancy we can detect in this " Fornarina " of 1512, and in a fine male portrait in the Scarpa collection at La Motta. 5 After 1512, Sebastiano, unfortunately for his art, formed a friendship with Michael Angelo, who was then inclined to be rather jealous of Eaphael' s growing fame, and his forms and types then become altogether Michael-Angelesque. Soon after this date, if I mistake not, Sebastiano painted a second portrait, formerly at Blenheim, and now in the Berlin museum — sometimes called the "Fornarina" and sometimes " Dorothea " — at one time also ascribed to Eaphael. The landscape in this picture is still quite Giorgionesque ; but the type of hand, with unnaturally long fingers, has some- thing of Michael Angelo. And now, if it does not weary you, I should like to give you my opinion (rather a startling- one, perhaps) about another much talked-of work by Eaphael.'

I consented, not wishing to offend my loquacious companion, though, to tell the truth, I was beginning to feel I had had almost enough of his long-winded disserta- tions.

' If I have not made a great mistake,' he proceeded, ' I

this epoch of Sebastiano's career; what repainted, portrait passes as

it is wrongly attributed to Titian. the likeness of Tibaldeo by Eaphael.

The form of hand is still Gior- I think it more probably represents

gionesque ; that of the ear is Eaphael himself, at the age of

identical with the form we find twenty-six or twenty-seven, and that

in paintings of his first Eoman it was painted by Sebastiano— at

period (1511-1513). that date his great admirer. 3 This splendid, though some-

e 2


44


PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.


should say that the " St. John the Baptist," seated on the trunk of a tree, in the Louvre (No. 1500), which no doubt you have often admired as a Raphael, is also one of the first works which Sebastiano painted in Rome from a sketch by his new friend and patron Michael Angelo. It was probably executed to rival Raphael's painting of the same subject, of

which there is a school copy in the Tribune here (No. 1127). In the " Fornarina " we perceive the imi- tation of Raphael, while the " St. John " in the Louvre appears to me to mark Sebastiano's transition from his Raphaelesque to his Michael-Angelesque manner. The action and the pose of the figure, as well as the expression, recall some of Michael Angelo' s giant forms on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel — for instance the two nude youths above the Erythraean Sibyl. 6 The form and the bend of the second finger is quite Michael-Angelesque ; the landscape on the other hand is still Venetian, and differs entirely from Raphael's ideal landscapes. 7



" ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST IN THE LOUVRE.


c There are several drawings at Chatsworth by Sebastiano ; one as-



EAR OF SEBASTIANO DEL TIOMEO.

eribed to Giorgione, and another to Titian ; a third, in indian ink, re- presents one of the prophets in S.


Pietro in Montorio at Eome. In this last, the form of ear coincides exactly with that of the " St. John the Baptist " in the Louvre. Another fine drawing of Sebastiano's Michael- Angelesque period is in the Louvre (photographed by Braun, No. 424).

7 Dr. Bode, I may add, asserts that the "Fornarina" in the Bar- berini gallery and the " Dorothea " in Berlin have much in common. According to him the former dates from 1509 or 1510, Sebastiano's de- corative works in the Farnesina from 1509, and the " Dorothea" from 1511


THE "FOKNAEINA."


45


' Now,' he continued, taking my arm and directing my whole attention again to the portrait of the " Fornarina," ' the form of the hand here is nothing but the transition from Giorgione to Eaphael ; it is an academic hand, devoid of character. But I will not weary you with more of these hyper- critical observations, as no connoisseur of Eaphael of any repute in these days would be likely to favour Puccini's view.'



TWO FIGURES FROM THE CEILING OF THE SISTINE CHAPEL.


1 1 am not competent,' I remarked, ' to give an opinion on such a knotty point, but all your reasons for combating the views of those who ascribe the portrait to Eaphael have not yet succeeded in effacing my first impression.'

At this confession the Italian seemed a little put out ; finally, however, he owned that I was not so much in the wrong, and that these kind of eclectic pictures were not suited to the studies of beginners. ' Now look,' he said,


— the latter being a year earlier, therefore, than the "Fornarina" in the Tribune (Kunstfreund, No. 15, p. 228). The question in dispute has been discussed by Dr. Julius Meyer, in a brilliant article in the Jahrbuch


der k. preussischen Kunstsammlun- gen, No. 1, 1886. I consider that this writer was originally on the right track, but was misled by the theories of his friend and colleague, Dr. Bode.


46 PEINCIPLES AND METHOD.

' at this other female portrait close by, No. 1120, bearing Raphael's name. It is finely conceived and splendidly modelled, but unfortunately so much repainted that we can only form an opinion of it from the scale of colour in the dress, and from the drawing of the face, and more especially of the hand, with the first finger extended. It is still a striking portrait, notwithstanding its damaged condition, and is undoubtedly the work of an important Florentine master. First of all, look at the form of the left hand, with the outstretched finger. Does it bear any resemblance to the hand of the " Fornarina," or to that of the " Madonna •lei Cardellino " ? If you were to compare it with the hand of Maddalena Doni in her portrait in the Pitti, you would be still more puzzled to know why Passavant should have instanced these hands as distinctive of the manner of Piaphael, 8 for I can see no likeness in them to the hands in any one of Piaphael's authentic works. The whole character of the portrait is that of the quattro-cento ; if it were really Piaphael's work, it must necessarily have been executed earlier than the portraits of the Doni in the Pitti.'

' To whom do you ascribe it ? ' I asked, in order to show some interest in all these hair-splitting explana- tions.

' That is a difficult question to answer,' he replied.

  • I must confess that the picture does not give me sufficient

clue to warrant my attributing it to any particular master with confidence. Only charlatans and novices in the study have a name ready for every work of art. And now, before leaving the Tribune and crossing to the Pitti to examine Raphael's forms in the pictures there attributed to him, let me draw your attention to Titian's characteristic form of hand and ear, in his fine portrait of the prelate Becca- clclli (No. 1116). You must not lose patience, if I detain

8 Passavant, Iiaffael d' Urbin, ii. 41.


CHAEACTEEISTICS OF TITIAN. 47

you with what may appear to you trivial and even ab- surd. It is my object to make you notice everything in a work of art, and in time you will come to see that even details, in themselves insignificant, may lead us to the truth, especially in the works of subordinate painters. Look at the hand in this portrait, particularly at the ball of the thumb, which is too strongly developed, and at the round form of the ear. In all his early works, and in most of those of his middle period till between 1540-1550, Titian adheres to the same round form of ear — for instance, in the " Three Ages," and the " Holy Family " in the Bridgewater collec- tion (the latter picture being wrongly attributed to Palma Vecchio) ; in the " Daughter of Herodias " in the Doria-Pamfili gallery ; and in No. 633 of the Uffizi. This peculiarity T , ,..., L TIII: n[u; „, in the ball of the thumb also fre- titian's woeks.

quently occurs in his other paintings

and in his drawings. As the master is constantly con- founded with Giorgione (Pitti and Madrid), Pordenone (Doria gallery), Paris Bordone (Capitoline gallery), and even with Andrea Schiavone (Dresden gallery, No. 168), 9 these few hints may be of service to you in judging of disputed pictures, for Titian's hand and ear differ con- siderably from those we find in paintings by the masters I have just mentioned.'

' You may be right,' I said, with ill-concealed impatience, 'but for the present do let us keep to Eaphael's forms, which I am just beginning to understand ; otherwise my brain will be so confused with ears, hands, and nails, that I shall be positively incapable of seeing the pictures at all!'

9 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Life of Titian, ii. 478.



48 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

The Italian laughed, but gave in to me, and we left the Tribune for the Pitti.

' We will go at once to the Madonna called " d el Granduca, ' ' ' he said as we entered the first room, ' though it might more appropriately be named " del Duca," as in all probability it was painted at Urbino (in 1504) for the Duke Guidobaldo ; but this is of no great consequence.'

On reaching the picture, my guide pointed out the oval of the Madonna's face, which, he said, recalled Eaphael's first master Timoteo Viti, far more than his later instruc- tors Pintoricchio or Perugino. ' The expression and the pose of the head,' he added, ' are quite in the manner of Timoteo.' Then, of course, we looked at the hands, which , though very like those of the " Madonna del Cardellino," were, he declared, more bony and more suggestive of the quattro-cento. ' And the ear of the child,' he continued, ' does it not remind you forcibly of the ears of the children in the "Madonna del Cardellino"? Observe the round fleshy form, and see how it grows out, so to say, from the cheek. It is lamentable,' he added, with a shrug of the shoulders, ' that the mantle of the Madonna should have been so badly cleaned by an ignorant restorer. It is now no longer blue, but green, and has entirely lost its original lustre. Can you see any resemblance between this hand and that of the " Madonna del Pozzo," or of the female portrait, No. 1120, in the Tribune ? '

' Even I can now see,' I rejoined, ' that the master who drew and painted this hand did not execute the hands in the pictures in the Tribune. The difference both in con- ception and modelling is most striking.'

My companion smiled approvingly, and we then went back into the first room to look at a portrait called the " Donna Gravida " (No. 229), which, according to the cata- logue, is the work of an unknown master.


POETKAITS BY EAPHAEL. 49

' Passavant,' he said, ' rightly ascribes this female portrait to Eaphael ; but in my opinion places it too late in the master's career, namely, in 1507. If I am not mis- taken, it dates from the same period as the portraits of the Doni, about 1505 ; the hands are precisely of the same form as in those portraits. The face, especially the left side, has suffered so much at the hands of the restorer that Eaphael's touch is now hardly perceptible. But keep the form of the hands in your mind's eye, and let us go at once to the portraits of the Doni.'

On seeing the likeness of Maddalena Doni, I could not refrain from exclaiming : ' You are right ! exactly the same conception, the same treatment of the sleeve, the same broad hand with short stumpy fingers, the same nails, and the same rather uninteresting, inanimate expression. The landscape, too, coincides with that in the " Madonna del Cardellino." '

My guide was quite pleased with my ready acqui- escence in his views, and rubbed his hands with satis- faction at my progress, as he termed it, in comprehending the forms. ' And does not the position of the arms,' he asked me, ' and the whole conception, remind you of another celebrated female portrait which no doubt you have often admired in the Louvre ? '

' Indeed it does,' I replied ; ' of course you mean the " Mona Lisa," by Leonardo da Vinci ? '

' Colto nel segno — you have hit the mark,' he cried. ' We may therefore conclude that when Eaphael painted these portraits in 1505, he had often been in Leonardo's workshop. Now, having looked at these five early works by Eaphael,' continued my instructor, ' we will turn to another painting in this gallery, which also dates from his Florentine period — the large altar-piece (No. 165) ordered by the Dei family, but which Eaphael had


50 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

to leave unfinished when summoned to Eome by Pope Julius II.'

My cicerone first called my attention to the fact that in later times this picture had been painted over by an unskilful restorer, so that in its present condition the original outlines are hardly to be recognised. ■ But this will not materially interfere with our studies of form,' he remarked. ' First of all look at the hand and ear. I must tell you, however, that Raphael painted this picture in the summer of 1508, about three years later than those we have just examined.

' I am delighted to find the same round fleshy ear as in the five other pictures,' I said, 'but the form of the hands appears to me rather different.'

' Quite right,' he replied ; ' Eaphael never remained stationary, but was always making progress in his art. In the main, however, the form of hand is the same asin all his later paintings ; but you must recollect that in this pic- ture the hands have been quite disfigured by the restorer.'

' It appears to me,' I observed after a pause, ' that it recalls Fra Bartolommeo's large work in the first room (No. 208), and even the one here (No. 159), in the com- position, the architectural background, the arrangement of the drapery, and even in the types of the two flying angels.'

' I quite agree with you,' he returned, ' and it proves, I think, that it was only at this date, in 1508, that a more intimate relation sprang up between the young Raphael and Fra Bartolommeo. Note also the two singing angels at the foot of the throne — a " motive " which is quite Venetian. Fra Bartolommeo may have introduced it in Florence from the city of the Lagoons.'

From this room we went into the ' Sala di Marte,' to the " Madonna della Seggiola " (No. 79).


THE "DONNA VELATA." 51

'In this celebrated picture,' he said, 'you will notice that, while the form of ear is, in the main, identical with that in the works of Eaphael's Peruginesque and Florentine periods, the hand is not so natural as in the two female portraits (Nos. 229 and 59), in the "Madonna del Cardellino," and in several paintings of his Peruginesque epoch ; for example, the " Ecce Homo " in the Tosio gallery at Brescia, the St. Sebastian in the gallery at Bergamo, and a drawing for an angel playing a viol (for the " Coronation of the Madonna ") in the British Museum (Braun 70). The hand, in the " Madonna della Seggiola," is no longer of the bourgeois type, faithfully reproduced from nature, but is of that elegant and refined form, which Baphael adhered to throughout his Boman period. Even here the metacarpus is still broad and rather flat, after the manner of his first master, Timoteo Viti ; but the fingers are tapering, and it is a well- shaped, you may say an ideal, female hand. This " Tondo " was probably painted about 1513 or 1514. In all Eaphael's works from this period to his death you will find the same conventional form of hand, both in the few paintings which proceeded from his own brush, and in those which his pupils executed from his cartoons. Among others, I may instance the Madonna in the Bridgewater gallery, and the beautiful portrait of the woman he loved.'

' And where is the true portrait of this woman ? ' I asked.

' In this gallery,' he replied, ' in one of the cabinets in which we have already been,'

We went to it at once, and my enthusiastic com- panion placed me in the best light for seeing it. The face produced a powerful impression upon me, so sparkling is it with life.

Before such a masterpiece I had no inclination to think of the tiresome study of hands and ears. ' Truly,' I


52 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

exclaimed in my enthusiasm, ' such a woman was worthy of Raphael's love, and it must have been her face which inspired the "Madonna di San Sisto." '

• Most connoisseurs in all parts of the world would probably agree with you, always excepting the Floren- tine directors of this gallery,' said the Italian with a cynical smile, ' who still continue to call this portrait the "Donna Velata," and to ascribe it to an unknown painter. One point, however, on which critics cannot agree is, whether it be an original or only a copy.'

' Good heavens ! ' I cried amazed, ' you don't mean to say that anyone can take this strikingly beautiful work for a copy? Critics who look upon this countenance, with its marvellous vitality, as a mechanical reproduction must indeed have strange notions about art ! '

At this moment a young man approached us, and, greeting my companion, observed in a significant tone, as he adjusted his spectacles : ' What must the original of this portrait have been, when even the copy makes so great an impression upon one ! '

I noticed that at these words the colour mounted to my companion's face, but he only observed drily, ' Then you also consider this portrait to be a copy ? '

' All connoisseurs in the world are agreed upon this point,' rejoined the other emphatically.

' And you are a professor of painting at the Academy ! ' said my friend with undisguised irony.

'Yes, and as a professor of painting I am in a posi- tion to set you right if you are in any doubt about the matter,' he proceeded with consummate assurance. 1 You must know,' he continued, ' that no connoisseur of Italian art either in Germany, the centre of learning, or in Paris, will accept this picture as an original nowadays. Just look at the touches of the Venetian, or, if you prefer



To face p. 52.


The "Donna Velata." By Raphael,

(In the Pitti.)


THE "DONNA VELATA.'" 53

it, the Bolognese copyist, on the cheek and on the brow ! '

This seemed to be the last straw for my companion.

' We are neither in learned Germany nor infallible Paris at the present moment,' he said very decidedly, ' but in Florence, and before the picture itself. Let me tell you first of all,' he continued in a calmer tone, ' that this portrait, which, according to Vasari's testimony, belonged to the Botti family, was still in their possession in 1677, and there Cinelli saw and described it as an original. If it were a Bolognese copy we must assume that it was made at a still later period, and after the picture had left the Botti collection. And what Bolognese of that date, I should like to know, would have been capable of making such a copy? Look at all the copies by Crespi and Donduzzi and see how black in the shadows they have become; moreover, if it only dated from the last, or even from the seventeenth, century it ought to be in a far better state of preservation, whereas the colour has scaled off in so many places that the very priming is visible. And what do you suppose became of the original ? Even in the eighteenth century a painting by Baphael was not so easily lost sight of. No ! no ! I am too old to be taken in by the baseless, arbitrary assertions of some muddle- headed foreign professor. How do you propose to prove that the touches in the face are from the brush of a Bolognese artist ? Do they differ so materially from those in the "Madonna di San Sisto " at Dresden ? Only a highly imaginative mind could discover the strokes of the brush at all, for the face has been greatly over-cleaned, and the painting has been retouched in many parts — in the fore- head, in the nose, on the right cheek, and in the neck and throat ; even the background, which was originally brown, has been daubed over by the restorer.'


54 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

' Yes, I admit all this,' murmured the professor.

' And is this not another proof, if such were needed, that it is not a copy? Just look at the painting with your own eyes, my dear sir, and never mind what the critics in Berlin and Paris see fit to tell us about it. A copyist, indeed ! to have painted those eyes, with their wonderful expression, that proud mouth, that noble brow — never ! ' '

At these impassioned words the professor silently slipped his spectacles into his pocket and vanished into the next room.

' I don't wonder,' said I, when he had disappeared, ' at your being exasperated by such opinions, especially when they come from a professional artist. Until now I had never seen this picture, and knew it only from photo- graphs. I am but au amateur, yet I have never been able to understand how anyone could regard such a gem as a copy, least of all connoisseurs who pretend to be infallible judges of art.'

'We shall find,' said my friend, ' this same essentially Eoman type in the Magdalen in the altar-piece with S. Cecilia in the gallery of Bologna. Baphael executed this picture in 1516 for the Cappelladeh" Olio in the church of S. Giovanni in Monte, and about that time he may have immortalised the features of his beloved in the portrait before us. Passavant thought that, according to his custom at that time, he left the execution of the dress and of the hand to one of his assistants. This supposition is probable enough I think, but the superb and queenly head could only have been executed by Baphael himself. Five or six years

1 The late Mr. Mundler wrote of claimed by every touch ; for who but

this portrait (Bcitrcirjc mi J. Burck- he could have attained to such un-

hardts Cicerone, p. 41) : ' My lirst equalled nobility and charm ? The

impression of this picture grew left eye, for instance, is a perfect

stronger every time I saw it. miracle of drawing, chiaroscuro,

Raphael appears to me to be pro- and artistic treatment.'



To face p. 55.


The " Fornarina." (In the Darbtrint Gallery, Rome


POETEAIT OF LEO X. 55

later, when the great master was no more, she was again portrayed by one of his scholars, probably by Giulio Eomano. That portrait is now in the Barberini gallery ascribed to Eaphael. In it we see the once noble- looking woman completely transformed. She is not only older, but has degenerated; the painter, moreover, has represented her in such a debased and repulsive manner that she looks positively disreputable. See,' he continued, going closer to the portrait, ' how thoroughly Eaphaelesque is the form of ear.'

' My dear sir,' I exclaimed, ' spare me these details of hands and ears before such a picture. In the presence of art like this it is utterly impossible to think of these things. Raphael's spirit has cast its magic spell over me, and I can- not descend to that prosaic level requisite for studying forms and details in a work of art.'

After I had taken a long look at this splendid work, my long-suffering guide suggested that we should go to another portrait of about the same period of the master's career. So we returned to the ' Sala d'Apollo,' where hangs the celebrated likeness of Leo X., with the Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi Eossi.

' Much the same treatment of drapery,' I observed. 'And the same round fleshy ear,' he added. ' I could tell you a good deal about this famous portrait,' he continued, ' but we will content ourselves now with noting that the ear is identical in form with that in the other authentic works by Eaphael which we have seen to-day. In this also the hands and the accessories were probably by his assistants.' 'Although the "Fornarina" is supposed to have been of the people,' I observed, ' how proud and noble she looks, compared with this high-born Pope ! Had the painter not endeavoured to ennoble him by the richness of the details — the illuminated breviary, the- magnifying glass,


56 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

the beautifully chased golden hand-bell, the rich ecclesi- astical habit, the turkey carpet — this aristocratic Medici might pass for a wealthy publican.'

The Italian smiled, and carried me off to the ' Sala di Saturno,' where we paused for a moment before the spirited portrait of Julius II.

' See what a contrast,' he said, ' between this Pontiff and his successor, Leo X. Like the " Fornarina," he too was of the people. His fine countenance betokens a powerful and commanding character, his deeply furrowed features denote passionate emotion, noble pride and conscious strength, and were cast in a very different mould from those of the crafty, sensual, phlegmatic Medici.' 2

' Few pursuits are so interesting to an art-historian,' I remarked, ' as the study of portraits.'

' Undoubtedly,' he replied, ' if the historian himself be interesting, which unfortunately is very seldom the case. To understand Italian history it is absolutely necessary to study portraits, both male and female ; for some por- tion of the history of the period is always written in those faces, if we only know how to read it. If you compare the portrait of this so-called "Donna Velata" with that of the high-born Maddalena Doni, or of Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere, known as the " Bella di Tiziano " (No. 18 in this gallery), you will see at once that the ideal had com- pletely died out among the aristocracy at the time of the Renaissance, while among the people a healthy vitality and moral vigour still prevailed.'

After this digression into the history of culture, my companion took me to look at the " Vision of Ezekiel," a

2 The portrait in the Tribune portrait of Julius II. and a copy of

may possibly be the original, though it by Titian (?). It is said that both

it is much disfigured by repainting. of them were brought to Florence

According to Vasari, the Castle of from Urbino Urbino contained both Raphael's


THE "VISION OF EZEKIEL." 57

small painting hanging on the opposite wall. I knew it well from the engraving and had always admired the com- position — at once so attractive and so impressive.

' If I remember rightly,' I observed, ' Vasari says that Eaphael painted this picture for the Hercolani family of Bologna.'

' Yes,' he replied ; ' hence by way of saying something quite original, several northern critics have asserted that, like the " Donna Velata," this picture was a late copy executed by some Bolognese artist.'

' And what has become of Raphael's original ? ' I asked.

  • We must leave that question for these great authorities

to answer,' he replied. ' The little picture is splendidly executed, but I also am of opinion that it is not by Baphael. The Hand of the Almighty, the scale of colour, the ears of the angels, and especially their thick upper lips, are all, I think, characteristic of Giulio Bomano, Baphael's favourite pupil ; nevertheless, in the beautiful composition, the spirit of the master himself is seen in all its freshness and life. It probably dates, as several art-critics consider, from 1517.'

' If you are right,' I observed, ' Giulio Bomano must have been capable of imitating the technic and the forms of his master and prototype so closely as to deceive us, for it would never have occurred to me to cast doubts on the authenticity of this picture.'

' And yet,' said my guide, ' nearly all the easel paint- ings of Baphael's last period, from 1516 to his death, were executed in great part by his scholars and assistants, and chief among them was Giulio Bomano. At that date the master himself was so much in request as painter, architect, and archaeologist, that it would have been wholly impossible for him to fulfil all the commissions that poured in from every side, even had he been endowed with four hands


58 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

instead of two, and had each day been composed of twenty- four working hours instead of twelve.'

Not over-well pleased to be told that I was not to regard this picture, which had such charm for me, as entirely by Eaphael, I moved on to the portrait of a Cardinal on the same wall (No. 171). ' I suppose you will tell me that this splendid portrait of a prelate with a cast in his eye is not by Eaphael either, but only by one of his pupils ? ' I said with a laugh.

' And what if I tell you that the painting is not even Italian,' he said, also laughing, ' but only a copy by a foreigner of an original by Eaphael ! '

' If your experimental method is to lead to such results,' I exclaimed, ' then it would be best for the world to know as little as possible of it ; and to forget what it does know as speedily as may be.'

' In all probability this will be the case,' said the Italian good-humouredly. ' But suppose we examine this cele- brated portrait a little more closely. The liquid character of its painting recalled the method of the German masters to Passavant ; 3 he even thought that Eaphael might have been under the influence of some of Holbein's pictures when engaged upon it, which, however, I may observe incidentally, was a chronological impossibility. But there can be no doubt that the technic of the painting is not Italian ; this must strike every connoisseur. Look at the hard fixed eye and badly modelled mouth, at the thumb of the right hand which is completely out of drawing, and at the crude colours of the book. You must acknowledge that no great master could have painted this portrait. However, to relieve your mind of all uncertainty, I may as well tell you at once, that the original is still in the possession of the Inghirami

3 i. 175.


POETEAIT OF A CAKDINAL. 59

family at Volterra, and though ruined by modern restoration, it is still recognisable in parts as the work of Eaphael.'

Of course there was nothing more to be said after this, and I was forced to give in, though I must confess that my guide's destructive criticism was as displeasing to me as were fire-arms to Ariosto's Orlando.

' On the opposite wall,' he continued, ' there is another portrait of a Cardinal (158), which is still given to Eaphael, though Passavant rightly pronounced it the work of a scholar.' When I examined it I had no difficulty in perceiving that the eyes and the left hand were badly modelled, and that "the ear was not of that round fleshy form which we had been noticing in Eaphael' s genuine portraits. ' Another similar work of the school, representing Cardinal Passerini, is in the Naples Museum,' he said, as, glancing at his watch, he prepared to leave. And I also was of opinion that for the present this one lesson was quite enough. So we parted.

I remained in Florence some weeks longer, and made use of the time to follow up the teaching of my guide by studying form in painting, sculpture, and architecture. I soon came to the conclusion, however, that such a dry, unin- teresting, and even pedantic, study may be all very well for a ' former student of medicine,' and might even be of service to dealers and experts, but in the end must prove detrimental to the truer and more elevated conception of art. And so I left Florence dissatisfied.

On my return to Kasan I heard, to my surprise, that Prince Smaranzoff's celebrated collection of pictures, principally Italian of the best period, was shortly to be sold by auction. My first art-studies had been made in this gallery, as the chateau was only a few versts from the town, and I had often been there in my youth. I

F 2


60 PRINCIPLES AND METHOD.

still had a lively recollection of the six Madonnas by Eaphael which it contained, and I now felt a strong desire to see and study the pictures again before they were scattered to the four winds.

One bright December morning, therefore, I ordered my sleigh and started in high spirits. I found the splendid rooms swarming with Russians and foreigners — dealers, art-connoisseurs, and directors of galleries. They were all examining the pictures one by one, with the greatest interest, and, as I thought at first, with immense knowledge, going into raptures first over one, then over another ; identifying here a Verrocchio, there a Melozzo da Forli — even a Leo- nardo da Vinci — at the first glance. I listened curiously to then analytical remarks about the fine technical qualities of the Venetian pictures, and the excellent state of pre- servation of the Raphaels, and marvelled ; but what was my astonishment, when at length I was able to approach, and critically to examine, all these Madonnas, with which I also had been enchanted some years before ! The Raphaels in the Pitti were still fresh in my memory, and I could not refrain from testing these works of art by the method the Italian in Florence had taught me. I could hardly believe my eyes, and felt as if scales had suddenly fallen from them. The Madonnas, one and all, now appeared to me equally stiff and uninteresting, the children feeble if not positively absurd ; as to the forms, they had not a trace of Raphael. In short, these pictures, which only a few years before had appeared to me admirable works bj r Raphael himself, did not satisfy me now, and on closer inspection I felt convinced that these much-vaunted productions were nothing but copies, or perhaps even counterfeits. The works attributed to Michael Angelo, Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Lorenzo Lotto, and Palma Vecchio, made exactly the same impression upon me. I was over-


THE FLOKENTTNE CEITIC. 61

joyed to find how satisfactory were the results of my hitherto short and superficial studies, even though the knowledge I had gained was so far only of a negative character. As I drove home, I determined to leave Gorlaw and return as speedily as possible to Germany, Paris, and Italy, in order to study in the galleries with renewed zeal, in accordance with the method the Italian had indicated to me, and which I had, at first, been inclined to disparage.

I therefore spent a year, partly in Germany, and partly in London and Paris, and then proceeded to Italy, sanguine of success in my studies.

This time I greeted the dark cypresses and pines, and the sunny sky above them, with unmitigated delight. After devoting some months to the local schools of Lombardy and of the Venetian territory, as well as to the study of the Italian language and literature, I turned my steps towards Tuscany, that paradise of art. My first thought on reaching Florence was to seek my former guide in order to express my gratitude to him for the trouble he had once taken to instruct me. I applied first to the inspector of the gallery, supposing that he would be the most likely person to tell me if this indefatigable student of pictures were still in Florence, and where he might be found. I was much amazed when this Government official met my question with the cold rejoinder, that he had a great antipathy to this old heretic with his mania for renaming pictures, and had nothing whatever to do with him. ' Moreover,' he added, 'he is a declared enemy of liberty ; if you wish to find him you must apply to a Codino.' 4

After many inquiries I at length succeeded in dis- covering an individual who was able to give me some

4 A person belonging to the old or reactionary party in politics is so nick- named. — (Trans.)


62 PEINCIPLES AND METHOD.

information about him — an apothecary, a lean, cadaverous fellow, with a long nose and keen dark eyes. Could he tell me if the old man were still alive, I asked.

' Unless he died quite recently,' he replied grimly, ' he is still in the land of the living.'

' And do you know where he is to be found ? Some time ago,' I added, ' he lived in the Via S. Frediano.'

' Yes, I know ; ' replied my surly informant, ' but some months since he quitted Florence altogether and retired into the country. I heard,' he pursued with a sneer, ' that he grew tired of his fellow-men, because they were not all made after his pattern. He keeps aloof from everyone, excepting a few of his old political friends.'

1 Yet when I knew him,' I hazarded, ' he appeared cheerful and sociable enough.

1 He never had any conscience,' said the apothecary venomously, ' and was always opposed to law and order. All these Italian anarchists and would-be reformers of the world are in reality vain and insolent egotists, devoid of religion and of veneration for the powers that be. No wonder that they should end by becoming misanthropes ! God forgive them the havoc they have wrought in our beautiful land ! '

From these caustic remarks I inferred that my gaunt informant belonged to the clerical, while my former cicerone must evidently have been of the patriotic, party. But I felt some surprise that a man who, a comparatively short time before, had been such an enthusiast for art and science, and especially for the regeneration of his country, had thus suddenly sunk into obscurity.

I thanked the crabbed apothecary and parted from him as speedily as possible. As I went home I fell to medi- tating upon the transitoriness of our joys and sorrows in this world.


CONCLUSION. 63

After a sojourn of two years in Tuscany I reached the Eternal City at last. Here for many months I have studied art in churches and galleries, and, finally, I have conceived the presumptuous idea of imparting some of the results to the young students of art in my own country.

I trust that they will receive these attempts in the same spirit of good-will in which they are offered.


64


TEE BORGHESE GALLERY.

' One day telleth another.'

In these democratic days, when the banner of universal equality has been planted even on the mouldering walls of Kome — the centre and stronghold of Ultramontanism — we must expect that, with the gradual abolition of entail and hereditary right, things so hateful to the democracy, the various art-collections belonging to the great Eoman families and many a little gem from the Vatican will before long be dispersed. 1 While these galleries, therefore, still remain intact, it seems desirable to take a survey of the choicest and best known among them, and critically to discuss the masterpieces they contain. The task is neither easy nor particularly agreeable, and I should have shrunk from incurring so heavy a responsibility, at the commencement of my career, had not my prolonged sojourn in Rome con- vinced me that the abilities of distinguished Italian critics, in the present day, instead of being devoted to art, might be employed more profitably to themselves on politics, or archaeology, or on any other subject. The authorities,

1 The fulfilment of Signor been sold, and has left the country.

Morelli's prediction appears to be The law abolishing entail and primo-

impending. The Borghese gallery geniture must inevitably lead to the

has already been transferred from impoverishment and breaking-up of

the Borghese Palace in the city to the great historic families of Italy,

the Borghese Villa without the walls, and consequently to the dispersion

and one of its famous pictures — the of those collections which have

so-called portrait of Cesare Borgia, afforded delight and instruction to

wrongly ascribed to Raphael— has many generations. — (Trans.)


INTEODUCTOEY EEMAEKS. 65

therefore, will scarcely take it amiss, I trust, if I avail myself of this tempting opportunity to test the value of my own studies, which have at least the merit of conscientious- ness, however limited my powers. Considering how weari- some is the task of compiling a catalogue, how insignificant indeed in the eyes of most people, it is hardly to be expected that art-historians, or directors of galleries with their manifold duties, should occupy themselves with trivi- alities of this description. Such work is for those who, like myself, can only aspire to be regarded as students in the realm of art-criticism, while it is the privilege of those who are philosophers and historians to soar unfettered into other and more exalted spheres. Thus reasoning, I gradu- ally overcame my natural diffidence and let my vanity have full play. May the Gods preserve this audacious venture from the fate of the frog in the fable !

I thought it advisable to make these few prefatory remarks, as I wish it to be clearly understood that this work is only the more or less unpretending effort of a student ; and that in attempting to identify works of the great Italian masters, whenever the attributions of the catalogue appear to me untenable, I have merely sought to put my own powers of criticism to the test. This, and this alone, is the task I have set myself.

Such an undertaking is only likely to interest those who are disposed to make similar studies in the Eoman galleries, so long as they continue to exist. As my con- clusions occasionally differ from those traditionally and universally accepted, every one must exercise his own judg- ment as to which of the two opinions, if either, is the more worthy of acceptance. Even my mistakes, and there will be no lack of them, may thus be of use to some, and may aid them in their search after truth. The daring assertion of Mr. Wornum, an Englishman, who first declared the Holbein


66 THE BOKG-HESE GALLERY.

Madonna in Dresden to be a copy, was at first stigma- tised as rank heresy by all orthodox German art-critics ; eventually, however, his view received the most unqualified recognition, and was confirmed by those critics who had met in the capital of Saxony to pronounce judgment on the picture. For the present I shall confine myself to discuss- ing two of the most important picture galleries in Eome, the Borghese and the Doria-Pamfili. This, however, will not deter me, when opportunity offers, from casting an occasional glance at other Italian collections. Eespecting the origin of these galleries I can furnish no reliable information, and, as far as I know, all the guide-books are silent on this subject. For the study of the works of art themselves, at least as I understand it, this is a matter of no importance. Most of these collections, -if I am not mistaken, owe their origin to the taste for art — according to some, to the Spanish love of display — in the seventeenth century. The nucleus of the Borghese gallery was formed by Cardinal Scipione Borghese in the beginning of that century; the remaining collections, with the exception of the Colonna and the Chigi, were of later origin. The Barberini gallery, subsequent to the annexation of the Principality of Urbino by the Papal See, received consider- able additions from the Castle of Urbino at the hands of Pope Urban VIII. Later, it had the misfortune to be divided into two parts, one of which fell to the Barberini- Colonna family, the other to the house of Sciarra-Colonna. In the hanging and arrangement of the pictures in these galleries, no system was, as a rule, adopted ; everything was subordinated to the size and shape of the picture, and even occasionally to that of the frame, a proceeding unfortunately only too common in Italy. Thus the paintings may be said to be distributed through, rather than arranged in, the rooms. The Borghese gallery is a notable exception, and


INTRODUCTOBY EEMAEKS. 67

owes its present arrangement to Commendatore Eosa, for many years its custodian, and subsequently a distinguished archaeologist. He has thus shown that he is of opinion that works of art should be hung according to their schools. The names affixed to most of the pictures in these collections, as well as in all the public galleries of Italy, date from the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth century — from a period, therefore, when art-criticism was, as a rule, the province of a few acade- micians and picture-collecting prelates, whose verdicts, delivered between two pinches of snuff, were regarded as final and indisputable. Through long years of unchequered peaceful existence, they have been piously upheld by the easy-going public, and even by the majority of art-historians. To criticise them now would be sacrilege in the eyes of the orthodox, and so in a measure it is, for it might dispel the cherished illusions of many aesthetic dreamers. 2 This thought might have caused me pain had I not reflected that my words, not being intended for them, would never be likely to reach their ears. I certainly have no desire to shake the belief of students and tourists in theories which they regard as infallible, for woe betide the great European collections should the hitherto confiding public begin to look sceptically upon its catalogues and red guide-books. The museums and galleries would soon be nearly deserted, aesthetic enjoyment would cease, and it is doubtful whether universal culture, so-called, would be advanced. Of all this, however, there is not the slightest fear, and taking the highest view of the subject, it is in fact completely immaterial, whether a work of art gives me pleasure or instruction under one name or another ; the

2 Pascal remarks somewhere: c'est le fondement mystique de son ' La coutume fait toute l'equite par autorite ; qui la ramena a son cette seule raison qu'elle est recue ; principe l'aneantit.'


68 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

point is, that it does give me pleasure — that is to say, that it appeals to my sense of enjoyment, or, as the Germans would put it, that it causes the tenderest chords and fibres of my soul to vibrate. Fortunatety for humanity at large, this occurs day by day in all the picture galleries of Europe, in spite of the many mistakes which pedantic art-critics strive to discover in the catalogues. A painting, once said a professor of aesthetics, is like a flower of the field — pure and refined natures delight in it, and care not whether learned botanists classify it among the Rosaceae or the Malvaceae. And now, without wasting further words, let us enter the Borghese gallery, which merits the honour of our first visit, for notwithstanding the severe losses it has sustained in the course of its long existence, in my estimation at least, it still ranks first among all the other private collections in the world. The report recently circulated, that the Russian Government had offered 25,000,000 francs for it, was merely spread in order to give some idea of its inestimable worth, and thereby to afford the public a clear and undeniable proof that the pictures in these rooms were really of great pecuniary value, and consequently worthy of its admiration. In my critical discussion of this gallery I shall not follow the sequence of the numbers in the catalogue. This method, though not the most practical, is probably the most logical, and will facilitate matters for those few persons who may be disposed to follow me in this survey.

Booms I., II., and III. 3

The first room contains, almost exclusively, pictures by masters who from the date of their birth belong to the

3 Since the transfer of the gallery have been changed. The new to the Villa Borghese the numbers numbers of the pictures are given of the rooms and of the pictures in the text. — (Trans.)


INTEODUCTOEY EEMAEKS. 69

fifteenth century, but whose labours extend over many- years of the sixteenth, such as Sandro Botticelli, Francesco Eaibolini, Pintoricchio, Pier di Cosimo, Lorenzo di Credi, Giovan Antonio Bazzi, and others — painters, therefore, who belong to that category which Padre Lanzi was wont to term the most modern of the ancients or the most ancient of the moderns : a definition characteristic alike of his time and of his order. Before, however, examining the several paintings, I wish to say a few words to M. Charles Blanc, a celebrated French art- critic, 4 with respect to a maxim cited by him, and accepted by most art-historians and connoisseurs of our day. They may also serve as a criterion of the method which I have pursued.

' Plus les maitres sont grands plus leur ame est engagee dans leurs ouvrages,' he justly remarks, though not with much originality, in one of his articles in the ' Gazette des Beaux-Arts ' for 1861, entitled " Une Peinture de Leonard de Vinci," in which he seeks to prove that a "St. Sebastian," sold by its owner, M. Moreau, to the Emperor of Bussia for 60,000 francs, could be nothing but a genuine work by Leonardo. ' Pour juger de l'authen- ticite d'un tableau,' he continues, ' il importe de connaitre l'esprit du peintre plus encore que ses procedes, car les procedes s'apprennent, le faire se transmet et s'imite, mais Fame ne saurait se transmettre ; elle est essentiellement inimitable. Ainsi, a l'inverse (! ?) de la plupart des connoisseurs qui regardent principalement dans l'ceuvre d'un artiste aux habitudes de son pinceau, j ' aimer aismieux m'enquerir avant tout delatournure de son esprit. L'esprit de Leonard, ou plutot son genie, etait singulierement complexe,' &c. &c. And because the genie of Leonardo was so complex, M. Blanc thought he might attribute to him this " St. Sebastian," a reproduction of which he appended

4 This gifted but superficial writer on art is since dead.


70 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

to his article. What would M. Blanc have said if I had replied, ' Mon cher Monsieur Blanc, I too, like you, believe myself to have, if not fathomed, at least studied " la tournure, le genie singulierement complexe," of Leonardo to the best of my ability ; but in addition to these studies of the master's personality, which is ever present in a true work of art, and is indeed that which speaks to us out of the painting and touches the heart, in addition to these psychological studies, I repeat, I have never neglected the study of the proceeds, the /aire, of the master, being well aware, from long experience, what tricks imagination is apt to play us. And because it has been my wont, in my art studies, to give heed to the spirit as well as to observe the form, I believe I may confidently reply: This " St. Sebastian " which you extol as a work by Leonardo is, in my opinion, assuredly not the work of the great Florentine.' To judge from the bad illustration, it appears to me to be the work of one of his scholars, in all probability of Cesare da Sesto ; if indeed it is permissible from a very poor engraving, to discuss a painting and to pass judgment upon it at all. But for the present, this is of little consequence. I merely wish to show that every student of art labours under the delusion that he has himself thoroughly grasped the distinctive manner and the spirit of the particular master about whom he writes — nay, indeed, that he has grasped and fathomed them better than any one of his predecessors. Art-his- torians, since the time of Vasari, have all followed this same broad and pleasant, but slippery and perilous, road, and for this very reason so little progress has been made. For surely, no sane man could ever be disposed to regard in the light of a science that art dilettanteism, which has recently made itself heard in every key throughout Em-ope, and has found expression in ponderous volumes, pamphlets,


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 71

and lectures, to the delight especially of the ladies. He could only look upon it as a harmless amusement pursued by clever men with wit and brilliancy, and by incompetent writers foolishly.

It is to be hoped therefore, that the followers of M. Blanc will see that the so-called study of ' la tournure de l'esprit, de l'ame ' of a master, will help us very little, when we wish to decide the authorship of a work of art with more or less scientific certainty. 5 It was in following this same course, that is, judging only by the general impression, that the late Count Lepel in 1825 went so far as to doubt the genuineness of the Sistine Madonna in the Dresden gallery. As the principal reason for his scepticism, the Count asserted that words cannot easily be found to define art, which stirs and works upon the feelings. And taking his stand upon this slippery maxim, he pro- nounced the "Madonna di San Sisto " to be a work of the school of Eaphael, possibly by Timoteo della Vite, while Hofrath Aloysius Hirt wished to make out that it was by Fattore. 6 For my part, I feel daily more and more convinced that it is only through unremitting study of form that one may gradually attain to understanding and recognising the spirit which gives it life. Such studies, however, are not a matter of weeks, months, or even years.

' Every genuine work of a painter,' says an Indian art-

5 The same French writer who attributing so coarse and even

was so intimately acquainted with the repulsive a forgery to Leonardo

' tournure de l'esprit ' of Leonardo da Vinci, would have done better to

da Vinci gives us another striking select any other subject for his dis-

example of the danger of trusting sertations rather than ' l'ame, la

only to one's natural intuition, how- tournure de l'esprit ' of the great

ever shrewd that may be, in the Florentine.

opinion he expressed of a pen and 6 See Graf von Lepel, Verzeich-

ink sketch the Thiers collection niss der Werke BaffaeVs. in the Louvre. Anyone capable of


72 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

critic, ' will answer thee if thou comprehendest how to question it. If it give thee no answer, then know that thy question was either without intelligence, or the soul, the spirit, the being of the master dwelleth not in that work.' Consequently, I may add, it was either a copy or a production of the school. And if, in support of this view, I find myself obliged, as it were, to particularise certain material signs and forms (which after all are not so material, or so accidental, as they may perhaps appear to some), I trust my indulgent readers will not misunder- stand me. Leonardo da Vinci, in his Codex Atlanticus, long ago observed : ' Chi si promette dalla sperienza quel che non e in lei si discosta dalla ragione,' which may be rendered thus : ' He who expects from the experimental method more than it can give, lacks wisdom.'

No one who is at all acquainted with the study of Italian art will deny, that to discriminate between the works of master and pupil is not always so easy as it may appear : to distinguish, for instance (as we are about to speak of the Florentine school) a work by Masolino from one by Masaccio, 7 a painting by Filippino Lippi when young from one by Sandro Botticelli, an early production by the latter from one by Fra Filippo Lippi, or a good early work by Kaffaellino del Garbo from a weak painting by Filippino ; all works of the same school and the same general character. For, as Masolino was the prototype of Masaccio, and Fra Filippo the master of Botticelli, so this latter was the master of Filippino, who, in his turn, had Baffaellino del Garbo for his pupil. It even occasionally happens that a later painter of the quattro-cento is confounded with a

7 In the Brancacci chapel at with Masaccio by Messrs. Crowe and Florence, as well as in San Clemente Cavalcaselle (i. 521, 528), and also in Rome, Masolino is confounded by Dr. Bode (Cicerone, ii. 563, 564).


INTEODUCTOEY REMARKS. 73

much earlier one. To cite a few examples : in the Florence Academy, two paintings (representing respectively St. John the Baptist and the Magdalen, Nos. 37 and 39), which are undoubtedly by Filippino, were first attributed to Masaccio, consequently to Fra Filippo's prototype, and afterwards to Andrea del Castagno ; while a St. Jerome (No. 38) , which hangs between the two, also a work by Filippino, is still ascribed by the authorities to Andrea del Castagno. 8 It would be easy to cite further instances of the same kind from other schools, as a proof that even art- critics of authority do not always succeed in distinguishing, with any certainty, the works of a pupil from those of the master, or rice versa, when they judge them from the so-called aesthetic standpoint of the ' tournure de l'esprit, Fame,' of the painter, or when they rely solely on the 'general impression.'

Even long years of practice and constant study do not always enable a man to distinguish an original from a good work of the school ; striking proofs of this are afforded us in the public galleries of France and Italy, and more especially of Germany. The present writer must however disclaim all pretensions to having himself understood the ' tournure de l'esprit, Fame,' of any great Italian painter. Assuredly he would never be so presumptuous, for often enough it has seemed to him as though, after prolonged years of study of the Italian masters, he had scarcely conquered the first principles of the language of art.

On one point, however, there is not, and cannot be, any longer the slightest doubt in his mind — that in pursuing such studies it is essentially through the medium of ' form ' that we must penetrate to the spirit, in order,

8 Some years before Professor pino was there attributed to Masaccio Sidney Colvin was appointed to the (vol. xxxiv. numbered 1860, 6, 16, British Museum, a drawing byFilip- 64).

G


74 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

through the spirit, to win our way back to a truer know- ledge of the ' form ' itself. 9 Such a philosophical precept sounds something like a truism, and may therefore appear not altogether worthless to the modern reading public, in whose eyes such things find favour as a rule. For myself, however, I can testify from long experience that its prac- tical application is by no means so easy as it appears, and moreover costs no little time and trouble. What, for instance, is the ' form ' in a picture, through which the spirit of the master — Tame, la tournure de l'esprit ' — finds expression? Surely not the pose and movement of the human frame alone, nor the expression, type of countenance, colouring, and the treatment of the drapery ? These are undoubtedly important parts of ' form,' but do not constitute the whole form. There still remain, for instance, the hand, one of the most expressive and charac- teristic parts of the human body, the ear, the landscape background if there be any, and the chords, or so-called harmony, of colour. 1 In the work of a true artist all these several parts of the painting are characteristic and distinc- tive, and therefore of importance, for only by a thorough acquaintance with them is it possible to penetrate to ' l'ame, la tournure de l'esprit ' — to the very soul of the master. The character, or style, in a work of art originates simul-

■ ' La natura incomincia col I may add, to the art-connoisseur

ragionamento e termina coll' espe- also). His first lesson was one in

rienza,' was the teaching of Leonardo looki?ig. He gave no assistance, he

da Vinci. simply left his student with the

1 I cannot refrain from quoting specimen, telling him to use his

a passage from that interesting book eyes diligently, and report upon

The Life and Letters of Louis what he saw, <fec, the professor

Agassiz, ii. 566. ' His initiatory requiring the pupil not only to dis-

steps in teaching special students tinguish the various parts of the

were not a little discouraging, obser- animal, but to detect also the rela-

vation and comparison being, in his tion of these details to more general

opinion, the intellectual tools, most typical features.' indispensable to the naturalist (and,


STUDY OF FORM. 75

taneously with the idea, or, to put it more plainly, it is the artist's idea which gives birth to the ' form ' and hence determines the character or style. Copyists can never have any character or style, for ' form ' in their works is not due to their own idea. Nor is this all. As most men, both speakers and writers, make use of habitual modes of expression, favourite words and sayings, which they often employ involuntarily and sometimes even most inappropriately, so almost every painter has his own pecu- liarities, which escape him without his being aware of it. It does even happen that an artist reproduces certain of his own physical defects in his work. 2 Anyone, there- fore, intending to study a painter more closely and to become better acquainted with him, must take into con- sideration even these material trifles (a student of calli- graphy would call them flourishes), and know how to discover them ; for this purpose, of course, an examination of one, or even of several, of the master's paintings does not suffice ; but a wider acquaintance with works of every period of his artistic career is absolutely necessary.

The study of all the individual parts, which go to make up ' form ' in a work of art, is what I would recommend to those who are not content with being mere dilettanti, but who really desire to find a way through the intricacies of the history of art, and to attain, if possible, to a scientific knowledge of art. For, as there is a language expressed by

2 Leonardo da Vinci says in in the figures they paint, and he

chap, xliii. of his Trattato della strongly deprecates such a practice :

Pittura: 'Quel pittore che avra 'conciossiaeh'egliemancamento, che

goffe mani, le fara simili nelle sue e nato insieme col giudizio : perche

opere, e cosi gli interverra in qual- l'anima e maestra del tuo corpo, e

unque membro, se il lungo studio quello (that is mancamento) del tuo

non glielo vieta.' And in chap. lxv. proprio giudizio e che volontieri si

he again remarks, that painters fre- diletta nelle opere simili a quelle che

quently fall into the error of repro- essa (that is Vanima) opero nel

ducing their own physical defects comporre il tuo corpo.'

g2


76 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

letters, so there is also a language which expresses itself in form. A child unconsciously learns its mother-tongue by lisping it after its nurse, and finds in this imperfect speech all that is requisite for its limited needs ; so, too, the general impression left by a work of art on the public at large is amply sufficient for all its requirements. As the child grows older, however, he must be sent to school in order to master grammar, if he is ever to be capable of reading and appreciating the great writers of his own country. The same applies to the student of art ; unless he become familiar with its language he will never be able fully to understand a work of art, and consequently to enjoy it.

Let me endeavour by an example to render my imper- fectly expressed ideas more intelligible to my readers. I have already observed that, after the head, the hand is the most characteristic and expressive part of the human body. Now most painters, and rightly enough, put all the strength of their art into the delineation of the features, which they endeavour to make as striking as possible, and pupils, for this part of their work, often appro- priated ideas from their masters. This is rarely the case in the representation of the hands and ears ; yet they also have a different form in every individual. The types of Saints and the mode of treating the drapery are usually common to a school, having been transmitted through the master's works to his pupils and imitators ; while, on the other hand, every independent master has his own special conception and treatment of landscape, and what is more, of the form of the hand 3 and ear. For every important

3 Except the face, probably no part of the human body is more characteristic, individual, significant, and expressive than the hand ; to represent it satisfactorily has ever been one of the chief difficulties which artists have had to contend with, and one which only the greatest have been completely successful in overcoming. Of this, both painting and sculpture afford us ample proof. I have given a few examples of characteristic hands.


TYPICAL HANDS.


77


painter has, so to speak, a type of hand and ear peculiar to himself. 4 On comparing the hands in the earlier works



ERA FILIPPO LIPPI.


FILIPPINO.


ANTONIO POLLAJUOLO-



BEENAEDINO DE' CONTI. GIOVANNI BELLINI.


COSIMO TUEA.



BEAMANTINO.


BOTTICELLI.


4 Some of those who most dis- agree with me contend that a variety of forms of hand and ear often occur in the same painting by one master ; but this I cannot allow. Goethe has observed somewhere or other : ' In der Dammerung wird auch die deutlichste Schrift unsichtbar.' My opponents have most likely taken a picture of the school, or even a feeble copy, for an original. I must here re- iterate that the typical form (Grund- form) of hand and ear peculiar to each of the great masters is not only to be found in all their pictures, but even in the portraits which they painted from life. In proof, I may cite the following examples: (1) Fra Filippo's portrait of himself in a picture in the Florence Academy (hand and ear). (2) The so-called portrait of Pico della Mirandola, No. 1154, in the Uffizi (hand), and that of a goldsmith in the Corsini gallery at Florence (hand), both by Sandro Botticelli. (3) The portrait of Pandolfini in Filippino's altar-piece in the Badia at Florence (hand and ear). (4) A male portrait by Eaffaellino del Garbo in the choice collection of Sir Henry Layard at Venice (hand). (5) The portraits by Kaphael of Navagero and Beazzano in the Doria gallery in Rome

of Raphael — from about 1504 to 1505 — with those in the works of P. Perugino and Pintoricchio, we shall perceive a very decided difference between the pupil and his masters. In his Florentine period, especially in the


(ear), those of Pope Leo X. and the *o-called "Donna Velata " in the l'itti (ear). (6) The portraits of two Vallombrosan monks by Perugino in the Florence Academy (ear). (7) The portraits of the Gonzagas by Mantegna in the so-called ' Camera degli Sposi ' in the Ducal Palace at Mantua, and that of a Cardinal, No. 9, in the Berlin Museum (ear). (8) The portrait of Massimiliano Sforza by Bernardino de' Conti in the Brera (hand and ear). (9) The portraits by L. Lotto in the Brera, at Hampton Court


and in the gallery at Vienna (hand). (10) The portrait of a Knight of Malta by Giorgione in the Uffizi (hand). (11) The portrait of Andrea Doria in the Doria gallery, by Sebastiano del Piombo of his Michael-Angelesque period (hand). (12) A portrait of a man in the Tosi gallery at Brescia (No. 32) by Girolamo Romanino (ear). These examples, which I could easily multiply, may perhaps induce my opponents to moderate their somewhat hasty judgments.


TYPICAL EAES. 79

" Madonna di casa Tempi " (Munich), the " Madonna del Granduca " (Pitti), the "Madonna del Cardellino " (Uffizi), the " Madonna " belonging to Lord Cowper at Pans- hanger, the portraits of Maddalena Doni and the so-called " Donna gravida " in the Pitti, &c, the metacarpus is broad and flat, the fingers somewhat lifeless, and the whole hand has rather a homely and commonplace character. After 1509, when Eaphael came into contact with a higher class of society in Eome, his treatment of the hand became more refined — as in his cartoon for the " School of Athens " in the Ambrosiana at Milan — till gradually he attained to the elegant, aristocratic form seen in the " Madonna di ca~sa d' Alba," the " Madonna della Seggiola," the " Galatea," &c. In all those works by Eaphael in which the execution is ■entirely his own, the ear, like the hand, is always charac- teristic, and differs in form from the ears of Timoteo Viti, Perugino, Pintoricchio, and others.

After these cursory and introductory remarks on the importance of the several parts in general, and of the hand in particular, in the works by masters of the good period, let us examine more closely the hands of the three Florentine painters, Fra Filippo, Sandro Botticelli and Filippino Lippi. Fra Filippo practically imitated in his hands his prototypes, Fra Angelico 5 and Masaccio, and adhered to the same form to the end of his life. Even his contemporaries, as Vasari relates, found fault with this hand, 6 and its form is cer- tainly not beautiful, being stumpy, awkward, and badly modelled. Fra Filippo's ear, too, is round and clumsy in form, and usually curved inwards. As Eome contains too few

5 Perhaps nowhere is the in- 6 See Vasari, Lemonnier's edi- fluence of Fra Angelico on the tion, iv. 120 : ' dove da Carlo Mar- young Fra Filippo more strikingly suppini gli fu detto, che egli avver apparent, than in a " Tondo " in the tisse alle mani che dipingeva perche collection of Sir Francis Cook at molto le sue cose erano biasimate. 1 Eichmond.


80 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

works by this master for purposes of study, I should advise anyone who wishes to verify my statements to visit the three Florentine galleries, which contain over half a dozen paintings by him. Rome, however, still possesses two panels by this important painter, one in the Doria-Pamfili gallery, the other in the Lateran collection. The former represents on a gold ground the "Annunciation" (*) ; the B. Virgin is seated at a prie-dieu, before her is the Archangel holding a lily. The church of S. Lorenzo at Florence, and the Pinacothek at Munich contain similar subjects by the master, Fra Filippo's painting in the Lateran is a Triptych : in the centre is the Coronation of the Virgin ; on the right are two Olivetan monks present- ing to her the donor of the picture, Carlo Marsuppini of Arezzo ; in the background are three angels playing on musical instruments, and on the left are two other monks, who likewise present one of the faithful to the Mother of God. This Triptych, which has suffered greatly from re- painting, was brought to Rome from Arezzo through the instrumentality of the picture dealer Baldeschi, and sold to Pope Gregory XVI. With the exception of Fra Filippo's works in Rome, Florence, Prato and Spoleto, and two panels representing the four Fathers of the Church, in the Academy of Turin, no other works by him are known to me in Italy. 7

Botticelli's hands, on the contrary, are very bony and plebeian, and the nails broad and square, with sharp dark outlines. These characteristic hands, together with the large nostrils, the movement and the elongated folds of the drapery, and the brilliant transparency of colour, in which

7 The small Madonna and Child same category as the fine and genuine

in the gallery of S. Maria Nuova at work by the Frate in the Uffizi, No.

Florence, attributed to Fra Filippo, 1307. An old copy of this latter

is only a work of his school, though picture belongs to Prince Torlonia at

classed by Dr. Bode (ii. 572) in the Rome.


LANDSCAPE BACKGROUNDS. 81

a golden cherry-red predominates — while in the paint- ings of Fra Filippo the prevailing tones are pale blue and pale grey — make Botticelli's paintings easy to distin- guish from those of his imitators. 8 In Filippino's hands, finally, the structure of the fingers is both peculiar and un- pleasing. The juncture with the metacarpus is so sharply defined that it has not the appearance of a natural growth ; the fingers look as if they had been screwed into their places, and are long, wooden, and nerveless. As the scale of colour differs in the works of these three analogous painters, so also they deviate strongly from each other in their landscape backgrounds, and even the form of the nimbus in their pictures is dissimilar. The landscape of Fra Filippo, and of his pupil Francesco Pesellino, resembles that of his contemporaries, and, like Fra Angelico's, con- sists principally either of a series of rounded hills or of pointed rocks ; Botticelli, on the other hand, idealised his landscapes, representing jagged rocks, and often winding- river banks or inlets of the sea. Filippino studied his landscapes more from nature, and usually represented the hilly, wooded scenery of Tuscany ; they are also darker in tone than those of Botticelli. Eaffaellino del Garbo, his talented pupil, had a refined feeling for land- scape, and his backgrounds are better composed and in warmer and more delicate tones than those of his master. To obtain a thorough knowledge of these three painters their works in Florence should be studied, for the Boman collections contain but few examples of their art. Filippino is represented in Kome by a good panel picture in the second room of the Sciarra-Colonna gallery, and by frescoes in the

8 Most directors of galleries, who invariably confuse Botticelli's ge-

are wont to follow tradition and to nuine works and the productions of

identify a painting only from a his scholars and imitators, superficial general impression, almost


82


THE BORGHESE GALLERY.


church of S. Maria sopra Minerva. These latter well- known paintings have, in our time, been most unscru- pulously ' restored,' that is disfigured, under the very eyes of the Minister of Public Instruction. A like fate has recently befallen Eaphael's fresco at Perugia, Titian's frescoes in the ' Scuola del Santo ' at Padua, and more es- pecially Mantegna's, in the Palazzo Ducale at Mantua, under the auspices of the Government Inspector-General, Signor G. B. Cavalcaselle.


THE TUSCANS.


After these preliminaries of undue length, let us turn to the pictures themselves. The " Tondo " No. 348 in the Borghese gallery is ascribed to the Florentine Sandro Botticelli; we will therefore begin by considering the pictures by Tuscan masters in these rooms.


ALESSANDRO FILIPEPI, called BOTTICELLI.

Botticelli, b. 1446, d. 1510, is to be regarded as the pupil of Fra Filippo Lippi, and was undoubtedly one of



EAR AND HANDS OF BOTTICELLI.


the most gifted and individual among the painters of Italy in the second half of the fifteenth century. The " Tondo " ascribed to him represents the Madonna


SANDEO BOTTICELLI. 83

with the Infant Saviour, and angels on either side. The composition, and possibly even the cartoon, belong in all probability to the master himself ; the execution, how- ever, can only be ascribed to one of his assistants. I fail to discover in this picture either Botticelli's peculiarly life-like manner of depicting the emotions, or that trans- parency of colour which distinguishes his works from those of his many imitators. The hands, again, though of the master's typical form, with bony unpleasing fingers, square nails, and black outlines, are absolutely lifeless, and the hair is treated without intelligence. A comparison between this picture and the splendid circular panels in the Ufnzi ought to convince every one open to conviction. 9 Naturally, how- ever, as Mephistopheles observed to the student : ' Each man learns only what he can.'

The only genuine works in Eome by this vigorous Florentine are the fine frescoes in the Sistine chapel, and an excellent picture belonging to Prince Mario Chigi — the Madonna with the Child, to whom an angel presents a sheaf of corn. The small painting in the last room of the Colonna gallery l — the Madonna with the Child in her arms — and the "Annunciation" in the Barberini collection, 2 both ascribed to him, are only poor productions of his school. As works of his school, and of more or less successful imitators, are attributed to the master himself, I shall take this opportunity of enumerating a few of these miscellaneous productions for the benefit of

9 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle of a figure by some follower of

(ii. 425) and Dr. Bode (ii. 580) accept Botticelli. The hook-shaped fold

this picture as an original. in the mantle should be noted,

1 It seems incredible that a little among other peculiarities, as dis-

picture in the last room of the tinctively northern in character. Colonna gallery, representing St. "- Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle

James, should be attributed to (Li. 350, note) would attribute this

Melozzo da Forli. It is manifestly little picture to Marco Zoppo. a copy, by a feeble northern painter,


84 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

those who wish to learn. Even in Italy they are still shown to the public as originals by Botticelli, and are accepted as such by art-historians, both Italian and foreign, pro- fessional and unprofessional. Detailed comparison is the only sure means by which a student may hope to attain to a fuller understanding and appreciation of this great painter, so virile, yet so attractive and full of feeling, and may learn to distinguish his genuine works from those which are falsely attributed to him. The following pictures are, in my judgment, wrongly ascribed to Botticelli :

In the Uffizi Gallery.

1. An allegorical figure, No. 1299. (Crowe and Caval- caselle ii. 417 ). 3 (f)

2. " The Annunciation," No. 1316, from a sketch (?) by the master, (-f-)

3. The Madonna offering a pomegranate to the Holy Child, No. 1303. (f) (Dr. W. Bode, in the < Cicerone ' ii. 579, calls it an early work of Botticelli.) The form of the hand and ear is not that of the master, the body of the Child is far too weak in modelling, and the expression and movement of both figures far too lifeless for Botticelli.

In the Pitti Palace.

4. The Madonna surrounded by angels, No. 348. (f) (Crowe and Cavalcaselle ii. 424 ; Dr. Bode agrees with them.)

5. The so-called portrait of " la bella (?) Simonetta " (?), No. 353. (f) (Crowe and Cavalcaselle ii. 424 ; and Dr. Bode agrees. The latter, however, observes rightly that this portrait is ' without special charm.')

■ As already stated in the pre- Signor Morelli are indicated by a face, attributions first given by cross.


SANDEO BOTTICELLI.


85


6. The Holy Family, No. 357 (Crowe and Cavalcaselle ii. 424). (f)

In the Accademia clelle belle Arti.

7. The three Archangels with Tobias (Vasari v. Ill,

2). 4 (t)

8. The Madonna enthroned with SS. Cosmo and Damiano (Vasari v. 123). (f)

Formerly in the Oratory of S. Jacopo cli Ripoli. (Now removed to the school of ' La Quiete.')

9. The Coronation of the Madonna in the presence of

4 This inferior picture came from the Church of S. Spirito, as a Botticelli, to the Academy, where it was renamed Antonio del Pollajuolo. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle cite it as the joint work of the brothers Piero and Antonio Pollajuolo. Be- cently Dr. Bode has expressed the opinion that it is by Andrea Ver- rocchio, and moreover ' one of the most important panels of the quat- tro-cento.' 1 As the Berlin critic alleges that in studying works of art I have 'practically neglected their deeper meaning for their outward characteristics,' I shall not com- ment further upon his estimate of this work. I would merely draw attention to the fact that the forms in this picture bear no resemblance to those in Verrocchio's sculptures, nor to those in the Baptism of Christ, or even in pictures which Dr. Bode ascribes to Verrocehio in Berlin and London. As for the ' Sandarah- firniss ' which he mentions as impor- tant and characteristic both in the "Baptism" and the "Tobias and the Angel," it may be observed in the works of many other contemporary Florentines; in those, for instance, of the school of Botticelli, of the Polla-


juoli, and of Cosimo Eoselli. With regard to No. 20 in the Florence Academy (a feeble work again repre- senting Tobias and the Angel), which Dr. Bode believes to be also by Verrocehio and ' executed entirely in tempera,' I feel bound once more to differ from him. I would take this opportunity of protesting against the injustice done to an artist of the importance of Ver- rocehio, in ascribing to him works of so little merit, and of cautioning students against estimating works of art from the standpoint of the so- called ' Geistige Gehalt,' which is always more or less dependent upon subjective and individual im- pressions. Thus the Florentine commission ' for the preservation of works of art ' (composed almost entirely of painters) have recently bestowed the name of Verrocehio upon a worthless pro- duction (No. 1,278 trs.) by some Tuscan artist of the second half of the fifteenth century, and have as- signed to it a prominent position in the Uffizi, instead of leaving it in its proper place in the depot of the gallery, whither their predecessors had banisbed it.


86 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

many Saints, (f) (In the edition of the ' Cicerone ' of 1879, p. 545, Dr. Bode regarded this work as an original hy Botticelli; in the later edition, however, to my great satis- faction, he agrees with me and mentions it only as a work of the school — p. 580 ibid. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle would have us regard it as a ' careful production of Botticelli's fine time,' ii. 424.)

In the Church of S. Felice. (First altar on the left.)

10. Panel representing SS. Antony, Boch, and Catherine ; by a pupil of Botticelli who was influenced by Filippino, but decidedly not by Filippino himself, (f) (Dr. Bode, ii. 581, ascribes it to Filippino.)

In the Oratory of S. Ansano. (Near Fiesole.)

11. Four small panels, pronounced by the Florentine editors of Vasari (v. 124) to be ' undoubted ' works by Botticelli.

In the Corsini Gallery at Florence.

12. " Tondo," representing the Madonna surrounded by angels (Crowe and Cavalcaselle ii. 578, and Dr. Bode ii. 580). (f) The same collection, however, possesses a genuine, though much over-cleaned work by Botticelli in the portrait of a goldsmith, resembling the sadly disfigured portrait of a medallist in the Uffizi. (-f-)

In the Turin Gallery.

13. The three Archangels with Tobias, No. 98. (f)

14. The Madonna with the Infant Saviour, the little St. John and an Angel, No. 99. (f)

15. A small allegorical work representing " The Triumph


SANDEO BOTTICELLI. 87

of Chastity," No. 369 (Crowe and Cavalcaselle ii. 426) ; the fettered Cupid recalls Filippino, the maidens following the triumphal car are more in the style of Botticelli. 5 (+)

In the Poldi-Pezzoli Collection at Milan.

16. " The Pieta." (f)

This collection, however, possesses a genuine, though un- fortunately much restored, Virgin and Child by Botticelli; at Milan we find another most exquisite Madonna and Child by the master in the Ambrosiana, and three genuine works in the Morelli collection, — the history of "Virginia,"- 6 a " Salvator Mundi," and the original portrait of Giuliano de 5 Medici, of which the Berlin gallery possesses a school copy formerly in the collection of Prince Strozzi at Florence.

But enough for the present of Botticelli's imitators whose works, good, bad, and indifferent, are recommended to the public by the catalogues, and so too, as a matter of course, by guide-books, as originals by the master. In con- clusion, I may mention a few of his drawings in which this great artist's peculiarities of expression and representa- tion may be studied.

5 The Marchese Adorno, at the master painted for Giovanni Genoa, possesses four small works Vespucci: ' con molte figure vivissime' by this Florentine master, who was e belle.' It contains about fifty probably a fellow-scholar with figures, all equally spirited in oon- Filippino; a sixth— " The Combat ception and careful in execution, and between Cupid and Chastity "—has each one indispensable to the har- recently been bought by the English mony of t ^ e whole _ j could name National Gallery. These six paint- scarcely another work in which ings appear to have formed a series Botticelli's great artistic qualities, as of decorative panels for furniture. we ll as his defects, are so strikingly Dr. Bode attributes them to Botti- apparent as in his masterly repre- celli (ii. 579). sentation of this tragic scene. (The

6 This picture may have been one picture referred to is now in the> of those which, according to Vasari, gallery at Bergamo.)


88 THE BOEGHESE GALLERY.

In the Uffizi Collection.

Case 41 : St. John the Baptist, pen, indian ink, and solid white.

Case 43 : St. Jerome, silver point and white.

In Mr. John Malcolm's Collection in London.

An allegorical female figure with putti, red chalk (Braun, No. 21). From this drawing a pupil of Botticelli painted the well-known picture which passed from M. Beiset's collection into that of the Due d'Aumale. (Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle regard this picture as an original, ii. 429.)

LORENZO DI CREDI.

The " Tondo " No. 433, in the Borghese Gallery, is by a younger contemporary of Sandro Botticelli, Lorenzo di Credi (Lorenzo di Andrea di Credi, born at Florence 1459, died there 1537), who might be styled the Carlo Dolce of the fifteenth century, and who as an artist was the complete opposite of Botticelli. The popularity of the circular form for paintings, more especially in Florence, seems to have been due to Luca della Bobbia's terra-cotta " Tondi." The picture represents the Madonna with the Infant Saviour on her knee. He is seated on a cushion blessing, with His right hand, the little St. John, and holding in His left some fruit ; with a landscape background. On the parapet, to the right of the Madonna, Lorenzo introduced some flowers in a glass, painted from nature with miniature- like care and consummate skill ; the treatment indeed is quite Flemish in its conscientious accuracy. 7 This pic-

' According to Vasari (Lemon- in un quadro, che era appresso papa nier's ed. vii. 17) Leonardo da Vinci Clemente VII., molto eccellente e fra introduced a similar vase of flowers 1' altre cose, che v' eran fatte, con- in a painting of his early period : traffece una caraffa piena d'acqua ' Fece poi Lionardouna nostra Donna con alcuni fiori dentro, dove oltre la


LOEENZO EI CEEEI. 89

ture, one of Lorenzo's most successful works, is in tempera, and was probably executed in the last ten years of the fifteenth century. The colours are very bright, the modelling of the Child recalls Verrocchio's putto in the court of the Palazzo Vecchio at Florence, as also the putti in a genuine pen and ink drawing by Verrocchio in the Louvre (Eoom X., exhibited on a screen), (f)

In his early days Lorenzo may have applied himself more to sculpture, that is to modelling, than to painting, which accounts for Verrocchio having, in his last will and testament, addressed a petition to the Signoria at Venice requesting that they would entrust to his assistant Lorenzo the completion of the Colleoni statue.

In the Borghese gallery there is another, and rather smaller, "Tondo" (No. 439), also ascribed in the catalogue to Lorenzo di Credi. Herr Jansen, however, in his monograph of Sodoma saw fit to attribute it to that master. The picture represents the Madonna and St. Joseph adoring the Infant Saviour, who lies on a cushion on the ground ; with a landscape background. On comparing the two works it will be immediately apparent that, while the composition and drawing recall Lorenzo di Credi, the scale of colour is much deeper than is usual with this master, and reminds one more of the colouring of Botticelli and Signorelli. Neither the hand nor the ear, nor the folds of the drapery, correspond

meraviglia della vivezza, aveva imi- nardo (Memorie storiche su la vita,

tato la rugiada dell' acqua sopra, si gli studi e le opere di Lionardo da

che pareva phi viva che la vivezza.' Vinci, scritte da Carlo Amoretti,

Vasari evidently describes the paint- Milano, 1804), or that^the Florentine

ing from hearsay, and the passage editors of Vasari (vii. 17) should, as

may not improbably refer to this usual, have followed blindly in the

Borghese picture, which, it would steps of others. How'often in books

seem, was already regarded as the dealing with art are we not reminded

work of Leonardo in Vasari's day. of the parable, which that excellent

It is not surprising, therefore, that painter old Bruegel depicted so

Amoretti should have mentioned it inimitably in his picture in the

as such in his monograph of Leo- Naples Museum !

H



90 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

with the distinctive forms in authentic works by Lorenzo di Credi. High lights, such as those on the bridge of the nose, on the upper lip and on other parts, are never met with in Lorenzo's paintings, and appear to me charac- teristic of another master. The chords of colour and the elongated folds point more perhaps to Sig- norelli than to Botticelli ; the general arrange- ment of the drapery, however, approaches j Botticelli in the main, while the remainder

of the picture, especially the landscape, points to Lorenzo. I should, therefore, ascribe this EAK di F cred^ Z< excellent work to a skilful Florentine painter, who probably learnt of Botticelli, but who later followed Lorenzo closely, and was perhaps employed in his workshop; and I am glad to find that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle are of a similar opinion 8 (iii. 412). By this master, whom we will call Tommaso, we shall find works both good and indifferent in other places : in the Pitti (No. 354) under the name of Lorenzo di Credi (-J-) ; in the collection of the Cav. C. Giuntini in Florence (f) ; in the gallery at Modena under the name of Lippo Fiorentino (No. 43) (f) ; at Milan in the possession of the brothers Prinetti- . Esengrini (f), and in the collections of Dr. eak of tommaso. Gustavo Frizzoni and of the author. 9 There are no other genuine works by Lorenzo di Credi in Kome, except one of his later period in the Capitoline gallery. In the Colonna gallery (Room I.) we find a small picture of the Madonna with the Child on her knee, to whom she offers some strawberries, which

H Dr. Bode (ii. 585) agrees with partly of Leonardo and partly of

the Borghese catalogue and pro- Signorelli, to be the work of Lorenzo

nounces this painting, which on di Credi. account of its colouring reminds him 8 Now in the gallery at Bergamo.



LOEENZO DI CKEDI. 91

is there simply attributed to a Lippo (?), but which was pronounced by a German writer on art (Miindler, ' Beitrage zu J. Burckhardt's Cicerone,' p. 4) to be a charm- ing work by Lorenzo di Credi. In my opinion, however, it is by an early imitator of Lorenzo, and I am inclined to think by a Fleming, (+) the same probably as, or at least contemporary with, the painter on whom, in the Dresden gallery, the name of Leonardo da Vinci was too hastily bestowed. Lorenzo's best works may be seen in the Uffizi, the Florentine Academy, the Pinacothek at Turin (No. 356), and the Louvre (No. 1264). At Palermo, in the church dell' Olivella, there is also a Madonna by him under' the name of Baphael. (f) In his fine work in the Borghese gallery the landscape and the peculiar form of the ear and the hand — the latter with the somewhat stiffly bent fingers which Lorenzo nearly always introduces — should be specially noticed ; for they are characteristic of the master and recur in ail his genuine works. Students will then see for themselves that the feeble painting attributed to him in the Uffizi (No. 1287) can only be by some assistant or imitator, who made use of the master's cartoon. 1 (f ) The colours in the landscape are not those of Lorenzo di Credi, the hand and ear do not correspond with his forms, and the heads are wanting in life and expression. This picture, however, receives special mention from Dr. Bode (ii. 585).


1 In addition to Lorenzo's pic- (Braun 26), and the portrait of an tures, I would recommend the follow- old man at Chatsworth, under the ing drawings for purposes of study : name of Daniele da Volterra (Braun the Cartoon in the Florence No. 30). This latter admirable draw- Academy ; a drawing in the Uffizi ing, in which Lorenzo di Credi's eha- (No. 476, Case 125) ; several in red racteristic form of ear is also ap- chalk in the Louvre (Beiset cata- parent, represents, if I am not mis- logue, Nos. 199, 200, 202 — No. taken, Mino da Fiesole (died 1486). 200 is a good example of the mas- It should be compared with the por- ter's distinctive form of ear); a trait of Mino which precedes Vasari's pen drawing in the British Museum biography of that sculptor, (f)


92 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

LUCA SIGNOKELLI. This great and powerful painter, the forerunner of Michael Angelo, is only represented in Eome by his fresco in the Sistine chapel, and by a little Holy Family in the Casino Rospigliosi. A second small picture by him, formerly in the possession of the Patrizi family in Rome, has recently been sold by them, with all their remaining art-treasures, and is now in the Berlin gallery ; it represents the Visita- tion. On the left he has introduced Zachariah, with the little St. John in his arms ; and on the right St. Joseph with the Infant Saviour on his knee. The picture, signed luchas signorellvs de cortona, is probably a late work by the master. The long narrow panels of saints in the Lateran collection, some of which are ascribed to Signorelli and some to the school of Murano, I believe to be by Cola dell' Amatrice (f), a coarse exaggerated painter of Ascoli, belonging to the later school of Carlo Crivelli. Those who wish to become more familiar with Signorelli should above all study his frescoes in the cathedral of Orvieto. These masterpieces appear to me unequalled in the art of the fifteenth century ; for to no other contem- porary painter was it given to endow the human frame with a like degree of passion, vehemence, and strength. The frescoes in the cloisters of Mont' Oliveto are good examples of Signorelli' s art ; so too are the large altar- piece in the sacristy of the cathedral at Perugia, and the processional standard in the Palazzo Municipals at Borgo S. Sepolcro. At Cortona, Volterra, and Urbino we also lind characteristic pictures by the master. Two very interesting early works by him are in the Brera at Milan : " The Scourging of Christ " and a Madonna and Child. At Florence we find a large altar-piece and a predella in the Academy, some excellent easel pictures and a predella in



GIKOLAMO GENOA. 93

the Uffizi, a small panel in the Pitti, the portrait of a man in the Torrigiani collection, and several beautiful Madonnas in the Ginori and Corsini galleries.

With Signorelli, as with all other great masters, the form of hand and ear and the landscape are all charac- teristic. 2 His drawings are found in all the most important collections of Europe ; one is in the Uffizi (Case 459, No. 1246), and no less than seven in the Louvre (Nos. 340-346, Braun 140, 141). The one, however, which was presented to that collection as a Signorelli by the late Mr. EAE of signoeelli. Morris Moore (No. 347, Braun 142) is palpably nothing but a coarse copy, or even a forgery, (-j-) In the British Museum I also saw three good drawings by him (Vol. 32), and one in the Library at Windsor under the name of Masaccio. (f)

Signorelli' s drawings are, as a rule, roughly sketched with charcoal ; but he occasionally employed black or red chalk. All those just mentioned seem to me to prove that Antonio del Pollajuolo had a greater influence over Signorelli than has hitherto been supposed, and the fact that A. del Pollajuolo's two drawings, Adam and Eve, in the Uffizi, are there attributed to Signorelli, is a further proof of this. (-J-)

GIBOLAMO GENGA.

This painter, who had the misfortune to become Signorelli's pupil and assistant, shared the fate which later befell all the pupils, or rather imitators, of Michael Angelo — he became the caricature of his prototype. And how would it have fared with the pliable, impressionable

2 The master's characteristic form of hand and ear maybe studied in No. 1291 in the Uffizi.


94 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

nature of the young Raphael, had he too fallen under the uncompromising, one-sided guidance of Signorelli, as some of his biographers erroneously assumed that he did, instead of under that of the gentle and graceful Timoteo Viti?

Girolamo Genga's example furnishes us with a very instructive reply to this question. He too came from Urbino, and was unquestionably endowed with great talents. An examination of his paintings and drawings shows how rapidly he degenerated under the crushing influence of his great master, Signorelli. In the " Martyrdom of St. Sebastian," in the Uffizi (No. 1205), which I consider an early work by Genga of about 1498-99 (f) — though it is there exhibited as by an unknown artist, and is attributed by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (hi. 370) to Domenico and Orazio Alfani — the imitation, or rather the aping, of Signorelli is as yet scarcely apparent, but in the paintings and drawings of his later years, this strikes us in all its crudeness. Some of them I will enumerate here :

1. In the two frescoes (Nos. 375, 376) in the Academy of Siena, which came from the Palazzo Petrucci — one representing iEneas with his father Anchises, the other " A Ransom of Prisoners " — the composition is certainly by Signorelli, but they were undoubtedly executed by his pupil and assistant Genga. 3 A small sketch in Indian ink by Genga for the " Ransom of Prisoners " is in the Lille collec- tion (*f*) (Braun 102), under the name of Jacopo Francia. In the same collection we find another drawing by Genga (f) in pen and ink (Braun 133), but under the name of Giulio Romano, representing the " Continence of Scipio."


3 Dr. Bode regards them as and not by Signorelli himself, and

genuine works by Signorelli (ii. 003). so too is No. 1'.) in the Florence

The St. Barbara in the Poldi Col- Academy, the Magdalen at the foot of

lection at Milan is also by a scholar the Cross, in a rocky landscape, (f)


GIKOLAMO GENGA. 95

2. The gallery of Siena contains two Madonnas by Genga, one, No. 340, under the name of Girolamo del Pacchia, 4 (-J-) the second, No. 38 a , placed in the ' Florentine School.' (-J-) In the picture gallery at Lille, we find a work t>y Genga (f) described as of the ' Ecole italienne primitive.' It represents the Madonna adoring the Holy Child, who is supported by St. Joseph, and embraces the little St. John ; on the right are two Shepherds. In the Opera del Duomo at Siena is a large " Resurrection " (once forming the shutters •of the organ), which was executed by Genga in 1510. Some writers have confounded Genga with Sodoma in this painting, which, it appears to me, has also been the case in his portrait of a man in the Pitti (No. 382) . 5 (f)

In addition, I must mention Genga's principal work, painted about 1517-18, for the High-Altar of the church of S. Agostino at Cesena, now in the Brera. The pre- della belonging to it is in the gallery at Bergamo, and the drawing for it in the Uffizi under the name of Raphael (f) (photographed by Philpot, No. 2610), while the large red chalk drawing for the painting in the Brera is in the Louvre (Braun, No. 223). Another drawing in black chalk, bearing an equally high-sounding name, but which is extremely characteristic of Genga, I saw some years ago in the interesting collection of Mr. Heseltine in London. The subject was the Madonna and Child, with the little St. John, (f) Genga, though greatly extolled by his friend Vasari, was nevertheless, owing to the influence


4 This Sienese painter must latter, (f) originally have been influenced by s A Holy Family in this eol-

Genga, then by Albertinelli, and lection (No. 349) is, however, attri-

later more especially by Sodoma. buted to Genga. It appears to me

Del Pacchia is himself constantly to be an old copy after Filippino

confounded with Andrea del Bres- Lippi, and certainly has nothing

cianino, as for instance in No. 115 of to do with Genga. the Turin Academy, which is by the


96 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

of his master Signorelli, the painter who most contributed to the approaching decline of art in Italy.

The Florentine school of the fifteenth century, which was influenced to some extent by Paolo Uccello, and later by Domenico Veneziano, and which numbered among its principal representatives Alesso Baldovinetti, Cosimo Roselli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Mainardi and Granacci, is unrepresented in the Eoman collections by any important works. 6 Following the old numbers, we came to a much damaged picture (*), ascribed to Paris Alfani of Perugia, which might be attributed with greater probability to Franciabigio. (f) The Florentine painters of the first decades of the sixteenth century, such as Franciabigio, Giuliano Bugiardini, Francesco Granacci, Eidolfo del Ghir- landaio, &c., are often confounded in official catalogues and consequently in other books. This is pardonable, however, as these artists, having no decided character of their own, followed, as is customary with such hybrid natures, first one important master and then another, endeavouring to imitate and to reproduce the style of each. The manner and the defects thus assimilated become cha- racteristic of these painters, and should be observed ; for though of no great importance, such a study has its charm, and is by no means lost labour, since it educates the eye and enables us to distinguish the works of these secondary artists with some degree of certainty. Mr. Mundler, who recognised in this picture the hand of Bugiardini, was at all events strictly consistent in his criticism, as he pronounced the " Annunciation " in the Turin gallery, and the so-called " Madonna del Pozzo " in the Tribune


6 Two panels in the Colonna only of his school. Dr. Bode (ii. gallery attributed to Domenico 58G) ascribes them to Pier di Ghirlandaio, are not by him, but Cosimo. (!)


BUGIABDINI. 97

of the Uffizi, to be by the same hand. 7 I also am of opinion that these works are by the same master ; but I should substitute the name of Franciabigio for that of Bugiardini.

GIULIANO BUGIABDINI.

There are only three paintings by this master still to be found in the public collections in Borne. One in the Colonna gallery (Boom I.) is signed ivliani. florentini. opvs, and has been greatly damaged by restoration ; the second, with the forged signature of Andrea del Sarto, is in the Corsini gallery (Boom III., No. 9) ; 8 the third by Giuliano (?) is in the Borghese gallery (No. 443) ascribed to the ' School of Baphael,' the subject being the Madonna with the Child and the little St. John. In the Pinacothek at Bologna there are three good works 9 by Bugiardini, and in the church of S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan a St. John the Baptist signed with his name. Among other points of difference between this painter and Franciabigio, it may be mentioned that Bugiardini has a more liquid touch in laying on his colours, and his flesh-tints have less ' smalto ' than is usual in the paintings of Franciabigio. For some time Bugiardini was in the workshop of Albertinelli and under his influence — that he became his imitator is clear from a painting of the Holy Family in the Turin gallery (No. 106).

7 Dr. Bode (ii. 682) ascribes trie lai chapel in trie church of S. Maria

" Madonna del Pozzo " to Bidolfo del Novella at Florence. This rough

Ghirlandaio. sketch is now in the library of the

s Vasari relates that, in orde? Corsini Palace in Borne (Col. 157,

to help his friend Bugiardini out G-. 7, No. 125, 514). of a difficulty, Michael Angelo made 9 A Madonna, and a Madonna

a sketch for him, from which he and Child with Saints, both signed,,

painted his picture of the " Martyr- and a " St. John the Baptist," with-

dom of St. Catherine," for the Eucel- out signature.


98 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

FRANCIABIGIO.

Like Bugiarclini, Franciabigio (b. 1482, d. 1525) was (according to Vasari) first a follower of Mariotto Alberti- nelli ; but he probably spent part of his apprenticeship in the workshops of Granacci and Pier di Cosimo. This is proved by his way of dealing with his subject, his manner of treating drapery, and his landscape backgrounds, which recall those of Pier di Cosimo. Later, it is true, he shows a decided leaning to Andrea del Sarto, who had been his fellow pupil with Pier di Cosimo. This connection with Andrea is especially noticeable in the works of his later years. Among the earlier works of Franciabigio, which show the influence of Albertinelli, may be mentioned the "Annuncia- tion " at Turin ; the altar-piece painted by him for the church of S. Giobbe at Florence, which now hangs in the second room of the Uffizi; the small "Calumny of Apelles" (No. 427) in the Pitti ; and the picture in the Borghese gallery (No. 177) representing the "Marriage of St. Cathe- rine." ' (f)

The following pictures in the Uffizi are, I should say, of his middle period : the " Tondo " (1224) (f) with the Holy Family and the little St. John, there attributed to Piidolfo del Ghirlandaio (Dr. Bode thinks it by the latter painter) ; the picture representing the " Temple of Her- cules " (1223) ; a small Madonna and Child (No. 92) in the first corridor, and another falsely attributed to Raffaellino del Garbo; (-f-) and the episodes from the life of Joseph, Nos. 1282 (*) and 1249 (*), once in the second room, (f)

1 Dr. Bode (ii. G80) is of the accept. Anyone at all acquainted

same opinion. He further ascribes with Perugino's type of hand will

the entirely repainted female portrait have no hesitation, I think, in pro-

in the Pitti (No. 140), known as nouncing this portrait to be his

the " Nun of Leonardo da Vinci," to work, (t) Franciabigio — a verdict I cannot


FKANCIABIGIO. 99

ascribed in the catalogue to Pontorrno. 2 The following works, showing in a marked degree the influence of Andrea del Sarto, I should also place in Franciabigio's middle period : the fresco in the entrance-court of the SS. Annun- ziata and the two frescoes in the ' Scalzi,' at Florence ; three male portraits which have darkened considerably, one in the Pitti (No. 43), one at Windsor, and a third, formerly in the possession of the heirs of the Marchese Gino Capponi, which has recently been sold and is now in Germany. A Madonna in the Pinacothek at Bologna (No. 294), again under the name of Pontorrno, I consider to be also of about the same period, (-f-)

The following appear to me to be of his third and last epoch. The so-called " Madonna del Pozzo " in the Tribune ; a fine circular panel representing the Madonna and Child in the Palace of Prince Corsini in the Via del Prato at Florence ; the " Letter sent by the hand of Uriah ' ' in the Dresden gallery (No. 75) ; a fine male portrait in the Berlin Museum ; the fresco of the Last Supper in the ' Calza ' at Florence ; and a fresco in the villa of Poggio a Caiano near Florence. Franciabigio died in 1525 ; his life therefore covers about the same space of time as that of Baphael. His name was not Marcantonio, as stated in all catalogues, even in that of the Pitti, since the time of Baldinucci, but Francesco (in patois Francia) Bigi ; his father's name was Christopher, hence his monogram, an F, an E, a C, and a P, i.e. FBanciscus Christophori (the son of Christopher) Pinxit. 3

2 Studies for this panel (1249), Pontormo's characteristic drawing

rightly assigned to Franciabigio, are of the eyes deeply sunk in their

among the drawings in the Uffizi sockets. For all these points a

(Philpot 1506). The landscape, the comparison between Franciabigio's

form of hand and ear, which differs picture No. 1223 and these two

from that of Pontorrno, as well as paintings is desirable, the types of the heads, induced me 3 The Louvre has a good drawing

to ascribe these paintings to Fran- by Franciabigio (Braun 93), another

ciabigio rather than to Pontorrno; is at Lille under the name of

I also fail to discover in them Baphael (Braun 91). (t)


100 THE BOEGHESE GALLERY.

Granacci, Franciabigio and Pontormo — three nearly contemporary painters — are, as we have seen, constantly confounded in their small predella pictures (even by con- noisseurs), for there is a family likeness between them. Granacci, the elder of the three (b. 1477), must, at one time, have exercised a more or less considerable influence over his younger contemporaries. In the six predella pictures by Granacci in the Florence Academy, representing the martyrdoms of SS. Catherine, Apollonia, Agnes, and other Saints, the types of heads bear some resemblance to those of Pontormo, while the landscape differs considerably from that of the latter and of Franciabigio. In Granacci's large picture, in the same gallery, the heads of the flying angels are almost identical in type with heads in Francia- bigio's panels in the Uffizi (1249 and 1282). It seems incredible that, in his Holy Family in the Pitti (f ) (No. 345), Granacci should have been confounded with Baldassare Peruzzi even by Dr. Bode, who again, in this case, appears to have trusted Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle more than his own eyes. 4

A picture belonging to the Marchese Covoni in Florence is, perhaps, Granacci's best work. It represents the Madonna with the Infant Christ on her left arm, and a book in her right hand ; at her feet kneel SS. Thomas, Zenobio, and Francis ; above her are two angels. This painting was executed in 1505, by order of Maria Francesca di Zenobio de' Girolami, for the church of S. Gallo.

Before proceeding to discuss the works of Francia- bigio's best known pupil, Francesco Ubertini, we will examine the little portrait No. 436. This is a copy of an

  • In order to leave themselves a the exact stamp of Peruzzi ' (iii.

loophole of escape, Messrs. Crowe 401-2). Alinari of Florence has

and Cavalcaselle prudently observe, published a good photograph of this

' this is a Siennese work, without picture.


BACCHIACCA. 101

excellent painting, which the catalogue of the Uffizi de- scribes as the portrait of " Alessandro Braccesi, segretario di Balia," and attributes to Lorenzo di Credi (No. 1217) — an ascription so wide of the mark that I was amazed to find that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (iii. 412) had not questioned it. 5 It seems to me that this portrait is far too spirited in conception and too warm in colouring for Lorenzo di Credi, and I have not the slightest hesitation in pronouncing it to be a good early work by Pietro Perugino (-f-) of about the same period (1485-90 perhaps) as the so-called " Nun of Leonardo " in the Pitti Palace, and worthy of close study. Messer Alessandro Braccesi was inscribed as ' Notaro della Signoria ' as early as 1474, and he must therefore have been over twenty at that period, while the portrait represents a boy of about fourteen or fifteen. The naming of the person represented, equally with that of the painter, appears therefore in this case, as in so many others, to be purely arbitrary, and to have been based solely on a general impression.

BACCHIACCA.

Nos. 425, 427, 440, 442, and 463 all belong to the same master, namely to Francesco Ubertini, called Bacchiacca, ("f) who, as a rule, is but little known. 6 They represent episodes from the life of Joseph — subjects which were apparently very popular in Florence for the adornment of the nuptial chamber in the third decade of the sixteenth century. Bacchiacca is several times mentioned by Vasari, though only incidentally, in the biographies of Perugino, Granacci, Franciabigio, Aristotele da San Gallo, and others. As an artist he is by no means wanting in talent, and his

5 Dr. Bode follows in their steps ghese gallery has accepted my ascrip- (ii. 586). tions for these pictures.

6 The new director of the Bor-


102 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

works, as a rule, are rare. I shall therefore devote more time than a general survey of a picture gallery would seem to warrant to this not uninteresting painter, who is less known in the history of art than he deserves to be, and whose works are frequently met with in different collections, under the illustrious names of Diirer, Raphael, Leonardo, and Michael Angelo.

Francesco Ubertini must have been born about 1494, in Florence. According to Vasari (xiii. 165), Angelo Bron- zino's large painting of 1552, " The Descent into Hades " (now in theUffizi, No. 1271), contains portraits of Pontormo, Giovan-Battista Gello, and Bacchiacca. In this picture he appears to be a man of about sixty; a few years later, in 1557, he died in Florence. He had two brothers, one of whom, Baccio, was a pupil and assistant of Perugino ; the other, Antonio, distinguished himself in his day as a worker in tapestry.

We gather from Vasari, who knew Bacchiacca person- ally, and esteemed him both as a man and an artist, that, with his brother Baccio, he also studied for some time under Pietro Perugino, probably about 1505-1506 ; and that he afterwards joined Franciabigio and very likely spent the latter years of his apprenticeship with him, possibly working as Franciabigio's assistant until the death of that master in 1525. According to Passavant, the brothers, Baccio and Francesco, left Florence for Perugia in order to receive in- struction there in the art of painting from Perugino. It appears to me, however, more probable that the two Floren- tines should have visited Perugino's workshop in Florence, for in the first decade of the sixteenth century this painter was more in that city than in Perugia. It is evident, I think, that later Bacchiacca borrowed much from his friend, Andrea del Sarto, and, in his last period, from Michael Angelo. In his manner of posing his figures, of


BACCHIACCA. 103

drawing the hands, of arranging the draperies, and, more especially, in his landscape backgrounds — which, as a rule, are very careful in execution— it appears to me that the influence of Andrea del Sarto, rather than that of Perugino, or even of Franciabigio, is apparent, though the latter was himself so closely connected with Andrea. From Francia- bigio, however, Bacchiacca may have taken his smooth colouring and cold flesh tones.

After the death of Franciabigio, Bacchiacca appears to have gone to Borne, at all events he was there about 1525, and lived on terms of intimacy with Giulio Bomano, Fran- cesco Penni, and Benvenuto Cellini ; and the latter men- tions him at the beginning of his autobiography. Vasari extols, and rightly, the great care and finish of his small figures, which rarely exceeded a span in height. He further praises the arabesques, with animals and foliage taken from nature, with which Bacchiacca decorated the chamber of Duke Cosimo de' Medici, and adds that he furnished many cartoons for the ducal tapestries. In the collection of the ' Arazzi ' at Florence there are three large tapestries worked with gold, representing the twelve months of the year, in which, it seems to me, I can discern the spirit of Bacchiacca and his distinctive and characteristic forms, (f ) In all probability these are the tapestries which were woven by the Fleming Bost from cartoons by Ubertini (see Vasari) .

Bacchiacca is also said to have been an excellent animal painter ('era ottimo pittore in ritrarre tutte le sorti d'ani- mali '), and certainly the animals in some of his pictures (for instance, in the one in the Giovanelli collection at Venice) are admirable. As I have studied this little-known master with considerable interest, I may perhaps be permitted to enumerate in chronological order certain of his works which I venture to think I have discovered in the course of my artistic wanderings. I should be well satisfied if these


104 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

slight notices might induce some art-historian to take up the study of this master, and to produce an historical portrait of him, for Bacchiacca appears to me to be a remarkable painter, who occasionally surprises us by flashes of genius and by his unaffected grace.

I will first, however, mention some of the characteristics by which his works may easily be distinguished from those of his contemporaries, who nearly approached him.

1. In the foreground of his landscapes he nearly always introduces a wedge-shaped rock of a light grey colour, over- grown with trees and bushes (this may be seen in one of the pictures in this gallery, No. 463), and in the middle dis- tance a town with numerous towers.

2. His hands have long bony fingers.

3. Like his master, Franciabigio, he shows a predilection for blue.

4. He first laid in the hair in brown, and added the details with glazes of a yellowish colour ; a method to be studied in this picture, No. 463.

5. Like all hybrid artists, Bacchiacca has no charac- teristic form of ear. It is sometimes rounder, sometimes longer in form, according to the model which he happened to have before him at the time.

6. The close-fitting sleeves which he gives to his female figures show a number of stiff cross-folds in the fore-arm, and usually reach below the knuckles — a peculiarity pro- bably due to his study of Lucas van Leyden's engravings, from which Bacchiacca borrowed various details.

7. In his draperies we often find a fold in the shape of a V. This occurs, for instance, on the upper part of the right arm of the " Vierge au Sein " belonging to Professor Nicole at Lausanne ; several times in a painting belonging to Don Giacomo Bertoldi, a priest of Carpenedo near Mestre ; in the picture in the Palazzo Giovanelli, and also in draw-



La Vieroe au Si in. By Bacchiacca.


T,> /ace p. 105.


BACCHIACCA. 105

Ings in the author's collection, 7 in the Louvre, and else- where.

I should assign the following works to Bacchiacca's earliest, or Peruginesque, period :

(a) A small painting (No. 55) representing the "Noli me tangere," which, with the following, is in the Christ Church collection at Oxford, (f )

(&) The "Baising of Lazarus," in presence of his sisters Martha and Mary, who kneel before our Lord. Both pic- tures recall the school of Perugino. (-f-)

(c) A small painting, which, some years ago, was still in the possession of Bon Giacomo Bertoldi, and which was- attributed by him, with the assent of several Venetian art- critics, to Baphael. In this picture, representing the Madonna seated in a landscape between St. Elisabeth and the little St. John, and holding the Child on her knee, the composition is still that of an inexperienced artist. The pose of the Madonna recalls the school of Perugino, while the landscape and the scale of colouring already show a decided leaning to the manner of his second master, Franciabigio. (f)

(d) The " Vierge au Sein, recemment decouverte " — a small picture entirely repainted, which was hawked about Europe by its owner, Professor Nicole of Lausanne, in the vain hope of finding a credulous purchaser. It appears to me to be also by Bacchiacca, and of a somewhat later period. The composition of this painting, which, as is often the case, is more easily understood in the photograph than in the defaced original, bears some resemblance to that in the preceding picture. The Madonna holds the Child to her breast ; to the left is the little St. John. The landscape background is of the master's characteristic type, with wedge-shaped rocks, and a town with numerous towers

7 Now in the Frizzoni collection at Milan.

I


106 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

in the middle distance. The composition, as well as the pose of the Madonna, recalls the " Madonna del Pozzo " by Franciabigio in the Uffizi. It is, perhaps, too much to say that the hand of the master is still perceptible in a picture which has been so entirely disfigured by repainting ; never- theless I am firmly convinced that I am not mistaken, either in this case, or in that of the three preceding pictures.

In the last years of Bacchiacca's first period, which ex- tended to about the year 1518, I should place the following pictures :

(e) The small and interesting "Adam and Eve " in the collection of Dr. G. Frizzoni, which was formerly regarded as a Giulio Eomano, and subsequently, when in a Roman collection, was attributed to Peruzzi. For this remark- able little painting, which leaves much to be desired in the drawing, Bacchiacca made use of a small cartoon by his master Perugino, representing Apollo and Marsyas — the pupil transforming Apollo into Eve, and Marsyas into Adam. Perugino's well-known painting executed from this cartoon is now in the Louvre (Salon Carre) under the name of Raphael, a name arbitrarily placed upon it by its former possessor. The cartoon itself (f ) which is quite in the style of Perugino's drawing at Oxford of the Archangel with Tobias (University collection, Robinson's catalogue, No. 16), is in the Venice Academy — there, too, of course, under the name of Raphael.

In Bacchiacca's middle period — from about 1518-1536 — I should place the folio whig :

(/) The charming portrait in the Louvre (No. 1506) of a boy resting his head on his right hand and looking out of the picture with a joyous, child-like expression. As it bears the illustrious name of Raphael, it attracts universal attention, and appeals to the public as a matter of course. It has been constantly engraved. Bailly in his



To face p. 1 06.


" Portrait of a Boy." By Bacchiacca.

(In the Loiaire.)



To face f. 106.


"Adam and Eve." By Bacchiacca.

{In the Frizzoni Collection, Milan.)


?



Apollo and Marsyas.

(A Drawing by Perugixo in the Venice


To face p. ip6.


BACCHIACCA 107

inventory of 1709-1710 refers to it in trie following terms : ' Tableau estime de Kaphael, representant son portrait.' Years ago this attractive portrait appeared to me to be the work of some Florentine painter of the first half of the six- teenth century, and gradually the conviction grew upon me that this Florentine was unquestionably Bacchiacca. I was led to this conclusion both by the form of hand and by the technical treatment of the hair (glazes of a yellow tone on a brownish ground) — a treatment which I have had occasion to observe in other works by him ; for example, in the one belonging to Dr. Frizzoni. The left eye in this portrait is out of drawing. In later times the picture was enlarged.

(g) To this period also belongs the panel in the Uffizi (No. 1296), representing scenes from the life of St. Ascasius, which formed the predella of the altar-piece by Franciabigio, his master, in the church of S. Lorenzo in Florence. Bacchiacca apparently derived some of the figures in this composition from Lucas van Leyden's engravings — a custom very prevalent at that time among other artists. Franciabigio and Pontormo, for instance, constantly made use of Diirer's engravings for their compositions — a fact mentioned by Vasari.

(h) The carefully executed panel in the Dresden gallery (No. 80) — which in many points recalls Franciabigio — pro- bably belongs, with the following pictures, to this period :

(i) " The Baptism of Christ," in the Berlin Museum.

(k) The picture representing the " Death of Abel " in the Morelli collection. 8

(I and m) The two panels with episodes from the life of Joseph which are now in the National Gallery, London. 9


8 Now in the public gallery at of the Reiset catalogue. A fragment Bergamo. of a drawing for one of them is in

9 Studies for these two pictures the Christ Church collection at are in the Louvre, Nos. 352 and 353 Oxford, (f)

I 2


108 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

In my opinion one of Bacchiacca's best and most mature works of this period is the carefully executed picture in the Palazzo Giovanelli at Venice. Until recently it was regarded as the work of Diirer, and the present writer had the satisfaction of being the first to recognise in it the hand of Bacchiacca (-f-) (photographed by Naya at Venice). It is painted on panel (8£ ft. by 2£), and contains about forty principal figures besides many smaller ones in the background. 1 In the centre is Moses, with a golden staff in his hand, kneeling before a high rock, from which a spring gushes forth ; the people press forward from all sides to quench their thirst, and with them birds and beasts of every description — lynx, cats, deer, parrots, goats, oxen, martens, asses, &c. Some of the heads, more espe- cially those of the women, are executed with miniature-like precision ; the costumes are in part very fantastic, and here again we find that Bacchiacca has borrowed occa- sionally from the engravings of Lucas van Leyden, which may account for the picture having formerly passed as the work of a German. The landscape background, with his characteristic grey rocks, is cold in tone. Three studies in black chalk, for different heads in this picture, are in the Uffizi, under the name of Michael Angelo (Case 183, No. 599). (-f-) To the latter are also attributed seven draw- ings by Bacchiacca in the collection at Lille, (f ) They are studies for masks in red chalk, and were probably intended for decorative borders for tapestry (Braun 35). The fol- lowing I should also consider to be works of his middle period.

(n) The series of five panels in the Borghese gallery. (*f-)

1 I would call special attention should be can-fully studied, and then

to a youth on the right side of this compared with the portrait of the

picture, to whom an old woman boy in the Louvre, No. 1506. offers water from a jar ; the head


BACCHIACCA. 109

A good red chalk drawing for the figure of Benjamin in two of them is in the Morelli collection. 2

To Bacchiacca's third and last period belong :

(o) " The Preaching of St. John the Baptist," in the possession of the Marchese Bacciocchi of Florence. St. John stands on a slight eminence, his hearers are gathered round him— the men on his right, the women on his left.

(p) " The Adoration of the Magi," unfortunately some- what repainted, lately in the fine collection of Herr Edward Habich at Cassel.

(q) A large painting (without a name) of the Madonna in the collection of Sir Francis Cook at Bichmond. (-f-)

Vasari records (in his biography of Tribolo) that on the occasion of the entry of Eleonora of Toledo into Florence, Bacchiacca, in company with Bronzino, Pier Francesco di Sandro (a pupil of Andrea del Sarto), Battista Franco and others, was employed in decorating with frescoes the courtyard of the Medici Palace, and that he afterwards painted "The Journey of Lorenzo il Magnifico to Naples," and " The Beturn from Exile of Cosimo il Vecchio," for the poet Landi's dramatic representation in honour of the marriage of Duke Cosimo (see the biography of Aristotele da San Gallo). He further states that Bacchiacca was one of those employed in painting the triumphal arches used at public rejoicings. All which proves that this painter was very popular in the third and fourth decades of the sixteenth century. His figures, as a rule (with rare ex- ceptions, such as in the picture in Sir Francis Cook's collection, and the portrait in the Louvre), are not much above a span in height and are often smaller still. Vasari

2 Beproduced in Dr. Gustavo descritti ed illustrati dal Dott.

Frizzoni's pubBcation, entitled Gustavo Frizzoni (Milano, Hoepli,

Collezione di quaranta disegni scelti 1886). (This drawing is now in the

dallaRaccoltadel Senatore Giovanni collection of Dr. Frizzoni at Milan.) Morelli, riprodotti in eliotipia,


110 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

says of this master, that he also painted many pictures for different people, which were sent into France and England : ' Fece anco molti altri quadri per diversi che furono mandati in Francia e in Inghilterra.' Hence we may infer that many of his works are dispersed abroad under other names.

Bacchiacca appears to have chiefly devoted himself to iminting ' predelle ' for altar-pieces, and so-called ' Cassoni,' or large chests, which by the Italians of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries were used as ward- robes. In those palmy days art was welcomed every- where in Italy, and had a share in all the concerns of men, and in all the events and festivities of daily life. The nobles took a delight in enriching their palaces, their country houses, and the chapels in their churches with painting and sculpture, and even required that their house- hold furniture should, whilst useful, be graceful and beautiful in form. Yet at that date there were no galleries for the improvement of public taste, no lectures and courses of instruction, no guides to the right understanding of art, such as we are now so abundantly blessed with, and as to annual exhibitions of pictures, they were totally unknown to this untutored race. We must therefore assume, with a North-German philosopher, that the feeling of pleasure and satisfaction afforded to the mind of that generation by works of art was ' not conscious and positive, but merely an undefined perception, latent in them, and scarcely, if at all, affecting their intelligence.' Be this as it may, certain it is, that in the first half of the sixteenth century, Baccio d' Agnolo, a very popular architect in Florence, was con- stantly taken into counsel by the principal inhabitants whenever they were desirous of obtaining finely carved furniture. Thus we are told by Vasari in the life of Pontormo, that Pier Francesco Borgherini, the wealthy


BACCHIACCA. Ill

Florentine, on his marriage with Margherita, of the house of Acciajuoli, applied to Baccio to execute some ' Cassoni ' for him, which were then entrusted to Andrea del Sarto, Pontormo, Franciabigio, Bacchiacca, and Granacci to be adorned with paintings. All these artists, it appears, were commissioned to execute scenes from the Old Testament. It was for Pier Borgherini, most likely, that Pontormo painted "Joseph and his Kindred in Egypt " (now in the National Gallery, No. 1131). Two other episodes from the life of Joseph were represented by Andrea del Sarto in his most attractive manner ; these fine compositions are now in the Pitti (Nos. 87 and 88), while those painted by Bacchiacca are probably the two ' Cassoni ' panels in the National Gallery (1218, 1219).

In reference to these ' Cassoni ' I may quote a curious anecdote related by Vasari, that most delightful and naive of art-historians, whose writings still remain the principal source of information for all that relates to the history of early Italian art. In his life of Pontormo, after vividly describing the splendour of the apartments in the house of the Borgherini, where the ' Cassoni ' were placed, he says that at the time of the siege of Florence, in 1529, Pier Fran- cesco Borgherini, who was a partisan of the Medici, having fled to Lucca, the Florentine picture-dealer, Giovanni della Palla, succeeded in obtaining permission from the city authorities to remove these chests from the Palazzo Borgherini, on payment to the family of a certain com- pensation, under pretext of offering them as a gift to Francis I., but really that he might carry them off to France and turn them to good account for himself. When, however, accompanied by several officials, he presented him- self at the house, and informed the wife of Pier Francesco, Margherita Acciajuoli, of his errand, this outspoken lady, furious at such shameless audacity, burst out as follows :


112 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

' Out upon thee, Giovanni ! hast thou the insolence to lay violent hands upon the noblest ornaments wherewith our palaces are adorned ? I marvel not at thy scandalous pur- pose, vile caitiff, for what are the honour and glory of thy country to such as thee, who wert born to nought better. It is not only thy villany which kindles my wrath, but the baseness of the Signoria in lending a willing ear to such a wretch. This bed, that thou wouldest seize and barter to satisfy thy greed of gain, was the gift of my revered father- in-law at my nuptials ; these chests, adorned by the art of our greatest masters on which thou hast cast thy covetous eyes, were the bridal gift of my beloved husband ; and for the love and reverence I bear to those dear ones I will defend these treasures with my life's blood. Get thee gone ! thou and thy myrmidons. Keturn whence ye came, and in my name bid them who sent ye know, that while I live, I will never suffer a finger to be laid even upon the meanest thing in my house ; and if their object be, as they say, to offer gifts to the King of France, why let them first despoil their own houses for that purpose. As for thee, if ever thou shouldest so far forget thyself as to darken these doors again, by my troth thou shalt rue that day.'

The somewhat churlish behaviour of this old-fashioned dame may provoke a cynical smile from nineteenth-century readers ; they must bear in mind, however, that in those days, ' culture ' being still in its infancy, our modern notions of turning family pictures into money were wholly unknown. Later, when these simple burghers were raised to the rank of barons, counts, marquises, and dukes, the della Pallas of Italy, as well as of other countries, would scarcely have met with so unfriendly and impolitic a reception from the owners of works of art.

We have already noted that, on the one hand, several


PINTORICCHIO. 113

of Bacchiacca's paintings are given to Eaphael (C and D of our series, and also F, the portrait of the boy in the Louvre), and, on the other, that some of his drawings are ascribed to Michael Angelo. It yet remains for me to point out a drawing, which, though bearing the illustrious name of Leonardo, unquestionably shows all the peculiarities of Bacchiacca. This is an attractive portrait in red chalk in the Uffizi (Case 103, No. 414, Braun 434) of a young and handsome woman, whose costume alone would point to a later period than that of Leonardo. The careful execution of the dress, the form of the hand and that of the ear (recalling his master Franciabigio), the long sleeves reaching to the knuckles, the characteristic V-shaped fold on the upper part of one of them, the small hard cross- folds on its lower part, — all incline me to think that Bacchiacca, and not Leonardo, was the author of this portrait, (f) I do not, however, vouch for the correctness of this attribution. Francesco Ubertini belonged, as we have seen, to that group of Florentine painters of the first half of the sixteenth century, such as Franciabigio, Eidolfo del Ghirlandaio, Bugiardini, and Pontormo, who were first trained under the guidance of Albertinelli and G-ranacci, and later under that of Andrea del Sarto, and who were also influenced, in some degree, by the art of Leonardo and Eaphael, and finally by that of Michael Angelo.

BERNARDINO BETTI, called PINTORICCHIO.

Before proceeding further with the Florentine school, we may examine two other pictures once in the first room (*) (*). These again are decorative works for 'Cassoni' re- presenting events from the life of Joseph. The catalogue ascribes them to Pintoricchio ; but the execution is far too


114 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

coarse and unskilful for him, and we shall do better to attribute them, with Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, to his school. 3

In imagination, we hear many a visitor exclaim, ' What ! no work by Pintoricchio in the whole Borghese gallery ? ' On the contrary, two genuine works by this underrated and even maligned master are here ; but, as usual with his works, they are attributed to other painters — a fate which has too generally befallen poor Pintoricchio. One of them, the Crucifixion, No. 377, bears the absurdly inappropriate name of the Venetian master, Carlo Crivelli. On the right of the Cross kneels St. Jerome, gazing upwards ; on the left is St. Christopher bearing the Infant Christ on his shoulder. In this, the earliest work known to me by Pintoricchio, he still follows Fiorenzo di Lorenzo so closely that many a student of art might be led to mistake pupil for master.' As to my individual opinion, I may observe that I recog- nised both the spirit and the hand of Pintoricchio in this picture, without being aware that Vermiglioli, his biographer, had already pronounced it to be by him. 5 The other picture (*), representing St. Bartholomew, belongs to a later period of the master's career. The catalogue ascribes it to Giovanni Spagna, but the type of the head, as well as the modelling, at once betray the spirit and the technical manner

3 In one we find several times in the fluttering mantle of St. Chris- repeated : ' sogno di Faragone.' To topher, we are reminded of his this day, the inhabitants of the master, Fiorenzo ; but the type of the Abruzzi are wont to divide two sue- saint, the form of his hand with the cessive vowels by a g, for instance ; bent forefinger, the folds in his ' idega ' for idea, ' lagonde ' for mantle, and the position of his legs, 1 laonde,' ' Magometto ' for ' Mao- all betray the hand of Pintoricchio. metto,' &c, from which I infer that 5 See Gio. Battista Vermiglioli, this assistant of Pintoricchio came Menwricdi Bernardino Pintoricchio, originally from that part of the pp. 109, 110. This picture was at country. that time in the possession of a

4 In the abnormal length of the Dr. Monaco, upper part of the Child's body and


FILIPPINO LIPPI. 115

of Pintoricchio. The hatching of the shadows is the same as in his pen drawings, (-f-)

The portrait of Savonarola (*), incredible as it may- appear, is here attributed to Filippino Lippi. This unim- portant production is only one of the many feeble copies extant (there is one also in the Florence Academy) of the splendid portrait of the Frate by his friend and partisan, the young Bartolommeo della Porta, now in the possession of the heirs of Signor Ermolao Eubieri. 6 Another picture — a "Pieta" (*) — is also unjustifiably given to Filippino; but as far as I can judge in its present condition, it is only of his school.

The gifted and delightful painter, Filippino Lippi, is well represented in Florence, Prato, and Lucca ; but with the exception of his frescoes in the Caraffa chapel in S. Maria sopra Minerva, executed jointly with his pupil Kaffaellino del Garbo, and not in his best manner, nothing else by his hand is to be seen in Eome. He is, however, admirably represented in Florence, where the Badia, the Carmine, S. Spirito, the gallery of the Uffizi, the Corsini gallery, and S. Maria Novella, offer ample opportunities for studying him. The Pitti gallery also includes an example of Filippino, not, however, as the authorities would have us believe, No. 388, the " Death of Virginia " — the work apparently of another and much feebler pupil of Botticelli — and still less No. 347, the "Madonna and Child with Angels " — more probably by some imitator of Ghirlandaio — but No. 336. This small picture is here catalogued as ' unknown,' but I must beg students to examine the elongated form of the ear, the hand with ihe long fingers broad at the tips, the type of head and the landscape, and I do not doubt they will agree

6 It may here be noted that a 97), is not the portrait of Savonarola, pen drawing by Leonardo da Vinci as there stated, but of some other in the ' Albertina ' at Vienna (Braun monk.


116 THE- BORGHESE GALLERY.

with me in recognising both the feeling and the technic of Filippino. 7 (-f-)

A good work by the master is a fresco in a tabernacle in a street at Prato ; another is in the church of S. Domenieo at Bologna ; and a third is hi the Seminario Vescovile at Venice, there absurdly attributed to Crespi.

As Filippino's drawings are frequently mistaken by beginners 8 for those of his pupil Kaffaellino del Garbo, it may be advisable to mention a few characteristic examples by both masters, so that the student may impress upon his memory the forms of feet, hands, and ears peculiar to each.

FILIPPINO LIPPI.

In the Uffizi. (Case 37, Nos. 171, 172 ; Case 460, Nos. 1253 and 1257.)

1. Case 32, No. 139, study for the head of the Madonna in the Badia (ear).

Case 40, No. 186, sketch for one of his frescoes in the Strozzi chapel of S. Maria Novella in Florence.

In the Ambrosiana.

3. Study for the head of one of the three kings in his " Adoration " in the Uffizi (ear) — attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, (f)

In the Lille Collection.

4. A drawing under the name of Masaccio. (f ) Braun, No. 9.

7 Alinari e>f Florence has good 581) attributes to Filippino Lippi, is

photographs of this picture. merely an old copy of one by

s The small picture of the " Com- Botticelli of this subject, belonging

munion of St. Jerome," in the Casa to the heirs of the Marchese

Balbi a Genoa, which Dr. Bode (ii. Gino Capponi at Florence.


KAFFAELLINO DEL GAEBO. 117

In the Dresden Collection.

5. Study for a St. John under the name of Cosimo Eoselli. Braun 40. (f)

6. A seated male figure, attributed to Cosimo Eoselli. (f ) Braun 41.

In the Louvre.

7. A man seated, resting his head upon his left hand. (Beiset catalogue, No. 230, under the name of Fra Filippo Lippi.) (f)

EAFFAELLINO DEL GAEBO.

In the Uffizi.

1. Case 83, Nos. 350, 352.

In the Christ Church Collection, Oxford.

2. Photographed in the publications of the Grosvenor Gallery, No. 44.

In the British Museum.

3. Photographed by Braun, No. 113. (Hand and foot.)

In the Lille Collection.

4. Photographed by Braun, Nos. 23 and 24, as Domenico del Ghirlandaio. (+)

In the Borghese gallery hangs a female portrait (No. 371), the features of which will be familiar to many. The catalogue merely says that it is ' in the style of Perugino.' The picture is labelled ' Eidolfo del Ghirlandaio ' — a name more nearly approaching the truth, and which I suggested when discussing these pictures on a former occasion. Neither the modelling, nor the scale of colour, still less the landscape background, recalls the school of Perugino, but rather that of Florence of the first decade of the six-


118 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

teenth century. 9 The commonplace person represented in this picture,with her inanimate expression, is none other than Maddalena Strozzi, wife of Angelo Doni, the wealthy and, according to ill-natured reports, rather penurious Florentine citizen. Most persons are familiar with Raphael's portrait of her in the Pitti, the pen drawing for which is in the ' Salle aux boites ' in the Louvre. Some able painter closely resembling Granacci, if not Granacci himself, made use of this drawing 1 for a picture of his own, in which the lady, to please a relative, or some pious admirer, was transformed into a St. Catherine. 2 Similar canonisations of pretty women, or those who passed for such, though unsanctioned by the Church, are frequently met with in the history of Italian art. To quote one example among many, Arnol- fini, in the year 1594, writes to his beloved nun Lucrezia Buonvisi of Lucca, entreating her to send him ' a certain canvas,' on which she is depicted as St. Ursula (' in figura di S. Orsola '), ' that he might at least solace himself by its contemplation ' (' perche possa almeno bearmi nella vista della immagine.') 3

PIETRO DI LORENZO, called PIER DI COSIMO.

A " Tondo " (No. 343) represents the Madonna wor- shipping the Holy Child who lies before her, while two angels join in adoration. The catalogue describes

■ The • eye,' or point of origin window, which occur in Raphael's

of the folds in the drapery, is not pen drawing in the Louvre. In the

roundish as with the pupils of Peru- portrait in the Pitti the master has

gino and Pintoricchio, but square after omitted them.

the manner more especially of Gra- - See Passavant ii. 278. This

nacci and Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio. picture formerly belonged to the

The hair is treated with little grace, Marchese Letizia at Naples, and

and the cold tone of the landscape passed for a Raphael, recalls Granacci more than Ridolfo. 3 See Storia di Lucrezia

1 In this picture we find the same Buonvisi raccontata da Salvatore

two columns on either side of the Bongi, p. Ill (Lucca, 1864).



To face p. 118.


Maddalena Strozzi as St. Catherine.

(In tiie Borghese Gallery.)


PIEE DI COSIMO. 119'

this much injured picture as an 'Abozzo di Baffaello, fatto nei primi anni sulla maniera di Perugino,' to which we may apply the Italian proverb : ' Quante parole, tanti spropositi' ('As many blunders as words'). Both this interesting work (No. 343) and a smaller one (No. 329) now bear the name of Pier di Cosimo. The colouring, especially the bright red robe of the Madonna, recalls Filippino's fine work in the Badia at Florence, while the two putti remind us more of Sodoma, and of Cesare da Sesto, who were in Florence in the early part of the year 1500. 4 Studying the characteristics of this picture — the stiff, unpleasing hand, the type of head, the landscape," and the cast of the drapery — we soon discover its real author, Pier di Cosimo (f), of whom Vasari has left us a very scanty biography.

Pier di Cosimo (b. in Florence about 1462, d. there 1521) is known to have been a pupil of Cosimo Boselli, from whom he derived his name. He was probably thus brought into closer relations with Bartolommeo della Porta (b. 1475), and with Mariotto Albertinelli (b. 1474) — both his fellow pupils — and, being older and more experienced than they, he may have had a certain influence on their art, especially in landscape. His fine altar-piece at Florence, in the Stanza del Commissario degli Innocenti, shows a close connection with Filippino Lippi, in the types as well as in subordinate details. No painter of the fifteenth century, with the exception, perhaps, of Benozzo Gozzoli, Pintoricchio, and Lorenzo Costa, devoted himself to

4 Cesare da Sesto must have been works : a circular panel in the pos-

in Florence during the first years of session of the Melzi d' Eril family at

the sixteenth century, and while Milan (a copy of which is in this

there was probably influenced, to a gallery, and another in the Uffizi,

certain extent, by painters of the No. 1013, under the name of Luini),.

Florentine school, more especially by and notably an " Adoration of the

Lorenzo di Credi and Albertinelli. Magi " in the Borromeo gallery, also

This is evident in the following at Milan, (f)


120 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

landscape with greater ardour than Pier di Coshno. Of this we have abundant proof in the Uffizi, where many of his landscape backgrounds, though somewhat fantastic in character, are always original and ably executed. 5 From him Andrea del Sarto, his pupil, may have derived his taste for landscape backgrounds. As Piero's works are rare, I may mention two other pictures by him, one in Borne, the other in the Louvre. The first, representing the Magdalen (half-length with a dark background), is well- preserved, and recalls Filippino's type of feature. The dress is dark green, the mantle a deep red with dark hatched shadows ; the brownish hair, as usual with Piero, lies flat on the temples, and is adorned with a string of pearls. The expression of the beautiful penitent is of a mild and tender melancholy. This fine picture belongs to Baron Gio- vanni Barracco of Naples, a member of the Italian Senate, and one of the most cultivated connoisseurs of art in Italy. He bought it at the Monte di Pieta in Borne, where, strange to say, it was attributed to Mantegna The second picture, a Madonna and Child, is classed among the 'unknowns' in the Louvre (No. 1528). The late director of the gallery, Vicomte Both de Tauzia, affirmed that the picture reminded him of Signorelli. Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni, however, immediately recognised in it the hand of Pier di Cosimo. 6

5 The landscape in Pier di to me to be worthy of some at-

Cosimo's "Rescue of Andromeda" tention ; for several of the heads

(Uffizi, No. 1312) is in every respect have not only Leonardo's sfuinato,

identical with the landscape in this but recall the " Gioconda " in ex-

" Tondo " of the Borghese gallery. pression. Piero may, therefore,

The inventory of the Uffizi gallery have painted the picture about 1506,

of 1580 mentions that the picture when Leonardo was finishing the

was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci, portrait of " Mona Lisa." There is,

and only painted by Pier di Cosimo however, no question about the com-

(Vasari vii. 1111-20). As a rule I position, which is by Pier di Cosimo,

lay very small store by ' tradition ' ; and not by Leonardo, in this case, however, it appears 6 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle


PIEE DI COSIMO. 121

The second picture by Piero in the Borghese gallery (No. 329), though not described as an early work by Eaphael, is, with equal inconsistency, given to a pupil of Piero's own scholar, Andrea del Sarto, namely, to Franciabigio, who, as we have seen, was the master of Bacchiacca, and may himself have been taught in the school of Pier di Cosimo. This small and pleasing work represents the "Judgment of Solomon," (-f-) and may have been destined for the decoration of some piece of furniture. The rich Florentines of the second and third decades of the sixteenth century were evidently in the habit of employing that group of painters comprising Andrea del Sarto, Franciabigio, Pontormo, Bacchiacca, and' others, who directly, or indirectly, had been taught in the school of Pier di Cosimo, to execute work of this kind.

The earlier works of Piero all point to the influence of Filippino, and were probably executed in the last years of the fifteenth and the first of the sixteenth century. Among them I should class No. 31 in the Ufifizi, the large picture in the ' Stanza del Commissario degli Inno- centi ' in Florence, the Magdalen, belonging to Senatore Barracco, the " Tondo " in the Dresden gallery, Nos. 107 and 204 in the Berlin Museum, the " Death of Procris," an admirable example, in the English National Gallery, and the

(iii. 421) assume that Pier di Cosimo whereas they preserve a discreet had a hand in those altar-pieces in silence about them all. The three the church of S. Spirito at Florence, pictures in the church of S. Spirito which are there variously attributed appear to me to be productions of to Ghirlandaio, to Filippino Lippi, the school of Cosimo Eoselli, and and occasionally, with more intelli- very far indeed removed from Pier di gence, to Cosimo Eoselli. I cannot Cosimo. A charcoal drawing at Wei- refrain from expressing some doubts mar — the Infant Saviour, lying un- as to the correctness of their view, draped upon the ground (Braun 69) — especially as these critics do not is not by Piero, nor is the portrait appear to have formed a very clear once in the first corridor of the Uffizi. idea of Pier di Cosimo. They could Why this latter should have been hardly otherwise have failed to re- attributed to Pietro Eoselli is a. cognise his genuine works, in this mystery to me— it is obviously by gallery, in Dresden, and in Berlin, Eidolf o del Ghirlandaio. (f)

K


122 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Madonna and Child in the Louvre. On the other hand, the picture in the Uffizi, No. 1312, which in parts recalls Leonardo, shows that lighter scale of colour which later was partially adopted by Andrea del Sarto, and more decidedly by Bacchiacca. A form of skull peculiar to Piero first ap- pears in his later works, as, for instance, in Nos. 82, 83, and 1312 in the Uffizi, and in No. 329 of the Borghese gallery, all of which are small decorative panels, intended either for furniture, or for the walls of a room — for art, having already attained full freedom, was gradually becom- ing secularised, and no longer laboured exclusively in the service of religion.

MARIOTTO ALBERTLNELLI.

Amongst the remaining works by Florentine masters we find a "Madonna and Child with the little St. John" (No. 310), bearing the date 1511 in gold. The composition apparently is that of Fra Bartolommeo della Porta; but the careless execution is undoubtedly that of Mariotto Albertinelli (f). In addition to the date it is also signed with the well-known red cross and the two interlaced rings — the former referring to the convent of St. Mark in Florence, the latter to the two friends and co-workers, Fra Bartolommeo and Mariotto. Similar feeble pro- ductions, dating from the years 1510, 1511, and 1512, may be seen in private and public collections — in the possession of the Marchese Bartolommei at Florence, in the Casa G-uerrini-Antinori at Rome, in the public gallery at Vienna (dated 1510), and in the Corsini gallery at Florence (dated 1511). (f) It is said that the convent of St. Mark furnished the materials for these joint-stock productions, and that the profits were divided equally between Fra Bartolommeo, i.e. the convent, and Albertinelli. A picture similar to this one in the Borghese


ALBEKTINELLL 128

gallery was formerly in the Sciarra-Colonna collection (now closed to the public), where, as might be expected, Fra Bartolommeo was made responsible for it. (f) Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle would attribute all works signed in this manner to Fra Paolino of Pistoia (hi. 478 and 482). Again I find it impossible to share their views.

In his fresco of 1516 in S. Spirito at Siena 7 — the Crucifixion, with Saints on either side — Fra Paolino proves himself an extremely feeble and unskilful artist, 8 and even in his large painting of 1519 in the Florence Academy, the figures are awkward and ungainly. It is only in his later works of 1528 in S. Domenico and in S. Paolo at Pistoia, that he imitates Fra Bartolommeo with more success. Fra Paolino was, as Vasari states, the son of Bernardo del Signoraccio, an inferior scholar of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and in all probability he served his apprenticeship with his father before becoming connected with Fra Bartolommeo. The "Madonnas" of the years 1510, 1511, and 1512, mentioned above, should be compared with Albertinelli's carefully executed "Annunciation " of the same period in the Florence Academy, and even with the predella of 1503 in the Uffizi (No. 1259) containing a similar type of the Virgin. In all of them the same characteristics are apparent — the same modelling of the eyes with high lights

7 The drawing for this fresco is Fra Paolino's other well-known in the Uffizi, Case 484, No. 1402. works at Pistoia, there is a Madonna

8 The head of St. John and of enthroned, with SS. Jerome, Sebas- the Magdalen in this fresco are tian, and Mary Magdalen, the little heavy and absolutely without grace, St. John and another saint, in the the hands with the short clumsy small church belonging to the hos- thumbs are hard, the folds in the pital. This building also contains a sleeves coarse, and the body of the fine panel by Lorenzo di Credi — a Saviour badly modelled. It is evi- Madonna enthroned with the dent, in short, that in 1516 Fra Child. He is blessing the Magdalen Paolino was only a beginner, while who kneels before Him ; SS. Cathe- Albertinelli's paintings of 1510-12 rine, John the Baptist, and Jerome show a practised hand. Besides stand by.

k 2


124 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

on the edge of the eyelid, the same form of hand, with a short peculiarly shaped thumb and nails of a grey tone, and even the same kind of nimbus — with this difference, however, that the paintings produced in the workshop of the convent were extremely careless in execution, having probably been ordered by persons of limited means. By way of settling the difference between Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle and myself I may here cite the large "An- nunciation " in the Geneva Museum which bears the fol- lowing inscription :

<$

1511. FRIS. BARTHO. OR. P.

ET MARIOTTI FLORENTINOR

OPVS.

Had Dr. Bode been acquainted with it, he would surely have hesitated before again following in their steps (ii. 675). Both Fra Bartolommeo and Albertinelli, his fellow-student and senior by a few months, passed their years of apprenticeship with Cosimo Boselli, whose work- shop was very popular between 1480 and 1490. Towards 1485 Pier di Cosimo may have assisted his master in his bottega, and it is highly probable that the teaching and guidance of the pupils was entrusted to him by Boselli. A comparison between the pen drawings by Fra Bartolommeo and Mariotto in the Uffizi, and the "Adoration of the Infant Saviour" (pen and ink) by Pier di Cosimo in the same col- lection (Case 80, No. 343, Braun 211), clearly proves that in technic the latter must have exercised a strong influence over the two former. Subsequently, however, Albertinelli followed his more able and gifted friend Fra Bartolommeo so successfully, that some of his early works still pass under the name of the latter — for example, the beautiful little Triptych of 1500 in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection at


ALBERTINELLI. 125

Milan, (f) the Madonna in the Seminario Vescovile at Venice, (f) and the two panels with St. Catherine and the Magdalen (Nos. 445 and 451) in the Academy at Siena, (f) 9 On the other hand, the " Noli me tangere " in the Louvre {No. 1115), an early work by Fra Bartolommeo, (f) passes under the name of Albertinelli. 1

In the last years of the fifteenth century Mariotto was working in the convent of S. Maria Nuova at Florence with his friend Bartolommeo della Porta. A considerable im- pression seems to have been produced upon him by Hugo van der Goes' large altar-piece then in the church of that convent, containing portraits of the Portinari family. It is evident from some of his paintings of that date, that he strove to imitate this Flemish master — hardly Memling, as Dr. Bode (ii. 676) seems to think. This tendency is seen not only in the scale of colour and in costume, as in the Triptych of the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum, but also in the careful execution of the landscape backgrounds, as in the "Expulsion from Paradise," formerly in the possession of Signor Basseggio in Borne. 2 In his works of the first years of the sixteenth century — for instance, the splendid " Visitation " of 1503 in the Uffizi, and the two fragments of Saints in the collection of the author 3 (St. John the Evangelist and the Magdalen) — Mariotto nearly approaches

9 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle Grand Duke of Weimar (Braun 25). (iii. 473) ascribe these two panels to - Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle

Fra Paolino. took this little painting, which is

1 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, now in England, for an early work

who regard this picture as the work by Raphael (!). Passavant, whore-

of Albertinelli, place it in the year cognised the hand of Albertinelli

1494 (!). The form of hand here is remarks with reference to it : ' Le

very \ characteristic of Fra Barto- paysage est riche, mais froid de

lommeo, and the landscape recalls ton ' (that is to say Flemish), ii.

the one in the Frate's " Vision of St. 314.

Bernard " in the Florence Academy, 3 Now in the gallery at Ber-

of 1506 (?). The fine chalk draw- gamo. ing for St. Bernard belongs to the


126 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

Fra Bartolommeo ; the figures, however, are less refined and noble than those of the ' Frate,' and the fohage of the trees is executed with miniature-like precision, which is never the case in the landscapes of the latter.

Shortly before the death of Filippino Lippi (1504), and when his friend Bartolommeo had already been many years in retirement in his convent, Mariotto must have entered into more intimate relations with the former painter. Some of his works of that date, for instance, the fine " Tondo " (No. 365) in the Pitti, and the altar-piece in the cathedral of Vol terra, bear witness to the influence of Filippino. On the death of the latter, leaving his large panel, now in the Louvre (No. 1114), in a very unfinished state, it was Albertinelli who was commissioned to complete it ; the figure of St. Jerome was apparently drawn by Filippino him- self. 4 The Florence Academy contains some good works of Albertinelli' s later period.

Fra Bartolommeo's best paintings are probably those at Lucca ; but the greater part of them are entirely defaced by shameful repainting. This great master is only represented in Borne by one picture in the Corsini gallery. In Florence, on the other hand, we find several characteristic specimens of his art in the Uffizi, the Pitti, and the Academy. One of his finest early works — a circular panel representing the Madonna and St. Joseph adoring the Infant Saviour — passed from the collection of the late Count Baldelli of Florence, into that of the well-known statesman, the Mar- chese Visconti-Venosta, at Milan. The cartoon for this picture is in the Florence Academy. 5 The works both of

4 It is not difficult to recognise Uffizi (Case 457, Nos. 1233-39), and Filippino in the type of head and in the British Museum (Braun, Nos. 1, the form of hand and ear. 2, 3, and 4) ; those of his later period,

5 Fra Bartolommeo's early draw- on the other hand, are nearly all ings are usually executed with a fine in charcoal or black chalk. Pen pen ; several examples are in the drawings by his imitator, Andrea del


ANDKEA DEL SARTO. 127

Fra Bartolommeo and Albertinelli are extremely rare out of Italy.

ANDREA D'AGNOLO, called ANDREA DEL SARTO.

From Fra Bartolommeo we are involuntarily led to Andrea del Sarto. Works improperly attributed to him may be seen in the Borghese gallery. One of them, No. 334, representing the Madonna and Child (life size), is provided with the master's genuine monogram — two interlaced A's. Prior to the discovery, by Vasari's Florentine Commenta- tors, that Andrea's real name was not, as stated by Baldi- nucci, Andrea Vannucchi, but Andrea d'Agnolo (it would now be Angeli or de Angelis), it was usual to find on paintings attributed to him an interlaced A and V, which were of course supposed to denote Andrea Vannucchi. Subsequent to the discovery of the painter's true name this monogram was usually corrected by a stroke drawn through the V, which was then transformed into an A. Thus Andrea del Sarto' s genuine monogram (the inter- laced A's) was reproduced. These im- proved monograms, like the one on this picture, look remarkably modern. 6 The composition of this painting is excellent, ANDKEA DEL SAET0 ' S

L J. © > MONOGRAM.

and is certainly to be attributed to Andrea ;

but the execution is far too hard and feeble for him, and

it can only be regarded as one of many copies. What has

Brescianino, are not unfrequently John the Baptist, with the mono- attributed to Fra Bartolommeo him- gram of Andrea del Sarto. This self, as in the Uffizi (Case 458, No. is apparently the work of a Ger- 1244) (f). The former painter not man painter, who copied the only copied his drawings but also Madonna and Child from Andrea del his pictures ; we have an example Sarto, and the St. John, in his fur- of this in the Turin Academy, No. trimmed mantle, in all probability 133 (f). from Durer. The form of hand, and 6 In the Doria gallery there is the head of the St. John, strike me a Madonna and Child and St. as very Dureresqtce. (f)



128 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

been said of this picture applies equally to others here ascribed to Andrea, and I may therefore spare n^self and my readers from wasting more time over them. An exception, however, may be made in favour of a charming picture of the Magdalen 7 (No. 328), which has repeatedly been copied. 8 It is the work of one of Andrea's most industrious imitators, Domenico Puligo, (f) by whom there are several other pictures in this collection, and one in the Colonna gallery (No. 17).

JACOPO CARUCCI DA PONTORMO.

Another Florentine painter much influenced by Andrea del Sarto was Jacopo Pontormo (1494-1556). To him, and not to his pupil, Angelo Bronzino, as the catalogue informs us, should be attributed a good life-sized portrait (No. 74) (-f-) representing an elderly man in a red velvet tunic, holding a book. 9 But instead of lingering over these indifferent specimens of Florentine art, let us turn to a really fine work of this school which merits our un- divided attention. I say Florentine school, although the catalogue ascribes this portrait of a Cardinal (No. 408) to no less a master than Raphael himself — and under his name it naturally receives more admiration and attention than it might otherwise obtain. 1 The Cardinal, a man of middle age, is seated ; his attitude is stately but perfectly uncon- strained, and he looks at the spectator with an air of

' Belonging to the same period that the head and the hands (!) bore

of Puligo's career as a female por- the stamp of Raphael, and that the

trait in the possession of the Mar- remainder was by a pupil, and drew

chese Covoni in Florence. especial attention to the covering of

s An old copy is in the Turin the table, as revealing the same

Academy. hand as the Turkey carpet in the

' The present director has ac- portrait of Cardinal Inghirami in

cepted my attribution of this portrait the Pitti. Other critics, however,

to Pontormo. regard this latter so-called Raphael

1 Passavant (ii. 358) considered as a Flemish copy.


PONTORMO.


129


€alm decision. The table by his side is covered with a Turkey carpet; on it is a richly chased hand-bell re- sembling the one introduced by Eaphael in his classic portrait of Leo X. in the Pitti. The harmonious colouring is neither that of Eaphael' s Umbrian nor Eoman period, but is entirely Florentine. The more closely we examine this picture the more we perceive in it the genius of Pontormo — for that something of the artist's own personality is contained in every genuine work of art, is a fact that no one will deny. 2 The modelling of the eyes, deeply sunk in their sockets, is altogether his ; so too the drawing of the hands and the defective modelling in the



HANDS IN PONTORMO'S PORTRAIT OF COSIMO DE' MEDICI.

first phalanx of the fore-finger — a peculiarity of this master 3 — the ' spongy ' flesh-tint, and the Florentine back- ground recalling Andrea del Sarto, all these characteristics


2 I can offer no information as to the identity of the person repre- sented. Passavant (ii. 358) thought it might be Cardinal Borgia.

3 This defective drawing Pon- tormo seems to have derived from his prototype, Andrea del Sarto ; but like all imitators he exaggerated the faults of his master. Jacopo may very likely, as Vasari relates, have visited the workshops of Leonardo, Albertinelli, and Pier di Cosimo, in


his boyhood, and may perhaps have served there as a fattorino ; his real master, however, being Andrea del Sarto. His fresco in the outer Court of the SS. Annunziata at Florence points to this, as do also many por- traits of his early period — for in- stance, the portrait of a man in the Pitti (No. 249), and that of a young artist in the Morelli collection (now at Bergamo).


130 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

convince me that the ' Eaphael ' of this first-rate portrait is no other than Pontormo. (f) If further proof be needed, this painting may be compared with the portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio de' Medici, in the Uffizi (No. 1267), an undisputed work of Pontormo, and also with two other portraits by him in the same gallery (Nos. 1270 and 1220). Another picture by Pontormo in Kome — this time under the name of Peruzzi — is the " Pygmalion " in the Barberini gallery (Eoom II. No. 89). (f) His best works are in Florence — in the Pitti and the Uffizi, in the palace of the Marchese Farinola, in the churches of S. Michelino and S. Felicita, and in the villa of Poggio a Caiano. Good drawings by him are in the Uffizi (Case 224, Nos. 671 and 672 ; Case 226, No. 675). The pen drawing of " Noah receiving the command to build the Ark " (Case 147, No. 526) is probably a copy by Pontormo of an original drawing by Kaphael. There are twenty-seven drawings by Pontormo in the Corsini Library in Kome, among them some excel- lent specimens (especially Nos. 124173, 124182, 124183, 124187, 1241228, 1241254), and two at Chatsworth, under the name of Michael Angelo — a Madonna and Child (black chalk ; Braun 47) and a figure from the ceiling of the Sistine chapel (red chalk ; Braun 25). (-f*)

Near this celebrated painting of the Cardinal hangs an inferior female portrait (No. 79) — a very doubtful work by Pontormo's eminent scholar, Angelo Bronzino, who prior to his relations with his master received his first instruction in art, as Vasari relates, from Baffaellino del Garbo. Bronzino (1502-1572), who, from the elegance of his style, might be called the Florentine Parmeggianino, had a great number of pupils and imitators in his native city. It too often happens that he is held responsible for works, espe- cially portraits, by them, though in point of fact he is far superior to them all, both in his spirited and elegant draw-


BRONZINO. 131

ing, and in the excellence of his execution. Such being the case, it may be advisable to name a few of his imitators — Cristofano dell' Altissimo, Lorenzo dello Sciorina, Stefano Pieri, and Alessandro Allori, Bronzino's nephew.

Bronzino himself is represented in the Borghese gallery by a fine "Lucrezia" (No. 75) and by a still finer " Cleopatra " (No. 337), both of which I ascribe to his first period. These early works are all very careful in drawing but black in the shadows. Among his best portraits I would include the following : Giannettino Doria in the Doria-Pamfili gallery ; the Sculptor (No. 1266), and Bartolommeo Panciatichi and his Wife (Nos. 159 and 154), both in the Uffizi; and, pre-eminently, the portrait in the Salon Carre of the Louvre.

POKTEAIT OF CESAEE BORGIA. 4

To whom should be ascribed the stately, elegant, but somewhat stiff portrait (*) hanging near, called Cesare Borgia ? Many of my readers may think such a query too bold and even impertinent, for this much-vaunted portrait, which has repeatedly been reproduced by engraving and photography, is universally held to represent the Duca di Valentino and to be the work of Raphael. 5 Several modern critics, indeed, have ridiculed such an attribution, and the most discerning among them, the late Mr. Miindler, 6 unhesi- tatingly ascribed the portrait to Parmeggianino. Burck- hardt, 7 another gifted writer, considers it to be a first-rate German work, perhaps by George Pencz. To differ from such eminent connoisseurs seems the height of presump- tion, yet if there be truth in the Italian proverb ' fra due

4 This portrait has recently been Eaphael.

sold to Baron A. de Rothschild as a 6 Beitrage, &c. p. 30.

Raphael. — (Trans.) * See The Cicerone, first edition,

5 Herr Carl von Ruland only p. 910. places it in the school of


132 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

liticanti il terzo gode,' I too may obtain a chance of being heard where the learned disagree ; and if I also err, at all events I shall be in good company.

Let us examine this portrait more closely. 8 The most superficial observer may satisfy himself that it cannot be the work of Eaphael, by merely comparing it with the " Entombment " by that painter hanging near. The next point to decide is, whether the portrait can by any possi- bility represent Cesare Borgia. The arrogant mien, the expression, which is empty and unrefined, nay, even coarsely sensual, render this portrait repulsive to me rather than attractive. Yet the regular features are undeniably handsome, and as the notorious Duke of Valentinois was traditionally the handsomest man of his day, we may assume this to have been one reason for the directors of the Gallery having recognised in it the likeness of Cesare Borgia. It is unfortunate, however, that they should not have taken into consideration the fact that the political career of that heroin Italy had already terminated in 1503. It is well known that he fell before the town of Viana in Navarre four years later. Had these features been, indeed, portrayed by the hand of Baphael, both drawing and paint- ing, leaving the conception altogether out of the question, should reveal the Peruginesque manner of the master. Yet of this there is absolutely no trace. It may be urged that Raphael need not have painted it from life, but might have executed it later from some drawing or earlier portrait. This theory might be tenable if supported by any historical probability, and if — which after all is the gist of the whole matter — the painting itself showed the hand of Raphael.

The Duke, if he ever sat for his portrait at all, would

R Cesare Borgia was created Charlotte d'Albret, sister of Jean Duke of Valentinois by Louis XII. d'Albret, King of Navarre, in 1499, and married in that year


BRONZINO. 133

have been most likely to confer this honour on Pintoricchio, his father's court painter, who, after working in Eome in the service of Pope Alexander VI. from 1492-97, entered that of the Duke himself in 1501. 9 In that year and in 1502, Leonardo da Vinci is known to have filled the post of first military engineer to Borgia. It would, therefore, be only natural to suppose that he, in preference to any other painter, would have been commissioned to immortalise the features of his master and patron, though it is unlikely he ever executed such a work.

This personage, as we see on closer inspection, wears a cap with black feathers, and a black doublet with slashed sleeves. His right hand rests upon the hilt of his sword r his left upon his hip. The costume of this supposed Cesare Borgia shows him to be a Florentine noble of the fourth decade of the sixteenth century. Were the thick coat of yellow varnish removed from the surface, my supposition, that the portrait nearly approaches Bronzino, would I believe prove to be correct. We find in it the smalto peculiar to his paintings, the cold flesh-tints and the some- what hard lines of the eyes, which are deeply sunk in their sockets after the manner of Pontormo. 1 (f) The studied

9 Vasari, in his Life of Pin- Giovanni.' What may have become

toricehio, enumerates several por- of the cartoon here mentioned ? Dr.

traits by this master in the Castle Gustavo Frizzoni, the well-known

of S. Angelo — for instance, Isabella Italian critic, claims to have dis-

the Catholic, Niccold Orsini, Gian covered four portraits by Pier di

Giacomo Trivulzio, and Cesare and Cosimo, two at the Hague (Braun

Lucrezia Borgia, all in fresco. The 316 s , 316 4 ), one in the National

same writer also tells us (vii. 113) Gallery, and, finally, the portrait of

that Pier di Cosimo painted the por- the " Bella Simonetta " in the guise

trait of the Duke of Valentinois : of a Cleopatra, described by Vasari — ■

' Bitrasse ancora poi il duca Valen- now in the collection of the Due

tino, figliuolo di papa Alessandro VI. d'Aumale.

la qual pittura oggi ch' io sappia non x It is sometimes extremely

si trova, ma bene il cartone di sua difficult to distinguish portraits by

mano, ed e appresso il reverendo M. Angelo Bronzino from those by

Cosimo Bartoli, proposto di San Francesco Salviati.


134 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

elegance of the pose points more to Bronzino than to any- other contemporary Florentine, and recalls his portraits of the Panciatichi in the Uffizi. The modelling and position of the hand are almost identical with the right hand in the pretty little portrait of a boy (No. 649) in the English National Gallery, which, though there attributed to Pon- tormo, appears to me to be an excellent specimen of Angelo Bronzino. (f) So-called portraits of Cesare Borgia may be met with in various other Italian galleries. At Forli we find one (No. 151) attributed to Giorgione, which has no sort of connection either with that painter or with Borgia, but is probably some likeness by Palmezzano da Forli (f) ; the " Cesare Borgia " by Leonardo da Vinci, presented to the city of Venice in 1849 by the late General Pepe, and now in the Museo Civico (Correr collection), more probably represents Don Ferdinando Avalos of Aquino. This feeble profile is, moreover, so entirely repainted that it is un- worthy of attention. A third " Cesare Borgia " in the gallery at Bergamo (Lochis collection) passes there for a Giorgione. It is an extremely spirited portrait, certainly neither by Calisto da Lodi, nor by Bomanmo, as Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle conjecture (vol. ii. 163), but by a painter of the school of Ferrara-Bologna, probably Giacomo Francia. 2 (-f-) But in portraits painted from life it is, I may add, an extremely hazardous and difficult matter, in this declining period of Italian art, to attempt to identify the master in every case. A fourth so- called " Cesare Borgia " was formerly in the collection of Count Castelbarco at Milan. It was attributed to Raphael, but I considered it to be by Andrea Solario.

2 This portrait should be com- in Giacomo Francia's large painting pared with the two saints in armour in the Brera (No. 175).


PEEUZZI. 135


BALDASSAEB PEEUZZI.


Not far from this Florentine portrait, our eye, in search of better things, is riveted by the nude figure of a youthful woman (No. 92), whose pose and expression are animated by the truest artistic feeling. The catalogue calls it " Venus emerging from the Bath," and names Giulio Eomano as the painter. Dr. G. Frizzoni, however, in an article on Baldassare Peruzzi, claims it for that master and, as it appears to me, with justice. This refined Sienese artist, the friend of Agostino Chigi, distinguished himself more in architecture than in painting. In this latter art he should be classed among those brilliant decorative painters, at whose head stand Bramante and Melozzo da Forli.

Three artists appear to me to have distinctly influenced Peruzzi as a painter : first Pintoricchio, then more especi- ally Sodoma, and lastly Eaphael. Numerous specimens of his decorative art more or less well-preserved may still be seen in Eome, where the greater part of his artistic career was spent ; for instance, frescoes in the choir of the convent church of S. Onofrio quite in the style of Pinto- ricchio, possibly even executed from that master's sketches ; the three Graces in the Chigi Palace ; several episodes from Eoman history in the Palazzo de' Conservatori on the Capitol, showing Socloma's influence (Eoman ignorance in matters of art has here immortalised itself in attributing these works to Bonfigli of Perugia) ; and the frescoes in the first chapel on the left in S. Maria della Pace, in which the influence of Sodoma is most distinctly apparent, both in the harmony of the colours, the types of the heads, and even in the serpentine folds of the drapery, so characteristic of that master.


13G THE BORGHESE GALLEEY.

Among his easel paintings, when under the influence of Pintoricchio, may be mentioned the two in the Madrid Museum (Nos. 573, 574)— the " Eape of the Sabines," 3 and the " Continence of Scipio." (-f-)

As works of his second period, when influenced by Sodoma, I should name, in addition to his fresco already mentioned in S. Maria della Pace, the two splendid pen drawings in the Louvre — the " Triumph of Vespasian " (No. 437, Pieiset Catalogue; Braun, No. 363) , 4 and another episode from Roman history exhibited on the screen in Eoom X. under the name of Sodoma (Tauzia Catalogue, No. 1967). (-f-) In the frescoes on the ceiling of the Far- nesina, completed in 1511, Peruzzi's study of the antique is very striking. The female figures involuntarily recall Greek or Pioman gems ; but it is the influence of Raphael's genius which we perceive in the " Venus " of the Borghese gallery — a graceful undraped figure, probably studied from nature, seated on a stone, a pale silvery blue drapery falling from her right arm. This composition, conceived entirely in the classic spirit of the Roman Court at the time of Leo X., oifended the sense of modesty of one of its later possessors ; a ready restorer, however, was easily found to lengthen the drapery, which originally reached

3 Dr. W. Bode (ii. 733, 1884) Danielc. Passavant, with more in- wrongly attributes the " Bape of the sight, ascribed it to Sodoma. The Sabines " in the Chigi Palace to latter painter, again, is confounded Peruzzi; it is by Sodoma. But, as with Peruzzi in "The Fall of Phae- I have already stated, this palace thon" intheUffizi(No.l644)— acom- does contain a fresco by Peruzzi. position in indian ink for the decora- Sir J. C. Bobinson, in his catalogue tion of a ceiling. Dr. Frizzoni first of the Malcolm collection in London, directed my attention to this fine confounds Peruzzi with Sodoma drawing by Sodoma. Peruzzi is easily in a drawing of Sibyls, No. 31G (f) recognised by the defect, inherited (see Descriptive Catalogue of Draw- from his first master Pintoricchio, ings, &c. by J. C. Bobinson, p. 113). who in his turn derived it from Fio-

  • M. Eeiset is in doubt whether to renzo di Lorenzo, of making the legs

attribute this drawing to Francia, of his figures of disproportionate

to Costa, or to Pellegrino da S. length.


w.





  • - % m




KAPHAEL. 137

only to the right hip, and in the interest of morality the left hip was also covered. 5

EAPHAEL SANZIO.

This notice of Baldassare Peruzzi leads us to Eaphael, whose world-renowned "Entombment," the most celebrated work of his Florentine period, hangs in this gallery. The cartoon for this, his first, dramatic painting — the result of laborious and conscientious study — was probably executed in Florence. The picture itself, which was ordered by Atalanta Baglioni of Perugia, most likely as early as 1503, must have been completed in the summer of 1507 at Perugia, with the help of several assistants ; for we may infer that Eaphael had assistants already at that date, not only from the picture itself, but from several of the sketches for it, which he himself made in silver point, but which his pupils, for their better preservation, went over with the pen. This is plainly visible in the large " Entombment,' or " Lamentation over the Body of Christ," in the " Salle aux boites" of the Louvre; in the drawing in the Uffizi (squared over for enlargement), and in several other pen drawings for the same subject ; as in those at Oxford, in the British Museum, in Mr. Malcolm's collection, 6 in that of the Due d'Aumale, in the Albertina at Vienna, and elsewhere. 7 It appears to me that the touch of

5 In the Seminario Vescovile at tion) is probably only a copy. All the Venice, a picture by Beccafumi of drawings and sketches above men- Siena, representing " Penelope," is tioned for this painting should be attributed to Peruzzi. (t) compared with the magnificent pen

6 The drawing of a skeleton, drawing belonging to the well-known which from the Antaldi collection collector, Herr Edward Habich of passed into that of Mr. John Cassel, who had the good fortune to Malcolm (Eobinson's Catalogue, No. obtain it from the Klinkosch collec- 179), is merely one of the many tion at Vienna.

forgeries with which the former col- 7 See on this subject Dr. W.

lection was so richly supplied (t) ; Koopmann's well-written article in

the other so-called Eaphael drawing vonLiitzow's Zeitsclwiftfiirbildende

for this picture (in the same collec- Eunst.


138 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Eaphael, and his refined feeling for line, are absent in many parts of this academic work, and I cannot but endorse the opinion of Buinohr, who saw in this labo- riously composed picture evident traces of an alien hand.

Be this as it may, the " Entombment " certainly touches me less than any works by Eaphael of this period, and other critics have experienced the same feeling. It is among the earliest acquisitions of this collection, having been bought by Pope Paul V. (Borghese), in 1607, from the Franciscans at Perugia. Winckelmann regarded it as one of the most perfect works of the master, and particularly notes the energy of movement, the truth of expression, and the dramatic power of the whole composition. The little effect produced upon me and others, by this so-called classic- work, is possibly due to the elaborate preliminary study bestowed upon its composition by the young artist. In other works of this period — for instance, in the so-called " Madonna di Casa Colonna " in the Berlin Museum, and in the " Madonna di Casa Niccolini " in Lord Cowper's col- lection at Panshanger — discerning critics believe they can also detect the help of pupils, and I think they are right.

If I am not very much mistaken, there is another work by Eaphael in this gallery ; it is numbered 397, and was formerly assigned to Holbein. The present director has, however, adopted my view, and attributes it, though only doubtfully, to Eaphael. It represents a man of about fifty, with long dark-brown hair, wearing a black tunic trimmed with fur, and a black cap. His features recall those of Pintoricchio, in his fresco in the library of the cathedral at Siena. It certainly requires some courage — perhaps people would say an uncommon amount of assurance — to lay claim to the discovery of a hitherto unknown Eaphael in one of the most frequented picture galleries in the world. Yet I have no hesitation in


PERINO DEL VAGA. 139

affirming that this portrait struck me at once as a work of the master's early period, of about 1502, and I cannot share the opinion of the late Mr. Miindler, that it is the portrait of Perugino by himself. The hair is treated with true Eaphaelesque feeling and grace ; the eyes have a vivacity and lustre which are generally absent in the heads of Perugino, and the nose and mouth are more sharply modelled than is usual with him. Moreover, the luminous flesh tones are distinctive of Eaphael. The portrait should be compared with several heads of the Apostles in this master's " Coronation of the Virgin," in the Vatican, (-f-) It has suffered considerably, and has been deprived of its original surface. The position of the cap was evidently altered by the master himself, and altogether the portrait appears unfinished 8 — the tunic being only laid in. There is not much to be said about the little portrait of a boy (No. 399), which is described as the por- trait of Eaphael by himself, it being entirely repainted. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle think it may be by Eidolfo del Ghirlandaio. If I were to propose a name for this inferior production it would be that of Domenico Alfani. (f) It should be compared with " The Nativity " by Domenico in the gallery at Perugia (No. 24).

PEEINO DEL VAGA.

From Eaphael we pass to another of his contemporaries and imitators, Perino del Vaga, who occupies a very dif- ferent position from that of Domenico Alfani in the history of art. After the death of Eaphael, Perino, like Giulio

8 Among recent writers on connoisseurs, to my regret, continue

Eaphael, only the late Signor Marco to protest against my views, and

Minghetti and Professor Karl von with them Professor Miintz also lifts

Liitzow have, as far as I know, up his voice, accepted my opinion. The Berlin

l 2


140 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Romano, degenerated rapidly, owing to the influence of Michael Angelo. 9 In order to become better acquainted with this very able and thoroughly Florentine painter, we must seek his early works, especially those executed under the direct influence of his master and friend Raphael. They consist entirely of drawings, and of frescoes in the Vatican, and nearly all pass, as I shall endeavour to show, under the name of Raphael. As the biographers of the latter are wont to base their opinion of Perino solely upon the works of his second Roman period, I shall take the opportunity of following the career of this interesting artist, whose genius ripened early, and of drawing attention to the works of his first Roman period, from about 1513-1527, one of which is, I think, in the Borghese gallery. (+) It is rightly catalogued ' School of Raphael,' is numbered 464, and represents " The Nativity " : St. Joseph supports the Infant Saviour, who lies on the ground whilst the Madonna presents the little St. John to Him. A good sketch washed with sepia for this picture is in the Albertina at Vienna, and was photographed by Braun (No. 53) as a Luca Penni. (f )

Perino del Vaga was born about 1500 in Florence, and died in Rome in 1547. Works of his first Roman period, from about 1513-1527, are scarcely known, as his bio- graphers are wont only to refer to those at Genoa, and to those of his second Roman period (1535-1547), and upon them to base their opinion of the artist. The Dutch painter Franz Hals has been similarly treated ; his early works, up to about 1616, are still unknown, and in all probability pass under other names. Vasari, who knew Perino personally, and valued his powers as an artist, says

9 His frescoes in the Palazzo is perceptible in Perino's " Adoration

Doria at Genoa afford a proof of of the Shepherds" belonging to

this. On the other hand, a certain Lord Dudley. The picture is signed

influence of the Venetian Pordenone and dated 1534.


PEEINO DEL VAGA. 141

that he entered the workshop of Eidolfo del Ghirlandaio when he was about eleven, and there devoted himself chiefly to drawing, in which he far surpassed all his fellow-stu- dents. 1 The result of this proficiency was, that the Floren- tine painter Vaga, who then required a skilful draughtsman to aid him in his frescoes at Toscanella, took Perino thither as his assistant, and when this work was completed the youth, who ardently desired to learn and to improve himself, accompanied Vaga to Eome. There, according to Vasari, he applied himself, under the greatest privations, to the study of art, working night and day with indomitable industry. The biographer goes on to say, that though Perino copied Michael Angelo's frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel, his work showed more of the manner of Baphael than of Buonarotti ( ' seguitava piu gli andari e la maniera di Baffaello che non quella del Buonarotti '). And so it came to pass, he adds, that Perino was regarded as the finest and best draughtsman in Borne (' il piu bello e miglior disegnatore che ci fosse ') .

He appears soon to have become intimate with Giulio Komano, and especially with his fellow-countryman Francesco Penni, called il Fattore, and one or other of them may have procured some sketches and drawings by their own master and prototype Baphael for him to copy. 2

1 ' E f u fra tutti i giovani suoi them, and to train his hand by pari ritenuto il miglior disegnatore copying them at night ( Vasari, xi. di quanti studiassero con lui nella 223). Again, in his Life of Cristo- bottega di Eidolfo.' fano Gherardi (xi. 2), he says, ' Capito

2 Vasari relates that Garofalo, al Borgo il Eosso, col quale avendo with whom he was personally ac- il Gherardi fatto amicizia, ed avuto quainted, having come to Eome de' suoi disegni, studio sopra quelli, in his nineteenth year (1499), con molta diligenza,' &c. See too entered into relations there with the the Life of Michael Angelo, xii. 159 : Florentine painter Giovanni Baldini, ' Amando il Granacei Michelangelo who possessed some fine drawings by e vedutolo molto atto al disegno, lo various first-rate artists ; many of serviva giornalmente de' disegni del these he lent to Garofalo, who sought Grillandaio,' &c.

to cultivate his eye by studying


142 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Several such copies by Perino are still, I believe, in existence, and we shall consider them presently. Like nearly all his drawings, they are washed with water-colour, and recall the technic of Eosso Fiorentino. In company with the latter, and with many other Florentine artists, Pernio studied and copied the nude figures in Michael Angelo's celebrated cartoon (for the so-called " Battle of Pisa ") — dis- tinguishing himself above all his fellows, as his biographer records. Before long the young Florentine acquired so great a reputation among Koman artists for his admirable drawings, that Ptaphael expressed a desire to know this youthful prodigy. Having seen the boy's work, he com- mended him to Giovanni da Udine, then superintending the painting and decoration of the Loggie in the Vatican, and commissioned him to give employment to this young and promising painter. The following frescoes in the Loggie are named by Vasari (x. 88) as having been exe- cuted by Perino from Baphael's sketches : 3 " The Israelites bearing the Ark across the Jordan ; " " The Fall of Jericho ; " "The Battle of Joshua; " "Joshua commanding the Sun to stand still; " the "Birth," and the "Baptism" of Christ; the "Last Supper," and many more. All these, more especially the "Last Supper," are so repainted that it is only as com- positions that they can still afford us any pleasure. Ac- cording to Vasari, the allegorical paintings below the frescoes in the Stanza d' Eliodoro were also by Perino. 1 When Pope Paul III., at a later period, caused the fire-

s The following painters, who Taja, in 1754, tried to show that

worked in the Loggie from Raphael's Raffaele del Colle had also been

sketches, are enumerated by Vasari : employed.

Giulio Romano, Penni, Pellegrino da 4 See the sketch for one of these

Modena (?), Bagnacavallo (?), Vin- paintings, " The Expedition of the

cenzo da S. Gemignano, Polidoro da Argonauts," reproduced in Dr. G.

Caravaggio (?), and Perino del Vaga. Frizzoni's book, entitled Quaranta

In 1674 Titti added the name of disegni scclti dalla Raccolta del

Gaudenzio Ferrari to them, and Senatore G. Morelli (Milano, 1886).


/■




^


r S




c




r~^\


~rs*-








^


Sketch by Raphael for a Fresco in im Farnesina. To fact /• M3>


PERINO DEL VAGA. 143

place to be moved from the ' Camera del fuoco ' 5 to the ' Camera della Segnatura,' it was Perino who was commis- sioned to execute, in chiaroscuro, allegorical subjects, like those in the Stanza d' Eliodoro, beneath Kaphael's frescoes, and in place of Fra Giovanni da Verona's intarsias which had been removed. If we compare these later works by Perino, executed during his second stay in Eome, with those in the neighbouring room which were completed under the direct influence of Eaphael, we shall see, I think, how rapidly the school declined only a few years after the master's death. Vasari was perfectly correct in his asser- tion that, though Giulio Eomano and Francesco Penni were called scholars of Eaphael, and inherited his sketches and drawings, they neither of them inherited the feeling and grace (V arte et la grazia) which Perino was able to give to his figures. In technical execution both undoubtedly approached their master closely both in drawing and in painting — so closely indeed, that many paintings by Giulio, and many drawings which both Giulio and Penni had exe- cuted from sketches by Eaphael, are still attributed to the latter. 6 But neither Giulio Eomano, Francesco Penni, nor

5 Namely, the ' Stanza d' Elio- (8) the large " St. Michael," in the doro, ; not to be confounded with the Louvre. In the collection at Cologne ' Camera dell' Incendio di Borgo,' there is an extremely interesting pen called also ' Torre Borgia.' and ink sketch by Eaphael (see illus-

6 I shall here enumerate a few tration) for a lunette in the first of these paintings and drawings by room of the Farnesina. This sketch Giulio Romano. Paintings : (1) may serve to throw some light upon "The Vision of Ezekiel," in the the part taken by Raphael in these Pitti at Florence ; (2) " The Forna- frescoes, in those in the ' Stanza rina," in the Barberini gallery at dell' Incendio di Borgo,' in the Home; (3) the " Madonna del divino ' Chiesa della Pace,' and elsewhere. Amore," in the Naples museum ; (4) I believe that the first slight sketches the "Madonna della Perla," at for these paintings were made by Madrid ; (5) the painting called " Lo Raphael ; from them his pupils and Spasimo di Sicilia," at Madrid ; (6) assistants probably made drawings the " Madonna della Rosa," at which were afterwards enlarged Madrid ; (7) the " Madonna di upon the cartoons prepared for Francesco I.," in the Louvre ; and transferring them to the wall ; the


144


THE BORGHESE GALLERY.


any other of his many scholars and imitators, knew how to reflect the spirit and the charm of Eaphael with such purity and freshness as Pernio del Vaga in his first Eoman


cartoons were then subjected to the master's approval and were cor- rected by him, after which the assis- tant immediately set to work. In this way it is easier to understand how Raphael, who was so much in request both as the architect of St. Peter's, and as an archreologist, was able to execute such an immense number of paintings and drawings in the space of six years. Vasari viii. 38) observes, with reference to the frescoes in the ' Stanza dell' Incendio di Borgo ' : ' Nelle quali sale del continuo teneva [Raphael] delle genti [i.e. assistants] che con i disegni suoi medesimi gli tiravano innanzi 1' opera [that is, they executed the painting], ed egli continuamente rivedendo ogni cosa suppliva con tutti quegli aiuti migliori, che egli piu poteva, ad un peso cosi fatto.' And again, speaking of the frescoes in the Farnesina (viii. 54), he says : ' Parimente non soddisfeciono affatto gli ignudi [namely, the nude figures] che furono similmente [that is, with the help of his scholars] fatti da lui [Raphael] nella volta del palazzo <1" A^ostino Chigi in Trastevere [Farnesina], perch e mancano di quella grazia e dolcezza che fu pro- pria di Raffaello, del che fu in gran parte cagione 1' avergli fatti colorire ad altri col suo disegno.' Most of these drawings, executed from Raphael's sketches, I believe to be by Giulio Romano ; for instance, for the Farnesina— " Venus and Psyche," red chalk, in the Louvre (Braun 257) ; the " Three Graces," red chalk Windsor (Grosvenor Gallery Publi- cation) ; the nude figure of a youth


holding a vase, Ambrosiana (Braun 129) ; for the frescoes in the ' Stanza dell' Incendio di Borgo,' in the Vatican — the " Water-carrier " —red chalk, Uffizi (Braun 493— Professor A. Springer first questioned the genuineness of this so-called Raphael ; the original, lightly sketched with black chalk on blue paper, is in the Morelli collection) ; and two standing nude male figures, red chalk, Albertina (Braun 176). The inscription on this latter draw- ing is a forgery. The writing, in the first place, is not that of Diirer ; and, secondly, the cultivated painter of Nuremberg would scarcely have written, ' Raffahel.' He must also have been aware that Leo X. es- teemed Raphael no less highly than his predecessor Julius II. had clone ; but the chief point is, that the draw- ing itself reveals the hand of Giulio Romano, and not that of Raphael. Add to these a red chalk drawing in the Uffizi (Braun 491), for the pic- ture at Madrid called " Lo Spasimo di Sicilia " ; the red chalk drawing for the so-called " Madonna di Fran- cesco I." in the Louvre (Uffizi, Braun 486) ; and the drawing for the child in the preceding picture, red chalk, Uffizi (Braun 487).

Three red chalk drawings for the " Transfiguration," in the Louvre, (Braun 254), the Albertina (Braun 139), and the Ambrosiana (Braun 128) might be by Francesco Penni (?) called il Fattore. The forms in them are not those of Giulio Romano, and still less of Raphael to whom they are attributed. And what, it may be asked, are the cha-



Triumph of Silenus. By Perino del Vaga.

(In the Albertina, Vienna.)


To /ace p. 145.



Studv by Perino del Vaga from designs by Raphael

FOR THE ' DlSPUTA.'


To face />. 145.


(At Windsor.)


PERINO DEL VAGA. 145

period. It is not surprising, therefore, that his drawings, though so different from those of Eaphael, both in the forms and the technic, have yet, down to the present day, been almost without exception ascribed to that master — a further proof of the superficial manner in which the works of the Italian painters have hitherto been studied.

But to return to our theme ; let us first examine some of those drawings of Perino's middle period, which are re- cognised as such in public collections, and endeavour to determine their characteristics. In the Albertina we find the " Triumph of Silenus " (Braun 25) ; in the Louvre (Salle aux boites), the " Triumph of Bacchus " (Braun 70). Both these excellent drawings belong to the same period, and are, as M. Eeiset states in his catalogue, drawn with the pen on greyish paper, shaded with bistre and heightened with white. The cranium is too. strongly developed in proportion to the faces, giving the head a triangular form. Several of the figures in the background are conspicuous by the abnormally long oval of the heads ; the arms are unnaturally long and too fleshy, more especially in the upper part at the shoulder ; the forefinger is often bent like a hook. The shading of the eye-sockets is so dark that the eye itself is scarcely perceptible. All these charac-


racteristics which distinguish the pecially in drawings of his Eoman

drawings of Giulio from those of period. This master should be

Eaphael ? Among the most apparent studied in the following works : his

I may mention the following : a. In painting in the church of S. Maria

Giulio's drawings the ear is never dell' Anima in Rome ; the " Ma-

so round or so fleshy as in Raphael's ; donna della Gatta " in the Naples

b. The upper lip is always thick as museum ; the " Battle of Constan-

if swollen; c. The knee and elbow tine" in the Vatican, and in his

joints are always strongly accen- carefully executed drawing at Chats-

tuated ; d. The form of hand differs worth, there rightly attributed to

from that of Raphael ; e. The edge him (Braun 66)— his sketch for his

of the folds in the drapery is harder " Presentation in the Temple," in

than in Raphael's drawings. We the Louvre (No. 1,438), there given

find these characteristics more es- to Bagnacavallo (f).


146 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

teristics are apparent in another drawing in the Louvre (Braun 275), which both M. Eeiset in his catalogue and Passavant (ii. 180 and 465) attribute to Eaphael, though even Vasari (x. 154) mentions it as Perino's drawing for the painting he executed in 1522, for the church of S. Lorenzo at Florence. It represents " Moses crossing the Eed Sea, and the destruction of Pharaoh and his Host." (f) Those who accept the two first-named drawings will scarcely dispute that the latter is from the same hand.

From these drawings of Perino's middle period, let us go back to the sketches and drawings executed by him in the first years of his sojourn in Eome. As the earliest among them, I would name one at Windsor (in vol. i. of the Eaphael drawings), and one at Oxford (*f-) (University galleries, Eobinson, No. 60). Both are studies and sketches for the " Disputa del Sacramento." I believe them to have been copied by Perino for his own instruction, either from the fresco itself, or from Eaphael' s sketches which may have been lent to him. Even Passavant (ii. 491) is doubtful about the Windsor drawing, whether to give it to Eaphael or not, while both he and other writers regard the one at Oxford as a genuine work of that master. The right hand of the figure on the extreme left in the Windsor drawing should be compared with the left hand of a woman on the extreme right in a drawing in the Albertina at Vienna (Braun 25) ; this alone should prove that the two belong to one master, the same feeling and technic being apparent in both. We find the same in the following drawings ; hence, though attributed to Eaphael, I believe them to be by Perino. They were unquestionably made from Raphael's sketches, but it was perhaps Perino who executed them in fresco in the " Loggie."

In the Albertina there are three : Abraham kneeling before the three Angels, (f) Passavant (ii. 176), follow-


PERINO DEL VAGA. 147

ing tradition, ascribes the fresco to Penni, the drawing to Eaphael (ii. 430) ; Jacob and Eachael. (f ) Passavant (ii. 177) ascribes the fresco to Pellegrino da Modena, the drawing to Eaphael (ii. 430) ; Joseph interpreting his Dream to his Brethren, (-f-) Passavant (ii. 178) cannot decide to whom to attribute the execution of this fresco ; the drawing, however, he gives to Eaphael (ii. 430).

In the Louvre are the four following drawings : The Almighty giving Moses the Tables of the Law (f) (Passa- vant ii. 465 and ii. 180 ; Braun 270) ; SS. Peter and Paul appearing to Attila (f ) (for the ' Stanza d' Eliodoro ' Passavant ii. 470 ; Braun 235 ; — in Venice, as early as 1530, this drawing was regarded as by Eaphael ; the ' Anonimo ' mentions it as such, thus furnishing us ano- ther proof of the worthlessness of tradition) ; the " Calumny of Apelles" (f) (Passavant ii. 469), and the "Battle of Constantine " (Passavant ii. 470 ; Braun 236).

In the Uffizi four drawings by Perino are attributed to Eaphael: the "Worship of the Golden Calf" (Case 138, No. 510; Passavant ii. 180); the so-called "Morbetto" 7 (Case 146, No. 525 ; Braun 484), the composition of which appears to me certainly to belong to Perino. He probably designed it after the death of Eaphael, between 1520-1530 for Marcantonio's engraving, for at that time engravers appear to have shown a special predilection for Perino 's designs. 8 (-f-) Caraglio or Bonasone engraved the " Marriage of Alexander the Great and Eoxana " from a drawing made for the

7 The other two drawings are, conception raises me above such No. 509, Case 138, and No. 536, Case weakness ; one feels that the artist 152. A fifth, No. 533, Case 150, was superior to it all ' (H. Grimm : belongs to his first period, and is Zelin ausgewahlte Essays, p. 101). rightly ascribed to him. Would the drawing have produced

8 A gifted North German writer the same impression on his imagin- Eaphael remarks : ' I never ation had the writer been aware

can look at this drawing without that it was not by Raphael ? a kind of shudder, but the ideal


H8 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

purpose by Perino, and copied by him not from Sodoma's well-known fresco in the Farnesina, but from the red chalk drawing now in the Albertina, which was at that time in Borne, possibly in Perino's own possession. Only two feeble copies of Perino's original drawing for Caraglio's engraving have come down to us ; the best of the two is in the Louvre, the other is at Windsor, (f ) (Braun 144, 277.) At Chatsworth several good and characteristic specimens are rightly attributed to Perino (Braun 12, 17, 21), while the following, which are his also, pass under the name of Baphael : the " Baising of Lazarus," " Constantine address- ing his Soldiers " (for the chamber of Constantine in the Vatican) , and a monarch crowned, seated on a throne, with two kneeling suppliants before him, and five other figures on the left and four on the right, (-f*) In the same collec- tion an interesting early drawing by Giovanni Bellini (four figures of Saints) is given to Perino, while a genuine Holy Family by the latter with SS. Elisabeth and Joachim is even ascribed to Leonardo, (f)

In conclusion, lest I should weary my readers by a list of undue proportions, I will only mention three pen draw- ings by Perino. Two of them bear the name of Baphael : one, the well-known drawing in Dresden, " Neptune and his Train," was, according to Passavant (ii. 450), for a bronze or silver salver, designed by Baphael for Agostino Chigi ; the other, an " Adoration of the Shepherds," is in the collec- tion at Oxford (Bobinson's Catalogue, No. 76, Passavant ii. 512) ; the third, a " Procession of Nymphs and Tritons " (f), is in the Taylor Institution. Neither Sir J. C. Bobinson (Catalogue, No. 83) nor Passavant attributes this drawing to Baphael ; the latter critic thinks (ii. 507) it may have been executed by Francesco Penni.

Aided by these few hints, students will doubtless succeed in identifying Perino's numerous drawings which are


PEEINO DEL VAGA. 149

usually attributed to Eaphael in different European col- lections. Before quitting this attractive Florentine painter, who for natural grace and lightness of touch is worthy to be classed with his older fellow-countrymen, Leonardo, Fra Bartolommeo, and Andrea del Sarto, I should like to men- tion a document which has recently been published by Signor Bertolotti, referring in all probability to Perino del Vaga. It is a letter sent by Pandolfo di Pico della Mirandola, the Duke of Mantua's political envoy in Kome, to his employer, the well-known Isabella Gonzaga. It is dated Borne, January 29, 1520, a few months therefore before the death of Baphael, and runs as follows :

' Illustrissima Madama : In Boma evvi un giovane de 20 anni, fiorentino, quale in arte de pictura, sotto 1' opera de Michelangelo, 9 s'e fatto grande che ognuno che se intende de tal arte se meraviglia che in quella etade sia tanta suffi- cientia, et perche Baphaello cognosce quanto e per reusir, lo tiene basso in modo che, avendo pigliato io sua amicitia, 1' ho persuaso a voler anclar fuor de Boma, per farsi cono- scere ; esso mi ha promesso che, finite alcune cose [che] ha nelle mani, che sara a Kalende de Giugno, che ad ogni modo vole and^ar fori, donde che io ho pensato che [se] V. Exc. volesse far dipingere di posto come meriterebbe quel loco, io lo inviero et sara cosa da pochi giorni et da poche spese, perche se contentera in pocha cosa. La professione del ditto giovane e de dipingere a fresco sopra muro ovvero a tempera, non havendosi usato a colorire a olio.

9 Vasari (x. 139) says : ' E Perino Cappella di papa Giulio [the Sistine

disegnando in compagnia d' altri chapel] dove la volta di Michel-

giovani, e fiorentini e forestieri, al angelo Bonarotti era dipinta da lui

cartone di Michelangelo, vinse e seguitando gli andari e la maniera

tenne il primo grado fra tutti gli di Eaffaello da Urbino,' that is, he

altri; di maniera che si stava in copied and rendered Michael Angelo's

quella aspettazione di lui,' &c. &o. figures in Eaphael's style and

and p. 141 (as already noted) : manner. ' Perino commincio a disegnare nella


150 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Nondimeno tanto e grande el disegno, ma che tutto fara bene pur ch' el se exerciti. Io gli facio fare un quadro coloritoa olio per mandarlo a V. Extia., accio quello indichi 1' arte sua quanto e grande in quella eta di 20 anni.'

The letter might be thus translated :

• Most illustrious lady : There is in Home a young Florentine, 20 years old, who has greatly distinguished himself in painting under the influence of Michael Angelo, so that all who understand art marvel at one so young in years having gained such proficiency, and as Eaphael per- ceives to what excellence this young artist is likely to attain, he gives him only unimportant work. As I am on friendly terms with the youth, I have advised him to try his fortune and to make himself a name elsewhere, and he has promised me that, so soon as he shall have finished the work he has on hand (which will be about June), he will assuredly leave Rome. Wherefore, should your Excellency contem- plate having any paintings executed on the wall, of which the place is certainly worthy, I would send him to you. The matter would not require much time or money, as the young man would be easily satisfied. He is principally a fresco, or tempera, painter, not having as yet accustomed himself to the use of oil ; nevertheless, as drawing is his strong point, he is sure to succeed in everything when he has once had a little practice. He is now at work upon an oil painting which I shall send to your Excellency, as a speci- men of his art and of his capabilities at the age of twenty.' *

The drawings of Francesco Mazzola, called Parmeg- gianino, dating from the second decade of the sixteenth century, prove how strong an influence Perino must have exercised over this kindred spirit— the painter of Parma. 2

1 See Bertolotti, Artisti in rcla- drawings and engravings, mistook a

zione coi Gonzaga, p. 155 (1885). drawing in the Louvre (a copy of an

• Even P. J. Marriette, one of indian ink drawing by Perino) for a

the best French connoisseurs of Parmeggianino (Abeccdario i. 89).


SODOMA. 151

After this long, but I trust not unprofitable, digression about Perino del Vaga, we will turn to


THE LOMBARDS.

GIOVAN ANTONIO BAZZI, called IL SODOMA.

No. 462 in the catalogue is rightly given to its true author, Sodoma ; we will therefore begin with this master, who has scarcely been sufficiently appreciated, and discuss, in then proper order, those Lombard painters represented in the Eoman galleries and in other Italian collections. The picture represents the " Pieta " — the Madonna support- ing the Body of her Divine Son — it has darkened con- siderably, but is nevertheless an important work ; once attributed to the school of Leonardo, it now bears the name of Sodoma, which the new director, adopting a suggestion of mine, has given to it. The forms, the type of head, the fall of the drapery, and more especially the landscape peculiar to Sodoma, conclusively prove him to be the author of this " Pieta." In his early works, from about 1501- 1512, the shadows are light and clear ; for instance, in the fine circular panel of the " Nativity " and the splendid " Descent from the Cross," both in the gallery at Siena (Nos. 85 and 343). We may therefore infer that this " Pieta," by reason of its opposite qualities, is a work of his mature period. I am quite of the opinion of Dr. G. Frizzoni, who first assigned this picture to Sodoma, that the master belongs to the Lombardo-Milanese school, and, moreover, to that branch which was under the immediate influence of Leonardo.

Towards the end of 1507 Sodoma was summoned to Eome, the fame of his works at Siena and Mont' Oliveto (of 1505) having preceded him. He was commissioned to


152 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

decorate with frescoes the ceiling of the ' Camera della Seg- natura,' where Bramantino was then at work. Bartolom- meo Suardi, called Bramantino, who had known Sodoma personally at Milan, may not improbably have been instrumental in procuring this commission for him. Docu- mentary evidence proves that when Raphael came to Borne in the summer of 1508, Sodoma was still working in the Vatican, and the former thought so highly of his frescoes in this chamber that he left them as far as possible undis- turbed. As a further mark of esteem, Raphael introduced Sodoma's portrait, next to his own, in the " School of Athens." 3 In 1513 Sodoma was again in Rome, possibly at the same time as Leonardo, his master and prototype. In all probability he was summoned there by his wealthy patron, Agostino Chigi, of Siena, to decorate a room on the upper floor of his new villa, the ' Farnesina.' I shall re- turn to these frescoes later, but another important work bj^ Sodoma in this gallery must be mentioned (No. 434). Like the preceding, it was formerly only assigned to the ' school ' of Leonardo. 4 It represents Leda with her twin children and the swan. The composition of this fine painting certainly carries out the principles of Leonardo, 5 but is

3 The man in white, with a white time of Vasari have asserted — Giulio

cap, next to Raphael, is certainly Romano, then (1514) barely twenty -

not, as commonly supposed, Pietro two. The head of the first bearer on

Perugino (who fortunately had the left should be compared with the

nothing to do with the frescoes portrait of Peruzzi in his large indian

in this room), but Bazzi, who ink drawing in the Uflizi (No. 438).

decorated the ceiling. I am glad to Much of the decoration in this room

find that Dr. Bode (ii. 707, 1884) is by Peruzzi ; he must, therefore,

appears to agree with me here. In here be regarded as the assistant of

the next room, the so-called ' Camera Raphael.

d' Eliodoro,' Raphael paid the same ' The new director has concurred

graceful compliment to Baldassare in my opinion, and the picture is

Peruzzi, for he, I believe, is repre- now ascribed to Sodoma. sented among the Pope's bearers, s Leonardo in his ' Trattato della

and noi— as art-historians from the Pittura ' (chap, lxiv.) observes : 'Le



To face p. 152.


"Leda." By Sodoma.

(In the Borghese Gallery.)


SODOMA. 153

conceived entirely in the spirit of Sodoma. (-f-) In Lomazzo's "Trattato dellaPittura " the following passage occurs: * Fece [Leonardo] Leda tutta ignuda col cigno in grenibo, che vergo- gnosamente abbassa gli occhi.' Lomazzo may be correct in his statement, though I myself have never come across a drawing by Leonardo which had the slightest reference to this subject ; but, as Baron Eumohr thought he had discovered a " Leda " at Cassel by Leonardo, and a similar picture by him is said to be at Hanover, I have no wish to cast doubts on the possibility of the great Florentine having treated it.

In the foreground of the beautiful example in the Borghese gallery, we find the accessories usually intro- duced by painters of this school : daisies and violets spring- ing up in the grass ; a finch, a dove, and a thrush perching close to the young demigods, Castor and Pollux — an arch and merry little couple, though seemingly but just emerged from their shell. In the centre of the picture stands Leda undraped ; the swan approaches her with ardent devotion ; she droops her eyes with a half-bashful smile. Her beau- tiful, well-proportioned form is animated by a refined sensuousness, and is full of charm, vividly recalling the exquisite figure of Eve in Sodoma's fresco, " The Descent into Hades," in the gallery at Siena (No. 362). The swan could not be more felicitously treated both in its eager impassioned gesture and in the modelling. Compare its conception and treatment with the realistic representa- tions by Hondecoeter, or even with the celebrated allegorical swan by Asselyn at Amsterdam, and the immensity of the gulf separating the great Italian masters from the realistic


donne si devono figurar con atti too, The Literary Works of Leo- vergognosi,legambeinsiemeristrette, nardo da Vinci, by J. P. Bichter, i.


le braccia insieme raccolte, teste 291, No. 583. basse, e piegate in traverso.' See,


M


154 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Dutch painters will be felt at once. The luxuriant land- scape in the background is quite in the spirit of Sodoma, 6 and the children recall both the putti in the Farnesina and those on the ceiling of the ' Camera della Segnatura.' The latter, however, are in a very damaged condition. 7

Thus I thought and wrote on the subject of this " Leda " about fifteen years ago, and when I studied the picture again later I saw no reason for altering my first opinion. As my excuse I must plead that until quite recently it hung some way from the window, and was, therefore, only seen in a half-light. The authorities of the gallery have lately had it moved to a better place ; here Dr. J. P. Eichter saw it, and at once drew my attention to the fact that it was probably nothing but an old, though good, copy of an original by Sodoma. When I again examined the picture, the scales fell from my eyes, and I at once recognised the justice of Dr. Richter's criticism. This may serve as a warning to critics never to pass judgment on any work of art unless they have examined it in a good light.

I am unable to say if the original of this picture is still in existence ; but I can mention several drawings which

6 A comparison between So- (ii. 596, note), because on the blue doma's landscapes and those in sky are introduced the arms of the early works by Cesare da Sesto and ' della Rovere,' to which family Pope Gianpietrino, will reveal at once how Sixtus IV. belonged. But Julius II., closely these three painters were I may observe, also belonged to the connected. According to Vasari house of della Rovere. It seems they all learned this branch of their incredible that anyone should have art from Bernazzano, an excellent been reminded of Melozzo da Forli landscape painter. in these putti. Braun has photo-

7 Some northern critics still per- graphed all Sodoma's frescoes on the sist in saying that, as the drawing ceiling of the ' Camera della Segna- for " Roxana " in the Albertina is by tura ' (Nos. Ill, 112, 113, 114, 115), Raphael, and not, as I have shown, and an examination of these re- by Sodoma, so the putti on the ceil- productions will prove that the ing of the ' Camera della Segnatura' putti, notwithstanding their damaged are not to be attributed to the condition, have the characteristic latter, but to Melozzo da Forli (!) type of all Sodoma's children. See Principally, according to Dr. Bode more especially Nos. 113 and 114.


SODOMA. 155

Sodoma made use of for it. Three are attributed to Leo- nardo, one to Baphael, and a fifth is rightly given to Bazzi. One of the three first-mentioned pen drawings, representing Leda kneeling, her head turned towards the swan on her left (Braun 148), is in the palace at Weimar, attributed to Leonardo, (f) In a second, at Chatsworth, Leda also kneels, with her left arm round the neck of the swan (Braun 51). (f) A third pen drawing for this picture is at Windsor in vol. ii. of the Baphael drawings (Grosvenor Gallery Publica- tion, No. 50). In this remarkable example the pose of Leda is very similar to that in the painting in this gallery. There is certainly something Baphaelesque about the drawing, and it is therefore excusable that amateurs should have re- garded it as the work of the Umbrian master ; but to persons familiar with the spirit and technic of Sodoma this drawing must appear indisputably his. (f) It furnishes us with a further proof that, when engaged upon the " Leda " and the "Marriage of Alexander and Boxana " in Borne, the Lombard painter must have entered into more intimate relations with Baphael. The putto near Leda is extremely Baphaelesque, though it reminds us also of Leonardo. 8 Looking more closely at the drawing, we cannot fail to recognise the spirit and the hand of Sodoma in the form of the feet, the full fleshy knees, the almond-shaped eyes, the arrangement of the hair, which is quite unlike Baphael, and the fine strokes of the pen. 9 The modelling of the

8 Drawings by Sodoma's master, are almost always tapering (dita Leonardo, are even occasionally affusolate) ; (2) the knuckles are often attributed to Baphael — for instance, only indicated by a kind of dimple ; the pen drawing in the His la (3) the eyes are almond-shaped ; (4) Salle collection in the Louvre. the knee is full and fleshy ; (5) the (Both de Tauzia's Catalogue, No. landscape consists mostly of a broad 2283.) well-watered plain, with groups of

9 The following are some of low trees. He often introduces on Sodoma's characteristics apparent one side a hill, with buildings, to every observer : (1) The fingers towers, Boman temples and arches.


156 THE BOItGHESE GALLERY.

figure, which is not altogether faultless, coincides equally with the modelling in the two preceding drawings, and with other pen drawings and sketches which in public col- lections are regarded as undoubted works by Sodoma. The pen drawing in the Esterhazy collection at Buda-Pesth for the standing figure of Roxana, and the drawing for her couch at Oxford (Robinson's Catalogue, 177) probably belong to the same period, 1514. (-f-) A fourth pen drawing for the Leda (Grosvenor Gallery Publication, No. 50) is also at Windsor, this time under the name of Leonardo instead of Raphael. The sheet contains four studies for the head, seen from the front and the back — the elaborate braiding of the hair having received special attention, (f) A fifth remarkably fine drawing, in red chalk, for the head of Leda is in the Museo Civico at Milan ; in treatment it recalls the drawing for Pioxana in the Albertina, and is rightly ascribed to Sodoma. The arrangement of the hair is similar to that in the Windsor drawing.

There is another picture by Sodoma in the Borghese gallery, a " Holy Family," No. 459 ; the execution is good, but the vigour and freshness of his early Lombard days are no- longer apparent. With the exception of his fine frescoes in the Farnesina, the " St. Christopher " in the Palazzo Spada (in a deplorable condition), and " TheEapeof the Sabines " in the Palazzo Chigi, I am not acquainted with any other works by the master in Rome. 1

Sodoma is a most able and gifted painter, worthy at his best to rank with the greatest masters. His finest works


1 In the Barberini gallery there Bolognese school who, in the Doria

is a much repainted Madonna (No. gallery, has received the name of

54), bearing the name of Bazzi, but Lodi (does this mean Calisto da

those who have seen the picture will Lodi ?), and who closely approaches

not require to be told that such an Innocenzo da Imola and Bagna-

attribution is absurd. It is pro- cavallo. bably by the same painter of the



To face />. 156.


Leda and the Swan. Drawing by Sodoma.

(At Weimar.)



To J ace />. 156.


Leda and the Swan. Drawing fy Sodoma.

(AtChatswoith.)



Leda and the Swan.

(Drawing by Sodoma for the Picture in the Borghese Gallery. At Windsor.) To face p. 156.



To face p. 156.


Head of Leda. Drawing by Sodoma.

(At Windsor.)


SODOMA. 157

are at Siena, and there he should be studied in the churches of S. Spirito, S. Domenico, S. Bernardino, in the Academy, and the Palazzo Pubblico, and at Mont' Oliveto near the city. Florence also possesses some good works by him, especially the splendid " St. Sebastian " in the Uffizi, and the fragment of a fresco at Mont' Oliveto, near the city. As a fresco painter, Sodoma when he chose was unrivalled. The only fresco I know by him in north Italy is the so-called " Madon- none," attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, in the Casa Melzi at Vaprio. The late Mr. Miindler always regarded it as the work of that master ('Beitrage,' &c. p. 32), but it appears to me undoubtedly by Sodoma, executed probably between 1518-1521, during his stay in Lombardy. (f) The concep- tion is fine, the execution rather poor.

His panel pictures are more numerous ; three good specimens are in the Turin gallery, several in Milan in the collections of Signor Cereda-Bonomi, Count Borromeo, Signora Ginoulhiac, and Dr. Frizzoni. A male head treated quite in the manner of Franz Hals is in the author's collection, 2 and in the gallery at Bergamo there is a much darkened picture of the Madonna by him (No. 136) attri- buted to Leonardo. In the Venetian territory he is repre- sented only by a damaged " Tondo " in the Scarpa collection at La Motta, representing the Madonna and St. Joseph adoring the Infant Saviour, whilst the little St. John and an angel kneel before Him. It passes for a Cesare da Sesto.

When students examine the great number and variety of works by this many-sided painter, I think they will agree with me that Sodoma, taking him all in all, is the most important and gifted artist of the school of Leonardo — the one who is most easily confounded with the great master himself. Jovial, careless, pleasure-loving, and almost licen-

2 Now in the Public Gallery at Bergamo.


158 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

tious, he had neither ambition nor earnestness of purpose. On the other hand, a true artist, arrogance and self-asser- tion were foreign to his nature, and one who is deficient in these qualities rarely attains to celebrity. In his best moments, when he brought all his powers into play, Sodoma produced works which are worthy to rank with the most perfect examples of Italian art. Michael Angelo's influence, which carried all before it in his day, never diverted Sodoma, who was strictly an ori- ginal painter, from his own independent course. His female heads, as even his adversary Vasari was forced to acknow- ledge, are unsurpassed. From a certain point of view he may be classed, with Lotto and Correggio, with that body of gifted artists who, like Leonardo, mainly strove to depict 'the sweetness of the soul.' In the "Ecstasy of St. Catherine " in the church of S. Domenico at Siena, the hands, more especially the left, are conceived and treated just as Correggio might have treated them ; and the beautiful boy angels over the arch have quite the feeling of Lotto or of Correggio himself.

Giovan Antonio Bazzi, who was so unworthily treated by Vasari, shared the fate of Lotto and Moretto da Brescia — both the most unassuming of artists — of Bonifazio Veronese, and of other excellent masters of the first half of the sixteenth century, whose best works were all attributed to their more renowned contemporaries, and under their names became famous. 3 A few examples may be men-

3 Most of Sodoma's drawings are the author's collection (now in that

in Italy ; the Uffizi alone possesses of Signor Frizzoni). It is scarcely

over a dozen, among them Nos. 421 necessary to observe that the red

( scribed to Leonardo), 563, 565, chalk drawing of a female head

566, 1479, 1506, 1507, 1644 ; and in at Lille, attributed to Sodoma, can

portfolios in the engraving depai't- only be a copy after him (Braun 43).

ment, Nos. 1932, 1935, 1936, 1938, In the Louvre I saw three genuine

1943, 1944, 1945. Two are in the drawings by Bazzi, Nos. 87, 88, and

Royal library at Turin, and two in 94 (Reiset Catalogue) ; Nos. 89, 90,


i :



Sketch by Sodoma for the Marriage of Alexander and Roxana.

(In the Uffizi.) jo Jace p. 158.


GIANPIETKINO. 159

tioned : four drawings for the " Leda," and the large fresco at Vaprio, are, as we have seen, ascribed to Leonardo ; other drawings, again, are given to Eaphael — for instance, all those referring to the " Marriage of Alexander and Eoxana," at Buda-Pesth, in the Albertina and the Uffizi ; a fine head of a man in the British Museum (Braun 94), and another in the Albertina. In the Stadel Institute at Frankfort a beautiful female portrait by Sodoma (-f-) is still persistently given to Sebastian del Piombo. 4 As so many conflicting opinions with regard to Sodoma exist, it is to be hoped that some good connoisseur of the Italian schools will appear as his champion, and will give us a trustworthy account of this great artist.

GIANPIETBINO, or GIANPEDKINO.

Under No. 456 in the Borghese gallery we meet with a picture which, though in bad condition, is still extremely beautiful ; it is catalogued as a production of the school of Leonardo. The sweet smile of the Madonna certainly recalls the female heads of Leonardo and Sodoma, with the latter of whom Gianpietrino, its author, as I consider, is confounded. 5 (*f-) In dealing with the Milanese school of the end of the fifteenth century, and of the first decades of the sixteenth, it is desirable to draw a distinction between Leonardo's own pupils who were directly under Ms guidance, and those painters on whom the great

91, 92, and 93 are most erroneously Ambrosiana (Braun 191).

ascribed to him by M. Eeiset, solely, * Dr. Bode actually attributes it

it appears, because on No. 93 the to Jan Scorel ! (Bepertormm fur

name of Antonius Vercellensis (the Kunstwissenschaft, xii. Heft 1, p.

miniaturist ?) occurs, (f) This is an 72).

example of the grave errors into 5 In 1860 the " Lueretia " of the

which even practised connoisseurs Turin gallery (No. 376) still passed

may fall when relying solely on for a Gianpietrino, till the author

written evidence. A drawing for a restored this fine painting to

Magdalen by Sodoma is in the Sodoma. (f)


160 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Florentine exercised a general influence, though more aesthetic than technical. In the first category should be included the following : Boltraffio, Marco d" Oggionno, Salaino, Giovan Antonio Bazzi, Gianpietrino, Cesare da Sesto, and, perhaps, also Francesco Napoletano ; r ' in the second should be placed, Andrea Solario, Anibrogio de Predis, Bernardino de' Conti, Bernardino Luini, Gaudenzio Ferrari, the miniaturist Antonio da Monza, and others, whose works are known, but whose names have not yet been satisfactorily ascertained. Gianpietrino is called by Lomazzo, Pietro Bizzo, Milanese. Neither the date of his birth nor death is known, nor, so far as I am aware, are there any works signed with his name. His direct con- nection with Leonardo is most clearly proved, I think, by a fine charcoal drawing in the Christ Church Collection at Oxford (f) — the Madonna with the Child on her right knee — damaged unfortunately from the forehead upwards by restoration.

G Few works are known to me in esque paintings with life-sized Italy by Napoletano, an imitator of figures, forming the inner and Leonardo by no means devoid of outer wings of the large sculp- talent, and these are all of his early tured retablo. These scenes from period, for in the first years of the the life of the Madonna were corn- sixteenth century he settled at pleted by Francesco Neapoli (sic) Valencia, in Spain, and probably in conjunction with Paolo of Arezzo remained in that country. Signor in 1506. 'The colours,' adds Pro- Bonomi-Cereda possesses a signed fessor Justi, ' are very rich — a work by him of his early period — warm, brown tone predominating in the Madonna enthroned with the the foreground, in the buildings, and Child, between St. Sebastian and in the flesh tints. The whole series St. John the Baptist. Another small is full of gaiety and charm ; in all, Madonna came by exchange into the however, the treatment of the nude Brera from the Venice Academy, is poor.' According to the same under the name of Cesare da Sesto. competent authority there is a Professor Carl Justi, a learned Madonna with St. Anne in the authority on the history of Spanish church of St. Nicholas at Valencia ; art, kindly informed me that several a marriage of St. Catherine in the works by Francesco Napoletano are cathedral at Murcia may, he thinks, at Valencia, the best— in the cathe- be also ascribed to Francesco Napo dral — consisting of twelve Leonard- letano.


GIANPIETKINO. 161

Gianpietrino as a rule painted only half-length figures, rarely large altar-pieces. Most of the works bearing his name are only of his school. 7 In his early period his flesh tints are cold, and his hands very life-like, con- trasting with the stiff lifeless hands of Marco d' Oggionno, with whom he is often confounded. 8 A deep orange is noticeable in his paintings, and is characteristic both of him and of his school. Many old copies of the beautiful Madonna in this gallery are in existence ; one is in the Palazzo Eospigliosi, and a second in the Munich gallery (No. 1047), formerly ascribed to Luini, and recently cata- logued as an original by Giovanni Pedrini (sic). A small and good picture by Gianpietrino is in the Villa Albani at Piome (f) (No. 59), there attributed to Salaino, and referred to as such by the late Professor Minardi. 9 It represents the Madonna holding some violets ; whilst the Child, on her knee, has a lily in His hand. His finest works are at Milan— a " St. Koch," belonging to Donna Laura Visconti Venosta ; a " Flora," in the Borromeo collection ; a lovely " Egeria," belonging to the Marchese Brivio ; two represen- tations of the Magdalen, one in the Brera and the other in the Museo Civico ; a Madonna with the Child, and another with the Child and the little St. John in the Poldi-Pezzoli museum, there attributed to Cesare da Sesto. This last


7 For instance, a St. Catherine, 1864). The writer characterises the No. 381, in the Pitti ascribed to picture as 'Di una esecuzione Aurelio Luini, and a large " Ecce stentata, povera di sentimento e di Homo" in the Turin Academy, No. sapere, mediocre del tutto.' As the 240. (f) same critic describes the head of

8 For instance, in the "Christ "Medusa," in the Uffizi, as an 'ex- bearing the Cross," No. 107, in the cellent work by Leonardo da Vinci, Turin Gallery, (f) A similar sub- I shall make no further comment ject by Gianpietrino is in Sir Henry upon his estimate of Gianpietrino. Layard's choice collection at Venice- It is only on a par with the view

9 Minardi : ' Scritti delle qualita taken by most modern painters of essenziali della pittura ' (Rome, the works of the old masters.


162 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

is taken from Leonardo's cartoon for the so-called " St. Anne," now in the ' Salon Carre ' of the Louvre.

One of his best works is perhaps a Madonna belonging to Mr. John Murray, the well-known publisher, in which Gianpietrino closely approaches Sodoma. In Sir Francis Cook's interesting collection at Richmond he is represented under the name of Leonardo (f) . The so-called " Colombina " in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, formerly ascribed to Leonardo and now to Luini, is an undoubted work by Gianpietrino (f), though Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle cite it as one of the best ' productions ' of Andrea Solario, and even of the whole school of Leonardo (ii. 58). In this painting, which I only know from a photograph, 1 the master may be recognised, more especially in the form of the left hand, which differs from that in the pictures both of Luini and Andrea Solario.

Among his larger altar-pieces should be mentioned that of 1521, in the church of S. Marino at Pavia, there called Salaino (f), 2 and the Nativity, with angels playing on musical instruments, in the sacristy of the church of S. Sepolcro at Milan. Gianpietrino's workshop was the resort, in all probability, of Flemish painters, who flocked to Italy after the death of Leonardo. We may mention several Flemish paintings in the manner of Gianpietrino which prove this ; for instance, the portrait of Joanna of Aragon in the Doria gallery (No. 358), a similar Joanna in the Balbi collection at Genoa, and the St. Cecilia in the Munich gallery.

1 Braun, No. 74, under the name the sketch for this picture. It is

of Luini. ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.

'-' A red chalk drawing by Gian- (Braun 187.) (t) pietrino in the Louvre, is probably



To face p. 163.


The ' Colombina.' By Gianpietrino.

(In the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.)


BOLTEAFFIO. 163


BOLTEAFFIO.

There is not a single work by Boltraffio in central and southern Italy, with the exception of the much-damaged fresco in the cloisters of S. Onofrio in Eome. This was first pronounced by Dr. Frizzoni to be the work of Boltraffio and not of Leonardo, and with good reason. The long oval of the Madonna's face, so characteristic of Boltraffio, would alone testify to his hand. In its present condition it is a mere wreck. The best works of this noble artist, mostly of small dimensions, are in his native city of Milan— in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection, in the Casa Maino, in the possession of Count Sola, of Dr. Frizzoni, and of the author, 3 and in the Ambrosiana (drawings) ; in the Borro- mean palace on the Isola Bella, and at Bergamo, where there is a beautiful Madonna in the gallery, and a small St. Sebastian in profile belonging to Signor Federico Antonio Frizzoni. The series of female martyrs in fresco, in the gallery of the choir of S. Maurizio at Milan, may have been painted by Boltraffio's scholars from his cartoons. Some of these half-length figures are of great beauty. The master's best work is, I think, the Virgin and Child in the English National Gallery. 4 The Madonna in the

3 Now in the gallery at Ber- may add that the male portrait gamo. ascribed to the master in the Ambro-

4 Besides the fine pastels in the siana, which Dr. Bode pronounces Ambrosiana ascribed to Leonardo I an excellent work by Boltraffio (ii. know of only one other drawing (in 746), does not even belong to the the Louvre) which appears to me to be Milanese school, but more probably the work of Boltraffio, but which is of to that of Parma. The attribution course attributed to Leonardo. It is to Boltraffio is purely arbitrary, dat- the head of a boy in profile crowned ing, like so many others, from the with a garland of oak leaves (in silver last century, and it is entirely due point, Braun 176) and is the sketch to ignorance or indolence on the for the St. Sebastian mentioned in part of the Italian authorities that the text belonging to Signor Federico such names are still retained. Antonio Frizzoni, at Bergamo. I


164 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Esterhazy gallery at Buda-Pesth (175) approaches it nearly, and, if I recollect rightly, is attributed by Dr. Bode to Bernardino de' Conti.


MARCO D' OGGIONNO.

There are no authentic works by Salaino ; those ascribed to him in public collections are all extremely doubtful. By Marco d' Oggionno [1470 (?)-1540 (?) ], on the other hand, we find a genuine work in the Borghese gallery — a carefully executed " Salvator Mundi " (No. 435). By placing it near a window the authorities testified to their appreciation of it. And no wonder, since for nigh three hundred years it had borne the name of Leonardo. As such it was regarded by Pope Paul V., over whose bed it hung, and who only reluc- tantly ceded it to his nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the founder of this collection, when the latter, after many years of fruitless effort, had failed to obtain a specimen of the great Florentine's art. It represents a half-length figure of the Saviour holding the sphere in His left hand, and blessing with His right. The pendant to this little picture, representing the same subject and of nearly similar size, by the hand of Boltraffio, is in the possession of the author 6 at Milan. Both were apparently executed by Leonardo's two pupils about the same time. The garment of our Lord in the Borghese picture is of a bright cherry red, a colour much used by Marco d' Oggionno, Boltraffio, and sometimes also by Gianpietrino ; the mantle is dark blue. The hand with stiff, bony, lifeless fingers, and the cheek-bones widely apart, are characteristic of the master, as are also the angular folds on the sleeves, and the black shadows and sharp lights. The background is dark, as in nearly all portraits and half-length figures of the Lombardo-

5 Now in the gallery at Bergamo.


CESAEE DA SESTO. 165

Milanese school. Most of Marco <T Oggionno's works are still in Milan or in the Milanese territory — in the church of S. Eufemia, in the Ambrosiana, the Brera, the Bonomi- Cereda collection, and elsewhere.

NICOLA APPIANI. 6

A contemporary and imitator of Marco d' Oggionno was Nicola Appiani, an inferior and little-known painter, by whom there are two works in the Brera — an " Adoration of the Magi," and the " Baptism of Christ " (Nos. 84 and 85). An altar-piece in the sacristy of S. Maria delle Grazie I believe to be by him (f), and not by Marco d' Oggionno, to whom it is there attributed, and the "Marriage of St. Catherine " in the Turin gallery, No. 104, is also more pro- bably by Nicola than by Oggionno. (f) Other small paintings by this unimportant artist are in private collections at Milan.

CESAEE DA SESTO.

I have not met with a single work by Cesare da Sesto in Borne ; this is the more strange as he was in that city for some time. There is certainly a large Madonna in the Vatican collection, signed with his name and dated 1521, which M. Bio, 7 who was more at home in ecclesiastical history than in matters of art, regarded as genuine. It is, however, an extremely poor production by some late Lombardo-Milanese painter, as anyone even slightly ac- quainted with the north Italian schools must see. The signature, Cesare da Sesto, and the date are palpable

6 The two pictures in the Brera mentions him, but he is named by

are given to Appiani in the ' Eitratto Carlo Amoretti in p. 156 of his

di Milano,' by Canonico Carlo Torre ; Memorie storiche sulla vita, gli studi

I am unable to say whether correctly, e le opere di Lionardo da Vinci. as no signed works by this painter are ' Leonard de Vinci et son ecole,

known. Neither Vasari nor Lomazzo p. 216.


1G6 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

modern forgeries. 8 (f) The subject is the Madonna seated, the Child on her knee holding her girdle ; on the right is a bishop, on the left St. John the Baptist.

Cesare da Sesto was probably born about 1480, at Sesto Calende on the Lago Maggiore ; the date and place of his death are unknown. Vasari mentions him in vol. ix. p. 22, as follows : ' Bernazzano, a good landscape painter, but with little aptitude for the treatment of figures, entered into partnership with Cesare da Sesto, who was skilled in that branch ; ' and in vol. xi. 274, he remarks, that besides Marco d' Uggioni (d' Oggionno) there were many others who successfully imitated Leonardo da Vinci, among them notably Cesare da Sesto, and cites a " Baptism of Christ," 9 a " Salome," and a large painting of " St. Roch " by this artist. The earliest work I know by him is an " Adoration of the Magi," in the collection of Count Borromeo, at Milan — a most interesting picture, probably painted in the first years of the fifteenth century. In it we perceive the influence of different painters upon the young Lombard : of Lorenzo di Credi and Albertinelli when he was in Florence, and of Pintoricchio when at Siena. 1 The " Tondo " belong- ing to the late Duke Melzi d'Eril, at Milan (the Madonna with the Infant Saviour and St. John the Baptist), is most likely also an early work. A copy of this picture is in the Uffizi (No. 1013), under the name of Luini, and another was formerly in the Borghese gallery, (f)

The " Cesare Milanese," who about 1506 was executing frescoes in company with Baldassare Peruzzi in the " Rocca "

8 Dr. Bode believes this picture ' In this painting, which I think

to be by Cesare da Sesto (see ii. 751). I am justified in ascribing to Cesare

'•' In 1595 the ' Baptism of da Sesto, certain of the master's cha-

Christ ' was, according to Moriggia racteristics should be noted : the

(La Nobiltd di Milano), in the attitudes, the movements, and the

house of the Senatore Galeazzo form of hand and ear, which all tend

Visconti. It now belongs to Duke to support my view, (f) Scotti at Milan.


CESAKE DA SESTO. 167

at Ostia (Vasari, viii. 221), was probably identical with Cesare da Sesto. The two painters were doubtless employed in the service of Baldo Magini (Vasari, x. 222), the Castellano of Ostia. From about 1507 to 1512 Cesare was probably working at Milan, under the direct influence of Leonardo da Vinci. Of this I think we have evidence in the following pictures: the so-called "Vierge aux Balances," in the Louvre, No. 1604 (ascribed by Passavant, ii. 345, to Salaino) ; the " Daughter of Herodias " (in the public gallery at Vienna) ; a "St. Jerome " in Sir Francis Cook's collection at Bich- mond ; 2 the beautiful Madonna in the Esterhazy gallery at Buda-Pesth (No. 172) ; and the large " Adoration of the Magi" painted by the master for a church at Messina, and now in the Naples museum. In all these Cesare appears as the imitator of Leonardo, while the large " St. Boch," which he painted for the church dedicated to that saint at Milan, 3 shows that Baphael had then become his prototype. According to Lomazzo, the two painters were very intimate in Borne. An interesting drawing by him in the Louvre — " A Combat with a Dragon " — in the so- called Vallardi album, No. 2015, would lead us to infer that Cesare was still in Borne about 1520. Lomazzo mentions this drawing, on the back of which are three figures — one being a copy of the Mother of the Demoniac in Baphael' s " Transfiguration" (f), painted by the latter between 1519-1520.

Three panels, each representing the Madonna and Child with Saints, should, I think, be regarded as later works by Cesare. One is in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, under the name of Leonardo da Vinci ; 4 a second belongs to Lord

2 Cited by Moriggia, in La No- Milan.

iiltd di Milano, 1595, as in the pos- 4 Cited by Moriggia (ibid. v.

session of Signor Guido Mazenta. 277) as a work by Cesare da Sesto in

3 Now belonging to the heirs of the possession of Senatore Gale- the late Duke Lodovico Melzi at azzo Visconti, ' Una Madonna col


168


THE BORGHESE GALLERY.


Monson in London ; and the third, rightly named Cesare da Sesto, is in the Brera. In this last, in addition to the Madonna and Child, SS. -Joseph, Joachim, and the little St. John are introduced. A second Madonna by him is in the Brera — a very refined little painting of somewhat earlier date. 5 From all that has been said it will be seen that, although skilled in technical execution, like all Leonardo's pupils, Cesare da Sesto was not, like Sodoma, an original and independent artist. 6

The following paintings in the Borghese gallery are also assigned to the school of Leonardo : an alle- gorical figure representing " Vanity " (No. 470) — a copy


figliuolo in braccio con San Giuseppe ed una Martire.' Its attribution to Leonardo was therefore an error of recent date.

5 For the benefit of students I may here mention a few drawings by Cesare da Sesto, some of which are given to Leonardo (see also a recent article in the Gazette des beaux Arts, " Les derniers travaux de Leonard da Vinci ") ; a red chalk drawing at Windsor, in which the influence of Michael Angelo is un- deniable, representing St. Sebastian bound to a tree, with two soldiers on his left (Grosvenor Society, No. 86). (t) This was Cesare's sketch for -the fresco, which, according to Moriggia, was still to be seen in 1595 in the villa of Count Resta, near Milan. The fresco has since perished, but an old copy is in the Malaspina gallery at Pavia. An- other sheet, containing two studies of children, in red chalk and bearing the name of Leonardo, is also at Windsor (Grosvenor Society, No. 66) ( + ) ; in the British Museum there are three fine drawings on one sheet


by Cesare da Sesto, attributed to Leonardo (vol. 16, the page bear- ing the following marks: 1862, 10. 11, 196) — two pen and ink sketches of the so-called " Madonna di Casa 'Alba," and, on the back, the head of an old man in red chalk. In Vallardi's so-called Leonardo album in the Louvre there is a sheet with several studies for a Madonna, and a seated allegorical figure (Braun 189). (t) Two beautiful studies for the Infant Saviour are in the Library at Turin, rightly attributed to Cesare da Sesto. In the Venice Academy there are several good red chalk drawings by him ; and also a pen and ink sketch for his large picture, the "Adora- tion of the Magi, : ' in the Naples museum (Perini 196).

6 The gifted ' Improvisatore ' Andrea Sabbatini, of Salerno, was more probably a pupil of Cesare da Sesto than of Raphael(t), as Dominici would have us believe ; his works are to be found at Naples in the museum, and in some of the churches.



s ^




Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

T„ r„s„ ■ *o (Sketch by Cesare da Sesto at Windsor.)

  • ° /ace p. iot>.


BEENAEDDsO EUENT:. 169

from Luini ; an " Ecce Homo " (No. 286), which approaches Andrea Solario in conception and technic ; and a half- length figure of St. Agatha (No. 429) — a late and feeble copy from Luini.


BERNARDINO LUINI.

The Borghese gallery contains no genuine work by Bernardino Luini (bom about 1475, still living in 1533) ; bat in the Sciarra-Colonna collection there is an exquisite painting by the master (No. 43), unfortunately disfigured by a thick coat of Tarnish. This. I need hardly say., is the celebrated picture attributed to Leonardo da Vinci and known as " Modesty and Vanity," though it might be more appropriately named, " Sacred and Profane Love." It is, perhaps, of the same time as Titian's version of a somewhat similar theme in the Borghese gallery. This subject appears to have been popular and frequently treated by painters of the period — a fact not without interest, I think, in the history of culture. It is painted in Luinf s second manner — the so-called mcmiera grigia — (from about 1508- 1520), when, under the influence of Leonardo and his works, he was striving after more plastic modelling, especially in the treatment of his heads. Another charming work by Luini in the last room of the Palazzo Colonna must be men- tioned, the Madonna holding the Infant Saviour, who bends forward to embrace the little St. John — a motive often repeated by this master — behind whom is St. Elisabeth. It is finely conceived, but is in an unsatisfactory state in consequence of excessive repainting. A female portrait in the Corsini gallery has also received the name of Luini, but only, I presume, by an oversight. Among the public collec- tions of southern and central Italy, only the Naples museum and the Uffizi contain examples of his art. In the former

N


170 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

we find a characteristic but unattractive Madonna ; in the latter the " Daughter of Herodias," much restored.

Luini was not gifted with any great powers of imagina- tion, and as a creative genius he stands far below Sodoma, hut he was an extremely conscientious painter and full of charm. 7 He can only be studied satisfactorily at Milan and in the Milanese district ; in the churches of the • Passione,' of S. Giorgio in Palazzo, and of S. Maurizio ; in the Ambrosiana and the Brera, the Poldi-Pezzoli and the Borromeo collections ; at Legnano, Saronno, and Lugano, in the Cathedral at Como, and elsewhere. His forms are round and somewhat heavy, the feet usually too long, and the hands too broad and large, as with Giovanni Bellini. He had many pupils and imitators whose works, even in the Brera, are constantly attributed to him ; for example, the frescoes Nos. 13, 41-43, 51, 53 and others, (f)

ANDREA SOLARIO.

In the Borghese gallery we find another work (No. 461) given to a Milanese painter of the ' golden age.' It bears the name of Andrea Solario, and represents Christ bearing the Cross, accompanied by two ill-favoured guards. Though cold in tone, too smooth in execution, and dark in the shadows, the picture is nevertheless finished with great care. The soldiers are caricatures, and have so decided a Flemish appear- ance that I have no hesitation in pronouncing it the work of a Fleming, (f) The figure of Christ is undoubtedly taken from Solario ; but it appears to me that the soldiers who show

7 Drawings by this master are and a Madonna, in red chalk. In

rare ; a few may here be enumer- the Venice academy, " The Expul-

ated. In the Ambrosiana : a sheet sion from Paradise," in black chalk ;

with three studies of children, in in the Ulhzi a drawing washed with

indian ink (Braun 175) ; " Tobias water-colour (engraving department

and his Father," in indian ink, No. 1940) ; and in the Louvre two

heightened with white (Braun 179) ; heads of children (Nos. 237, 238).


ANDREA SOLARIO. 171

their teeth — one of whom has a distinctively hideous thumb- nail — were added by some painter of the school of Antwerp sojourning in Italy. 8

The same subject was often treated by Solario — for instance, in a small picture in the gallery at Brescia, and in two panels formerly belonging to the painter Galgani at Siena. In all these works the figure of Christ is more nobly con- ceived than in the example in this gallery; the tone is warmer and the colours are more thickly laid on — qualities which we find exemplified in his fine " Eiposo " of 1515, in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection at Milan. Andrea Solario occu- pies a peculiar position in the Lombardo-Milanese school, and in technical execution he is, perhaps, its ablest repre- sentative. As writers on art have not yet succeeded in agreeing about this painter, I shall venture to give some further details respecting him.

The Solari, a family of artists (architects and sculptors), came, like the Lombardi of Venice, from the village of Solaro, in the province of Como. In the first half of the fifteenth century they settled at Milan, and here very pro- bably Andrea was born about 1460. His elder brother, Cristoforo, was a sculptor and architect, and being some- what deformed was surnamed II Gobbo (the hunchback). 9 Andrea was much attached to this brother and seems to have been his companion in his many journeys. Hence the reason, perhaps, that the painter sometimes signed his pictures Andreas Mediolanensis, sometimes Andrea de Solario. The first signature he used on pictures painted

8 Other Flemish copies after Flemish imitation of Solario. (f) Solario, or imitations, may be seen 9 M. Villot, in his catalogue of

in the galleries of Turin and the Louvre, makes Andrea himself

Siena, and in the gallery at Vienna, the hunchback, which was rather

all representing Herodias' daughter. hard upon him. In the latest edition

The head of St. John the Baptist of the catalogue Cristoforo becomes

in the Louvre (No. 1533) is also a the father of Andrea.

n 2


172 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

when he was absent from Milan ; the second on those executed in that city. All earlier writers call him ' Andrea del Gobbo,' from which we may conclude that Cristoforo stood in place of a father to his younger brother ; and by some he has been confounded with Salaino, Leonardo's amanuensis. The first to throw some light on the character of this master was the late Mr. Miindler, in his excellent ' Analyse critique de la Notice des Tableaux du Louvre/ Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle followed in his steps, but added some new matter in their notice of the painter, in which they appear to me to be quite mistaken. Who his master was has not yet been ascertained, but in the exqui- sitely delicate modelling of the heads the teaching of his brother, the sculptor, is perceptible. 1 No other Lombard painter approached Leonardo so nearly, or succeeded in treating heads with a like degree of finish — as, for example, in the " Ecce Homo " in the Poldi collection at Milan. In the representation of the hand, however, Solario was far behind Leonardo, Sodoma, and even Gianpietrino. His earliest works, so far as I know, are two small Madonnas, one in the Poldi collection, the other in the Brera (No. 105 bis). From the latter we might infer a certain connection with Bartolommeo Suardi, called Bramantino. 2

In 1490 Andrea accompanied his brother Cristoforo to Venice, and there, between 1492-1493, may have painted the fine portrait of a Venetian senator, now in the London

1 Besides Cristoforo there was quaint headgear worn by the

another sculptor in the family, Madonna is similar to that with

Pietro Solari, by whom there which Bramantino and Gaudenzio

is a Madonna and Child in high Ferrari were wont to adorn the

relief in the side entrance to the heads of their female figures. In

church of S. Angelo at Milan. the collection of Prince Giangia-

'-' This picture formerly bore the como Trivulzio, at Milan, there is

forged inscription ' Johannes Bel- a small portrait in bas-relief by

linus,' and was therefore regarded Cristoforo Holario, which recalls the

by Vasari's commentators (v. 24) as painted portraits by his brother

the work of Giovanni Bellini. The Andrea.


ANDKEA SOLAEIO. 173

National Gallery (No. 923), in which the influence of Gio- ^ vanni Bellini, and still more that of Antonello da Messina, is visible. Formerly, when in the Casa Gavotti at Genoa, this portrait passed under the name of Bellini. In 1493 the brothers appear to have returned to Milan ; two years later Andrea executed a small altar-piece for the church of S. Pietro Martire at Murano (now in the Brera, No. 106). Whether he painted it at Venice or elsewhere I am unable to say ; it is, however, probable that he visited the city of the Lagoons a second time and may then have executed the picture. The type of the Madonna in this work is entirely Leonardesque, and the drawing recalls Boltraffio ; we may, therefore, infer that, in 1493 and 1494, after his return from Venice, Solario was strongly influenced by the great Florentine.

Besides the influence of Leonardo, Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle perceive in this picture that of Verrocchio, (!) as also that of the Venetian school. In their eyes it is a mixture of influences — Lombard, Florentine, Venetian, and even Bergamasque — for in the landscape they are more particularly reminded of Previtali, who in 1495 was barely fifteen ! Such theories of analogy and influence are fatal to progress, and I shall not follow these critics further on such slippery ground.

To return to Solario's works. We find in the Poldi collection two small panels of 1499, representing respec- tively St. John the Baptist and St. Catherine (fragments of a triptych), signed, 'Andreas Mediolanensis,' and therefore not painted at Milan ; they came to that city from Venice. The St. John is wholly Leonardesque, but the St. Catherine is thoroughly Lombard in character. 3 Then follow, in chronological order, the " Crucifixion " of 1503, signed

3 A " St. Catherine " in a paint- Turin gallery, vividly recalls this ingbyMacrinod'Albaof 1506, in the " St. Catherine " by A. Solario


174 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

1 Andreas Mediolanensis,' and a male portrait of about the same period (1503-1504), both in the Louvre (Nos. 1532 and 1531). Eecently the latter was pronounced to be the portrait of Charles d'Amboise, the French governor of Milan, and, strangely enough, was only attributed to Solario. It represents a man between thirty and forty, wearing on his cap the order of St. Michael ; with a view of the Alps, as seen from Milan, in the background. The execution is delicate, but the details are almost lost in a thick coating of varnish. It may have been painted by Solario at Milan, in the first years of the sixteenth century. The work belonging to the painter Galgani — " Christ bearing the Cross " — is of 1505, and was probably executed in Milan, certainly not in Florence, as Calvi, in order to draw his own conclusions, conjectures ; for in the same year, 1505, Solario painted the portrait of his Milanese friend Longoni now in the National Gallery (No. 734). To this his Milanese epoch, that is, before his departure for France, I should further ascribe the female portrait belonging to the Marchese Emmanuele d' Adda at Milan. In the summer of 1507 Solario went to that country, provided with letters of intro- duction from the French governor of the Milanese, Charles de Chaumont (known in Italy as Ciamonte), to his uncle Cardinal Georges d'Amboise. For two years Solario remained in the Cardinal's service. This ambitious prelate, who on the death of Pius III. had cherished the hope of obtaining the Papal dignity, had endeavoured, through his nephew the governor of Milan, to secure the services of Leonardo da Vinci, as he was desirous of having his chapel at Gaillon decorated by that renowned artist. Leonardo, however, was so occupied at that date with hydraulic experiments and plans for the fortification of Milan that he could not even find time to paint a Madonna for Louis XII. (see Gaye, " Carteggio," ii. 94-96). Chaumont


ANDREA SOLAEIO. 175

therefore sent in his stead Solario, whom he considered, after the great Florentine, the best living painter in the Milanese territory. In September 1509 Solario brought his work at Gaillon to a close. Before his departure for France, or soon after his arrival at Gaillon, he may have painted the so-called " Vierge au Coussin Vert," now in the Louvre (No. 1530). It is not known whether he remained in France after his work at Gaillon was completed. I think he may possibly have spent some time in Flanders before returning home.

The school of painting at Antwerp was then in great repute, and it was likely that Solario had been acquainted with some of its representatives in Italy. Many of his paintings, more especially the "Biposo " of 1515, and the highly finished but cold " Ecce Homo," both in the Poldi collection, have so decided a Flemish character, and so strongly recall the school of Antwerp — notably Patinir in the composition and in the violet tone of colouring— that at first sight they might almost pass for Flemish works. 4 In 1515 Solario appears to have been in Italy again, if not in Milan. This may be inferred from the above-named " Biposo," which is signed ' Andreas de Solario Mediolanen : f. 1515.' After this date nothing more is known of him. It is more than probable that his large altar-piece for the Certosa of Pavia (now in the new sacristy there) was painted after 1515, particularly as, according to tradition, the upper part, left unfinished by Solario, was completed by Bernardino Campi about 1576. The truth probably was that the upper part, having suffered, was merely restored by Campi, as painters, I believe, are in the habit of beginning with the upper part of their pictures and not with the lower. 5

4 Dr. Bode (ii. 745) sees Roman (?) Solario. influences in the latter painting by 5 Campi's repainting is still


176 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

Calvi repeats the statement, that Solario accompanied Andrea da Salerno to South Italy (but whence ?) about 1513, and worked in company with him in a chapel of S. Gaudioso, at Naples ; e but this surmise appears to me as improbable as the tale about Bernardino Campi. In this case we may assume that Solario was confounded with Cesare da Sesto.

Three portraits by Solario must still be mentioned. One is in the collection of Duke Scotti at Milan, under the name of Leonardo. It represents a man of refined features, with a keen eye and resolute mouth, and is considered to be the likeness of the chancellor Morone. 7 If this be so, the portrait must have been painted after 1515, as Morone, if I am not mistaken, was not raised to the office of chancellor till 1518. The second painting, attributed to Raphael, belongs to Count Castelbarco at Milan, and is said to represent Cesare Borgia. Both of them have been much repainted. The third, a magnificent portrait of a high-bred man, formerly in the Casa Perego, is now in the collection of Signor Crespi at Milan.

I know of only one drawing by Andrea Solario, the pen and ink sketch in the Venice Academy for his altar-piece at Pavia. It proves, I think, that Andrea's master in draughtsmanship was his brother Cristoforo. There are several pen drawings by the latter in the Ambrosiana at Milan.

visible, more especially in the heads ledge of art, and trusting implicitly

of the Madonna and of the two to documents, may be led astray, angels who crown her. ' Girolamo Morone was born in

■ See Notizie sulla vita e sidle 1170, and died in 1529. The por-

opcrc dei principali architctti, trait represents a man of about fifty,

sctdtori e pittori che fiorirono in and must have been painted about

Milano durante il regno dei Visconti 1518-1520. It is, therefore, very

c derjli Sforza, raccolte ed esposte da possible that the portrait does repre-

S. Calvi, p. 277 (Milan, 18G5). The sent the chancellor, and a compari-

book is an example of the way in son with the medal appears to con-

which a writer, devoid of all know- firm this supposition.


LEONAKDO DA VINCI. 177

LEONARDO DA VINCI.

By Leonardo himself there is a small unfinished paint- ing, in the Vatican collection, of St. Jerome as a penitent — to art-critics a work of the highest interest, but to the general public an unmitigated horror. Besides this painting, I know of only two other works in Italy which could seriously be ascribed to the great Florentine — the unfinished " Adoration of the Magi " in the Uffizi, and the world- renowned, oft-repainted "Last Supper" at Milan.

As Dr. Bode's estimate of the Italian masters differs so widely from mine, it will scarcely surprise my readers to learn that I can only regard the drawing of a female head in the Borghese gallery (No. 514), which he (ii. 668) ascribes to Leonardo, as the production of some inferior imitator of Bernardino de' Conti. There are no genuine drawings by Leonardo either in Borne or Naples, and of the twenty-seven attributed to him in the Uffizi, only five are authentic in my opinion. 8 On the other hand, there are about twenty-five genuine examples in the Venice Academy r twelve in the Royal Library at Turin, and ten in the Ambrosiana, exclusive of those in the Codex Atlanticus. In all these drawings by Leonardo, the shading, as I have observed on a former occasion, is from left to right — for Leonardo both wrote and drew with his left hand, and only

8 As some may be disposed to authentic : 414 (by a later artist) ;

be incredulous as to this assertion, I 419 (copy) ; 420 (far too poor for

feel bound to enumerate those draw- Leonardo) ; 421 (Sodoma, Brau

ings in the Uffizi which I consider 448) ; 422 (by a pupil) ; 424 (copy) ;

to be rightly assigned to Leonardo, 425 (by a pupil) ; 426 (by a pupil) ;

as well as those which are falsely 427 (A. de Predis [?] ) ; 428 (Flemish

ascribed to him. The following copy after Verrocchio, Braun 429) ;

are genuine : Nos. 423, 436, 429 (by a pupil) ; 430 (by a pupil) ;

446, 449, and finally the pen draw- 431 (by a pupil) ; 432 (copy after

ing, with the landscape, of the year Lorenzo di Credi) ; 433, 434, 435,

1473 — five in all consequently. The 437 (imitations) ; 447 (forgery) ; 448,

following drawings I consider not 450, 451 (imitations).


178


THE BORGHESE GALLERY.


occasionally made use of his right when representing spherical objects. The drawings in the so-called Codex Atlantic us, and in Leonardo's various other manuscripts in Paris, in England, and in Italy, give abundant proof of this, as do also those judiciously selected by Dr. J. P. Eichter for his admirable work on the master. 9

Unprejudiced students will, I think, acknowledge that I have done well to protest against the persistent and arbitrary attribution to Leonardo of countless unauthentic drawings and paintings, due in some cases merely to their supposed ' geistigen Inhalt ' (inward qualities). The best of them are, as we have seen, by his pupils Bol- traffio, Sodoma, Cesare da Sesto and Gianpietrino, or by his imitators Ambrogio de Predis (Venice) and Bernardino de' Conti (Ambrosiana, Louvre, &c.) ; the inferior ones, like the head in the Borghese gallery, are either late copies or forgeries, and of these last there are not a few. 1


9 The Literary Works of Leo- nardo da Vinci, London, 1883.

1 For the benefit of students I will enumerate half a dozen of these false Leonardo drawings : (1) Wind- sor, pen drawing, the Madonna in a recumbent position with the Child, and four studies of a child playing with a cat (Grosvenor Gallery Pub- lication, No. 57) ; (2) Albertina, a large sheet formerly in the collection of Vasari, later in that of Mariette. The six heads at the side are genuine, the female head and the little St. John in the centre are spurious (Braun 102-109); (3) Louvre (' Salle aux boites '), pen drawing, the head of a youth in pro- file turning to the left, and several caricatures, forgeries (Reiset Cata- logue 382, Braun 172)— the draw- ing of the eye and of the hair should be specially noticed ; (4) Albertina,


pen drawing, five caricatures and two profile heads (Braun 98) ; (5) British Museum, pen drawing with three caricatures ; upon which is the name of Leonardo da Vinci and the date of 1476— by a Flemish master (Braun 49). In the same collection there is a head of an old man show- ing his front teeth, again the work of a Fleming (Braun 27) ; (6) British Museum, an allegorical sub- ject, in indian ink ; the original is in the ' Salle aux boites ' in the Louvre (Braun 53). It is curious that even as far back as the sixteenth century the great masters should have been so little understood in their own country and abroad. Vasari him- self had such a mistaken conception of Leonardo — an artist whose power is irresistibly felt even in his least important works— that he ascribed to him, as we have seen, the two


GAUDENZIO FEEKAEI. 179

If we compare Leonardo's genuine works, viz. the " Adoration of the Magi " in the Uffizi, the " St. Jerome " in the Vatican, and the "Mona Lisa" and the "Vierge aux Eochers" in the Louvre, with those ascribed to him by Dr. Bode, viz. the " Annunciation " in the Uffizi, the " Resurrec- tion " at Berlin, the female portrait and the unfinished head of a man in the Ambrosiana, the "Madonna and Child " in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and others, I think that even those who generally agree with this critic must admit that the same hand and the same feeling are not perceptible in all.

GAUDENZIO FERRARI.

Neither at Florence, Rome, Naples, nor Palermo do we find a single work by Gaudenzio Ferrari, a further, if only a negative, proof that he never crossed the Apennines, and that his supposed apprenticeship with Perugino and friendship with Raphael are pure fiction. At some future time I hope to prove this.

The large "Apotheosis of S. Bernardino of Siena," so absurdly ascribed to Gaudenzio in the Sciarra-Colonna gallery, is neither his work, nor that of any north Italian master, but is more probably by some Sienese painter of the end of the sixteenth century. The small Madonna and Child in the Capitoline collection (Room I. 210) owes its remarkable attribution, I suspect, to an amusing quid pro quo. When the painting was brought from Ferrara to Rome, the name of the town Ferrara was most probably inscribed on the back of the panel, and the director of that day immediately jumped to the conclusion that it stood

drawings in the centre of the sheet predecessors in Tuscany, so the

which was in his own possession. fame of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paul

A like fate befell Giovanni Bellini Veronese had thrown all other

and Giorgione in Venice ; for, as painters of Venice into the shade. Michael Angelo had eclipsed all his


180 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

for the name of the painter Ferrari. Even the most superficial observer, one would imagine, must at once have recognised the painting as of the school of Garofalo. This, however, was not the case. The late Professor Tommaso Minardi accepted this attribution, like so many others, without question, and proceeded thereupon to discourse about Gaudenzio Ferrari and the Milanese school. I merely allude to this writer here, because in his lifetime he was regarded as the greatest authority on matters of art in Rome and throughout the Papal dominions, and also because there are many of his stamp in other countries, perhaps even among the savants of Germany. And Minardi, be it observed, was no mere amateur, but a professional painter and art-critic.

Two Milanese painters still remain to be mentioned, namely, Ambrogio de Predis and Bernardino de' Conti.

AMBROGIO DE PREDIS. Some years ago I had the good fortune to light upon an excellent Milanese portrait painter who, till then, had been wholly unknown to students of Italian art — Ambrogio Preda or Predi. A portrait of the Emperor Maximilian in the Ambras collection at Vienna, signed ' Ambrosius de pdis (predis) Melanensis (Mediolanensis) 1502,' first directed my attention, in 1873, to this hitherto neglected painter. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle mention it, but speak of it (ii. 50) as in the Schonborn collection, and ascribe it, not with Nagler 2 to Bevilacqua, but to Ambrogio Borgognone. After carefully observing all the characteristics in this some- what repainted portrait, 3 I felt that I might make further

" See Nagler, Die Monogram- (1) The dark edge of the upper eye-

misten, i. 414. lid runs in a straight line to where

3 When studying this portrait I it is joined by the lower lid, from

noted the following characteristics : which it is separated by a bright



To face p. iS


The Emperor Maximilian. By de Predis.

{Vienna.)


AMBKOGIO DE PKEDIS. 181

discoveries of works by this forgotten artist elsewhere. My researches were not fruitless, and in 1880, in my critical studies of " Italian Masters in German Galleries " (p. 456-458), I was able, to my great satisfaction, to mention three portraits and a drawing, which, though bearing the name of Leonardo, appeared to me unquestionably by Ambrogio de Predis.

It may have been presumptuous of me to suppose that by this discovery I might have rendered a service, however trifling, to the history of art ; nevertheless I must confess to having cherished this hope, and it was disappointing to find Dr. Bode once more strenuously opposed to my views.

The German critic even charged me, I regret to say, with having confounded the great Leonardo, whom he pro- fesses to know so thoroughly, with ' the dry Lombard portrait painter, Matteo de Pretis.' That he should have been unaware of the existence of the Milanese Ambrogio de Predis is very pardonable, since this painter was equally unknown to all other writers on the history of art until I

streak of light. This streak of by a sharp line of light ; (5) the

light, between the dark line of the heavy mass of loose hair is touched

upper eyelid and the strongly marked with separate strokes of light; (6)

shadow cast by it, I found in all the collar of the Golden Fleece is

profile portraits by Ambrogio de painted in the manner of a minia-

Predis.whichhadnotbeenrepainted. turist. All these characteristics

This is, consequently, very charac- which struck me in the portrait of

teristic of the master. (2) Each eye- the Emperor Maximilian, recur in

lash is indicated separately ; (3) the the profile portrait in the Ambro-

contour of the upper lip is stiff, the siana, in one in the Poldi-Pezzoli

under Up full and heavy. In some collection, in that of an old man

well-preserved portraits by this belonging to Dr. G. Frizzoni, in

master the lines on the latter are those of Lodovico Sforza and his

well marked, as in the profile por- son Maximilian, in the "Libro del

trait in the Ambrosiana, in the Jesus " in the library of Prince

portrait of a page in the Morelli Trivulzio, and in the fine profile

collection, and also in the portrait portrait of the same Maximilian

of the Emperor Maximilian. (4) Sforza, as Duke of Milan, in the

The bridge of the nose is marked Morelli collection.


182 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

rescued him from oblivion, and I will assume that it was merely a lapsus calami on the part of Dr. Bode mistaking him for Matteo Preti, an inferior Calabrian painter of the seventeenth century. His attack upon me ended with the following extraordinary statement :

' A genuine and exquisite portrait of about 1485, closely resembling the so-called " Belle Ferroniere " in the Louvre, is in the Ambrosiana. It is supposed to represent Isabella of Aragon, 4 wife of Giovanni Galeazzo Sforza ; the portrait of the latter being also there. 5 This profile portrait, simple and unpretending in conception, is yet surpassingly lovely and attractive, and of so high a degree of finish that only Leonardo himself, one would suppose, could be credited with it, even did it not reveal all the characteristics (?) of his earlier works. 6 Nevertheless this marvellous work has recently [that is, by Lermolieff] been ascribed to a dry Lombard portrait painter. The portrait of Giovanni Galeazzo, which hangs next to that of his wife, is also genuine. Unfortunately it is unfinished, but, as giving us

4 The portrait is now said to re- the same critic wrote as follows (ii. present Bianca Maria Sforza, wife of 681) : ' The striking analogy between the Emperor Maximilian. this acknowledged altar-piece by

5 Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza Ridolfo Ghirlandaio and the " Gold- died in 1494, aged twenty -five. In smith " in the Pitti, which is there 1485, therefore, he was barely six- universally admired as a Leonardo, teen, whereas the man in this por- proves this latter to be an undoubted trait looks about thirty. A little work by Ridolfo.' ' II tempo e knowledge of general history might galantuomo,' the Italians say, and I occasionally benefit even art-his- therefore feel encouraged to hope torians. that, with time and study, and after

H In the edition of the Cicerone testing my theories, the Berlin

of 1879 (p. 626), Dr. Bode writes : critic will come to recognise the

' The portrait of a goldsmith in the merits of A. de Predis, and instead of

Pitti (No. 207) is a fine and genuine stigmatising him as a ' dry mechan-

work of Leonardo's earlier period.' ical' Lombard, will acknowledge him

In the edition of 1884, four years to be the painter of the profile in the

after my Critical Essays had been Ambrosiana, which he at present

published, in which I ascribed the continues to regard as a ' Wunder-

"Goldsmith" to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, werk ' by Leonardo da Vinci.


AMBKOG-IO DE PEEDIS. 183

an insight into Leonardo's technical method, it is of the highest interest.' 7

In justice to myself and to those who agree with me, I felt bound to uphold my own views — the result of long and exhaustive study — against the opinion, so confidently ex- pressed, of the northern critic. Once more, then, I would here repeat what I said in 1880 of the profile portrait in the Ambrosiana — that it is the work of Ambrogio de Predis. As to the unfinished portrait, I look upon it as the likeness of some unknown individual. It has no con- nection either with de Predis or with Leonardo, but is, perhaps, by the same pupil or imitator 8 of the latter master, who executed the copy of the " Vierge aux Eochers " (now in the London National Gallery) and the two angels belonging to it, in the possession of Duke Melzi at Milan. I may here quote the opinion, expressed many years ago, about these portraits in the Ambrosiana by the late Baron Eumohr, of Berlin, a very distinguished critic in his day. On p. 73 of his little book, " Drei Beisen in Italien," he observes : ' Two remarkable portraits in the Ambrosiana, of Lodovico Sforza [Dr. Bode's Gian Galeazzo] and his wife [Dr. Bode's Isabella]. His portrait, three-quarter face, somewhat violet in tone, still opaque in the shadows, belong- ing in style to an earlier period of art, but the forms are

7 If an unprofessional critic like the same as the painter of these

myself may be permitted to say a two unfinished works,

word about the method of the 8 To this distinguished anony-

painting in Italian works of art, I mous imitator of Leonardo several

would beg my readers to compare drawings may, I think, also be

the technic of this unfinished por- ascribed : such as the silver point

trait in the Ambrosiana with that drawing of a female head in the

of the equally unfinished "St. Uffizi (Case 107, No. 426, Braun

Jerome" in the Vatican, and the 436); one in the Ambrosiana with

" Adoration of the Magi " in the a string of pearls round her neck,

Uffizi. They will then, I think, agree three-quarter face ; a youthful head

with me that the author of the Am- in the palace at Weimar (?) (Braun

brosiana portraits cannot possibly be 149), and others elsewhere.


184 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

treated with refinement and intelligence. His wife of less importance. Looking at these pictures, I began to sur- mise that Leonardo may have come into connection with the painters of the Lower German schools, and have learnt from them the use of oil as a medium, which was not customarily employed in Florence : indeed, it was hardly even historically known there before the period of his journey to Milan. A charming little painting of the Madonna and Child, belonging to Count Alberto Litta [now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg], has confirmed me in this opinion. The motive of this picture is seen also in a much-retouched drawing in the Uffizi (?). The painting has suffered in parts, and the hand of the Child has lost its glazes, but this very fact renders an acquaintance with Leonardo's method easier. We see that he first laid in his shadows with opaque colours, and altogether the carefully prepared pigments, the light priming, the precision of execution, display much of the early Flemish manner.' 9

We can scarcely be surprised that in Cardinal Federigo Borrommeo's day these portraits should have passed for works by the same master; for art-criticism, like every other kind of criticism, was then at its lowest ebb, and every drawing or painting bearing the slightest resemblance to Leonardo's manner was immediately ascribed to the master himself. But that the portraits should have been taken to represent " il Moro " and his wife Beatrice d' Este is quite inexplicable, for in churches and in private collections in Milan and the country around these personages are found frequently portrayed in painting and in sculpture. To tradition, that time-honoured source, we are again indebted for these

9 In my opinion this charming ' dry ' Lombard painter, namely, little Madonna is certainly not by Bernardino de' Conti. Leonardo da Vinci, but by another


AMBKOGIO DE PREDIS. 185

astonishing attributions, and they were blindly accepted by the most distinguished critics of this century. Not only Amoretti and Lanzi in Italy, but Baron Eumohr and Miindler in Germany, and, forty years later, Dr. Bode himself, walked straight into the trap which perfidious tradition had laid for them. In the opinion of all these critics, the two portraits in the Ambrosiana and the Ma- donna at St. Petersburg are by the same master — Leonardo da Vinci. Baron Eumohr, however, rightly esteems the unfinished portrait of the man higher than that of the woman. But there is another point on which the Berlin critics come into collision, namely, as to the period when oil painting was first practised in Tuscany. Dr. Bode, on the strength of his newly-discovered painting by Leonardo (!), " The Besurrection," maintains that in 1478 oil as a medium was already in use in Florence. Baron Eumohr, on the other hand, asserts that it was scarcely even historically known at that date in Tuscany, and I should be disposed to agree with him.

Ambrogio de Predis was employed by Lodovico Sforza, as his most favoured portrait painter, as early as 1482. This may be gathered from the following document pub- lished by the late Marchese Campori. ' A di 22 Mazo (May) 1482 : A Zoane Ambroso di predj de Milano (depin- tore) de lo 111. S. Lud. Sforza, BrazalOde razo alexandrino de campione de la Ex. de Madama, la quale gie dona la Ex. del nro Sig.' ' To Giovanni Ambrogio di predj of Milan, painter to his Highness Lodovico Sforza, ten yards of Alexandrian satin of the same kind as that of her Excellency the Duchess which his Excellency our master gives him as a present.' (Archivio di Stato in Modena ; Libro : Eicordi de la Salvaroba de Castello,' a. c. 65.) In 1482 Ambrogio de Predis was, therefore, a finished artist, and we may infer that he was born between 1450-1460.



186 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

The earliest portrait I know by him is the portrait of the Duke.

I will now briefly enumerate those works which, I believe, may be attributed to Ambrogio de Predis, and Dr. G. Frizzoni, the Marchese Visconti Venosta, and the well-known picture restorer, Signor Cavenaghi, concur in my opinion.

1. The portrait of Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Count of Pa via, belonging to Count Porro at Milan. '(f) 2. The profile portrait in the Ambrosiana, already mentioned, is of about the same period, (f) An attractive and sympathetic head ; the cranium is not quite correct in drawing, and the line from the neck to the back is too straight. Leonardo himself would never have been guilty of such mistakes. 2 3. The refined portrait of Francesco di Bartolommeo Archinto (b. 1474, d. 1551), governor of Chiavenna in the time of Louis XII. It was formerly in the possession of the Archinto family at Milan, and now belongs to Mr. Fuller Maitland, as Dr. Frizzoni, who saw it in that collection,

informs me. It is dated 1494, and signed ^£; (Ambrogio

Preda) F. 4. The profile portrait of Lodovico il Moro, a miniature in the so-called ' Libro del Jesus,' in the library of Prince Trivulzio at Milan, (f ) 5. The profile portrait of Massimiliano Sforza at the age of five, in the same book, (-f-) All the miniatures in this celebrated Codex are ascribed to Leonardo, but the characteristics of de Predis, which I have already described, should serve to convince

1 This portrait should be com- '-' Who this attractive portrait

pared with the medal of the unfor- represents I do not pretend to say ;

tunate young prince. The boy in all I wish to contend for is that

the portrait looks about twenty. it is not Beatrice d' Este, the

Gian Galeazzo died, as is well- wife of il Moro, as has always been

known, in 1494, in his twenty-fifth assumed in the Ambrosiana, and

year. In 1489 he married Isabella that it cannot be by Leonardo as

of Aragon ; the portrait was pro- usually asserted, but is by the for-

bably painted about this time. gotten Ambrogio de Predis.


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AMBROGIO DE PREDIS. 187

every intelligent student of art that these two portraits, executed about 1497, are unquestionably by that painter. Mention is made in this Codex of a ' Messer Brunoro Preda ' who accompanied the ducal family in their flight from Milan to Innsbruck in 1499. Whether Brunoro was a relative of Ambrogio I am unable to say, but it appears to me very probable that the 'Maestro Ambrosio,' spoken of in the following verses, is no other than our painter : ' Qui maestro Ambrosio dice : Da de ughette al Conte, E lui con lieta fronte, Dimanda del cappone.' 3 Drawing was in those days a necessary part of a young nobleman's education.^ Ambrogio may have instructed the sons of ' il Moro ' in this art, and it is not improbable that he accompanied them in September 1499 in their flight to Innsbruck. He very likely remained several years at the Court in that city, and would there have painted the portraits of the Emperor and his wife in 1502. 4

To continue our list. 6. The portrait of a young man with fair hair (head and shoulders). The background is dark, as is always the case in Ambrogio's portraits. It belongs to the Maggi family at Milan, and was formerly attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, (f) 7. A youth with long- fair hair, in the dress of a page, full-face, in the collection of the author at Milan. 5 (-f-) On the back in old characters is the following inscription : Di Leonardo Pitor Fiorentino. 8. A young man with an arrow in his hand (St. Sebastian), full- face, belonging to Dr. G. Frizzoni at Milan. Formerly it passed as a Boltraffio. All these works, belonging to the early period of de Predis, are light in the carnations, and


3 ' Says Maestro Ambrogio — Give 4 The drawing for these por-

raisins to the Count — And he with traits (see illustration) I afterwards

smiling face —Asks for capons.' found in the Venice Academy under

The lines refer to young Massimi- the name of Leonardo, liano Sforza at table. 5 Now at Bergamo.

o 2


188 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

the smalto, resembling that of the profile in the Ambrosiana, is peculiarly distinctive.

The following works of his later years (from about 1510- 1515) are superior in modelling, and display a browner tone in the flesh. 9. The portrait of Francesco Brivio, son of Jacopo Stefano, the Duke's counsellor, and, in 1514, lord of Melegnano ; in the Poldi collection at Milan, where it is ascribed to Vincenzo Foppa. 10. The profile of a refined- looking old man, in Dr. G. Frizzoni's collection. This too passed at one time as the work of Leonardo — an attribution approved in 1848 by the Florentine Academy, (-f-) 11. The profile of a youth of twenty, wearing the ducal chain round his neck, in the Morelli collection, (-f-) If I am not much mistaken, this splendidly modelled portrait represents Massimiliano Sforza, who reigned at Milan from 1512- 1515. 12. The profile portrait formerly in the corridor of the Uffizi (30 bis), attributed to Antonio del Pollajuolo, might prove to be by de Predis, if the thick mask of varnish now disfiguring the face were removed. The mouth appears to me modelled quite in his manner ; the way in which the heavy mass of hair is touched with light, and the detailed treatment of the eyelashes, recall his method. The model- ling of the eyes coincides with their treatment in all the before-mentioned portraits. It is, however, so much repainted that it would be unwise to make any positive assertion on the subject.

Both the year of de Predis' birth and that of his death are unknown. His first instruction in drawing he pro- bably derived from Christophorus de Predis, the celebrated miniaturist, and very likely his relation/' To judge from

6 In the Turin library we find GZT MA. DUX MDL. QVINTVS

an excellent example of the work of OPVS XOFORI DE PREDIS MVT.

this Modenese miniature painter, DIE 3. APRILIS. 1474. Other

who settled at Milan. I is signed : miniatures by him are in the pos-


AMBKOGIO DE PKEDIS.


189


some of his miniatures in the ' Libro del Jesus,' he may later have been under the influence of the school of Foppa, and in the beginning of the sixteenth century more especially under that of Leonardo. De Predis is a conscientious and careful painter, though his drawing and modelling are often defec- tive, particularly in the representation of the hand. In the portraits belonging to Dr. G. Frizzoni, in the likeness of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, and in that of Archinto, belonging respectively to Count Porro and to Mr. Fuller Maitland, the hands are coarse and wanting in life. 7


session of the d' Adda family at Milan, in the church of the Madonna del Monte at Varese, and elsewhere. 7 Some time after these lines had been written, Dr. Bode kindly sent me a copy of his article on the true portrait of Bianca Maria Sforza, in a private collection at Berlin (published in the Jahrbuch der Jconigl. preussischen Kunst- sammlungen, No. II. 1889). I am glad to be able to state that I entirely agree with him as regards both the person represented and his own estimate of the value of the painting. From the heliotype appended to the article I notice that nearly all the characteristics of Ambrogio de Predis, enumerated by me on p. 180, note 3, are pre- sent in this portrait. In addition to the distinctive drawing of the eyes with the detailed painting of the lashes, the stiff contour of the upper lip, the strong light on the bridge of the nose, and the dry minia- ture-like treatment of the accessories (jewels, &c.) — in addition to all these, I repeat, I had the satisfaction of observing that bright streak of light in the outer corner of the eye which may be seen in the portrait of theEmperor Maximilian, signed with


the master's name, and in the pro- file in the Ambrosiana. This is a characteristic which we may vainly seek for in the profile portraits of other contemporary Italian masters. As Dr. Bode justly remarks, the face of the woman in the Ambrosiana is infinitely more attractive and in- telligent than that of Bianca Maria. Might this not be owing rather to the nature of the subject than to the merits of the artist ? The Berlin critic is decidedly not of this opinion. ' The contrast,' he writes, ' between the profile in the Am- brosiana and the portrait of Bianca Maria is about as great as it can be. It is but an example of the immense gulf separating the works of one of the greatest painters of all times from those of his plodding mechan- ical imitator.' The aesthetic esti- mate of works of art should always, I consider, be left to each individual observer ; yet I must remind my readers that even in this particular Dr. Bode and I differ materially, and I am often forced to class his ver- dicts on Italian pictures in that category which M. de Pourceaugnac would term sujettes a caution. Thus T for instance, he cites two portraits as originals which I can only regard


190


THE BOIWHESE GALLERY.


BERNARDINO DE' CONTI.

The earlier works of Ambrogio de Predis show a decided affinity with the later portraits of Bernardino de' Conti


as copies. One of these, belong- ing to Mr. George Salting in London, he discusses on p. 9 ; the other is the portrait in the Pitti (No. 371) of Beatrice Sforza, wife of il Moro, there attributed to Piero della Francesca. When I saw Mr. Salting's portrait I was accom- panied by several good authorities on art, among them Dr. J. P. Richter. At the first glance we all recognised it as a very poor copy of the Ambrosiana portrait : it cer- tainly never occurred to any of us to ascribe it to A. de Predis. Similar copies, equally bad, of por- traits by this once renowned painter may be seen in the Museo Civico at Milan, and elsewhere. I have since heard that after our visit Mr. Salt- ing took steps to rid himself as speedily as possible of his supposed treasure. The portrait in the Pitti Dr. Bode describes (p. 6) as ' a beau- tiful Ferrarese work,' by the hand of Lorenzo Costa. I venture to think, however, that an exami- nation of Costa's fine and genuine portrait of Bentivoglio on the same wall would induce the German critic to think differently of this uninter- esting work. In support of his views about A. de Predis, Dr. Bode quotes against me the judgment pronounced upon the Ambrosiana portrait by my friend the late Mr. .Miindler, whom he rightly charac- terises as ' that refined and astute connoisseur of Italian art.' I had the good fortune to know this gifted Bavarian critic intimately. For two years I was constantly with him in


Paris, and together we studied the works of art in the Louvre. I can testify that at that time — namely, about forty years ago — Miindler was almost unrivalled in his intimate knowledge of Italian painting. Yet his modesty was such that, when occasionally led into error by his enthusiasm, he was always willing to be corrected by less competent connoisseurs than himself. For, like all men of real learning, Miindler had a horror of self-asser- tion and dogmatising. Ever anxious to improve his own knowledge, he would never have thought of dis- coursing to others on what he did not thoroughly understand himself. I feel convinced that, were he still alive, he would openly admit his mis- takes, all of them most pardonable, considering the state of art-criticism in his day, and that he would no longer regard the profile in the Ambrosiana, the fresco at Vaprio (il Madonnone), or the " Vierge aux Bochers " in the National Gallery, as works by Leonardo. For since the days of Miindler the science of art-criticism has advanced, if with no great strides, at least in some degree, and that not only in the knowledge of Dutch art, in which, as is well known, Dr. Bode has gathered many laurels, but also in that of Italian painting. A more assiduous study of the Italian schools has led to various discoveries, whioh, though still called in question, as is' inevitable, will in the end, I believe, maintain their ground.


BERNARDINO DE ! CONTI. 191

(from about 1505), which makes it probable that Bernar- dino, besides being influenced by Leonardo, was also affected by de Predis. Works by this little-known Milanese painter, Bernardino de' Conti, are often confounded with those of Leonardo. Only Lomazzo and Orlandi, two very untrustworthy writers on art, mention him. He is said to have come from Pavia, and may, therefore, have received his first instruction from Vmcenzo Foppa or from Civerchio. The brownish-red flesh tints, and the peculiar arrangement of the drapery in his painting in the Brera of 1496, seem to point to the school of Foppa. Later, when at Milan, Conti must have felt the influence of both Leonardo and de Predis. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii. 67) simply name him as the pupil of Zenale, and enumerate a few of his works — the portrait of a prelate in the Berlin Museum, signed and dated 1499 ; a Madonna and Child, in Munich, formerly in the collection at Schleissheim ; a replica of this latter, and a " Marriage of St. Catherine," in the gallery at Bergamo, and a Madonna in the Poldi- Pezzoli collection at Milan. The Madonna at Munich I con- sider to be an old copy, and the two pictures at Bergamo can only be regarded as works of the school ; the inscription and date, 1501, on one of these is scarcely likely to be by the master's own hand. Dr. Bode, following in the steps of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, describes Ber- nardino, in a few slighting remarks, as a most inferior painter. The aesthetic estimate of works of art is a subject on which much might be said, for as the peripatetics rightly observed : omne quod recypitwr ad modum recipientis recipitur.

Adhering to our usual method, however, we will first particularise those characteristic signs which distinguish the paintings and drawings of this master from those of other •contemporary Milanese artists, and from those of Leonardo,


192 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

with whom Conti is frequently confounded, more especially in drawings.

1. In his paintings, dating from the fifteenth century — for example the large altar-piece in the Brera formerly attributed to Zenale, and the portrait of a prelate of 1499 in the Berlin Museum — the carnations incline to red ; in his later works — for instance, the portrait of 1505, belonging to the Countess d' Angrogna at Turin, the one in Mr. A. Morrison's collection in London, and the Madonna and Child at St. Petersburg — the flesh tints are pale and cold, and of a smalto which recalls the portraits of de Predis' first period.

2. The antihelix of the ear is extremely broad, hence the opening of the ear becomes very narrow.

3. The shadow between the eye and the upper part of the nose is strongly marked.

4. In the heads of his female figures the hair is drawn down smoothly over the temples.

5. The fingers are ungraceful in their movements, like those of Antonio del Pollajuolo, and the nails are short and broad.

6. His drawings are nearly all neatly and carefully executed in silver point ; the shading is not from left to right, after the manner of Leonardo, but from right to left.

7. The mouth is not so hard in modelling as in the portraits of de Predis.

Taking into consideration all these characteristics, I should ascribe the following to Bernardino de' Conti :

1. The large altar-piece in the Brera (No. 87) — the

adonna enthroned with the Child, between the four Fathers

of the Church, whose heads are caricatures of Leonardo's

types. Ludovico Sforza and his family kneel at the foot

of the throne. This picture is now rightly ascribed to



To face fi. 192.


Virgin and Child. By dk' Conti.

(St. Petersburg.)



Portrait of Massimiliano Sforza. By de' Contl

(In the Ambrosiana / To face fi. iys


BERNARDINO DE' CONTI. 193

Conti (f) ; at one time it passed as the work of Leonardo, and when it first came to the Brera was, for no reason at all, assigned to Zenale, much in the same way that Baron Eumohr's picture by Giovanni Santi, at Berlin, was suddenly transformed into Timoteo Yiti's masterpiece.

2. The so-called portrait of Lucas van Leyden by him- self, in theUffizi (No. 444), appears to me an old copy after Conti, rather than an original, (f)

3. The female portrait belonging to Mr. A. Morrison in London. It was formerly in the Castelbarco collection at Milan, where it was ascribed to Leonardo, (f)

4. The portrait of Catellanus Trivulcius, signed and dated 1505, in the collection of the Countess d' Angrogna at Turin.

5. The charming little Madonna and Child, once in the Palazzo Litta at Milan and now at St. Petersburg, where it still retains the name of Leonardo. The small broad nails, the flesh tints, and the smooth hair of the Madonna drawn down over her temples, are characteristic of the master in this painting, (-f*)

6. The Madonna in the Poldi collection.

I shall now cite a few of the many drawings by Bernardino attributed to Leonardo in public collections, in order that students may test my attributions ; as in every branch of research the same principle holds good, that arguments unless well sustained are worthless.

7. In the Ambrosiana, the drawing for the profile head of MassimiHano Sforza in Conti's large altar-piece in the Brera (No. 87). The master's characteristic form of ear may be studied in the reproduction, (f) (Braun, No. 38.)

8. The large silver point drawing in the British Museum ascribed to Leonardo (Braun 45) — another study for Conti's altar-piece in the Brera. (f )

9. Head of a man ; three-quarter face, silver point. In


194 THE BOKGHESE GALLEEY.

the Louvre. Also attributed to Leonardo, (f) (Braun, No. 169.)

10. The Leonardesque head of an old man. British Museum, vol. 36, P. p. 1, 35. (f)

11. A splendid head of a man, silver point, in Mr. Malcolm's fine collection of drawings (No. 39), ascribed to Leonardo, (-f-)

12. A female head with long hair. Christ Church collec- tion, Oxford ; ascribed to Leonardo, (-f-)

Like Ambrogio de Predis, Bernardino de' Conti was evidently very popular as a portrait painter at Milan in the first decades of the sixteenth century. He cannot be classed with the great masters, but occasionally he suc- ceeded in producing works which, like the Madonna at St. Petersburg, deceive even so-called connoisseurs of Leonardo and of the Milanese school.

I have devoted more space than I had originally intended to these two ' mechanical ' Lombard painters, as it has been said (' Deutsche Litteraturzeitung,' for 1886, No. 42) that, beyond the opposition which my opinions must provoke, I have done nothing towards furthering the knowledge of de Predis and Conti, two painters, I may observe, who were both equally unknown till I rescued them from oblivion.


FRANCESCO FEANCIA.

We must now turn to Francesco Francia, to whom several paintings in the Borghese gallery are attributed. It would be difficult to name another work by this devout and excellent artist so deeply imbued with feeling as the St. Stephen (No. 65), which is of his early period, 1490-1496. The saint kneels in a landscape with folded hands ; blood fl ows from a deep wound in his head ;


FEANCESCO FEANCIA. 195

and he awaits his approaching end with an expression of steadfast faith. Few paintings are so full of the essence of the purest art as this St. Stephen. On a ' Cartellino ' is the following inscription : —

VlNCBNTII . DESIDEEII . VOTVM . FrANCIE . ExPRESSVM . MANV .

The " Madonna and Child in the Eose-garden " probably belongs, in execution at least, to one of Francia's better pupils or many imitators, while the " Lucretia " (*) is, again, an excellent work entirely by the master's own hand. 8 The remaining Madonnas and the " St. Anthony," which pass under the name of Francia (Nos. 57, 34, 60a), are only works of his school ; the same may be said of the Madonnas ascribed to him in the Vatican and in the Doria gallery.

A genuine, though unfinished, work by him is the large picture in the first room of the Capitoline gallery. Francia commenced it, and the part executed by himself is easily identified ; some Bolognese artist of the seventeenth century probably completed it, adding several figures, and the dog and other accessories. It may have been Francia's last work, dating from the same year as the altar-piece in the Facci chapel of S. Stefano at Bologna. 9

In the same room is another picture attributed to this master — the Madonna enthroned, with the Child ; SS. Peter, Paul, and John the Baptist, on the right of the throne, and SS. Andrew, John the Evangelist, and Francis on the left. The elaborately gilded architectural decoration points to a painter who was influenced by Palmezzano.

s This Lucretia is probably the old and good copy is in Lord North- painting described by Vasari (vi. 11) : brook's collection in London. ' II duca Guido Baldo parimente ha 9 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle nella sua guardaroba, di mano del ascribe this altar-piece to Giacomo Eraneia, in un quadro una Lucrezia Francia. (N. Italy, i. 574, note 3.) romana, da lui molto stimata.' An


196 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

The type of the Madonna, the form of hand and ear hi the Child, and the landscape, are apparently taken from Francia, the types of St. Francis and of the remaining saints, which are caricatures, recall Palmezzano, whilst the fruit introduced about the throne reminds us of the school of Crivelli. The picture is dated 1513, and might be by some painter of the March of Ancona. As I have thus mentioned one of Francia's latest works I may draw atten- tion to one of his earliest attempts — the small St. George and the Dragon in the Corsini gallery. It has always been looked upon as the work of Ercole Grandi di Giulio Cesare, and j^ears ago I myself cited it as such. But after a closer study I recognised it as an early work of Francesco Francia, of about the same period (f) (1490-1494) as the following pictures : the small " Crucifixion " in the Archiginnasio at Bologna (f), the Madonna (No. 1040) in the Munich Pina- cothek, and the paintings executed for the Bianchini family (now in the Berlin Museum), and for the Felicini family (now in the gallery at Bologna). In the Tri- bune of the Uffizi at Florence we find an excellent, but much-restored, portrait of Evangelista Scappi by the master.

Most of Francia's best works are still in his native city of Bologna — in the public gallery, in the churches of S. Jacopo Maggiore, S. Martino, and S. Vitale, and in the chapel of S. Cecilia. Francia stood much in the same relation to Lorenzo Costa as did Perugino to Pintoriechio. Both Costa and Pintoriechio are more imaginative, animated, and dramatic than Francia and Perugino, who, however, in their early works at least, are more correct as draughtsmen and more conscientious as painters. The single figures in the pictures of the two latter are executed with greater care, yet one pervading thought and purpose does not inspire and animate them equally — in a word, each is


SOFONISBA ANGUISSOLA. 197

isolated and independent. Nevertheless they touch the spectator by their sweet and devout expression.

SOFONISBA ANGUISSOLA.

We have still to mention a late, but at one time famous, Lombard painter to whom a small female portrait in the Borghese gallery is attributed. It is numbered 118, and is the work of a woman. The catalogue ascribes it to Sofonisba Anguissola, the friend in her old age of the young Van Dyck. She came of a patrician family of Cremona, and in her seventh year was sent by her father, Hamilcar, to the Cremonese artist, Bernardino Campi, to be instructed in painting.

When some years later (1550) Campi was summoned to Milan, the further training of the young artist was en- trusted to Bernardino Gatti, called ' il Sojaro,' an imitator of Correggio and Parmeggianino, who was then living at Cremona. By 1559 Sofonisba had already gained so great a reputation that Philip II. sent for her to his court at Madrid. The earliest work known to me by her is the portrait of a dark-eyed nun, belonging to Lord Yarborough in London, signed, and dated 1551. She must therefore have painted this portrait, which has real merit, in her eleventh, or, at latest, in her twelfth year — very likely with the assistance of her master. In her own portrait in the public gallery at Vienna, dated 1554, and inscribed : Sophonisba . Angvissola . Virgo . Se . Ipsam . Fecit, she looks about fourteen or fifteen. There are some half-dozen other portraits of herself in existence. One, in the Academy at Siena, represents her as a girl of about eighteen or nine- teen, and must therefore have been executed about 1558. Beside her stands a man with a pencil in his hand — probably her former master, Bernardino Campi, who was


198 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

born about 1522, and looks about forty in this picture. The figures are life-size. Another, much damaged, be- longed to the late Duke Melzi at Milan. A still later one, in the collection of portraits in the Uffizi, is signed : Sophonisba . Angvissola . Crem 1 * [Oenionensis] . Aet. Svae . Ann . XX. It was probably painted at Madrid, as the reference to her own home in the inscription would also seem to indicate.

There are several portraits by Sofonisba Anguissola in England — in the collections of Lord Spencer, of the late Mr. Danby Seymour, and of the late Sir William Stirling Maxwell. In the National Museum at Berlin (Raczynski collection) there is a fine painting by her with the portraits of three of her sisters ; another is in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, bought from theLeuchtenberg collection, and one in the Naples Museum. A pretty little "Holy Family" belongs to the author, 1 inscribed, Sophonisba . Anagvssola [sic] . Adolescens . P . 1559, and consequently painted in the year when the young artist, aged eighteen or nineteen, was summoned to Madrid by Philip II. 2

She is decidedly an interesting artist, commended even by Michael Angelo, and highly extolled by Vasari. Great diversity of opinion exists as to the date of her birth and death. She must have been born, I think, about 1539, at Cremona. In her portrait of herself, of about 1554, she looks, as already observed, about fourteen or fifteen. Had she been born in 1530, as most of her biographers state, she would scarcely have described herself as adolescens in 1559 (as on the picture in the Morelli collection), for she would at that time have been close upon thirty.

1 Now in the gallery at Ber- the late Count Varano at Ferrara.

gamo. I wn not acquainted with any other

- Many years ago I saw a replica Madonnas by this artist, of this picture in the collection of


SOFONISBA ANGUISSOLA. 19t>

From about 1559 to 1570 Sofonisba appears to have remained at the Spanish Court. There she married a Sicilian noble, named Moncada, whom later she accom- panied to Palermo, where he died. She married, secondly, a Genoese patrician named Lomellini, and settled at Genoa. In 1624 the young Van Dyck, arriving in that city from Palermo, made her personal acquaintance, and is said to have painted the portrait of the old lady, who was then blind, in 1625. A year later she died, aged about eighty- six.

Most of her portraits pass under other names ; they are all fresh and spirited in conception and solidly painted. In Madrid I met with no work by her. The life-sized portrait in the gallery there, representing the Cremonese phy- sician, Piermaria (No. 15), is signed : Lvcia . Angvisola . Amilcaris . F. Adolescens. This Lucia was, if I am not mistaken, Sofonisba's second sister and her pupil. At Brescia there is a naive little portrait by her of a third sister, Europa Anguissola, and it was Lucia, I consider, and not Sofonisba, who painted the small female portrait in the Borghese gallery, (-f-) The third sister, Europa, was also an artist, as Vasari, who visited her at Cremona in 1568, states (xi. 260), and so, too, was the youngest sister, 3 Anna Maria. Years ago I met with an unattractive little painting by her belonging to the Vicario of S. Pietro, at Cremona. The subject was a "Holy Family," with St. Francis presenting a basket of grapes and mulberries to the Infant Saviour. It was inscribed in gold letters : Annae . Mariae . Amilcaris . Angvsolae . Filiae. Italy was, I believe, the only country in Europe in which so many women once devoted themselves to painting as a profession,

3 There were besides two other Graselli : ' Abecedario biografico dei sisters, one of whom died young, Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti the other became a nun. See Cremonesi.'


'200 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

and attained, moreover, to a certain degree of proficiency. Among others may be named : the devout Catarina Vigri, 4 of Bologna; Titian's pupil, Irene of Spilimbergo; the Sisters Anguissola ; Marietta Eobusti ; 5 Barbara Longhi, of Bavenna ; Agnese Dolci, of Florence ; Lavinia Fontana, of Bologna ; and Galizia Fede, of Trent.


THE FERRARESE.

Having thus glanced at the Florentine and other Italian schools, we will turn our attention to some Ferrarese painters who are well represented in the Borghese gallery.

BENVENUTO TISI, called GAKOFALO.

We meet with works by Garofalo and Dosso Dossi at every turn, and some of them are worthy to be regarded as among the greatest ornaments of the collection. We will begin with Garofalo and his school. He was a few years younger than his fellow-countryman Dosso, and I should consider him in many ways inferior as an artist to the latter, but we will give him the precedence, as he may be studied in Borne better than in any other place, for not even in Ferrara do we find so many specimens of his art showing every phase of his development. Most of these Ferrarese works were probably brought to Rome in the beginning of the eighteenth century, when, through the family of the Aldobrandini, the turn came for Ferrara to be annexed to the Papal States, for a political destiny sways the fate of pictures as of nations. Though Vasari knew Garofalo personally, his biography of him, as of most other

4 A work by her is in the Venice s Several portraits by her are in

Academy. the gallery at Madrid.


GAKOFALO. 201

artists, is full of anachronisms. In the main, however, it appears to be correct. It contains the following facts : that Garofalo was born at Ferrara in 1481, and died there in 1559, aged consequently seventy-eight, and that when about fifty he almost entirely lost the sight of one eye, which did not, however, in any way interfere with his activity in painting. His artistic life covered a space of close upon fifty years, and, being a man of immense in- dustry, he must undoubtedly have executed a great number of works, as is proved by those seen in the Koman galleries. His father, Pietro Tisi (a shoemaker, like Sodoma's father), came from the little village of Garofalo in the province of Padua, hence the son is usually known as Benvenuto da Garofalo, or simply as Garofalo. About 1491, when ten years old, he was sent by his father to Domenico Panetti, a dry and somewhat unpleasing Ferrarese artist, but thoroughly able and conscientious, as his works in the gallery of Ferrara prove, and at that time, no doubt, the most popular painter in that city. Panetti, Francesco Bianchi, and Costa appear to me to occupy about the same position in the history of the Ferrarese school as do Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, Pintoricchio, and Pietro Perugino in that of Perugia, and Francesco Morone, Girolamo dai Libri, and Bonsignori in that of Verona. Towards 1498, after about seven years of apprenticeship, the young Garo- falo started on his travels. He first went to Cremona, where he seems to have had a friend or relative in the person of the painter Soriani, and where Boccaccio Boccaccino, whom he may have known previously at Ferrara, was also actively employed. The latter painter, a representative of the Venetian rather than of the Milanese

6 In the school of Cosimo Tura, (d. 1510), who, according to tradition Panetti (d. 1512) was, I consider, a had the honour of being Correggio's fellow-pupil with Francesco Bianchi first master.


202 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

school, was at that time rightly regarded as the first artist in Cremona. Vasari relates, and the story has been re- peated by Barrufaldi, that on this occasion Garofalo saw Boccaccino's frescoes in the cathedral of Cremona, which, however, is chronologically impossible. The paintings in the choir were not executed before 1505 or 1506, and his series from the Life of the Madonna, like the frescoes by Komanino and his pupil Altobello Meloni in the same church, were only produced between 1513-1518. Accord- ing to a letter purporting to have been written by Boccac- cino to the father of Garofalo, the young man appears to have found employment with that master. It is probable, therefore, that though he could not have seen the frescoes mentioned by the biographer, he saw other paintings by Boccaccino in the master's workshop at Cremona, and was attracted by their splendid colouring. This letter is as follows : 7

' Highly honoured Sir ! — Had your son Benvegnu learnt good manners as thoroughly as he has learnt painting, he would scarcely have played me such a shabby trick. For, since the death of his uncle and your brother-in-law (?) Signor Niccolo (Soriani),on the 3rd of January, he has never touched a brush, though he knows well enough what a fine work he was engaged upon. But this is not all. He has taken himself off, I know not whither, and without a word. I had procured work for him, but he has departed, leaving it all unfinished, and moreover leaving all his own effects and those of Signor Niccolo in my house. I can tell you no- thing further about him. But this may be a clue to his whereabouts that he said, if he is to be believed, that he would see Bome, and it may be therefore that he has gone


7 Some recent critics regard this letter as apocryphal, but I think without sullicicnt reason.


GABOFALO. 203

thither. It is ten days now since he disappeared, in such bitter weather that the cold was almost unbearable. I salute you, and am yours in brotherly regard,

' Boccaccino.

' Cremona, January 29, 1499.'

To judge from this letter Benvenuto appears to have been of a somewhat unruly and determined character. On January 19, 1499, in the depth of winter, at the age of eighteen, he left the workshop of Boccaccino and Cremona for Eome. The journey was apparently a sudden resolve. Vasari tells us that on his arrival he lodged in the house- of the Florentine artist Giovanni Baldini (probably a rela- tion of the famous Baccio Baldini), where he had the opportunity of seeing and copying many drawings by great Florentine masters. The news of his father's severe illness recalled him suddenly to Ferrara. Here he appears to have formed a warm friendship with the brothers Giovanni and Battista Dossi, to have worked for a short time under their influence, 8 and, later, to have been employed with them in the service of the Duke Alfonso d' Este and his beautiful wife Lucrezia Borgia, then in her twenty-fourth year. The elder Dossi, Giovanni, was then also between twenty-four and twenty-five years of age and Garofalo about twenty-two or twenty-three — undoubtedly the best and brightest years in the life of a gifted artist. Masaccio, Filippino Lippi, Mantegna, Andrea del Sarto, even Baphael himself, were not much more than twenty when they executed some of their finest works, and at the court of the highly cultured Alfonso d' Este, we may be sure, employment for painters was not wanting.

Garofalo's large "Descent from the Cross " and Dosso's

8 Much in his early work, Battista Dosso more than Gio- the " Adoration of the Shepherds," vanni. in the Borghese gallery, recalls

p 2


204 THE BORGHESE GALLEKY.

two works, the so-called " Circe," and the " Calisto " — characteristic paintings in the Borghese gallery of both artists — show how close must have been the connection be- tween them. Whose influence, it may be asked, was the dominant one ? Was it Garofalo who influenced Dosso, or the latter his younger fellow-countryman ? In my opinion the two stood in the same relation to each other as did Francia to Lorenzo Costa — each may have taken from and given something to the other. In all his works, both good and indifferent, Dosso reveals himself as a highly imaginative and, what we should in these days term, a ' romantic ' painter. In the main he does not change, but preserves the same artistic character throughout his life, whether in the freshness and vigour of his early period, as in the "Circe" and the "Calisto," or in his later years when, after a sojourn in Venice, he had mastered the manner of Giorgione and Titian. The same cannot be said of Garofalo, who was more elegant, sober and restrained as a painter. For though in all his works he too preserves his Ferrarese character, yet in the different phases of his development we can trace the influence of several masters — of his older prototypes Panetti and Boccaccino, of the brothers Dossi, and of Lorenzo Costa, and finally even that of Raphael.

Let us first examine his large " Descent from the Cross," in the Borghese gallery. 9 In it are nine nearly life-sized

9 In the Naples Museum there is of coarseness and vulgarity, the

a modified copy of 1521 (?) of this whole picture is absolutely repulsive

splendid painting by Garofalo ; an and even defective in linear per-

extremely feeble production which, spective. Dr. Bode (ii. 737) un-

strange to say, is there considered an hesitatingly accepts it as an original,

original. The Magdalen, bewailing I must, however, assume that he is

the Dead Body of the Saviour, ex- not intimately acquainted with the

presses her grief by exaggerated con- Ferrarese school, as he ascribes

tortionsof the face; the women in the Bagnacavallo's 'Cavalcade' in the

middle distance are the very essence Palazzo Colonna to Garofalo. Life


GAKOFALO. 205

figures, all showing deep emotion. In the background is a fantastic landscape quite in Dosso's style, with St. Christopher bearing the Holy Child across a river. The cold tone of this landscape, the chalky light on the rocks and on the flat reaches of country, contrast strongly with the warm brown flesh-tints of the figures in the foreground ; an arrangement much in vogue with Venetian painters. Garofalo's colouring is distinctive in all his early works. He usually employed a full deep yellow, a red of a beetroot shade, a bright blue, and a luminous white. It would have been fortunate I think for his art, had he always remained true to his Ferrarese instincts, as his best and most powerful works were certainly produced during the five or six years when he was constantly with the brothers Dossi. We will now consider some of his pictures in Eome, and as far as possible in their chronological order.

The earliest I know is the small " Adoration of the Shepherds," No. 224, in the Borghese gallery. Both the feeling and execution show it to be a very youthful work. The stiff heavy folds on the Madonna's blue mantle still belong to the quattro-cento, and the figure of St. Joseph is abnormally long in the upper part. The flesh-tints in- cline to brown, as in the " Descent from the Cross," and the fantastic landscape is similar to the one in that painting. Following my method, let us first note the characteristics in this early work of Garofalo so as to compare it with his later pictures. 1. The type of St. Joseph's head often recurs in works of Garofalo's early period ; 2. The noses are straight ; 3. Stiff cross folds occur on the front part of the sleeves ; 4. The hand has the thumb turned outwards and the forefinger bent; 5. The ear is long in form and

is too short and art a subject too pass it in all its many and varied vast for one man, however able and phases, persevering, to grasp and com-


206 THE BOBGHESE GALLEBY.

uniformly broad ; and 6. The landscape shows a straight line of hills with a steep declivity on one side ; a stretch of country in the middle distance illuminated with a chalky " yellow light ; the sky is red in tone towards the horizon ; a group of dark trees is as usual introduced, behind which other trees with light brown foliage are seen, and in the foreground are numerous small round stones — all these particulars are very characteristic of the master's works of the same period.

Several years later than this picture I should place the spirited and beautiful "Adoration," or "Nativity," No. 312 in the Doria gallery (f), attributed to Ortolano. St. Joseph is of the usual type, and besides we find in it all the other characteristics just mentioned — the straight nose, the same form of hand and ear, the peculiar distribution of light in the landscape, the redness of the horizon and the same treatment of drapery ; but there is more skill shown than in the preceding picture. The choir of singing angels in the ah', often met with in Garofalo's works, seems to me characteristic in this picture in the Doria gallery. On comparing it with a much later work by Garofalo in the same gallery, No. 206, we shall even find in that picture many of the characteristics of the "Nativity" — the same form of hand, the same types and general treatment, as well as the distinctive reddish-yellow tone of the horizon. In the same gallery there is another large work by Garofalo, a "Visitation," of 1519 (No. 228), and here again we see the same round stones in the foreground, the same land- scape and treatment of drapery, with the stiff cross folds on St. Elizabeth's sleeves, the same arrangement of head- dress, &c.

After this " Adoration " follow, I think, in point of time the two panels with SS. Sebastian and Nicholas of Bari, in the Capitoline gallery (Nos. 70 and 87) (f), attri-


GAKOFALO. 207

buted without the smallest reason to Giovanni Bellini, although they contain all Garofalo's characteristics.

About 1508, in his twenty-seventh year, Garofalo may have painted the large " Descent from the Cross " in the Borghese gallery, 1 and a year later, perhaps, the splendid picture in the National Gallery (f ) attributed to Ortolano, representing St. Sebastian between SS. Boch and Demetrius. The central figure recalls Dosso's St. Sebastian in the Brera. Garofalo's characteristics are apparent in the form of hand, the brown flesh-tints, the drapery, the landscape, and the small stones in the foreground.

A small St. Sebastian by the master in the Sala Vene- ziana of the Naples museum (No. 39) also recalls Dosso, and so does a beautiful little picture in the gallery at Bergamo — the Madonna enthroned with the Child between SS. Boch and Sebastian.

Immediately after executing these works, Garofalo may have painted the "Noli me tangere " (No. 244) in the Borghese gallery, and the "Santa Conversazione" in one of the rooms of the Doria gallery, there most erroneously ascribed to Basaiti. In the latter fine painting we find the same form of hand as in the " Adoration of the Shepherds " in the Borghese gallery ; the same shade of straw-coloured yellow in the sandals of Zacharias, who has also the usual distinctive type of head; the same treatment of drapery, the same arrangement in the headdress of St. Elizabeth, the same long folds in the upper part of the Madonna's robe, and the same landscape with the small stones in the foreground. This picture, the "Noli me tangere," and " Christ at the Well with the Woman of Samaria " (No. 235) in the Borghese gallery, belong, I believe, to Garofalo's period of transition, from his manner resembling that of

1 The Marchese Visconti Venosta a head of St. Anthony — in his col- has a Garofalo of the same period — lection at Milan.


208 THE BOKGHESE GALLERY.

Dosso, to his third manner when he was influenced by Costa. In the Doria gallery we find a small "Holy Family " by Garofalo attributed to Costa. The head of the Madonna certainly recalls that painter, and it is probable that Garofalo, who is known to have spent some time at Mantua with Dosso Dossi in 1511, there felt the influence of Costa's works. In 1512, a little later there- fore, he painted the fine picture of " Poseidon and Athene," - in the Dresden gallery.

Then follows the Holy Family of 1513 in the gallery at Ferrara (No. 93), there attributed to Ortolano. 3 From this time Garofalo's style remains almost unchanged, and up to 1530, and even later, he produced excellent work. It would be a tedious task to describe, or even to enumerate, the many paintings, large and small, by Garofalo and his imitators, contained in Italian collections. But for a student it would certainly be worth while to trace the development of this painter through the works of his early, middle, and later period.

To return to his biography. We left him fully occupied at Ferrara seeking to rival the brothers Dossi. Towards the close of 1509 he was invited to Eome by his fellow-

- This painting, as well as the the period when Garofalo was work- " Holy Family," of 1513,inthegallery ing with the Dossi, the one in of Ferrara, certainly recalls Lorenzo Dresden to the transitional period Costa more than Raphael. Braun has when he was under the influence of photographed the Dresden picture Costa, about three years later. {No. 156) as well as the one ascribed s In this picture we find the to Ortolano in the National Gallery same small stones, the group of (No. 669). Comparing these two trees, behind which the light brown photographs, we shall find Garofalo's foliage of other trees is seen, and the characteristics in both ; the land- same form of hand and ear. It is scape with the chalky lights, the inscribed : m.dxiii., rviii. This men- group of trees in the middle distance* tion of the month is also charac- the round stones in the foreground, teristic of Garofalo. Close by there the drapery, the form of the hands is another picture by the master (No and feet, and the types of the heads. 65) dated December, 1514. The picture in London belongs to


GAEOFALO. 209

countryman Geronimo Sagrato. 4 In the Eternal City Garofalo saw the ceiling of the Sistine chapel, then partly completed, and in all probability also the Cartoons and the drawings on which Eaphael was then engaged for the frescoes in the ' Stanza della Segnatura,' even if he did not see the frescoes themselves. An artist's life in Eome must indeed have been a stirring one in the days when Garofalo, as a man of twenty-nine, returned thither. Fierce rivalry and burning enthusiasm were rife among the painters gathered round the throne of the aged pontiff -Julius II., and it is not astonishing that Benvenuto, con= trasting the art-life of Eome with that of Ferrara, Bologna, or even Cremona, should have given the preference to the first-mentioned city. It was for this reason, perhaps, that Vasari said of him that he ' malediva le maniere di Lombardia ; ' and from this point of view the biographer may be excused for having done so. 5

The Florentine editors and commentators of Vasari have sought, as usual, to exonerate 6 him from the reproach of showing too great a predilection, or even partisanship, for the Tuscans, and especially for the so-called Eoman school. As is often the case, however, with well-intentioned but not particularly well-informed persons, they did a far greater wrong to the Lombard and Venetian schools, than did even Vasari himself by his thoughtless words, by adding the


4 Vasari states that Garofalo di poco disegno.' There are also returned to Eome as early as 1505 critics in the present day who, de- (xi. 224). This was probably a slip voting themselves to the study of of the pen, as the painter could one particular master of the qiiat- scarcely have seen the works of tro-cento, imagine that they can Michael Angelo and Eaphael at that detect traces of his genius every - date ! where, even where they are alto-

5 Vasari's standard of excellence gether absent. To these persons the induced him to stigmatise all art great artists of the best period are which had not been formed upon positively intolerable.

Michael Angelo as ' Minuta, secca e 6 Le Monnier's ed. xi. 225.


210 THE BORG-HESE GALLERY.

following naive remark : ' Certamente il Vasari intese di alludere alia grettezza delle scuole primitive (?) innanzi clie Leonardo ne fondasse una nuova.' ' Troppa grazia, S. Antonio,' the Lombards and Venetians might reply, like the peasant who, after offering up prayers to the Saint for rain, was rewarded by a downpour of hail. ' Had we no painters then ? ' they might add, ' and were Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, Alvise Vivarini, Mantegna, Bartolommeo Montagna, Domenico Morone, Giorgione, and Titian, all of no consequence, to say nothing of many other great artists ? '

Vasari further says of Garofalo : ' per lo che muto in tanto la practica cattiva in buona, che n'era tenuto dagli artefici conto.' In other words, during his second stay in Borne, like other painters greater than himself, he partially lost his local Ferrarese character, while his fresh and healthy vigour entirely disappeared. In some respects he certainly improved, more especially in his external forms and in refinement ; at the same time it can- not be denied that he became flat, insipid, and sometimes even empty and conventional. Dosso, on the other hand, who held to Venetian principles, and had studied the practice of his art at Venice, nevertheless developed his dis- tinctive character with greater freedom, and therefore always preserved his own originality. In his early works, Garo- falo reveals himself as a true artist — bold, resolute, at times even grand and impressive. He is equally removed from that narrow, prosaic realism, which appeals so strongly to a certain class of small-minded persons in the world of art, and from that shadowy idealism which to some pedantic philosophers and ' aesthetes ' is the principal attraction in a work of art, and stimulates them to many of their rhap- sodical flights.

In the " Holy Family, with Saints," in the Borghese


GAKOFALO. 211

gallery (No. 240) — a picture which generally receives a large amount of admiration — we already detect a change in Garofalo. He is still an attractive, conscientious painter ; his technical execution, indeed, has improved in some respects, but his drawing is weaker, his touch less decided, and his conception of character is more trivial, insipid, and conventional. The scale of colour still resembles that of his early works, though it is more realistic, as we may see by comparing this picture with those already described — the "Nativity" in the Doria gallery and the "Descent from the Cross," and " Adoration of the Shepherds "~ in the Borghese. The shadows, which in Garofalo's youthful works were of a liquid brown, now incline to black.

Garofalo's stay in Eome lasted about a year and a half. In 1511 he was at Mantua, and in 1512 we find him settled at Ferrara, which city he never again quitted for any length of time. In the gallery there we find works by him ranging from 1513 to 1549. 7 The large altar-pieces on which he was often employed from this period to the end of his life are nearly all inscribed with the year, and often with the month, in which the painting was completed, though not always with the master's name. Some of them, executed in the second and third decades of the century, are extremely fine. It is from the great number of his works of this date that an estimate of the master has usually been formed. 8

7 As a painter, as we have already chiaroscuro frescoes (of 1517) in

observed, Garofalo always remained the Seminario at Ferrara, formerly

a Ferrarese, even after his second the Palazzo Trotti, representing epi-

visit to Eome — as an artist he sodes from Grecian mythology and

brought away with him certain Christian legends. Few buildings in

classic impressions. Home refined Italy are decorated with equal taste

his taste, but it also warped his and intelligence, genius. Eaphael's influence is most s Garofalo signs some of his

clearly perceptible in his beautiful pictures, BENVEGNV ; others,


212 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Garofalo's fellow-countrymen have called him • the Ferrarese Raphael,' in the same way that the Milanese have called Luini ' the Lombard Raphael,' and, if properly understood, both appellations have then meaning ; for both these painters occupy much the same position in their re- spective schools as did Raphael in the Umbrian school, Francesco Carotto in the Veronese, Andrea del Sarto in the Florentine, &c, though the individual gifts of each were, of course, very different.

Benvenuto Garofalo died at Ferrara in 1559. His mother's name was not Girolama Soriani, as hitherto stated, but Antonia Barbiani. His wife was Caterina di Ambrogio Scoperti, called della Grana, widow of Niccolo Besuzzi. His youngest son, Girolamo, born in 1536, devoted himself to science, became a distinguished scholar, and was chancellor of the University of Ferrara in 1576. He wrote a biography of Ariosto for the edition of 1584 of the " Orlando Furioso." 9

I have devoted a good deal of space to Garofalo, and have specified even the most apparently insignificant charac- teristics in his works. I felt bound to do so, among other reasons, because Dr. Bode refuses to acknowledge that the large " Descent from the Cross," and other pictures, which I hold to be early works of Garofalo, are by the master. Some years ago he ascribed them to Giovanni Battista Ben- venuti, called l'Ortolano (ii. 737) ; later to an anonymous painter whom he calls ' the Master of the Borghese Descent from the Cross.' Vasari certainly has not a word to say about Ortolano, or of this ' Master of the Descent from the Cross,' to whom Dr. Bode ascribes what he terms the ' finest Fer-


BENVEGNV DE GAROFALO again BENVENVTO GAROFALO. MDXXXV. ; others again, BENVEG- 9 See Mcmorie di L. Napolcone

NV GAROFALO, MDXXXIV., and Cittadella, Ferrara, 1872.


ORTOLANO. 213

rarese work of that date ; ' nor do any other contemporary writers mention this ' most important Ferrarese painter of the beginning of the sixteenth century.' The late Count Laderchi, one of the most careful and intelligent writers on the school of Ferrara, went so far as to doubt the very existence of a painter named Ortolano, and was disposed to regard him as a myth.

What is even of greater weight than Laderchi's personal opinion is the fact that the conscientious keeper of the Ferrara archives, the late Signor Napoleone Cittadella, was unable to discover a single document in which mention was made of the supposed artistic career of Ortolano. According to the latter writer, a painter named Giovan Battista Benvenuti, whose brother was a shoemaker, and his brother- in-law a fruit-seller, was acting as a witness at Ferrara in 1512. In all probability the father was a market gardener ; hence the painter, his son, received the name of ' dell' Ortolano ' (i.e. the son of the market gardener) . A few paintings ascribed to him in the second sacristy of the cathedral at Ferrara prove him to have been a weak imitator of Garofalo. 1 Had not the internal evidence of the paintings already convinced me that this splendid "Descent from the Cross," the "Nativity" in the Doria Palace, the two Saints in the Capitol, and the fine work in the English National Gallery, were early works by Garofalo, the proofs I have already brought forward ought to be sufficient to deter anyone from giving them to Ortolano. I am quite aware that many works by Garofalo were

1 The following works, corre- with half figures of Saints belonging

sponding with the panels in the to Cavaliere Santini, formerly in the

second sacristy of the cathedral, convent of S. Giorgio ; frescoes with

might consequently be attributed to Saints in the Palazzo Mas sari (for-

Ortolano : The fresco of the merly in S. Francesco), and the

Madonna and Child in the Atrium of "Annunciation" in the gallery at

the Palazzo Crispi (there given to Ferrara (No. 44). Girolamo da Carpi) ; the frescoes


214 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

ascribed to Benvenuti, especially in the last century ; probably only because the signature of Garofalo's Christian name (Benvegnu) was mistaken for Ortolano's surname. 2

Except in Borne and Ferrara, Garofalo is not well re- presented in public collections in Italy. In the Pitti, an Apostle's head (No. 5, a copy after Dosso) and the pretty little " Zingarella " by Boccaccio Boccaccino (No. 246) are attributed to him. There are some good specimens of his art in the gallery at Modena and in the Brera at Milan.

GIOVANNI DI LUTERO, called DOSSO DOSSI.

It is strange that Garofalo is never mentioned by his great compatriot Ariosto, while the poet in his " Orlando" (though not earlier certainly than the edition of 1532) praises the brothers Dossi even above their merits, in those well-known stanzas in which he ranks them with Leonardo, Mantegna, Giovanni Bellini, Michael Angelo, Raphael, and Titian. This may be accounted for by Garofalo's rather homely character, which had not much attraction for the poet. Dosso's nature, on the other hand, had many points in common with that of Ariosto, 3 though in his works he is occasionally unpolished and even slovenly. His fantastic and spirited " Circe," in the Borghese gallery, might be the embodiment of one of Ariosto's

- It is scarcely necessary to ob- in the seventeenth century. How

serve that the sketch-book men- could Ortolano have seen paintings

tioned by Barrufaldi (Vite de' Pittori by Raphael in Bologna at that date

&c. i. 108), under the title " Studio (1507 and 1508) ? di Me Zoane Bapta d° Benvegnu 3 Vasari says of him : ' Fu il

fatto in Bologna suxo le dipinture Dosso molto amato dal Duca

del Bagnacavallo et del Sanzio da Alfonso di Ferrara, prima per le sue

Urbino a li anni MDVII et MDVIII," qualita nell' arte della pittura, e poi

is in all probability nothing but one per essere uomo affabila molto e

of the many forgeries of so-called piacevole ' (ix. 22). documents, perpetrated at Bologna


DOSSO DOSSI. 215

poems. I have good reason for supposing that it is an early work, painted by him probably in the second decade of the sixteenth century ; it may therefore date from about 1516, when the first edition of the "Orlando" was published. Later, no doubt, Dosso produced more important works, which were unsurpassed in splendour of colour ; yet I can scarcely recall one — the noble figure of St. George at Modena perhaps excepted — which struck me as being so fresh and full of poetic feeling and charmed me as much as this Enchantress.

In No. 220 of the Borghese gallery, Dosso, and not^ Garofalo, as the catalogue informs us, has immortalised the nymph Calisto. 4 (f) Here, too, the landscape back- ground is most poetically conceived. There are several other works by Dosso in this collection under different names. In No. 1, Apollo is represented seated on a rock, and endeavouring, by the touching strains of his lyre, to stay the steps of the flying Daphne, (f) The catalogue is too modest to give this poetical but damaged work to Dosso himself, only assigning it to the school of Ferrara. The life-size figure of Apollo is vigorous and full of anima- tion; the landscape is original in treatment and charac- teristic of the master, as are also the rounded forms of .the hand and ear.

No. 22 is a large panel representing life-sized figures of a sick man and his wife imploring relief from SS. Cosmo and Damiano. (f) The catalogue gives this carelessly painted picture to the school of Paul Veronese. 5 It was very likely painted as a sign-board for an apothecary, and Dosso has introduced his name in a quaint fashion on a

4 Already in the seventeenth and from Modena. eighteenth centuries many works by 5 The two last-named pictures

Dosso were given to Garofalo, among have now, at my suggestion, been

others those which came to Dresden attributed to Dosso.


216 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

medicine pot, which is inscribed : ' Onto D . . . . ' i.e t Unto D'Osso (bone-fat).

I will now examine a picture in this gallery under Gior- gione's name, said to represent Saul and David. The colouring is certainly Giorgionesque. A warrior, fully armed, has near him the head of a giant, and behind him a page wearing a cap with red and white plumes. Whether it really represents Saul and David with the head of Goliath, or some episode from the " Orlando Furioso," is of little consequence. It is decidedly one of Dosso's later, and therefore less powerful, works. 6 (f )

From the researches of the late Signor Cittadella (" Notizie relative a Ferrara," 1864) it appears that Giovanni, son of Niccolo de Lutero, living in the Ducal Palace at Ferrara in 1528, had not then adopted the name of Dosso. It is not to be found in documents previous, to 1532, in which year ' J. Nicolai de Lutero ' is mentioned as ' Magister Dossus.' All his works signed with a ' D ' traversed by a bone belong to his later period (1525-1540) : for instance, the little picture of the "Money-changers driven out of the Temple," in the Doria gallery (No. 220) . We may infer that this master is not much under- stood in Eome, as, out of his five paintings in the Borghese gallery, only one is rightly attributed to him. 7 In other

6 Burckhardt mentions this pic- Borghese gallery betrays the touch

ture as a Giorgione. As the same of Pietro della Vecchia, more espe-

gifted writer describes the fine St. cially in the armour, in the head of

Sebastian in the Brera — which is Goliath, and in the hands of Saul,

unquestionably by Dosso, and not by This picture was certainly several

the brothers Dossi according to times copied by that painter, and

Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle — such copies may be seen in the

as a good work by Giorgione, he is public gallery at Vienna, in that

at least consistent in his opinions. of Padua (No. 531), and elsewhere. Kidolfi, with his usual uncritical " The " Presepio " (No. 217)

judgment (i. 130), assigns both is not, I think, by Giovanni

these pictures by Dosso to Giorgione. Dosso, as the catalogue states, but

Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii. more probably by his brother

104) consider that the example in the Battista.


DOSSO DOSSI. 217

Italian collections, as well as in England and Germany, Dosso fares no better. In the Capitoline gallery several works, which are wholly unworthy of him, bear his name ; for example, the feeble portrait of a man (Eoom L, No. 85) and the " Marriage of the Virgin " (Eoom I., No. 23), while the large "Holy Family " (Eoom II., No. 145), by no means one of his most attractive works, and spoilt, moreover, by unskilful cleaning, is given to Giorgione. (f)

In the Doria-Pamfili gallery, besides the small picture above mentioned signed with his monogram, there is a female figure by him conceived quite in Ariosto's vein — a young, handsome, and warlike woman, wearing a red mantle and a diadem on her forehead, and holding a colossal helmet in her hand (No. 549). She probably represents some heroine of the " Orlando Furioso." The following ridiculous description of the picture is given in the catalogue : " Portrait of Catarina, called Vanozza, by Dosso." This Vanozza was the mistress of Cardinal Borgia, afterwards Pope Alexander VI., and the mother of Cesare, Luerezia, and his other children. She consequently lived about 1470, before Dosso was born. I do not recollect any other painting by the master in Eome, with the exception of the large altar-piece — a Madonna and Saints — in the Palazzo Chigi. There is nothing of importance by him either in the Uffizi or in the Pitti. A St. John the Baptist in the latter collection (No. 380) is by him, and not by Giorgione, as the catalogue informs us ; and the portrait of Duke Alfonso (No. 311) is a copy by Dosso from one by Titian, though the catalogue would have us believe that it is the portrait of Charles V. by Titian himself! In what was once

Venetian territory, I know of only two works by Dosso

a large and not particularly successful altar-piece in the gallery at Eovigo, 8 and a small composition, most poetically

8 No. 135, ascribed to Garofalo. It represents the Madonna and Child en- throned between rive Saints.

a


218 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

treated, in the gallery at Bergamo. 9 In the Brera, there is only the St. Sebastian already mentioned, formerly attri- buted to Giorgione. An uninteresting picture in the Ambrosiana — " Christ Washing the Feet of the Apostles " — called by Dr. Bode (ii. 736) a work of Dosso's Boman (?) period, is certainly not by him, but more probably by some Flemish eclectic, who borrowed much from Baphael. (-f-)

Even Ferrara has little to show of Dosso's art ; only the large and fine altar-piece in the gallery, which a fatal restoration has irreparably injured, and possibly the frescoes (?) in a small room of what was once the Ducal Palace. In Modena, however, there are several excellent works by him. Nearly all his frescoes in the palace at Ferrara and in the prince-bishop "s castle at Trent have either been destroyed by fire or by the ravages of time, or have perished through the apathy of succeeding genera- tions, while such of his great works as have come down to us, damaged and fragmentary as they are, have only con- tributed to increase the fame of other masters — Giorgione, Parmeggianino, Pordenone, Francesco Penni and Garofalo, each having his share. Yet Dosso well deserves to be honoured and to be reinstated in his proper place. Gifted, healthy, cheerful, and often brilliant in his art, no other artist approaches his renowned fellow-countryman and friend Ariosto so closely as he. Occasionally, however, he allows himself too much licence, is careless and even exaggerated; but no one can ever accuse him of being coarse or commonplace.

Vasari, who is usually intelligent and appreciative in his biographies, has given a cursory, biased and unjust account of this painter, whom he never knew personally. Two reasons might be assigned for this : one because Dosso

9 Lochis collection. No. 218, representing the Madonna, before whom kneel St. George and a bishop.


]tfAZZOLEsO. 219

never saw tit to go to Rome in order to improve his Ferrarese ' maniera secca ' ; the other because Yasari's friend Girolamo Genga, who had been Dosso' s rival in the • Palazzo Imperiale ' near Pesaro. most probably prejudiced the mind of the biographer against him. In the same way Beccafmni of Siena, another of Yasari's informants, mali- ciously libelled Sodoma. Yasari has not a word to say, either about the brilliant and numerous frescoes with which Dosso, the favourite of Alfonso d'Este. adorned the palaces of that prince near Ferrara, or of his paintings in that of the Gonzagas at Mantua. Later biographers- were of course not likely to correct Yasari's errors, or to supply the deficiencies in his work. Few artists, moreover, were probably so uncongenial and incomprehensible to suc- ceeding generations as Dosso. Ariosto himself suffered a similar fate when eclipsed byTasso. Dosso died in 1541 and not in 1560, as is usually stated, seven years, therefore, before his brother Battista. According to Cittadella, he left three daughters. There are several works by Battista Dosso in the Borghese gallery — one a small "Nativity"; another work by him will be found in the Doria gallery.

A contemporary of, perhaps a fellow-pupil with, Dosso in the school of Lorenzo Costa was that ' glow-worm ' among painters, the Ferrarese Lodovico Mazzolino, whose father, Giovanni, was also an artist. He was principally a genre painter, though in his early period he is said to have worked much in fresco. His brilliant colouring made him a favourite with art-loving prelates of succeeding generations : hence his small pictures abound in Boman collections. There are three in the Borghese gallery ; No. 21 S — an " Adoration of the Magi " — is clear and bright in colour, and has a fine architectural background. In this picture Mazzolino is less mannered than usual.

a 2


2"20 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

There are two paintings by Scarsellino yet to be mentioned — " Diana bathing " and " Venus emerging from the Bath " — and I have now, I think, touched upon most of the Ferrarese works in the Borghese gallery. But I must devote a few words to the world-renowned " Danae " by Correggio.

The unjust and superficial treatment accorded to Dosso is only an example of the way in which all the Ferrarese painters have been dealt with. A study of this interesting and vigorous school of painting, and an unprejudiced examination of its organic development, will prove that it was of far more importance in the second half of the fifteenth century than is generally allowed. Its three principal representatives at that time were Cosimo Turn, called Cosme, a dry, angular, but serious painter ; Francesco Cossa or del Cossa, 1 naive, vigorous, and attractive, notwith- standing his occasional tendency to moroseness ; and Ercole Koberti. The first of the three lived and worked entirely in his native city. To his school may have belonged Francesco Bianchi— surnamed in Modena, where he settled, Frare (the Ferrarese) 2 — Domenico Panetti, and Lorenzo Costa.

Francesco Cossa left the court of Duke Borso in 1470, and settled at Bologna, where he died in his prime ; — not towards the close of the century, as I was once led to

1 Most of Cossa's works in Italy vanni in Monte. Cossa's few paintings

pass under the name of Lorenzo out of Italy are mostly given either

Costa, with whom even Vasari con- to Mantegna or to Marco Zoppo. founded him. For instance, the - Many think his name was

fine seated figure of St. Jerome in the Bianchi-Ferrari ; but why should he

church of S. Petronio, at Bologna ; have had two surnames ? As far as

the standing figures of the twelve I know, the surname Ferrari never

Apostles in the Marsilj chapel in becomes Frard, even in the Modenese

the same church, probably executed dialect. It is, however, of no real

after the master's death by one of importance where he was born ; as

his pupils from his cartoons, and an artist he belongs to the school of

the two painted windows in S. Gio- Ferrara.


FEEKARESE PALNTEKS. 221

believe, but soon after 1480. 3 It was probably to him and his assistant at Bologna, Ercole Eoberti, that Costa was indebted for his summons to that city. About 1483, while still a youth, he left Ferrara for the court of the Bentivoglios, and here he later formed a brilliant school, though Francesco Francia usually has the credit of being its founder. I am, however, quite convinced that, not only were Chiodarolo, Cesare Tamarozzo, 4 and others the pupils of Costa, but that even Francia, who in 1488 had attained great proficiency as a goldsmith, learnt painting from that artist, who was his friend. Costa's paintings of 1488 in the Bentivoglio chapel, and of 1506 in the chapel of S. Cecilia, decidedly recall Ercole Eoberti, but do not show a trace of Francia's influence ; while, on the other hand, Francia's earliest works — for instance, the small " Crucifixion " (-J-) (in the library of the Archiginnasio 5 ) and the altar-piece of 1494 in the public gallery — remind us very distinctly of Costa, both in tone and in many other particulars. I am quite willing to admit that Francia, eminent in plastic art, may have exercised a beneficial influence over the Ferrarese painter. I do not deny that he had a more refined feeling for line and greater anatomical knowledge, and that he was able, especially in his early works, to impart more depth and nobility of expression to his heads, than Costa — as, for example, in his "St. Stephen " in the


3 Cosimo Tura, on the other hand, Augustine with some brothers of did not die in 1469, as usually sup- his Order (f) — and a Madonna and posed, but after 1495 — a fact dis- Child in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection covered by Cittadella. at Milan inscribed with his name.

4 There are two frescoes by 5 Formerly attributed to Lorenzo Cesare Tamarozzo in the chapel of Costa ; some ascribe it to Ercole S. Cecilia attached to the church Grandi di Giulio Cesare. Dr. Bode of S. Jacopo Maggiore, wrongly as- has, however, accepted my opinion cribed by some to Giacomo Francia ; of the picture, and assigns it to also a fresco in the church of the Francia's early period.

" Misericordia " at Bologna — St.


222 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Borghese gallery. Costa, however, undoubtedly handled his brush with greater freedom and power. More fiery and excitable by nature, he was also more richly endowed with those gifts which characterise a great artist. Yet, while Cossa, Ercole Eoberti, 6 and principally Costa must be regarded as the real founders of that school which flourished at Bologna in the last twenty years of the fifteenth and in the beginning of the sixteenth century, the influence of Dosso and Garofalo is also unmistakable in the early works of Bagnacavallo, Niccolo Pisani, 7 Biagio Puppini, and later even in those of Giaconio and Giulio Francia. In a word, it was the school of Ferrara which influenced the whole province of Komagna from about 1470 to 1520. I might have spared my readers these introductory remarks ; but, as we are about to discuss Correggio's " Danae," I felt tempted to summarise in a few words my views upon a question in the history of Italian art, on which great con- fusion of opinion still exists — namely, as to the early years of Antonio Allegri da Correggio. 8

6 Amico, and not Guido, Asper- Venturi is a young and promising tini, as stated by Vasari, was pro- writer, and I would not for a moment bably Roberti's pupil. wish to depreciate the value of his

7 An early work by him — a researches, but the fact has, I think, Pieta — is in the gallery at Bologna, escaped Dr. Bode's memory, that in signed 'Nicholo' and falsely as- 1875 and 1870, when I first pub- cribed to Niccolo Soriani ; a later lished my articles on the schools work by him is in the Brera ; in the of Ferrara and Bologna, information latter he appears as an imitator of as to the history of both these Garofalo. schools was almost nil ; a fact to

s Some interesting articles on which he himself testified in his

the Italian pictures in the Berlin edition of the Cicerone of 187!) (ii.

gallery have been contributed to the r>7!)-587). It was Signor Venturi

Gazette des Beaux- Arts by Dr. Bode. indeed who succeeded in discovering

In one of them he observes : ' A. the true author of the large painting

Venturi, dont les rechercbes ont in the Brera, which before had

pose les fondements de la connais- always passed as the work of an

sance des 6coles de Ferrare, de otherwise unknown painter, Stefano

Bologne et de Modone ' (see No. V. da Ferrara. In an old guide-book

February 1, 1889, p. 118). Signor he found that before it reached


COEEEGGIO. 223

Writers on this subject, following Vedriani, allege that Correggio was first apprenticed to Francesco Bianchi at Modena, that on the death of that master in 1510 he went to Mantua in order to continue his studies under the great Andrea Mantegna ; and that in 1514 (in about his twentieth year) he was commissioned by the monks of Carpi to execute the altar-piece now at Dresden, in which conse- quently most critics plainly discern the influence of Mantegna, his master. The discovery, made later, that Mantegna died in 1506, told rather against this theory ; but the difficulty was ingeniously surmounted by assuming that one of Mantegna' s sons, Francesco or Lodovico, must have become the guide and instructor of the young Correggio. Some frescoes, said to be still discernible at Mantua, in which every expert is expected to recognise the hand of Correggio, were supposed to corroborate this view and the theory of his sojourn in that city. The whole tale, however, is a mere supposition on the part of Vedriani. Not a single painting, still less any document, vouches for it ; but as it flattered the local patriotism of the Mantuans, it rapidly grew into a 'tradition.' Viewing the matter without any bias, I should say that the Dresden picture may have been completed by Correggio in 1515. As he was born in the

Milan, the altar-piece was in a in that school, which was previously

church near Eavenna, and there known as ' the school of Marco

had been attributed to oneErcole da Zoppo and Francia,' and to tracing

Ferrara. On closer examination, the development of Garofalo, Dosso

the painting proved to be by Ereole Dossi, and Correggio, I fancy that

Eoberti. To Signor Venturi, again, I was in the field a little before

we owe the discovery of many either Dr. Bode or Signor Venturi.

important documents which throw I trust my readers will pardon these

fresh light upon the painters of few explanatory words, written not

Ferrara, Bologna, and Modena. But for self -laudation but in self-defence,

when it came to defining the real An Italian proverb says : ' Chi

connection between the early school pecora si fa il lupo lo mangia.' (He

of Bologna and that of Ferrara, to who makes himself a lamb is eaten

pointing out the importance of by the wolf.) Francesco Cossa and Lorenzo Costa


224 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

last months of 1493, or in the first of the following year, he must have been about twenty-one when he delivered over his finished work to the monks, not of Carpi but of Correggio. In those golden days of art, a painter had usually served his apprenticeship and mastered the technical and other difficulties of his work by his fifteenth or sixteenth year ; and a nature so highly gifted as that of Correggio would naturally ripen early. It may be there- fore assumed that he had produced, prior to 1514, pictures of merit which had established his reputation, and had pro- cured for him the flattering order from the monks of Correggio.

On examining this picture critically, we shall find that in the harmony and treatment of colours, and in the archi- tectural form of the throne with its characteristic medallion in chiaroscuro, the influence of Costa and the school of Ferrara is more apparent than that of Mantegna. Lord Ashburton's fine Correggio supports this view even more decisively, and those who doubt the genuineness of this picture show, I think, little knowledge of the distinctive characteristics of the master in conception and representa- tion.

As a rule, indeed, writers on art are wont to form their opinion of a painter's mode of expression and of his cha- racter from his later works. Hence those who judge Correggio from the "Notte"or the "St. George" in the Dresden gallery, or from the so-called " St. Jerome " at Parma, would naturally hesitate to recognise the same hand in Lord Ashburton's picture. Yet, in both Correggio's early works — the "St. Francis " in Dresden and Lord Ash- burton's picture — we already find indications of those qualities which partly attract and partly repel us in his later pictures. The same forms, the same feeling in the treatment of the hands, and the same type of ear and


COEKEGGIO. 225

arrangement of drapery, are apparent in them ; only the colouring is different in his early works, both in tone and in harmony, and recalls Costa and his school. Lord Ash- burton's picture appears to me earlier than the one at Dresden of 1515; the so-called "Flight into Egypt" in the Tribune of the Uffizi some years later — about 1517- 1518. The tone in the latter is still wholly Ferrarese, but recalls not Costa and Ercole Grandi di Giulio Cesare, but rather Dosso and Garofalo. For the light straw-colour of St. Joseph's robe these two painters had a special predilec- tion. In the Uffizi, in the room on the right of the. Tribune, there is a small picture (No. 1002) which was for- merly assigned to the Ferrarese school, and has lately been unhesitatingly ascribed to Titian. It represents the Madonna and Child, with two angels playing on musical instruments. The forms, especially those of the hand and ear, and the folds of the drapery (leaving the luminous colouring so dis- tinctive of Correggio altogether out of the question) testify to the manner and the feeling of this master. The ex- pression of the Madonna, of the Child, and notably of the angel on her right, confirms this view even more strikingly than do the outward forms, while the angel on the left reminds us more of early works by Giorgione and Titian.

I look upon this most interesting little picture, which has received but scant notice hitherto, as an early Correggio, produced under the influence of works by Giorgione, Titian, and Lotto, (f) For I have no doubt that, before settling at Parma, Correggio was in Venice, and must there have seen and studied many works by the great colourists of the Venetian school. To prove my theories yet more fully I should have liked to describe a little picture, formerly in the Costabili gallery at Ferrara, and recently acquired by Dr. Frizzoni. But as I am aware that


226 THE BOEGHESE GALLERY.

the owner intends shortly to publish some account of it, as well as of several other early works by Correggio, I shall refrain from dwelling upon it here. It represents the "Marriage of St. Catherine," and the Ferrarese character of the colouring is so decided that several northern amateurs took it for a work of Mazzolino.

It matters little where Correggio learnt the technic of his art — whether from Francesco Bianchi at Modena, from Lorenzo Costa at Mantua, or at Ferrara itself, and whether he developed his knowledge later on by studying the works of Venetian painters. The point that I wish to prove is that he has nothing to do with the school of Andrea Mantegna, but belongs wholly and undeniably to that of Ferrara. 9 This is not the place to go further into the sub- ject, but I trust that those who have made a conscientious study of Italian art in every stage of its development will be disposed to accept my views.

Let us now turn to the master's exquisite " Danae," a picture which has experienced many vicissitudes. From Italy it passed to Spain, whence it returned to Lombardy. Between 1580-1590 Lomazzo mentioned it as being at Milan, in the house of the sculptor Leoni Aretino. ' Danae e Giove che gli piove in grembo in forma di pioggia d'oro, con Cupido ed altri amori, co' lumi talmente intesi, che tengo sicuro, che niun altro pittore in colorire ed allumare possa agguagliargli ; mandato di Spagna da Pompeo suo figlio statuario.' From Milan it went to the Emperor Budolph at Prague, and thence for certain political reasons found its way to Stockholm. After enduring the hardships of that polar clime, poor " Danae " wandered southwards again, first to Paris, later to London, and then back again


9 Correggio may have copied one Mantua, but this in no way tells or other of Mantegna' s figures at against my theory.


COKKEGGIO'S " DANAE." 227

to the former city. Here, as the picture then passed for a copy. Prince Borghese fortunately succeeded in obtaining it for a nominal price in the third decade of this century, and so, after two centuries and a half, " Danae " was once more restored to her own sunny southern home. Who knows where this much-travelled lady will find herself at the close of this century ? The picture has, of course, suffered severely from these repeated wanderings ; fortunately, how- ever, it has escaped the fatal ' restorations ' which have nearly deprived the much-extolled Correggios at Dresden, with the exception perhaps of the " St. Francis," of all their charm. The surface glazings have disappeared, but it is still perhaps the most ' Correggiesque ' work of Correggio, and a triumph of aerial perspective and chiaroscuro, as Mr. Mundler very justly observed. The representation of the naive childlike manner in which the little Cupids busy themselves with sharpening their arrows, the somewhat startled, timid, yet unresisting air of Danae, and at the same time the sensuous bliss which thrills every fibre of her frame, have never, I think, been surpassed in painting. People of severe taste and austere morals may take ex- ception to her artless undisguised expression of joy as being too sensual ; and I quite admit that Correggio' s art in this picture narrowly escapes censure. It was painted for the Duke of Mantua, and according to Vasari, GiulioEomano declared that he knew no other picture to equal it. As to the consummate manner in which the artist has dealt with his subject, it is so true, so human, so chaste in the truest sense of the word, so far removed from the immoral prudery of the present day, that I may safely say I know no modern work which, in this respect, is more worthy to be ranked with Greek art. Needless to observe, however, that it is not exactly suited to adorn the walls of a girls' school. It is one of the gems of the gallery, and certainly the only


228 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

genuine Correggio in Rome, 1 for the exaggerated figure called " Christ in Glory," assigned to him in the Vatican gallery, is probably by some feeble imitator of the later Bolognese school. The " Danae," it is hardly necessary to say, is on canvas, and not, like the much vaunted " Magdalen " in the Dresden gallery, on copper, (f ) Painting on copper was first introduced into Italy by the Flemings towards the close of the sixteenth century, but did not meet with inucfa favour.' 2

We must now leave this ' coarsely sensual ' figure of Correggio, as the " Danae " has been termed by an otherwise highly-cultured German writer, and turn to the following rooms, where we shall find Potiphar's wife variously portrayed by several highly moral painters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to the edification of the 'Lent preachers ' of art. Admirers of art of this sort must seek it out for themselves ; it does not come within the range of our present studies. Works by the eclectics are of little importance for them, although they have a certain interest for the history of art and culture, and the public at large find them far more attractive than those we have been dis- cussing. The finest work here of this class is undoubtedly Domenichino's celebrated " Caccia di Diana " — a charming picture which is worthy of a purer period of art. Full of cheerful animation and naive and delightful details, it can- not fail to please. With the exception of Guido's " Aurora," Caracci's frescoes in the Palazzo Farnese, and those of


1 The Madonna belonging to as Brill, Jan Brueghel the elder,

Prince Torlonia (Lungara) and the Pourbus, and others, painted on

one at St. Petersburg are merely copper. I know of no Italian

copies of the original in the Ester- painting of the first half of that

hazy gallery at Buda-Pesth. (f) century which is on this material ;

- As far as I know, it was not though I have come across many

till the second half of the sixteenth later copies which pass for originals, century that Flemish artists, such


"ALEXANDEB AND BOXANA." 229

Guercino in the Casino Ludovisi, I know of no work of the seventeenth century which is so deserving of the popularity it enjoys. With it are hung Albani's " Seasons " — four good decorative works — and a large Madonna and Child (No. 110), by that unpleasing but remarkably able artist, Michael Angelo da Caravaggio.

In the gallery are some fragments of frescoes by three different painters. Those representing the history of Apollo and Marsyas are by Domenichino and came from the Villa Borghese at Frascati ( * ) ; the episodes from Roman history were formerly in the Villa Lante on the Janiculuni,- and have been ascribed by recent writers to Giulio Romano (*). 3 The Villa was built by this artist, and the frescoes were executed by his pupils and assistants, Pappa- cello, Pagni, and others, which explains the Raphaelesque feeling perceptible in them.

The remaining frescoes were ascribed by Passavant to Perino del Vaga, 4 by others to Raphael himself. They were in the ' Casino di Raffaello ' on the Pincio, till its destruction in 1849. One represents a group of archers, and another the " Marriage of Alexander and Roxana." Both are copies, I consider, by some late and feeble imitator of Raphael. The " Archers " are from a drawing at Windsor attributed to Michael Angelo. The " Marriage of Alexander " is taken from an engraving by Caraglio or, according to some autho- rities, by Bonasone, 5 executed from a drawing in indian ink made for the purpose by Perino del Vaga. (-f-)


3 Passavant, Raffael d' Urbin, &c. ' L'exeeution cle cette fresque, en bon

i. 233. ' L'originalite grandiose de etat de conservation, est traitee avec

Jules Eomain ressort aussi dans les toute la delicatesse particuliere (?)

petites fresques de la Villa Lante ; a Perino del Vaga.'

ce sont des sujets tires des legendes 5 P. J. Mariette (Abecedario,

et de l'histoire romaine qui se i. 89) mentions two engravings of

rapporte au Janicule,' &c. this subject, one by Caraglio, the

4 Passavant (ibid. ii. 236). other by the elder Beatricet.


230 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Yasari tells us (ix. 275) that, among Marcantonio's scholars, two were especially distinguished, namely Marco da Ravenna and Agostino Yeneziano, and that both worked from Raphael's drawings. In his casual manner, he men- tions among Agostino's engravings the one representing the marriage of Alexander : ' Fece ancora Alessandro con Rosana, a cui gli presenta una corona reale.' This careless statement gave rise to the grave and oft-repeated error, which extended to every drawing and sketch con- nected with Sodoma's fresco. Only Raphael could have been their author, and poor Sodoma merely got the credit of having executed his splendid fresco from Raphael's designs. In all this there is not, I am persuaded, a word of truth, and once more we are reminded of that significant parable, which was so admirably depicted by Brueghel in his painting in the Naples Museum. Want of imagination was certainly not one of Sodoma's faults, whatever his other failings may have been. This every unprejudiced student of his frescoes at Mont' Oliveto, and in the churches of S. Bernardino and S. Domenico at Siena, must admit. In addition to certain technical characteristics distinctive of the master, the well-known red chalk drawing 6 in the

The indian ink drawing for the and the Marquis de Chennevieres

engraving was at that time in the pronounced it to be of the school of

Crozat collection, and appears to Raphael.

be identical with the one men- a Many of Sodoma's character-

tioned by L. Dolce as by the hand istics are apparent in this drawing

of Raphael (bistre heightened with — the right knee of Roxana is

white), inscribed : ' Raffaello da full and round, and resembles in

Urbino.' This drawing, now in a treatment that in the drawings for

portfolio in the Louvre, appears to Leda at Weimar and Chatsworth,

me to be nothing but the copy of falsely ascribed to Leonardo da

Perino's lost original. Mariette Vinci (Braun 148 and 51) ; the

pronounced it to be by Parmeg- big toe is of undue prominence ;

gianino and so also did Zanetti. the form of hand and ear, the type

The Abbe Marolle, on the other of the children (distinctive of this

hand, thought it was undoubtedly master), the treatment of the hair —

by Raphael, while M. Montaiglon are all characteristic ; so too is the


DEAWINGS BY SODOMA. 231

Albertina shows all the defects of composition that we find in Sodoma's fresco of the " Family of Darius before Alexander," and in this instance critics, so far as I know, have never doubted that both design and execution were by him. Four drawings by Sodoma for the "Marriage of Alexander " exist : the fine example hi red chalk in the Albertina at Vienna (f ) ; 7 the pen and ink sketch in the Uffizi (Case 495, No. 1479) ; a pen drawing in the Esterhazy collection at Buda-Pesth (f), representing Eoxana as a nude standing figure, which Herr von Pulsky describes as a drawing by Eaphael, in his article on the " Hungarian National Gallery" (p. 41-47) ; and a pen drawing for the couch of Eoxana (-j*) in the University galleries at Oxford (Eobinson's catalogue, No. 177, p. 311).

The first, third, and fourth of these drawings are attri- buted to Eaphael. The sketch in Florence, formerly as- signed to a pupil of Eaphael, has recently been restored to Sodoma, accompanied by the extraordinary remark that it represents a part of the fresco which Sodoma executed in the Farnesina from a draicing by Raphael. This statement is doubly incorrect, for Sodoma executed his fresco with considerable modifications from the drawing now in the Albertina, and were the fine sketch in Florence

fine shading with the pen, differing course, as a Eaphael. Passavant

wholly from the method employed (ii. 441) describes it in the following

by Eaphael. terms : ' Ce dessin que Eubens

7 Mariette remarks of this red avait achete a, Eome, passa depuis

chalk drawing : ' J'y reconnais tout dans la possession du Cardinal

le faire de Eaphael ; les expressions Bentivoglio, qui en fit present au

en sont bien plus fines (than in the graveur en medailles Melan. Crozat

other drawing which, as we have l'eut ensuite au sortir de la collee-

seen, he ascribes to Parmeggianino) tion Vanrose, et le Due Albert de

et le detail en est excellent. Eaphael Saxe-Teschen l'acquit d'un amateur,

le dut faire pour lui servir d'etude II porte aussi l'estampille du prince

et de preparation au dessin drappe.' Charles de Ligne. Toutes les

After passing through various other figures sont nues et de la plus

collections, this drawing finally delicate execution a la sanguine.' came to the Albertina, and, of


•232 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

a copy, it would have been taken, not from the fresco, but from the Albertina drawing.

Several years after the death of Raphael, the engraver of the "Marriage of Alexander" (whether Caraglio or Bonasone) may have applied to Perino del Vaga to make a drawing of the subject for him, for purposes of engraving. Two such drawings, recalling Perino's technic, have come down to us ; the better of the two is in the Louvre ; a very inferior one is at Windsor. 8 This, it appears to me, is the explanation of the confusion which has occurred.

Whether Perino's original drawing still exists, and, if so, where, I am unable to say. The two copies of it made use of by the engraver, as well as the engraving itself, reproduced the composition as we see it in the red chalk drawing in the Albertina, but not as it is in the fresco. Hence it follows that Perino copied this drawing and not the fresco, making slight alterations, such as adding drapery about Roxana's hips, and clothing Alexander and giving him a helmet. 9 One thing is, I think, beyond question, namely, that the four drawings having reference to the fresco are by Sodoma himself, (-f-)

The knowledge of original drawings may be said to be still in its infancy. It is only of late years that English, German, and Italian critics have applied themselves to the study of Raphael, and more especially to a careful examina- tion of his early works. By this means the personality of the painter has been made clearer to us and has certainly gained by the process. The results of these critical studies

8 Passavant is also of this mais dont aucune est Poriginal.' opinion (ii. 493) : ' Les noces d'Ale- !l The form of this helmet should

xandre et de Poxane : figures v6tues, be compared with that of the helmet

dessin a la plume, et rehausse de of the warrior on the extreme right

blanc. On connait plusieurs es- in Perino's drawing in the Louvre

<iuisses de cette belle composition, (Braun71).


DRAWINGS BY RAPHAEL. 233

greatly irritated the orthodox, who discharged their harmless missiles against those who propagated these new theories. But the storm gradually abated, and truth was triumphant, regardless of the havoc she had wrought among cherished traditions. As to the public, it made merry over the discomfiture of gallery-directors and others, and was disposed to doubt their infallibility and fitness for their posts. As new combatants are constantly entering the lists, it is to be hoped that these vexed questions may ere long be satisfactorily settled.

I will now enumerate the drawings in the Uffizi which I believe to be by Eaphael, as well as those unworthy of his name. This may, I trust, be an aid to students, and afford them some instruction.

The following are genuine in my opinion :

No. 496. A Sketch.

No. 497. A Madonna.

No. 505. Madonna del Granduca.

No. 529.) St. George on horseback in combat with the

No. 530.) dragon.

No. 538. " The Entombment "—the sketch for the picture in the Borghese gallery. This drawing was exe- cuted by another hand, but Eaphael himself corrected it in several places with the pen.

No. 539. Madonna and Child — for the unfinished paint- ing at Buda-Pesth.

No. 541. " Adam "—for the " Disputa."

In the portfolio are two of Eaphael' s most splendid black chalk drawings merely labelled " Umbrian School " — one an executioner from the "Massacre of the Innocents," the other the " St. Stephen " of the " Disputa."

In all ten genuine drawings.

R


234


THE BOEGHESE GALLERY.


The No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.

No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.


Pernio del Vaga.


Giulio Romano.


following are wrongly ascribed to Raphael

531.

509.

510. ,

514. Giulio Romano.

525. Perino del Vaga.

521. \

545.

544.

543.

534.

535.

520. Enea Silvio Piccolomini going to the Cou

of Basle — by Pintoricchio.

57. Timoteo Viti.

540.)

„ 1P , [Copy after Raphael.

516. By some Florentine master. 524. Copy. 498. Forgery.

499 -)t •* r „_.. -Imitations.

500. j

501. Forgery.

504. School of Perugino.


THE VENETIANS.

As I propose discussing the Venetian school more fully when speaking of the Doria gallery, I shall content myself now with mentioning those pictures in the Borghese gallery, as to the authenticity of which I cannot always agree with the compilers of the catalogue.

A male portrait (No. 97) is ascribed to Giovan Battista Moroni of Albino. This Bergamasque pupil of Moretto —


LOEENZO LOTTO. 235

the Brescian artist famed for his silvery colouring — was a very different person from the author of this uninteresting portrait, which does not even belong to the Venetian school. We will therefore pass on without further delay to a fine picture by Titian (No. 170) which has unfortunately been retouched in parts. According to the catalogue it represents the three Graces (?) . Eidolfi mentions it as belonging in his day to the Borghese family. It is a magnificent piece of colouring and probably of the painter's maturest period. There is a fine though modified copy in the Palazzo Balbi at Genoa, and several other versions of it are in existence.

A small painting (No. 167), " St. Cecilia and her hus- band Valerian," is more probably by Domenico Feti (*f*) than by Paul Veronese, to whom the catalogue ascribes it. In this picture Feti sought to copy Veronese, as in a picture in the Sciarra-Colonna gallery he endeavoured to imitate Schidone. No. 185 is a fine and striking life-sized male portrait on canvas ; although unprepossessing, and even common- place, in appearance, the subtle power of the artist succeeds in riveting our attention on this young man. He is clad in deep mourning, the lustre of his eye is dimmed by grief, for he seems to be brooding over the loss of one dear to him ; his left hand rests on a table on which is an ivory skull, half hidden by jessamine and rose-leaves. These acces- sories tell a sad significant tale — even that death came upon her in the fulness of her youth and innocency ! In the beautiful landscape background St. George is seen slaying the dragon. The catalogue ascribes this portrait to Giovan Antonio da Pordenone, 1 but the late Mr. Miindler 2 gave it to its true author, Lorenzo Lotto. In the treatment of the hands, in the pose and movement of the head, which is quite

1 Kecently ascribed to Lotto by 2 Beitrage zu J. Burckhardt's

the new director. Cicerone, p. 58.

e 2


236 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

peculiar to Lotto, in the marvellous play of light on the drapery, and in the landscape, every characteristic of this gifted and original contemporary and fellow-countryman of Giorgione — his whole " tournure de l'esprit," in fact — is strikingly apparent.

An exquisite early work by the master is also in this gallery (No. 193), inscribed : Lavren. Lotvs. M . D . VIII. It represents the Madonna, somewhat woebegone in appear- ance, holding the Infant Saviour ; on her right is a Bishop, on her left the venerable form of St. Onophrius. The Child wears a little shirt, hence probably the picture was painted for a nunnery either in Eome or in the March of Ancona, where Lotto was employed for some time. The dress of the Madonna is scarlet — a shade which Lotto's contem- poraries Giorgione, Titian, Palma, and others never used, but which is found in the paintings of older Venetian masters — of Boccaccio Boccaccino, Marco Marziale, Lattan- zio da Bimini, Bondinelli, and others. The scale of colour is original and characteristic of Lotto, and the movement of the Child is very naive. In his later works Lotto often exaggerated his tendency to restless and impetuous gestures as seen in this Child, which then degenerates into affectation. The Madonna wears a greyish yellow drapery about her head and shoulders — a favourite shade with Titian in his early period, and sometimes with Palma. She looks towards St. Onophrius, 3 while the Child stretches out both hands to receive the heart offered him by the Bishop with an expression of devotion combined with a certain monkish moroseness. The drapery is hard and angular, but even in this early work we can trace that tendency to ample folds which later became characteristic of this attractive master. The right hand is treated quite in the manner of Bellini ;

3 The head of this Saint recalls painters worked from the same Diner ; it is not unlikely that both Venetian model.


LOEENZO LOTTO. 237

the lights are sharp and cold, the colouring is brilliant, the drawing very careful, the execution finished, and the whole evidently a labour of love. The expression of the two Saints is earnest and true to nature. They seem entirely taken up with what they are engaged in, and wholly regardless of the spectator. The late Professor Thau- sing justly observes, in his ' Life of Diirer,' that this St. Onophrius recalls that painter. Lotto, very likely, knew the German master in Venice in 1506, and may have studied the works produced by him in that city. Examples of this period of Lotto's career may be seen in the museum^ at Naples, in the parish church at Asolo, in the church of the Dominicans at Eecanati, in the Munich gallery, and in the Bridgewater collection.

Lotto is an artist of much refinement, and was gifted with a lively imagination. His merits have hardly yet been sufficiently recognised ; to be adequately appreciated he should be studied in Venice and in the province of Bergamo. The Uffizi contains a Madonna and Child by him — not a favourable specimen of his art — and the Brera three splendid portraits. In the Borghese gallery there is a large picture (No. 157) vividly recalling the master, and apparently a good contemporary copy of some lost work by Lotto. The authorities formerly assigned it to the Venetian school, and they have not since improved matters by giving it to Previtali. It represents the Madonna beneath an orange tree, seated on a throne,the base of which is decorated with reliefs in chiaroscuro after the manner of Correggio. She holds the Child, whose movement is quite Correggiesque, with her right hand, whilst she blesses with her left the kneeling donor and his wife, presented to her by SS. Justina and Barbara. White drapery falls from her head about her shoulders, after the manner of Giovanni Bellini ; her mantle is sky-blue, lined with yellow, her dress of that shade of pinkish-red


238 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

often employed by Catena. The landscape background resembles that in Lotto's altar-piece of 1506 at Asolo. On the ground, between the kneeling donors, lies an orange, and some rose-leaves are scattered about quite after the manner of Lotto. The portrait of the female donor is masterly in drawing and is painted with consummate skill. The original must certainly have been by Lotto, but I am unable to name the author of this fine copy, which has great merit. It is decidedly not ' a genuine Cariani,' as Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii. 553, note 1) appear to think.

The " Preaching of St. John the Baptist," a large picture (No. 137), fails to touch us, though it is the work of a good Veronese fresco painter, Battista Zelotti (f), a compatriot and fellow-worker of Paul Veronese, to whom the catalogue ascribes it. 4 Near it is a " St. Dominick " by Titian (No. 188). Bidolfi says of it that it belonged to one Gamberato: 'Fece il ritratto del suo confessore dell' ordine dei Predicatori ; era tra le cose del Gamberato.' A good portrait of an old man with a white beard and a black cap, occupied in the agreeable task of counting his money (*), is attributed by the catalogue to Giacomo da Ponte, but I am more disposed to regard it as an excellent work by his son, Francesco Bassano. (-J-) A feeble "Venus and Cupid " (No. 124), very erroneously given to Paul Veronese, is merely, I think, a copy after him.

We now come to one of the masterpieces of the gallery,


1 The works of Zelotti and Paul produced about the same time as this

Veronese are often confounded by " Preaching of St. John the Baptist."

amateurs. For instance, even in It is to be hoped that Dr. J. P.

the public gallery of Verona (No. Richter, the most competent con-

277), an allegorical fresco of music noisseur of the school of Verona,

by Zelotti is attributed to Veronese, will shortly publish his views with

and so too is the " Annunciation " respect to this painter and to the

in the Uffizi (No. 579), which was Veronese school in general.


TITIAN. 239'

Titian's " Sacred and Profane Love," which may be reckoned among the most celebrated pictures in the world. It was painted, if I mistake not, between 1510-1512, and is conceived quite in the spirit of Giorgione. It is an exquisite allegorical romance, with the most poetic land- scape imaginable. Compared with the landscapes of con- temporary Flemish artists — of Hendrik Bles, Mabuse, or Patinir, whom Diirer called the ' good landscape painter ' in his " Diary of a Journey to the Netherlands " (p. 118) — we see how totally the Italians differed from the Flemings even in this branch of art.

The " Three Ages," in the Bridgewater Gallery, of which there is one copy in this collection, and another in the Doria gallery, belongs in all probability to the same golden epoch of the master's career. The face of the figure representing " Earthly Love " has been clumsily restored on the right side ; 5 on the whole, however, this ' dream of beauty ' is fairly well preserved. The long closely-disposed folds of the drapery involuntarily recall a fimilar arrangement of the folds of Salome's mantle, in another and no less beautiful work of Titian's early period in the Doria gallery, which was formerly ascribed to Giorgione, but is now catalogued and universally known as Pordenone's " Herodias." 6 The hair is similarly treated in both these pictures. It is strange that Vasari should make no mention of the magnificent work in the Borghese gallery. Bidolfi (1650), who never saw the picture, and described it merely from hearsay, refers to it as follows — ' in Prince Borghese' s possession is a painting of two women at a well, in which a child is reflected.

5 In this picture of Titian's, I characteristic of the master,

would call attention to the right s To my surprise, Dr. Bode

hand of the figure of " Sacred Love,' agrees with me about this picture

in which the ball of the thumb is (ii. 738). too strongly developed. This is


1240 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

On a small picture of the Madonna and Child (No. 176) is a ' Cartellino ' with : Ioannes bellinus facicbat, which has not the character of Giovanni Bellini's genuine signa- ture. 7 The picture has little merit and is only by some pupil or imitator of the master ; I should be most inclined to ascribe it to Francesco Bissolo. (-J-) Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, however (i. 193), regard it as a genuine work by Bellini. 8

No. 127, the " Trinity," is a large finely-coloured paint- ing attested by the signature of its author, Francesco Bassano. No. 241, the so-called " Birth of a Nobleman's Child," is not Venetian as the catalogue states, but a copy of a picture in the Pitti (No. 394) by Scarsellino of Ferrara. It is scarcely necessary to add that Nos. 91, 10, 89, 168, 228, and 315 are all spurious productions. A picture representing " St. Anthony of Padua preaching to the Fishes," when, according to the legend, the people of Piimini refused to hear him, is given to Paul Veronese, but is more likely a work of his school.

No. 106 represents " Lucretia " about to plunge a dagger into her breast — a fully-developed and strongly-built woman, with fair hair flowing over her shoulders. Her expression is far too tame and indifferent for so tragic a moment. The picture appears to have been painted from life ; and the

7 There are several examples of copied by Rocco Marconi, but on these forged signatures on paintings a larger scale than by Bissolo. by Bellini's scholars and imitators — Marconi was honest, however, and for instance, No. 755, in the gallery signed the picture with his own at Padua ; on a Pieta in that name ; in 1888 it was in the pos- of Bergamo (Lochis collection) ; on session of the well-known dealer one in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection Guggenheim, at Venice. Giulio at Milan, and elsewhere. Dr. Bode, Campagnola, of Padua, appears following Messrs. Crowe and Caval- also to have copied many of caselle, looks upon all these feeble Giovanni Bellini's pictures (see productions as by Giovanni Bellini Archivio Storico delV Arte, Fasc. himself (ii. 634). v. 184).

8 Bellini's original was also


BONIFAZIO. 241

catalogue rightly assigns it to the school of Titian. 9 I con- sider it to be unquestionably by Palma Vecchio, (f) and of that period when he was closely connected with Lorenzo Lotto (1510-1514).

Another " Lucretia," belonging to a much later period of Palma' s career, is in the Uffizi, and is probably the portrait of some coarse, unattractive Venetian woman, and a model he employed for other pictures. This Bergamasque painter did not excel in depicting passionate emotion, and he was never successful in treating this subject, though he attempted it three times — the third example being in4he Vienna gallery. No 119, " Venus with Cupid and a Satyr," ascribed to the school of Titian, appears to me to be an inferior copy after Paris Bordone. Three large pictures, Nos. 156, 186, and 149, are given to one painter, Bonifazio Vene- ziano. No. 156 represents the mother of Zebedee's children bringing her sons to Christ, and appears to me to be the work of the elder Bonifazio Veronese. It is in much need of cleaning, but the colour is still fine. No. 186 represents the "Beturn of the Prodigal Son," and I should ascribe it to Bonifazio Veronese the younger. No. 149, " The Woman taken in Adultery " is either a feeble work of the school, or an old copy. The late Mr. Miindler, in his edition of Burck- hardt's " Cicerone " (p. 62), drew attention to the fact that there was a family of painters called Bonifazio at Venice, who worked throughout the sixteenth century ; but the discovery is due not to him, but to the researches of two Italian writers. Moschini, a Venetian, observes, in his " Guida di Venezia " of 1815, that there must have been tivo painters called Bonifazio ; and the late Dr. Cesare Bernasconi pointed out, in his " History of the Veronese School," that, according to documentary evidence, at least three painters of that name had existed. The eldest of them came from Verona, but

9 It has recently been catalogued as Palma Vecchio.


242 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

settled at Venice while still young, and died there in 1540 ; the second and younger Bonifazio — a relation, perhaps a brother, of the elder, and in any case his scholar and imitator — died in 1553 ; while the third was still living in 1579. The two latter followed the elder so closely in com- position and manner of painting, that an unpractised eye will be apt to confound the works of the three artists, as those of the three or four painters known as the Bassanos have been similarly confounded. The second, or the third, Bonifazio may have been born in Venice, and the existence of a Bonifazio Veneziano would hence be quite as possible as that of a Bonifazio Veronese, of whom the " Anonimo " speaks. The younger of the three, I may add, appears in his later works to be an imitator of Titian, whose influence was then dominant in Venice, while the elder, or great, Bonifazio is undoubtedly to be regarded as a scholar and imitator of Palma Vecchio. On another occasion I shall speak more fully of these painters.

We will now proceed to No. 163, the Madonna with the Child, who gives His benediction to a female suppliant, between St. Anthony — whose expression is fervent and natural — and St. Jerome. The light is treated quite in the manner of Lotto. The Madonna, however, looks like a Bergamasque peasant-girl. There is a lack of free- dom in the drawing, and the drapery is hard and some- what stiff. It is probably a work of Palma Vecchio' s middle period (1514-1518) * — a few years earlier than his excellent painting in the Palazzo Colonna agli Apostoli at Borne.

The "Holy Family " (*) does not belong to the Vene- tian school, as the catalogue tells us, but is most likely

1 The Madonna recalls the Ma- and the date 1500. This false in- donna in the Due d'Aumale's collec- scription once threatened to cause tion with the forged ' Cartellino ' dire confusion in the history of art.


BEKNAKDINO LICINIO. 248

by Bamenghi, called Bagnacavallo. No. 164, attributed to Giovanni Bellini, is the work of another Bergaraasque — Cariani, the so-called pupil of Giorgione. 2 On the right is the Madonna ; in the centre, the Holy Child standing on a parapet and giving His benediction to St. Peter ; a grey curtain forms the background. The drawing is poor; the figures are trivial and plebeian ; the Child is heavy, coarse, and without grace of movement ; and the clouds are woolly ; the colouring, however, is refined and glowing. Mundler (Beitrage zu Burckhardt's " Cicerone," p. 64) ob- served rightly that this picture was by the Bergamasque Giovanni de' Busi, called Cariani, whom I consider to have been a pupil of his fellow-countryman, Palma Vecchio, and an imitator of Giorgione. He must have been born between 1480-1490, at Fuipiano, in the Valle Brembana, near Bergamo, and was still living in 1541. Many works by this fine colourist are in the public gallery and private collections of Bergamo. 3

No. 115 is a large painting with numerous figures — probably the family of the artist. In the centre is the mother — fair and buxom, and clad in white with sleeves of a brick-red tint. She holds an infant in her arms, the next youngest child is beside her, and five boys are grouped around, like a brood of chickens — one being ap- parently a sculptor in embryo. Behind stands the father, the artist, Bernardino Licinio of Pordenone, looking about fifty. The background, as in nearly all his paintings, is of a greyish-brown tone. This admirable group is signed

2 Now rightly attributed to collection of the author — a "Holy Cariani. Family " in a landscape, and thepor-

3 Several paintings by Cariani trait of a man (both now in the gallery are at Milan — two in the Brera, one at Bergamo). A Madonna by Cariani in the Ambrosiana, one in the is in the public gallery at Vicenza, Museo Civico, one in the Bonomi- Boom I., No. 41. (f)

Cereda collection, and two in the


  • 244 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

B. Lycinj opus. The " Santa Conversazione/' No. 171, is also by Bernardino, and not Bartolornmeo, as the catalogue states. The Madonna is seated in the centre, wearing a brick-red dress and white drapery on her head ; she holds the undraped and not very attractive Child ; the little St. John, seated on a lamb, offers his cross to the Infant Saviour ; behind are SS. Joseph and Anna ; on the right, St. Jerome and the kneeling St. Catherine, with landscape background. It is one of his coarser works. 4 The flesh- tints in this, as in all the master's other pictures, are cold in tone with glazes of a rosy-red. He has introduced in the draperies his favourite colours — brick-red and sky-blue. In the Sciarra-Colonna gallery there is a " Daughter of Herodias " by him (-J-) under the name of Giorgione, and the portrait of a man under that of Carletto Caliari, which is pro- bably by his pupil Francesco Beccaruzzi. Liciniois certainly not the brother of Giovan Antonio Eegillo da Pordenone, as Mundler thought ; he may have been his pupil, and pos- sibly even some relation.

The pleasing little picture, " Christ among the Doctors " (*), belongs to a good Venetian master of the school of Paul Veronese ; it is a modified copy of a work in the English National Gallery, by Pedro Campana, a Fleming who settled at Seville, (f)

A male portrait (No. 396) belongs to the Venetian school, although painted by a Sicilian. 5 The expression is most


1 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle merit on the profile portrait by

do not venture so far, and only re- Ambrogio de Predis in the Ambro-

cognise ' the style of Bernardino's siana.

school ' (ii. 294) ; Mundler (Cic. 5 Formerly attributed to Gio-

p. 75) is of my opinion. How the vanni Bellini — a further proof that

latter keen-sighted critic could have Antonello owed more to the Vene-

taken Titian's beautiful early work, tians than they to him. Another

in the Palazzo Balbi-Piovera at and very fine portrait of his last

Genoa, for a Licinio, is as in- period (1485-1493) is in the Naples

comprehensible to me as his judg- museum erroneously ascribed to


SAVOLDO.


245


unpleasant ; but the eyes are full of life, as is usually the case in the portraits of Antonello da Messina, to whom this work unquestionably belongs. The flesh is of a reddish- brown tone, the eyebrows are executed with the care of a miniaturist, and the mouth is sharply modelled. In the catalogue it formerly bore the name of Giovanni Bellini, but Miindler restored it to its true author, and was followed by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle. To judge from the expres- sion of the mouth, the Venetian here represented must have been an excellent man of business, though anything but amiable or agreeable in his domestic relations. This portrait may have been produced in the same year as that in the Palazzo Trivulzio at Milan, bearing the master's name and the date 1476. A portrait of a young man (No. 139) deserves some attention. It is incomprehensible that it should have been ascribed to the painter, to whom No. 97 of theVenetian school is given, to Giovan Battista Moroni. We have already seen that the latter painting had nothing to do with him, and the same may be said of this one. 6 It is a fine portrait and clearly the work of Girolamo Savoldo of Brescia, an excellent amateur, who was apparently first a pupil of

Bellini (large room, No. 16) (f ). The earlier portraits, and to this is form of ear, differing entirely from probably due the present appellation that of Giovanni Bellini, should of the picture.



EAE OF ANTONELLO DA MESSINA.

alone have sufficed to identify the master. The drawing of the eye is not so exaggerated as in Antonello's


EAR OF GIOVANNI BELLINI.

6 It has now been given to Savoldo.


•246 THE BORGHESE GALLERY.

Eomanino, then of Giovanni Bellini, and later more especially of Titian, (f ) Savoldo's works'are rare : a female portrait, with the attributes of St. Margaret, is in the Capitol ; one small picture is in the Uffizi ; two are at Turin ; and his most important work, a large altar-piece, is in the Brera. 7

NORTHERN MASTERS.

In the Borghese gallery are several fine works of the Dutch, Flemish, and even German schools. The picture which proves most attractive to the cultured public is a hen and chickens by Wenceslaus Peters, (*) and the authorities were apparently equally enchanted with this chef cVojuvrc, as they once assigned it a place close to a window and in the best light. We will pass on, however, to the works of more im- portant masters. A " Venue and Cupid " (No. 326), almost life-size, is a fine piece of colour, inscribed with the well- known monogram of a good German master, Lucas Cranach the elder, and dated 1531. The small portrait of Charles Y. (?) as a boy (*) bears the name of Holbein, but is more probably the work of a Fleming. No. 253 represents the studio of a Flemish painter — perhaps that of the elder Franz Francken himself, who treated this subject several times. It is inscribed : Frans. Frank Inventor et fecit. To this somewhat stiff and formal painter Dr. Bode would attribute the Dresden copy of the Holbein Madonna. There are several good Dutch pictures. No. 273 represents a quack performing a surgical operation with much energy on the arm of a peasant. The unlucky victim is seated on a chair in

' The profile portrait in this the gallery at Brescia, in the Church

gallery should be compared with the of S. Maria in Organo at Verona,

profile of one of the flying angels in and in the Church of S. Giobbe at

Savoldo's picture in the Brera. Venice. Other works by this master are in


NORTHERN MASTERS. 247

the open air, yelling loudly under the professor's knife. An old woman, the surgeon's assistant, stands by, plying the sufferer with words of comfort and encouragement. This sprightly little painting is very unjustly attributed to Adrian Brouwer. It bears the name of its true author, G. Lunders, 1648. Evidently Gerrit Lunders sought to imitate Brouwer in this picture ; eight years later, in his painting of 1656, now at Dresden, he took Dusart, or perhaps Ostade, as his model, and again, in 1660, followed Metsu and Mieris, as we see in a little picture hi the Hausmann collection at Hanover (No. 283 (?),) also representing a surgical operation. No. 271 was formerly catalogued " Opera d'un Fiammingo." If I were to say to one of these Italian directors, ' My dear sir, it is not the work of a " Fiammingo," but of a Dutch- man,' he would shrug his shoulders and reply, ' E tutt' uno' ('It's all the same '). And according to the gallery cata- logues, it certainly is all the same, for apparently the only Dutch products known in Italy are herrings and stockfish. But what may this " Opera d'un Fiammingo " (No. 271) re- present ? We see six soldiers in various attitudes, though it is impossible to guess what they are all about. It is a good example of the Haarlem School of Franz or Dirk Hals, and, on closer inspection, we discover the name of the painter, Pieter Codde, whom Dr. Bode has treated exhaustively, and with thorough knowledge of his subject, in his book " Franz Halsund seme Schule." 8 In No. 291, a little picture in the style of Teniers, we see a Flemish interior. A peasant is seated with his mug of beer beside him — the other inmates of the pothouse warm themselves at the fire. There is a copy of this picture, which I hold to be only a work of the


s Pieter Codde's works are often of the late Count Lodovieo Belgio-

met with in Italian collections. joso, and in that of Signor Bonomi-

Three are at Milan alone : in the Cereda. Palazzo Trivulzio, in the collection


248 THE BOEGHESE GALLEEY.

school, in the Corsini gallery in Borne, No. 28. A Crucifixion (No. 268) the catalogue ascribes to Van Dyck. It is certainly only a copy ; and No. 411, the " Descent from the Cross," is also by some imitator of this refined but somewhat formal painter. No. 279, representing several female figures bath- ing, with a landscape background, should be ascribed, not to Poelenburg, but to his imitator, A. Cuylenborch (-J-). An expert will recognise at once that the picture attributed to Paul Potter (No. 285), " Cows grazing," can be nothing but a modern copy. The little work ascribed to Wouwerman ( * ) may be regarded as genuine. It appears to me to be too delicate in tone for a copy. Beside it is one of the numer- ous, somewhat uninteresting, sea pieces by Backhuysen. (*)

GIORGIONE.

We will omit some more or less unimportant pictures, and, in conclusion, devote a little more time to a wonderful portrait (No. 143) which long attracted a large share of my attention, and is catalogued as the work of an " unknown master." It represents a woman of about twenty-eight ; her dark eyes, full of fire and passion, are overshadowed by a low and intelligent forehead ; the arrangement of the dark brown hair on the temples recalls in a measure that of the Knight of Malta in the Uffizi ; there are hard long folds in the sleeves of her sombre dress. She stands at a window holding a white handkerchief, and gazing out with a dreamy yearning expression, as if seeking to descry one whom she awaits. The simple treatment of this mysterious figure reveals a great artist — but whom ?

Before examining this attractive portrait critically, I thought of Dosso ; but the dark background, the stone parapet, and the simplicity of the treatment did not appear to me to show the hand of this master. Then


GIOKGIONE. 249

it occurred to me that it might be of Sebastian del Piombo's early period ; but for him also the conception appeared too profound, and the form of hand too nearly akin to the quattro- cento. One day, as I stood before this mysterious portrait, en- tranced, and questioning, the spirit of the master met mine, and the truth flashed upon me. ' Giorgione, thou alone,' I cried in my excitement ; and the picture answered, ' Even so.' Those eyes, with their profound and yearning ex- pression beneath the slightly arched brows, that low straight forehead, that refined mouth, all testify to Giorgione, all are modelled as in the Knight of Malta. The painting has been retouched in the neck and other parts, but, on the whole, it is well preserved. The brownish-yellow head-dress which this charming figure wears resembles that often met with in Titian's early Madonnas. In conception it appears to me a very marvel of art, and to Giorgione alone was it given to produce portraits of such astonishing simplicity, yet so deeply significant, and capable, by their mystic charm, of appealing to our imagination in the highest degree. (*f*)

With this new-found work of Giorgione, to which I would here direct the attention of all who admire Italian art, I will close these studies on the Borghese gallery.


250


THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

The long pontificate of Paul V., of the house of Borghese, was followed by the yet longer reign of Urban VIII., a member of the Barberini family. One would naturally suppose that as the Borghese gallery takes precedence of all the other Boman collections, by reason of its size and the length of its existence, the Barberini would rank second. This, however, is not the case.

Urban VIII., after annexing the castles of the Montefeltri and the Delia Kovere, probably transferred many of their works of art to the Barberini palaces in Borne — for instance, the nine pictures of Apollo and eight Muses, 1 and the series of " Illustrious Men of Antiquity," formerly in the library of the Palace at Urbino, and now divided between the Palazzo Barberini and the Louvre.' 2 But the heirs of

1 These nine pictures were as- that Vasari was right in ascribing

cribed by Baldi (Vita c Fatti di two of them, Apollo and one Muse,

Federico, duca di Urbino) to to Timoteo. The remaining six (one

Timoteo Viti. When I first saw Muse is missing) appear to me to be

them, they were hung high in an ill- by different feeble painters of the

lighted room, and I took them for school of Giovanni Santi. The

works of that mythical painter indian ink drawing for one of these

Francesco Bianchi, whom for many Muses, ascribed to Botticelli, is at

years I had confounded with the Windsor (Grosvenor Gallery Publi-

Ferrarese Cortellini. ' Es irrt der cation, No. 17). I am inclined to

Mensch so lang er strebt.' On the think that this drawing is by Gio-

death of Prince Barberini, Duke of vanni Santi ; if this be so, it proves

Castelvecchio, the pictures were that Raphael's father was also a

transferred to the Corsini gallery in pupil of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, (f) Florence. On examining them in a ■ When the possessions of

better light, I came to the conclusion the Colonna-Barberini family were


JUSTUS OF GHENT.


251


the Pontiff do not appear, on the whole, to have taken much interest in art.

It is the Doria gallery, and not the Barberini, which ranks second among the Eoman collections. Shortly after the death of Urban VIII. (1644), Cardinal Giovan Battista Pamfili was raised to the papacy under the name of Inno- cent X. (September 29, 1644). His sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia, who came of the Viterbo family of Maldachini, is said to have been an ambitious and splendour-loving woman, who could not brook that her house should be eclipsed by any other in Borne. Hence this collection In all probability owes its existence, not to any love of art, but rather to the love of ostentation of this otherwise very


divided, half of the pictures, four- teen in number, fell to the share of the Sciarra-Colonna family. Later, they were sold to Signor Campana, and finally were bought by Napoleon III., with the whole Campana col- lection, for the Louvre. The Bar- berini share is still in the Pa- lazzo Barberini in Borne. These fifteen pictures represent Homer, Scotus, Cicero, Petrarch, Moses, Hippocrates, Solomon, Euclid, Albertus Magnus, and others ; and Federigo of Montefeltro, enthroned, wearing the ducal mantle over his armour and holding a large book. His hair is grey, his immense aquiline nose renders him unmis- takable. His little son Guidobaldo, kneeling, presents the ducal sceptre to his father. The child was born on January 24, 1471, and looks about four years old in this picture. This painting is larger and better preserved than the others, but is by the same hand as the rest, namely by that of Justus of Ghent. This Justus (Josse Sneevoet) was at Urbino from 1464 to 1476, and in


addition to the pictures just men- tioned, he painted a very poor "Cenacolo," which since 1865 has been in the academy at Urbino. The view of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii. 565) that some of these portraits are by Girolamo Genga is inadmissible. There is not a trace of this painter's manner in any one of the twenty-nine pictures, and moreover the series was pro- bably already complete in 1476, the year of Genga's birth. With regard to Justus of Ghent, I may take this opportunity of rectifying an error which has found acceptance among art-historians. Several recent writers, among them M. Alfred Michiels (Histoire de la peinture Flamande, iii. 149), have identified this Justus with Justus de Alemania, who in 1451 painted an "Annuncia- tion " in the cloisters of S. Maria, di Castello at Genoa. This painter was not a Fleming, but a Swabian from Bavensburg, and has nothing to do with Justus of Ghent, who- only came to Italy in 1464.

s 2


252 THE DORTA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

avaricious woman, and to the fashion of the day. A few of its most important acquisitions, however, date from the time of the great Admiral Andrea Doria, and were removed from Genoa to Rome at a later period. The Doria gallery cannot, however, compare with the Borghese for the number and value of its pictures ; as regards their intelligent arrangement and the light in which they are hung, it has not much to boast of ; all Italian galleries alike are victims to ignorance and deplorable indifference.

In the large vestibule leading to the apartments devoted to the pictures in the Doria Palace, we find among many unimportant productions of the seventeenth century, several finely composed landscapes by Gaspar Dughet, called Poussin ; " Noah's Sacrifice," a large and somewhat trivial work by Pietro da Cortona ; the " Deluge," by Scarsellino ; a landscape with many figures in the foreground by Battista Dossi, the brother of Giovanni, and other decorative works ; but Italian art of the seventeenth century does not come within the range of our present studies.

Before quitting this room, however, I cannot refrain from saying a few words about the portrait of Pope Innocent by Velasquez. This great Spanish artist was perhaps the most original of all portrait painters, and this picture is world- renowned. Professor Karl Justi, the able and gifted writer on art, has observed, in his learned and standard work, " Diego Velasquez and his Times" (ii. 183), 'It is a curious fact, that, as in his own country it had been the great painter's lot to portray the most gloomy-featured of ministers and the most uninteresting type of princes, so in Borne he was commissioned to paint the most ill-favoured among all the successors of St. Peter.' And truly there is not a trace in the features of Innocent either of the polished scholar, or of the high-bred man of the world — types we are wont to find among the princely ecclesiastical dignitaries of those


PESELLINO. 253

days. They are insignificant, even vulgar ; his expression is that of a wily lawyer, and it is a positive relief to forget his repulsive image. Yet cunning and suspicious as he was, Innocent X. was a mere tool in the hands of his sister-in- law Olimpia, a fact which it is difficult to explain. With the exception of a few of Bembrandt's finest likenesses, this painting surpasses all other portraits of that century. As Gainsborough has left us a " Blue boy," now in the Grosvenor House gallery, and Paul Veronese a " Green man," now in the Colonna Palace, so Velasquez, in Pope Innocent, has given us a red portrait.

According to some critics, there is another work by the Spanish master in Rome, namely, a portrait of himself in the Capitoline gallery. Even Professor Justi, the great au- thority on Velasquez, has not ventured to give a decided verdict, and I myself am not sufficiently acquainted with the Spanish school to express an opinion on such a delicate point. If it be by the hand of Velasquez, it must be a work of his first period.

The Venetians are particularly well represented in this collection, and I shall therefore discuss them at some length ; this will not deter me, however, from mentioning works of other schools when opportunity offers. The pictures, however, which strike us most on entering the second room are not Venetian but Florentine, namely, a fine " Annunciation " by Fra Filippo Lippi, (*) and two little panels by his pupil Pesellino. We will therefore begin by examining a few works of the Florentine school.

FKANCESCO PESELLINO.

Francesco Pesello, called II Pesellino, to distinguish him from his uncle Giuliano Pesello, was born at Florence in 1422, and died there in 1457, having scarcely attained his


254 THE D0RL4.-PAMFILI GALLERY.

thirty-fifth year. Masaccio's frescoes in the Carmine must have made a profound and lasting impression upon him, as on most of the other Florentine painters of the good period. Many of Pesellino's figures testify to this, as also does the simplicity of his composition. His true master, however, -was Fra Filippo, as Vasari states ; but this by no means precludes the supposition that Pesellino may have learnt the first principles of his art from his uncle. His earliest known work, 3 in the Casa Buonarotti at Florence, is cer- tainly not in the manner of Fra Filippo. Vasari, indeed, ascribes this panel to Giuliano himself, but most errone- ously, and it is not improbable that Pesellino executed it under the guidance of his uncle. So far as I know, there is no authentic work by Giuliano Pesello in exist- ence. 4 Vasari states that he painted an " Adoration of the Magi," in consequence of which Padre Lanzi imagined he had discovered the identical work in a picture repre- senting this subject in the Uffizi. Strange to say, Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle unhesitatingly agree with Lanzi, and speak of this picture (No. 65) as by Giuliano. 5

Pesellino is an extremely able artist who has been hitherto

3 This picture, formerly in the lowed my suggestion, and restored

Cavalcanti chapel in Santa Croce, the picture to its true author, Cosimo

represents the miracles of St. Roselli. Dr. Bode accepts the view

Nicholas of Bari. of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle.

1 A long low panel which passed In this picture, as in that of the

from the Palazzo Rucellai into the Baptism of Christ by Verrocchio,

collection of the author, might be the Berlin critic has observed what

by Giuliano Pesello. It represents he terms the ' Neue Firnismalerei,'

the surrender of a besieged city to a and he considers that in the latter

Florentine general. The landscape picture this new method is to be

and architectural background recall attributed to the young Leonardo da

Pesellino, while the remarkably Vinci. In the case of these two

mild types of the soldiers have more pictures, however, I feel bound to

of the character of Fra Angelico. point out that their present con-

The horses recall those usually met dition is due entirely to the restorer,

with in Paolo Uccello's paintings. who with his oil and his varnishes

5 The present director has fol- has succeeded in disfiguring both.


PESELLINO. 255

much underrated. His two small panels in the Doria gal- lery (Nos. 508 and 514) — one representing Pope Sylvester before the Emperor Constantine, and the other the Saint binding a dragon to render it harmless — are both rightly as- cribed to Pesellino, and appear to me to be of his later period Close to them are two small works which the catalogue most erroneously attributes to Pisano, the great Veronese painter, known as Pisanello. One represents the "Birth," the other the " Marriage of the Madonna." These two pic- tures, if I am not greatly mistaken, belong to the school of Siena and are probably by Bartolo di Maestro Fredi. ~(-f-) It has always been a mystery to me how such an astute connoisseur as the late Mr. Miindler could have supposed that these feeble productions showed the manner and even the colouring of Pisanello (see Cic. p. 6).

But to return to Pesellino, whose works are extremely rare. After years of research I have only succeeded in dis- covering about a dozen in addition to the two just men- tioned. The panel in the Casa Buonarotti at Florence is, in my judgment, his earliest known work. That mentioned by Vasari : ' fece ai fanciulli della Compagnia di S. Giorgio, un S. Girolamo e un S. Francesco ' (Vasari iv. 183), now in the collection of the author, 6 appears to me to be also an early work, though already entirely in the style of Fra Filippo. It represents St. Jerome in a cavern kneeling before a skull, with a stone in his right hand, and a crucifix in his left. The upper part of his body is nude ; his red Cardinal's robe envelops the lower part. A monk in the grey habit of his order is seated near a rock caressing a lion ; a lioness crouches beside him, her eyes fixed on the Saint ; the red roof of the monastery is seen in the dis- tance. Both composition and execution are extremely

6 Now in the public gallery at Bergamo.


256


THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.


naive and show a youthful hand. The type of St. Jerome's head is borrowed from Fra Filippo.

In the same collection is another panel by Pesellino, representing a Florentine patrician, one of the so-called ' borghesia f.'grassa,' arraigned by plebeian accusers, and brought before the judge, who is seated on a high throne — an excellent work, remarkable for life-like treatment and clever delineation of character, still showing the influence of Fra Filippo.

Not much later than these pictures I should place the three panels in the Palazzo Alessandri in Florence. One



" SAINT ANTHONY," FLOBENCE ACADEMY.

represents " Simon the Sorcerer," another the " Conver- sion of St. Paul," and the third " S. Zenobio restoring a widow's son to life." Of two excellent panels, 7 originally forming the predella to an altar-piece by Fra Filippo, one is now in the Florence academy, the other in the Louvre (No. 1414). In the former is represented the " Nativity," a " Miracle of St. Anthony," and the " Martyrdom of SS. Cosmo and Damiano " ; in the latter are the same two

7 Of this predella Padre Lanzi sissima, e forse non la lodd per quel has well observed : ' Che 1'istorico secolo oltre il dovere (i. 103). (namely, Vasari) chiamo maraviglio-


PESELLINO. 257

Saints healing a sick person, and St, Francis with the stigmata.

Among his later works I should class a panel of larger dimensions, representing the marriage of Griselda with the Marchese di Saluzzo — illustrating Boccaccio's well-known tale. This beautiful picture passed from the Palazzo Gherardi at Florence into the collection of the author. 8 It is one of the most characteristic and attractive of all the stories which this refined, gifted, and delightful chronicler,. Pesellino, has left us. In it he shows himself completely independent. Scarcely a trace of his master, Fra Filippo is discernible either in this painting or in the two exquisite panels in the Palazzo Torrigiani at Florence, representing David's victory and his triumphal procession. The two latter are indeed ascribed to Benozzo Gozzoli, but every connoisseur of the Florentine school would, I think, at once recognise them as by Pesellino. 9 (-f*)

In addition to the thirteen pictures by Pesellino already mentioned, there is an altar-piece attributed to him in the English National Gallery. In ascribing it to Pesellino, the authorities have Vasari's testimony to sup- port them, as the historian mentions it as the work of this master (iv. 182). It represents the Trinity with SS. James and Zeno, and was formerly in a church at Pistoia. I must confess, however, that to me it has nothing of Pesellino — neither his spirit, his style, nor his manner. He never, that I know of, painted large figures, 1 and this altar-piece appears to me more probably by his assistant, Piero di Lorenzo Pratese.

8 Now in the Bergamo gallery. 1 An"Annunciation"intheUffizi,.

9 Like Hercules hesitating be- No. 56, was formerly attributed to tween two roads, Dr. Bode is unde- Giuliano Pesello and now bears the cided whether to ascribe these pic- name of Pesellino. It is, however, an tures to Pesellino, or to deprive him undoubted work of Baldovinetti. Dr. of them (ii. 575). Bode (ii. 576) is also of this opinion.


258 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

There may be other works in private collections in Europe by this rare and thoroughly Florentine master ; but not being acquainted with them myself, I am unable to furnish any information on the subject. As beginners in the study of Italian art are liable to confound the works of Pesellino with those of his master, Fra Filippo, and even with those of his contemporary, Benozzo Gozzoli — an error into which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle have also fallen (iii. 107) — I will briefly enumerate a few of the master's characteristics. Pesellino's figures are always slim, refined, and full of grace — quite the reverse of the rather heavy forms of Fra Filippo, with whom, nevertheless, he is some- times confounded. In his colouring Pesellino has a pre- dilection for grey, blue, and violet tones. In the form of his hands he resembles his master Fra Filippo, as he also does in the type of many of his heads in his early works. His ear is somewhat round in form, but is longer than that of Fra Filippo ; the sharp dark brown outline of the helix of the ear is always characteristic of his pictures.

Noticeable too are the rounded folds often seen in his drapery, especially at the elbow. The roofs of his houses are usually of a bright red ; the floor, brick red ; when he introduces pillars in his

{flfvy^ "/£* buildings, they are of a greenish

tone. The works of this very

pesellino's rounded folds.

attractive painter are, as we have seen, mostly in Italy. Two are in Koine, seven in Florence, three in the Morelli collection, 2 one in the Louvre, and a work of Pesellino's ' bottega ' is in the English National Gallery.

- Now in the gallery at Bergamo.



GIOVANNI BELLINI. 259


THE VENETIANS.

Turning now to the Venetian pictures, it should be observed that they are scattered through the different rooms and corridors which serve as a picture gallery in the Doria Palace, and it therefore requires some patience and perse- verance to discover them. We will begin with two masters whose names we find in the catalogue — Giovanni Bellini and Andrea Mantegna.

GIOVANNI BELLINI.

Every great European collection in these days takes pride in being able to inscribe the name of Giovanni Bellini in its catalogue ; yet from the end of the sixteenth century up to the middle of the present, he was but little esteemed. It was only his great pupils and followers who were sought after — Giorgione, Titian (more especially), Sebastiano del Piombo, Palma Vecchio, Paris Bordone, Tintoretto, Paul Veronese, &c.

The last thirty years of Bellini's life were devoted to the execution of large works, either for the Senate or for Venetian churches, so that even the art-loving Isabella Gonzaga, Duchess of Mantua, had to wait many years, notwithstanding her entreaties, before she succeeded in obtaining the picture which the painter had promised her. 3 To this is due the fact that at that time, even in Italy, the master's works were extremely rare out of Venice. With the exception of the following pictures, I could hardly name another which Bellini was commissioned to execute for persons beyond the limits of that city: a "Pieta," •ordered by Sigismondo Malatesta of Bimini ; the large

3 See Gaye, Carteggio d' Artisti, this incident date from the years ii. 71-82. The letters referring to 1505 and 1506.


260 THE DOPJA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

altar-piece, executed for the Franciscans of Pesaro ; the "Bacchanal" for the Duke of Ferrara; the altar-piece for the church of Santa Corona at Vicenza, and the charm- ing Madonna for a nunnery at Alzano near Bergamo. 4

The following works by him still remain in Italy, out of Venice. In the Uffizi a " Sacred Allegory" (No. 631). This beautiful picture, full of grace and spirit, came to Florence as the work of Giovanni Bellini ; later the name was changed to that of Giorgione, and quite recently, to the surprise of all connoisseurs of the Venetian school, to that of Marco Basaiti, Dr. Bode (ii. 641) also regarding it as a work by this master. The form of ear, however, and the excessive size of the hands, which is extremely character- istic of Bellini, reveal the master at once. The type of the Madonna, her pose, and the rocky landscape, recall the "Adoration of the Magi" by his brother Gentile in the collection of Sir Henry Layard at Venice.

The small head of an Apostle, also in the Uffizi (No. 177), and the so-called portrait of Giovanni Bellini by himself (No. 354), with a forged signature, are both by pupils. The " Pieta," No. 583, in the same gallery, which is only laid in, is so entirely disfigured by restoration that it is almost worthless. There is a genuine, though much damaged, " Madonna " by the master in the gallery at Turin, No. 779 ; the other painting ascribed to Bellini in that collection (No. 105) is merely a copy.

In the Brera at Milan we find three works of different

1 The fine "Pieta" is in the lection (at Bergamo). It is one of

Palazzo Pubblico at Eimini ; the the best preserved of the master's

altar-piece at Pesaro in a church in works (of 1496-1498), and was twice

that town ; the " Bacchanal " in the copied by Giovan Battista Moroni,

possession of the Duke of Northum- One of these copies belongs to the

berland ; the altar-piece at Vicenza Agliardi family at Bergamo ; the

is still in the church of S. Corona ; other is in a church in the Val Serio-

the Madonna of Alzano, mentioned near Albino, by Ridolfi, is now in the Morelli col-


GIOVANNI BELLINI. 261

periods of Giovanni Bellini's career. The earliest is the "Pieta" (No. 284), dating from about 1464-1467. It would be difficult to name another painting in which a mother's grief for the loss of her son has been expressed with such profound and touching pathos. The Madonna (Nc. 261), painted for a Greek church, was probably exe- cuted about ten years later ; the treatment of the subject is one of the most impressive I know — the expression of tender melancholy in the face of the Child and in the eyes of the mother is truly sublime. Another " Madonna " (No. 297), much damaged, is dated 1510. In Dr. G. Frizzoni's collection at Milan there is an extremely interesting early work by Bellini recalling Alvise Vivarini, and in the collec- tion of the author, 5 besides the picture already mentioned, there is a second, of about 1475-1478.

In the gallery at Bergamo (Lochis collection) there is a genuine but much repainted " Madonna " of his early period (No. 140) ; another of his latest, about 1512, is in the cathedral there. At Brescia, so far as I know, there is no painting by Bellini. The " Descent from the Cross " ascribed to him in the church of S. Giovanni Evangelista is probably by Civerchio of Crema, a pupil of Foppa. (-f-) Among the drawings in the Palazzo Tosi there is, however, a sketch in pen and ink (a " Pieta ") by Bellini (f), erroneously ascribed to Mantegna.

In the gallery at Verona there is a genuine and beautiful Virgin and Child by Bellini (f), of about 1477 (Bernasconi collection, No. 77). It is unfortunately much injured, and has actually been assigned to the Florentine school.

At Vicenza the master's large altar-piece of 1510 is still in the church of S. Corona, for which it was painted ; at Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, Treviso, and in the Friulian district,

5 Now at Bergamo.


262 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

I have not met with a single genuine work by Giovanni Bellini. In the gallery at Eovigo, however, there is an authentic but wholly disfigured painting by the master (No. 109) . Venice has had the good fortune to retain a great number of his works, both large and small, though most of them have been irreparably injured by the restoration, so- called, which they have undergone. I will now enumerate them. The Correr collection in the Museo Civico, which has recently been rearranged with so little intelligence, contains a few most valuable early works by the master : a " Pieta " (Boom IX., No. 27), which Dr. Bode (ii. 771) still continues to ascribe to Pier Maria Pennacchi, I consider to be a genuine work by Bellini, full of the most profound feeling (-J-) ; a small " Crucifixion," with the Madonna and St. John weeping at the foot of the Cross (Boom IX. No. 46), recalling his father Jacopo (f), and the " Transfiguration " (Boom VII., No. 23).

In the Academy we find an early Madonna (Boom VI., No. 2) by the master, besides many interesting works of his later periods ; such as the large altar-piece, dating from the last twenty years of the fifteenth century ; several Madonnas in the Sala Contarini (Nos. 17 and 24), and four little panels with allegorical subjects (Boom III., Nos. 47-51). The Madonna in Boom V., and the two Madonnas in Boom VI., Nos. 33 and 44, probably date from the last years of the fifteenth century. A splendid work of 1488 is in the sacristy of S. Maria dei Frari, and an early Madonna is in the church of S. Maria dell' Orto, bearing a ' Cartellino ' which has been mutilated by the restorer. In the church of S. Zaccaria we find a large and celebrated altar-piece of 1505, and in S. Francesco della Vigna a long picture of 1507 with the Madonna and Child and four Saints. The donor represented in it was probably an addition of the seventeenth century. In S. Crisostomo is a splendid


EONDINELLI. 263

work of 1513, one of the master's latest, and painted when he was eighty-five !

An altar-piece of 1488 yet remains to be mentioned — one which Giovanni Bellini executed by order of the Doge Agostino Barbarigo, now in the church of S. Pietro Martire at Murano. He is, of course, accredited with many other works in Venice, but I believe I have not omitted a single genuine one from the foregoing list. The Madonna ascribed to the master in the Borghese gallery I have already dealt with. In the Capitol no fewer than five pictures are attri- buted to him ; the two figures of Saints (Nos. 79 and 87) are, as we have seen, by Garofalo ; the pleasing portrait of a girl (No. 207) is, if I am not mistaken, by Amico Aspertini (-f-), a pupil of Ercole Boberti, of Ferrara, and the two other portraits (Nos. 129 and 132) are not by his hand. The same must be said of the pictures bearing his name in the Doria gallery. The " Circumcision " (No. 519) is merely one of the numerous copies of that unat- tractive subject which are frequently met with in Italy and elsewhere. The original is said to be in England. 6

NICCOLO EONDINELLI.

The second Bellini, so-called, is in Braccio II. of this gallery, No. 98. It recalls the master in a measure, but even the most superficial connoisseurs of the Venetian school would hardly think of ascribing it to him were it not for the misleading signature : Ioannes Bellinvs. It represents the Madonna, adoring the Child who lies on her knee ; the little St. John standing by. A comparison between this picture and two works in the second room of this gallery by Niccolo Bondinelli, a pupil and assistant of Bellini, proves that these three pictures are by the same

6 A similar copy, signed ' Marco BELLI,' is in the gallery at Kovigo.


264 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

hand. One of them, No. Ill, is signed: Nicolavs Eondinelo Both Nos. Ill and 315 are, however, so damaged that it is difficult to trace the artist's individuality. The hand in all three pictures is still very Bellinesque in form, the eyebrows are dark and thick, always a characteristic of Eondinelli ; the broad gold border on the Madonna's red dress, and the stiff straight folds on her bodice, are also distinctive of his later manner. I could mention many similar paintings which, though bearing the signa- ture of Bellini, are in reality by his pupils and imitators. For instance, a Madonna with SS. Peter and Sebastian in the Louvre (No. 1159), falsely inscribed with the name of Bellini, and the so-called " portrait of Bellini by himself," in the Uffizi, No. 354, which are both by Eondinelli. A portrait of a man in the Capitol, and a Madonna in the gallery at Padua (No. 1273), belong to this category. Francesco Bissolo, another pupil and imitator of Bellini, also inscribed his own paintings with the name of the master; but the signatures in his ' Cartelling' unlike those of Bellini, are always in cursive characters — Ioannes belli nus — as, for instance, on the Madonna in the Borghese gallery, the picture of 1515 in the public gallery at Vienna repre- senting a nude female figure arranging her hair, and others. These forgeries were in all probability perpetrated after the death of Bellini, in the hope of finding a better sale for the pictures— Marcantonio's copies, signed with Diirer's monogram, are examples of this practice. Some northern critics, misled by the fact that these forged signa- tures do not yield to chemical solvents, are inclined to assume, and to make others believe, that the master him- self thus signed the works of his pupils and assistants. There is, of course, no reason why such beliefs should not be held if they give pleasure to those who hold them. Life is made up of delusions, and it is practically of no conse-


BONDINELLI. 265

quence if an amateur, to whom a forgery is quite as attractive as a genuine work of art, is disposed to accept these views. We must consider, moreover, that, were it not so, many a rogue would be reduced to beggary.

A Madonna very similar to No. 98 in the Doria gallery belongs to the Senator Giovanni Baracco at Eome ; another of the same period of Eondinelli's career passed from the possession of the Buri family at Verona into the collection of the late Prince Giovanelli at Yenice. Other works of this later period are at Bavenna in churches and private collections — for instance, a large altar-piece in the church of S. Croce — and a St. Sebastian is in the Cathedral at Forli. A very good work of the master's early period, in the Brera (No. 177), represents St. John the Evangelist appearing to Galla Placidia, who kneels before him. The same gallery contains another altar-piece by Bondinelli (No. 176)— the Madonna and Child with SS. Nicholas, Augustine, Peter and Bartholomew, and three angel musi- cians. The catalogue ascribes it to Baldassare Carrari, of Forli ; 7 the late Mr. Miindler attributed it to Cristoforo Caselli, of Parma {op. tit. p. 9). Neither the year of Eondi- nelli's birth nor that of his death is known. He belongs to that group of artists who, like Cima da Conegliano, Cristo- foro Caselli, Jacopo da Montagnana, Lattanzio da Eimini, Pier Maria Pennacchi, Francesco Bissolo, and others, were employed in the workshop of Giovanni Bellini during the last twenty years of the fifteenth century. From Eondinelli's school proceeded the brothers Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli of Cotignola, Girolamo Marchesi, also of Cotignola, and Luca Longhi, of Bavenna. According to Dr. Bode

7 Lanzi (iv. 35) gave this picture caselle, who attributed the picture to

to Baldassare Carrari. I arn glad to Niccolo Bondinelli (i. 594, 2) before

find that my views coincide with I had expressed an opinion on the

those of Messrs. Crowe and Caval- subject.


266 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

(ii. 643), Ronclinelli was influenced by Marco Pahnezzano, the pupil and assistant of Melozzo da Forli, but this view appears to me hardly tenable. I should rather consider that the reverse was the case, and that the feebler artist, Palniezzano, derived much from Eondinelli.

To return to Bellini. With the exception of an entirely repainted Madonna in the collection of Prince Torlonia, 8 there is not a single picture by him in Eome. In the Museum at Naples we find a splendid early work by him — the " Transfiguration." It came there from Parma with other property of the Farnese family. The account of the Bellini family Vasari received from an informant was not only slight, but inaccurate. He mentions the portrait of Catarina Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, and the " Miracles by the Belie of the True Cross," as early works by Jacopo Bellini, while in point of fact they are by his son Gentile and of his later period. 9 Again, he ascribes the frescoes by Gentile da Fabriano and by Pisanello in the Doge's Palace to the brothers Bellini, whereas the latter, with Alvise Yivarini, were only commissioned to restore them in 1474.

Further, when the Sultan applied for a good Venetian painter, it was Gentile who was sent, because, according to Vasari, Giovanni ' on account of his great age could not have endured the fatigue of a journey from Venice to Con- stantinople ' — the truth being that Gentile was the elder of the two, and at the time in question (1479) his brother was not much over fifty. This affords a proof that, even among Venetians in the middle of the sixteenth century,

s The Child stands on a pede- Esterhazy gallery at Buda-Pesth. stal in front of the Madonna; on The pictures representing the either side are SS. Peter and Paul ; " Miracles performed by a Relic of

signed: 'IOANNES BELLlNVS.' the True Cross >" datin S from the • The portrait of Catarina last deoade of the fifteenth century, Cornaro in advancing years is in the are in the Venice Academy.


JACOPO BELLINI. 267

all recollections of the Bellini were gradually dying out.

Taking him all in all, I consider that Giovanni Bellini was the greatest painter in North Italy in the fifteenth century, though undoubtedly Vittor Pisano was in his day, that is hi the first half of the century, as great a pioneer in art, in a certain sense, as was Giovanni Bellini in the latter half. This is proved by his fine fresco of " St. George and the Dragon," in S. Anastasia at Verona, and by his most interesting pen drawings, which, with many other drawings of the early school of Verona, are contained in the so- called Vallardi album in the Louvre, to say nothing of his splendid medals.

Andrea Mantegna is certainly more impressive, powerful, and learned than Bellini, and depicts the moment of action with greater force and with a more truthful realism. Yet there is a certain monotony in the conception and mode of representation both of Mantegna and Pisano, whereas Bellini as an artist is versatile in the highest degree. Both Giovanni and his elder brother Gentile owed their artistic training mainly to their father Jacopo, whose great importance as an artist has only recently been proved by his sketch book, purchased not long since by the authori- ties of the Louvre. These pen drawings by their varied character prove Jacopo Bellini to have been one of the greatest Venetian artists of the first half of the fifteenth century. 1

1 Jacopo Bellini must have exe- gallery at Lovere, in the province of

cuted many frescoes, but all have Bergamo. All these have been

either perished or been covered greatly damaged by modern restora-

with whitewash. The only pic- tion. An "Annunciation" in the

tures by him with which I am church of S. Alessandro at Brescia,

acquainted are : " The Crucifixion," and a Madonna in the Lochis-

in the gallery at Verona (No. 344), Carrara gallery at Bergamo

a Madonna in the Venice Academy (No. 230), remind me forcibly

(No. 18), and another in the Tadini of the manner of Jacopo Bellini.

t 2


268 THE DOKIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

Giovanni Bellini was ever making progress and developing from his twentieth year upwards, that is from 1450 until his latest known works of 1513 and 1514 (the altar-piece in S. Giovanni Crisostomo at Venice and the " Bacchanal " belonging to the Duke of Northumberland), so that Diirer was right when, in 1506, he pronounced him the best artist in Venice. Bellini knew how to adapt himself to his subject, and was, as occasion required, grand and serious, graceful and attractive, naive and simple. His women and children, his old men and boys, never resemble each other, and the same type and expression seldom recur. At times he is even fanciful, like his great pupil Giorgione, as, for example, in his beautiful allegory in the Uffizi (No. 631). We may admit all this without in any way detracting from the great importance of Mantegna. I certainly am not one of those critics who expect an exceptionally gifted nature to be endowed with every imaginable quality. I hold that certain gifts and endowments altogether preclude others, and that neither Mantegna nor Michael Angelo would have attained to the great heights they reached in their art had the Graces been among their instructors. To make my meaning plainer, I may say, that were Bismarck possessed of all those qualities in which his opponents affirm that he is wanting, the unity of Germany would scarcely have been accomplished. Among Bellini's earliest works is the very interesting little picture in the National Gallery, re- presenting Christ standing and encircling the Cross with His left arm, while an angel, kneeling on the right, receives in a chalice the blood flowing from the Saviour's side ; in the background are numerous buildings in a hilly landscape


The former of these pictures is as- a paper by Professor Molmenti in

cribed to Fra Angelico, the latter to the Archivio storico veneto for

Gentile da Fabriano. For notices 1888. of the works of Jacopo Bellini, see


GIOVANNI BELLINI.


269


— the light on the hills treated in the manner of Gentile da Fabriano. After this picture, in chronological order, I should place the Crucifixion in the Correr Museum (Room IX., No. 46). Bellini was, after Mantegna, the greatest delineator of character in North Italy, in an age when the portrayal of character was the principal aim of art. Later, when art sought to give expression to the affections and emotions of human nature, he shows himself second to none in depicting religious feeling, maternal love, and artless childlike joy, as well as pious awe and devout humility in his male and female saints. Bellini is never dramatic, but he always gives to his figures life, dignity, and power. 2 It is a curious fact that, whereas many school-pieces are often ascribed to the master himself, Bellini's own early works are constantly attributed, even by renowned art-critics, to painters far inferior to him ; for instance, to Pennacchi, Zaganelli, Bondinelli, Lattanzio da Rimini, and quite recently even to Basaiti ; while at times, and this is more excusable, Bellini is confounded in his early works with Mantegna or Ercole di Roberti. 3


2 The late Signor Cecchetti dis- covered a curious document (pub- lished in the Archivio Veneto, xxxiv. 204), according to which the widow of Giovanni Bellini made her will in 1554, thirty-eight years, therefore, after the death of her husband, who died at the age of eighty-eight.

3 I have already had occasion to observe (p. 264, and Borghese gallery,


p. 240) that all ' Cartellini ' bearing Giovanni Bellini's name in cursive characters are forgeries, and that in his genuine signatures, one L is always taller than the other. In authentic ' Cartellini ' which have been touched, we often find that the restorer has tampered with this peculiarity and made the letters of equal height.



FACSIMILE OF A GENUINE ' CABTELLINO.


270 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

I will now cite a few material characteristics, whereby Giovanni Bellini may be distinguished from Mantegna, the painter with whom he is most frequently confounded at a certain period of his career (1460-1480). The form of hand and ear is very dissimilar in the works of these two masters. Bellini's ear is round and fleshy ; that of Man- tegna is longer and very cartilaginous. Mantegna's hand is fleshy, with short fingers ; Bellini's in his early period is bony and nearly always unnaturally large, the fingers tapering at the tips and the joints strongly accentuated. Bellini's landscapes usually represent a well-watered plain with fortified buildings in the middle distance, hills in the back- ground and a winding road in the foreground and middle distance. He adhered to this treatment up to the first years of the sixteenth century, subsequent to which time his landscapes became realistic. Originally the tones in the foreground were of a subdued green with dark green in the middle distance ; gradually, however, these colours became oxydised and are now very dark, almost black. Mantegna had little feeling for line or colour in landscape. In his backgrounds we usually see a steep hill surmounted by a fortress with a path winding up to it ; occasionally he contents himself with introducing only jagged rocks.

Giovanni Bellini's pictures have for the most part been much retouched and over-cleaned, in consequence of which the master's characteristic and strongly developed forms have been softened down in accordance with academic rules. To become acquainted with his conception of form, he must be studied in his early works ; they are all in tempera and have been less tampered with than his later, which, being glazed with oil, have suffered most from the restorer. This applies not only to Bellini's pictures but to those of all the great Venetian masters of the golden age of painting. In the early works of an artist,


MANTEGNA, 271

all his peculiarities, both good and bad, are [strikingly apparent. If the " Pieta " in the Brera (No. 284), and the " Transfiguration " at Naples, were not both signed with Bellini's name, they would undoubtedly have been ascribed to Mantegna. This has been the case with several other works of the same period of the master's career, for instance the " Agony in the Garden " in the English National Gallery (No. 726) and the " Transfiguration " in the Correr Museum at Venice (Eoom VII., No. 23).

A comparatively large number of Bellini's paintings have been preserved to us, but this is unfortunately not the case with his drawings, and of these I can only cite a very limited number. In the Venice Academy we find a " Pieta " (pen and ink), ascribed to Mantegna, and a drawing for a standing figure of an Apostle, which appear to me to be by Bellini. In the collection of the late Count Tosi at Brescia, there is an " Entombment " (pen and ink) by Bellini, again under the name of Mantegna. Another pen drawing for a " Pieta " is in the His la Salle collection in the Louvre (No. 2202) . In the fine collection of drawings at Chatsworth, four standing figures of Saints (pen and ink), by Bellini, are strangely enough ascribed to Perino del Vaga. (f)

ANDREA MANTEGNA.

According to a document recently discovered, Andrea Mantegna was not born at Padua, as hitherto supposed, but at Vicenza. There is not a single work by him in the public collections in Borne, though the catalogue of the Doria gallery very erroneously ascribes no fewer than four to him. One of these, No. 419, represents one of the many temptations whereby the faith of St. Anthony the hermit was tested. Two other works ascribed to the


272 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

master are in Braccio III. One represents St. Louis of Toulouse distributing alms ; the other again a " Temp- tation of St. Anthony." These three characteristic and clever pictures were ascribed by Messrs. Crowe and Caval- caselle (i. 359) to Parentino, a verdict I cannot accept. They are thoroughly Veronese in character, and it seems to me that Dr. Frizzoni has rightly recognised in them the hand and the feeling of an artist closely connected with Liberale da Verona (?) . The fourth painting attributed to Mantegna (No. 128) represents Christ bearing the Cross. Signor Lombardi of Ferrara has a replica of this painting on fine canvas, apparently by the same hand. I am of opinion that both pictures are by a Flemish artist who worked upon an Italian original. 4 (f )

The " Deposition " ascribed to Mantegna in the Vatican collection must not be regarded as his work. It is probably a copy of some lost painting by Bartolommeo Montagna, executed by his imitator Giovanni Buonconsigli of Vicenza, by whom there are several works in his native city. He was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini and took Bartolommeo Montagna for his model. Nevertheless in the Louvre he is confounded with Mantegna in a drawing for a standing figure of Christ (Braun, No. 409).

At Venice we find paintings by him in the churches of S. Giacomo dall' Orio (representing SS. Sebastian, Laurence, and Roch) and of S. Spirito (Christ between SS. Erasmus and Secundus) ; in the Academy, the Madonna between SS. Cosmo and Damiano ; and a St. John the Baptist in Sir Henry Layard's collection. A document 5 published in the " Archivio Vencto " (xxxiv. p. 205) by the

1 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle depentor q. miser Zuane de Vicenza

look upon this picture as by Bon- habitante qui in Venetia in contrada

signori, executed under the influence de SS. Apostoli in casa propria

of Palmezzano da Forll (i. 478, 4). 1539.'

3 ' Io Vltruvio de bonconsejo


MANTEGNA. 273

late Signor Cecchetti, proves that Buonconsigli died pre- vious to 1539. Besides Giovanni Bellini and his pupil Buonconsigli, Signorelli is also confounded with Mantegna by amateurs — for instance, in his design for Marcantonio's celebrated engraving, Mars, Venus, and Cupid (Bartsch 345), which is ascribed to Mantegna. 6 (-f-)

Two splendid works of Mantegna' s middle period are in the Uffizi (Nos. 1025 and 1111). One represents the Madonna and Child seated in a rocky landscape; the other is a Triptych in the centre of which is the " Adoration of the Magi," and on one side the " Presentation in the Temple," and on the other the " Besurrection." This is one of the finest of his easel pictures. A much damaged portrait of a woman ascribed to Mantegna, is certainly not by him, but more probably by Giovanni Francesco Carotto of Verona. 7 (f)

The merits of this truly great master can only be fully appreciated in his frescoes in the Eremitani at Padua, 8 and more especially in those of the Camera degli Sposi in the Ducal Palace at Mantua. 9 There we see him at his best and in the plenitude of his power. In the Brera we find three extremely interesting works by him, the best being a Triptych with St. Luke, of the year 1452, a

6 Passavant says of this engrav- with a beautiful drawing by Leo- ing : ' Cette belle estampe, gravee nardo da Vinci in the Louvre, repre- d'apres un dessin du Mantegna, senting Isabella in profile (Braun porte la date de 1508 ' (Peintre- 162).

Graveur, vi. 25). Even in the en- 8 One of these frescoes has been graving, Signorelli' s manner is easily completely destroyed by restoration, recognised in the types, the form of 9 The series were nearly corn- hands, the stiff and angular pose of pleted in the year 1474. In 1876 and Venus, &c. 1877 all, but more especially the

7 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle fresco representing the " Gonzaga also ascribe this portrait to a Family," were irreparably damaged Veronese, namely, to Francesco by ' restoration,' carried on under Bonsignori, but they regard it as the direction of the Government the likeness of Isabella d' Este (!) Inspector General, Signor Caval- (i. 479). It should be compared caselle.


274 THE DOEIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

painting executed with scrupulous care and accuracy. The upper part is, I believe, earlier by a few months than the lower. In this early work no Flemish artist could have surpassed the realism of Mantegna.

One of his best works is the Triptych in the Church of St. Zeno at Verona. The public gallery in that city con- tains a Madonna and Saints by him (Bernasconi collection), and a similar subject is at Turin. In the Venice Academy we find a small and exquisitely painted full-length figure of St. George ; in the Scarpa collection at La Motta (near Treviso) an unpleasing St. Sebastian, over life-size; in the gallery at Bergamo x a beautiful little Madonna ; and at Milan, besides the two pictures in the Brera already mentioned, a large altar-piece of 1497 in the Palazzo Tri- vulzio and a small Madonna in the Poldi-Pezzoli collec- tion.

These four last-named pictures are on canvas, and date from the last years of the fifteenth century.

ANTONIO VIVAEINI.

The Lateran and Vatican collections contain some good works by Mantegna's Venetian contemporaries, Antonio Vivarini and Carlo Crivelli. By Vivarini there is a large altar-piece in the former gallery ; the centre occupied by a carved figure of St. Anthony, between SS. Christopher, Sebastian, Venantius, and Vitus, and above, the Almighty with SS. Peter, Paul, Augustine, and a Bishop, all half- lengths. It is dated 1464, and inscribed 'Antonius DE MUEAO (Murano) Pinxit,' a work therefore of the master's latest period. To gain a fuller knowledge of this early

1 Dr. Bode (ii. G18) regards the Veronese Bonsignori. The study in

portrait of Vespasiano Gonzaga in black chalk for it is in the Ufhzi

that gallery as a Mantegna. I (t) (engraving department, No. 1702,

consider it to be a fine work of the Venetian school).


CEIVELLI. 275

"Venetian painter we must however seek him elsewhere — in the Sacristy of the Church of Pausola in the March of Ancona, and more especially in Venice, in the Academy and in the churches of S. Zaccaria, S. Pantaleone, and S. Francesco della Vigna (Sacristy) . In the galleries of Bologna and Bergamo, and in the Brera at Milan, we also find a few of his works. In the Seminario at Brescia there is a picture representing St. Ursula and her Virgins, which, since the days of Bidolfi, has always been attributed to the Lombard Vincenzo Foppa, but which appears to me an indisputable work of Vivarini. 2 (-f) I consider that this master owes his artistic development to Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello, or at all events to Giambono, who was influenced by the latter painter.

CAELO CEIVELLI.

There are two works by this master in the Lateran, 3 and one, a Pieta, in the Vatican. Carlo and his younger brother (?) Vittore, spent the greater part of their lives in the March of Ancona, and chiefly in the neighbourhood of Ascoli. Nearly all Carlo's panels, executed with the help of his brother, and remarkable for their bright colouring, were formerly in that district. Most of them have now been removed to Eome, Milan, and London (National Gallery), but some few still remain in the March of Ancona — for instance, a small picture at Ancona itself, an early

- Passavant, in a very superficial sides are four saints, inscribed: 1481,

article on the Lombard painters (in VLTIMA IVLII. It is powerful in

the Kunstblatt), also ascribed this drawing. The other picture is dated

picture to Vincenzo Foppa. 1482, and represents the Madonna

3 One of these is an altar-piece enthroned, with the Child, who

in five compartments. In the centre holds an apple. At the foot of the

is the Madonna with the Child, who throne a Franciscan monk is in

holds a goldfinch by a string, and adoration, before whom kneels the donor ; at the


276 THE DOKIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

work of 1468 at Massa, others at Penna di San Martino, Ascoli, and elsewhere. The most historically interesting work of Crivelli is in the gallery at Verona. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (i. 82), and Dr. Bode, infer from this painting that Crivelli was a pupil of Antonio and Bartolommeo Vivarini of Murano. The latter critic also considers (ii. 630) that the influence of Niccolo da Foligno and even of Signorelli is perceptible in the works of Crivelli. I find it impossible to share these opinions. To judge from the picture at Verona, I should say that Crivelli's early training was derived from Squarcione at Padua, for at the first glance this picture looks like the work of Gregorio Schiavone, whom all admit to have been a scholar and imitator of Squarcione. The angels, both in composition and modelling, recall Schiavone's type and manner. That the painters of Murano exercised some influence over Crivelli at a later date I have no wish to dispute ; but I cannot admit that his works show either the influence of Niccolo da Foligno or of Signorelli. From Carlo Crivelli proceeded Pietro Alemanni, by whom there are several un- important paintings at Ascoli. Lorenzo da Sanseverino the younger, who is represented by a good work in the English National Gallery, may also have felt the influence of Crivelli.

There are some excellent works in the Doria gallery by Bellini's scholars. Among them, however, I should neither include No. 521, nor a picture (No. 558) attributed to Basaiti.



Virgin and Child. By Crivklli, Vkrona.


To face p. 276.


CIMA DA CONEGLIANO. 277


CIMA DA CONEGLIANO.


The first of these pictures, No. 521, represents the Madonna with the Infant Saviour in her arms. It is merely one of the innumerable copies, so frequently met with in Italy, of an original painting by Cima cla Conegliano.

Cima, the pupil and assistant of Bellini, was a serious and conscientious painter, somewhat monotonous perhaps, but occasionally attaining to great nobility. There are no genuine works by him in Southern or Central Italy. Eecently, indeed, a picture bearing Cima's name has been exhibited in the first Venetian room of the Uffizi, but it is probably by Pietro da Messina, an imitator of the master, whose copies after different artists are often taken for originals. Thus we meet with him under the names of Antonello, of Bellini — as in the church of the Scalzi in Venice — and of Jacopo da Valenza in the gallery at Padua, Nos. 143 and 23. (f)

Cima's works are to be found at Bologna, Modena, and Parma — some excellent examples in the latter city ; in the Brera (No. 191, perhaps his finest work, and Nos. 300, 286, 289, 302) ; at Vicenza (his earliest signed work of 1489) ; at Conegliano, and above all in Venice — in the churches of S. Giovanni in Bragora, S. Maria dell' Orto, and the Carmine, and in the Academy. A fine early work by the master is a large altar-piece in several compart- ments in the church of the little mountain village of Olera, near Bergamo. Among those whose .works prove them to have been imitators of Cima may be mentioned Sebastiano del Piombo — as shown by his early work, the " Pieta." in the collection of Sir Henry Layard at Venice — Giovan Maria da Carpi, by whom there is a signed Madonna in the possession of Signor Antonio Piccinelli at Bergamo ;


278 THE DOKIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

Cristoforo Caselli of Parma ; Pietro da Messina ; Girolamo da Santa Croce — a picture in the Venice Academy and one at Bergamo (Lochis collection), bearing the forged signature : Batt. Cima. Conelianensis. M . D . XV. ; the unknown master who executed the good altar-piece in the church of Sanfiore near Conegliano, and other painters of this date. Cima is undoubtedly an excellent, though by no means an original, artist ; most of his types being borrowed from his master Giovanni Bellini. He had no dramatic talent, but he is the best and most careful draughtsman of the whole contemporary school of Bellini. Unlike his master who was ever making progress even at the age of eighty, Cima never abandoned the style of the quattro- cento. We may see this even in his latest works — for instance, in the beautiful picture in the Venice Academy, " Tobias and the Angel."

We will now turn to the picture No. 558. It repre- sents the Madonna and Child, with SS. Peter, John the Baptist, Nicholas of Bari, and a female Martyr, and is ascribed by the catalogue to Basaiti. In this gallery, therefore, we find, first a work of Garofalo, and now a Madonna with Saints of the school of Boccaccino, both attributed to Marco Basaiti. How, we may well ask, is an art-historian who is not at the same time a connoisseur, to form any idea of the character of Basaiti from these two pictures. He would be forced to take refuge in theorising about the various influences to which this painter must be supposed to have been subjected.

BOCCACCIO BOCCACCINO.

This Lombardo-Venetian painter is unrepresented in Southern and Central Italy, if we except the Zingarella already mentioned in the Pitti at Florence (No. 246). In


BOCCACCINO. 279'

Venice we meet him under the most varied names. In S. Giuliano he appears as Cordelgliaghi ; in the Sacristy of S. Stefano, and in S. Pietro Martire at Murano, as Palma Vecchio, (f) (the latter picture is much repainted) ; and in the library of the Ducal Palace as Giovanni Bellini. (-J-) In the Academy he is alternately described as an early Ferrarese, as a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, and as Pietro Perugino. 4 In his picture of the " Supper at Emmaus," belonging to Signor Sernagiotto, Boccaccino even passes for Leonardo da Vinci himself. This Cremonese painter was treated much as his countryman Bartolommeo Veneto, who signs one of his early works 'Bartolommeo mezzo Cremonese e mezzo Veneziano,' and whose paintings also pass under the most diverse names. Boccaccino is, however, an artist of a very different stamp, and endowed with far more character than that protean painter, Bartolommeo Veneto. He pro- bably served his apprenticeship both in Ferrara and in Venice. All that is best in his art he derived from the school of the Bellini, from Alvise Vivarini and latterly from Giorgione. One of his finest works is in the Academy at Venice (Boom II., No. 55) — the Madonna seated with the Infant Saviour, in a beautiful landscape, surrounded by St. Peter, St. Catherine, St. Bosa, and St. John the Baptist —


4 This picture, " Christ washing the Zaganelli.' 'E se potran con-

the feet of His Disciples," is now tarsi anco fian pochi ! ' says Ariosto.

assigned to Boccaccino. It is a very In order to follow these writers, my

inferior production, and may have readers must know that Boccaccino

been partly the work of his brother. was in Borne and Ferrara, and

Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, documentary evidence has also

speaking of it (ii. 447) , observe : ' We proved that he stayed for some time

are reminded in this picture of the in Milan. In all these cities then,

schools of Lombardy and Leonardo, according to the historians of Italian

of Umbria and Pinturicehio, yet at painting, Boccaccino laid up a

the same time of those of Ferrara varied stock of impressions which

and Ereole Eoberti, as illustrated he utilised for this picture in the

by Panetti, Costa, Timoteo Viti, and Venice Academy.


280 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

signed ' Bochazinus.' 5 In addition to his fine frescoes in the cathedral of Cremona there is also a good altar-piece of 1518 by him in his native city. Another still better work, of brilliant colouring, representing the "Annunciation," belongs to Signor Giulio Prinetti at Milan, and the gal- lery at Padua contains a Madonna with St. Lucy and St. Catherine — an excellent and genuine work.

Boccaccino's son Camillo was also an artist, and his large picture in the Brera (No. 426) proves that he deserves to be classed among the better Lombard painters of the third decade of the sixteenth century. This work also shows that Camillo, like many other artists, fell under the influence of Giovan Antonio da Pordenone, who was for a time at Cremona and Piacenza. Padre Lanzi and Camillo's countrymen extol him principally for his frescoes in the dome of the church of S. Sigismondo near Cremona. I am inclined to think, however, that it was fortunate for the painter's reputation that his career was cut short by death soon after the com- pletion of this work, at the age of thirty-one. The Boccac- cini family has led me into a digression, and I will now turn to another Venetian painter.

The Madonna (No. 558), as we have seen, is not to be attributed to Basaiti. This gallery, however, contains a genuine work by the master, a St. Sebastian (No. 495), though falsely ascribed to Perugino. I see to my satisfaction that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle also attribute it to Basaiti.


5 He signs himself variously racteristic work by this painter in

Bochazinus and Boccaccinus de the Correr museum (Room VII.,

Boccacciis (see Grasselli, A beccdario No. 22). biografico, p. 54). There is a cha-


BASAITI. 281


MAECO BASAITI.

Unfortunately, we know nothing of the early training of this master. In his later works he shows himself an artist of some importance. Vasari only notices him cursorily, and was moreover so ill-informed about him a,s to make out of the name two separate painters, Basarini and Bassiti (vi. 102), a proof that this painter, too, was almost forgotten by the middle of the sixteenth century, even by the Venetians.

Basaiti was principally trained in the workshop of Alvise Vivarini. His own works testify to this, as also does the altar-piece of 1503, in the church of the Frari at Venice, which, on the death-, of Vivarini, was completed by Basaiti, 6 who added the following inscription : Quod Vivaeine tua

FATALI NBCB NEQUISTI, MAECUS BAXITUS NOBILE PEOMSIT

opus. M . D . III. Considering that succeeding generations of Basaiti' s own countrymen knew so little of his history, and that even in the present day art -historians have made him appear a species of chameleon, it is not surprising that the compilers of the Doria catalogue in the last century should have confused him with Garofalo, with Boccaccino (No. 558), and even with Perugino (No. 495). In other galleries the same occurs. In the Uffizi, as we have seen, he is confounded with Giovanni Bellini, in Milan and London with Cima da Conegliano, 7 and elsewhere with the

6 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle Solario. At times again they are

(i. 261-263) discover the most varied reminded of Cima, Carpaccio, the

influences in the works of Basaiti. Bellini, and finally of the Lombards !

In some they find reminiscences of 7 Dr. Bode (ii. 641) regards the

Perugino, Timoteo Viti, Simone da small picture in the Brera (No. 302,

Cusinghe, Matteo and Antonio Cesa, St. Jerome as a penitent) as a work

and of Antonio da Tisoio ; in others of Basaiti. The form of hand and

of the Vivarini, of Previtali and ear, and the landscape, in this pic-

Giorgione — even of Lotto and ture, are all extremely characteristic


282 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

Veronese Gianfrancesco Carotto. The large " Assump- tion " in S. Pietro at Murano is more probably the work of Bissolo, executed under the guidance of Giovanni Bellini, than that of Basaiti as Dr. Bode conjectures (ii. 641). (f) In the Berlin museum there is a beautiful little painting by Basaiti (No. 40), which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle regard as an early work of Carotto (i. 482). In the second edition of the catalogue, Dr. Julius Meyer came nearer the truth by placing it in the school of Alvise Vivarini. I should venture to go a step further and to pronounce this charming Madonna, with the two angel musicians, to be undoubtedly by Marco Basaiti. (f )

Works by this master are by no means rare in Italy ; they are for the most part in Venice : two in the church of S. Pietro in Castello ; another in the Sacristy of the Salute ; a signed Madonna in the Correr museum ; two large works of 1510-1512 in the Academy — the " Calling of the Sons of Zebedee " and the " Agony in the Garden " ; besides several smaller pictures in the same gallery. There are also works by Basaiti at Padua 8 and Verona, and in the Ambrosiana at Milan. In the collection of the author 9 there is a fine male portrait, bearing the following inscription : M . Baxitus . F . M . D . XXI . Its breadth of manner reminds one more of Cima and of Giovanni Bellini than of Alvise Vivarini.

In the gallery at Bergamo we find a much repainted

of Cima da Conegliano, to whom the it to Cima da Conegliano. director of the gallery has recently " No. 18 ; a good picture of the

restored it. A similar picture by master's later time (1515-1520). It

Cima under the name of Basaiti represents the Madonna and Child

passed from the Hamilton collection with SS. Peter and Liberate and

into the National Gallery ; but Sir three angels— signed MARCHVS

Frederick Burton immediately re- BAXAITI. cognised its true author and ascribed " Now at Bergamo.


EOMANINO. 283

portrait of a man, signed ; an " Ecce Homo " of 1517, and a St. Jerome as a penitent, signed Marcvs Baxaiti. The latter picture, which has suffered severely, recalls Cima. A Madonna with the same signature is in the possession of the Agliardi family, and a signed and much restored " St. Jerome " belongs to Signor Antonio Piccinelli.

It is probable that Basaiti was born about 1470, and died soon after 1521.

GIROLAMO EOMANINO.

In the Doria gallery a large Madonna, of distinctly Venetian colouring, cannot fail to strike us ; but strangely enough it has received no name. A picture without a name is worthless in the eyes of the public, as the directors of galleries are well aware, and I shall there- fore take the liberty of bestowing on it that of Bomanino da Brescia. I feel justified in so doing, as I have long been intimately acquainted with this splendid colourist. Were the picture properly cleaned, the master's peculiar and glowing tints would reappear.

Romanino is a powerful and original artist, often dis- playing great nobility, though at times excessively careless. He is well represented in the churches of his native city of Brescia, and throughout the whole of that district, 1 though beyond these limits his works are rarely met with. Hardly a collection out of Italy, the English National Gallery ex- cepted, possesses an example of his art.

Few painters have so much character as Bomanino, and few can equal him in brilliancy of colour and life-like treat- ment. His large altar-pieces in S. Francesco and S. Maria

1 In the churches of Monte- name of Titian), and in other chiari, Calvisano, Prealboino, S. places. Felice, Salo, Capriolo (under the

u 2


284 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

Calchera at Brescia, and in the gallery at Padua, are among the finest specimens of Venetian art. His paintings on the shutters of the organ (of 1540) in S. Giorgio at Verona are also of a high order of merit. The same church contains a most charming altar-piece, also of 1540, by his younger fellow-countryman and rival, Alessandro Moretto. The merits of Eomanino as a fresco painter may be studied in the cathedral of Cremona, in the lower church of S. Giulia at Brescia, hi the gallery there, and also in various places in his native valley of Camonica.

Bomanino's nature was simple in the extreme, and genuine and unaffected, hence the language of his art is of the same quality as the dialect of his native place. The few portraits he has left are models of simplicity and faithful reproductions of nature. We feel that the painter did not flatter those he portrayed, but represented them just as he found them, with the utmost truth. Bomanino's portraits are simpler in conception than those of Tintoretto and Titian ; the best among them, hi the noble freedom of the lines, are scarcely inferior to the finest portraits of Titian or Velasquez ; such for example is the portrait of a young man in rich attire, formerly in the possession of the Countess Fenaroli of Brescia, and now belonging to her heirs.

Bomanino is to Alessandro Moretto much what Gau- denzio Ferrari was to Luini in the Milanese school. Bomanino and Gaudenzio are more dramatic and powerful, and are endowed with higher imaginative faculties, than Moretto and Luini, who are perhaps more pleasing and attractive than their rivals. 2

  • Romanino's drawings are ex- very fine example is in the Am-

tremely rare ; I am only acquainted brosiana, " The Woman taken in with about four or five, all slight Adultery," (f) and another, ex- sketches in pen and ink. Two are tremely characteristic of Eomanino, in the Uffizi— a group of putti, though bearing the name of Giulio No. 14G5, and a male portrait. A Romano, is at Chatsworth— " Christ


MOEETTO. 285


ALESSANDEO MOEETTO.

The Vatican gallery contains the only work by this master in Kome — a picture so greatly defaced that it is scarcely possible to recognise in it the hand of the master, whose delicate silvery tones are, as a rule, very charac- teristic. To my surprise, Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle extol this work on account of its excellent preservation.

A portrait of a young man with a dog is ascribed to Moretto in the Palazzo Colonna ; but the attribution is purely arbitrary, since this work is not even of his school.

Moretto 's portraits are extremely rare ; beyond the two in the English National Gallery, I am only acquainted with a very small number. Those cited by Dr. Bode (ii. 779, 780) — a portrait in the gallery at Brescia, the so-called Doctor in the Brignole-Sale Palace at Genoa (signed A. B.), and the large equestrian portrait in the Casa Martinengo at Brescia — are only by some of Moretto's imitators, (f)

A small and excellent work by the master himself is in the Naples museum. The Uffizi can boast of no genuine example — the large " Death of Adonis " (No. 592), ascribed to Moretto, being, as we have seen, by Sebastian del Piombo. 3 The portrait of a man (No. 639) is more probably an early work of the Cremonese painter Giulio Campi ; (-f-) and the small "Descent into Hades" reminds me more of the Yeronese Felice Brusasorci, than of Moretto. (f)

Moretto's best works are still at Brescia and in its neighbourhood, and there this most attractive master must

with the Woman of Samaria." (f) decision which characterise each

In all of them Bocnanino shows him- stroke of Eomanino's pen.

self a more able and spirited 3 This is also the opinion of

draughtsman than Moretto, whose Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ii.

drawings, though always very care- 416).

f ul in execution, lack the vitality and


286 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

be studied. 4 I am not surprised that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, in accordance with their theories as to the influence of one master on another, should have considered that Moretto was greatly under that of Palma Vecchio, who was then living in Venice ; but it is inexplicable that Dr. Bode, who is apparently so intimately acquainted with the Venetian manner of painting, should have adhered to this view, which in my opinion is absolutely erroneous and un- justified by a single work of Moretto. I consider that the master always preserved his Brescian character. After his training under Ferramola was completed, he applied him- self to studying the manner of his fellow-citizen Bomanino, and brought that style to its highest perfection.

Many foreign critics, and amateurs indeed, after taking a hasty survey of some few works by the great Venetian colourists, discern then influence in those of all contem- porary painters of local schools connected with Venice. An outward show of learning attaches to these theories, but in reality they are mischievous and misleading, tending to paralyse our intelligence and to cause the greatest confu- sion. I cannot sufficiently warn students against such teaching. It may be compared to the glistening line marking the path of the snail, which shortsighted persons might mistake for silver, though a sound eye at once perceives its true nature.

Near Bomanino' s picture we see a Madonna and Child with St. Francis and the little St. John — a feeble production of the Bolognese school, by some imitator of Bagnacavallo or Innocenzo da Imola. The catalogue informs us that it is the work of " Lodi " — I presume that Calisto da Lodi, the well-known pupil of Bomanino and a painter of con- siderable reputation in his day, is meant.

1 In the churches at Castenedolo, Prealboino, Maguzzano, Orzinuovi, Paitone, Calvisano, Auro, Mazzano, &c.


CALISTO DA LODI. 287


CALISTO DA LODI.

Calisto Piazza, usually known as Calisto da Lodi, belonged to a family of artists at Lodi, bearing the name of Piazza with the addition of Toccagni. 5 He was born about 1500, and died in 1561 ; his father's name was Martino, his uncle's Albertino. Calisto had two brothers, Scipione 6 and Cesare, both painters, who usually assisted him. His father appears to have sent him at an early age to Brescia to learn of Komanino. Except in the districts round Brescia, Lodi, and Milan, this talented painter is hardly known. In that neighbourhood he is frequently met with, especially in the Val Camonica — at Breno, Esine, and Cividate. To judge from some of his early works, ■Calisto appears first to have followed Moretto closely — the latter being his contemporary and his fellow-pupil with Bomanino. This tendency is apparent in a long picture in the Poldi-Pezzoli museum, at Milan, which is there ascribed to Moretto. 7 (f) The altar-piece in the gallery at Padua, signed with Bomanino's name and dated 1521, is, I believe, a work of Calisto's early period rather later in date than the preceding. (•)-) Calisto probably executed it in his master's workshop and under his directions. The

5 See Memorie originali italiane possible that anyone, however gifted > risguardanti le belle arti, serie should be able to recognise a master prima, p. 171, by Michelangelo in his early works without having Gualandi, Bologna, 1840. himself lived in Italy, and there

6 In the church of S. Spirito at made a careful study of each Bergamo, there is a signed picture painter's development. A charming by Scipione Piazza. He died at little Madonna in tempera by Calisto Lodi in 1551. belongs to M. Paul Delaroff at St.

7 The landscape and the types Petersburg. It proved to be a copy of the angels are characteristic of of an early work by Moretto belong- Calisto in this picture. Dr. Bode ing to Sir Henry Layard, and closely (ii. 778) ascribes it to Bomanino ; resembling the panel in the Poldi- this is not surprising, for it is im- Pezzoli collection at Milan.


288 THE DORIA-PAJIFILI GALLERY.

" Adoration of the Shepherds " in the gallery at Brescia, signed and dated 1524 (formerly in the church of S. Clemente), shows the influence of both Komanino and Moretto. In the " Visitation," of 1525 in S. Maria Cal- chera, on the other hand, Calisto shows himself the imitator of Eomanino alone, with whom, in the following years, he is constantly confounded. In the Brera this kind of con- fusion is so rife that the authorities actually ascribe a good work by Calisto (the "Baptism," No. 425) to Carlo Urbino, a feeble painter of Crema. (f)

After executing several altar-pieces in the Val Camonica, Calisto returned to Lodi in 1529 and received the flattering commission to decorate a part of the church of S. Maria Incoronata with frescoes, in company with his brothers Scipione and Cesare. A year later he painted in the same church the fine series from the life of St. John the Baptist, in the chapel dedicated to that saint. These frescoes are among the master's best works, and of such glowing colour that at a later date a fable was invented to the effect that Titian, on some occasion when passing through Lodi, painted several of the heads in them (Lanzi iii. 151). On the strength of this absurd tradition, some art-historian of the future, say, from Finland, will doubt- less make out that Titian influenced Calisto. A good early work by him is in the Brera — a Madonna and Child enthroned, with SS. Jerome, John the Baptist, and an angel playing on a musical instrument (No. 225). He has also two other paintings in that gallery, one of which is the fine portrait of Lodovico Vistarini (No. 257). Another good work by him containing portraits of the Trivulzio family, is in a church at Codogno. In the year 1535 Calisto settled at Milan, and executed frescoes in the churches of S. Maurizio, S. Francesco, and S. Nazzaro e Celso.


PAEIS EOEDONE. 289

I would observe that the unattractive portraits, Nos. 178 and 170, attributed to Holbein, are certainly not by that great painter ; equally impossible is it, that the por- trait of a high-bred woman, apparently discontented with her lot, should be the work of Tintoretto. 8 It is probably by Scipione da Gaeta. Several other portraits in this gallery are with an equal want of intelligence ascribed to Tintoretto.

PAEIS BOEDONE.

In this gallery hangs one of Paris Bordone's fine decora- tive pictures (No. 321), its splendour of colouring hardly dimmed by the surrounding gloom. It represents Mars, Venus, and Cupid. Paris was born about 1495 at Treviso, and died soon after 1570 ; his life covers about the same space of time as that of Moretto and of Calisto da Lodi.

The following autograph entry was discovered by the late Signor Cecchetti in the Archives at Venice : ' Io Paris Bordon da Treviso, habitante in Venetia in contra de S. Marcilian, 31 Agosto, 1563.' He had four children, Gio- vanni, Angelica, Cassandra, and Ottavia, and was in good circumstances. According to Vasari, Giorgione was his prototype ; but undoubtedly he followed Titian even yet more closely, for in 1509, when about fourteen, he entered the workshop of that master, devoting himself principally to the study of works of Titian's Giorgionesque period. The "Baptism of Christ," in the Capitoline gallery (ruined by modern restoration), which has always been rightly re- garded as an early work by Titian, has recently been ascribed by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle and by Dr. Bode (ii. 764,

8 Several fine examples of Tin- painter may be especially studied in toretto's art are in the Colonna that collection, gallery. His merits as a landscape


290 THE DORIA-PA5IFILI GALLERY.

note) to Paris Bordone. This view appears to me alto- gether erroneous. 9

In the Doria gallery is a picture representing the Holy Family with St. Catherine of Alexandria (*) ; it is merely an old copy of an early work by Paris Bordone, but it shows how closely he followed Titian. 1 Another picture by him is ascribed to Titian — a male portrait much re- stored but still revealing all the master's characteristics, the distinctive rosy glazes in the flesh-tints and the pecu- liarly shaped hand with stiff fingers. It is apparently the portrait of a poet, though, notwithstanding the crown of laurel encircling his brow, his appearance is the very reverse of poetical.

Paris Bordone is a noble, attractive, and refined artist, and a splendid colourist, though of unequal merit and at times superficial. Several of his works are in the Colonna gallery ; one, a Holy Family with SS. Elisabeth, Jerome, and John the Baptist, is falsely ascribed to Bonifazio Veneziano ; another, a " Santa Conversazione," is one of the master's finest works, though disfigured by barbarous repainting. In the Pitti a " Pdposo " (No 89) and "Au- gustus and the Sibyl " (No. 257) are attributed to Paris Bordone, though in reality these pictures are by one of the Bonifazios, as pointed out by the late Mr. Mundler. There are, however, two excellent portraits by him in Florence — that of a youth in the Uffizi (No. 607), and the so-called " Balia di Casa Medici," in the Pitti (No. 109) ; and the Brignole-Sale Palace at Genoa also contains a fine portrait by him.


9 In this picture we find the treatment of light in the landscape, form of hand and ear so distinctive ' Dr. Bode (ii. 775) considers

of Titian's early works. The por- this picture to be by Bernardino

trait of the donor too is characteristic Licinio, ' with reminiscences of

of Titian, so also is the Giorgionesque Paris Bordone.'


PARIS BOBDONE. 291

His principal works are still in Venice and its neigh- bourhood. Several are in the Academy, and among them his best, " The Fisherman presenting St. Mark's ring to the Doge " — a picture of the highest charm, to which its exceptionally good state of preservation contributes not a little. Another masterpiece by him, representing the Madonna and Child with SS. George and Christopher, is in the Tadini collection at Lovere on the Lago d' Iseo. Vasari mentions it in vol. xiii. 50, and adds that St. George was the portrait of the donor, Giulio Manfroni of Crema. 2 In this work, which is singularly brilliant in colour, Bordone appears to have been inspired by his fellow-citizen Lorenzo Lotto.

About half a dozen of Bordone's works are still in his native city of Treviso. 3 In the gallery at Padua there is a much damaged but genuine painting by him which the catalogue ascribes to his school — " Christ taking leave of His Mother " (No. 67) . 4 At Milan we find several of his works — in the church of S. Celso, in the Brera, in the Archbishop's Palace, 5 and some splendid portraits in private collections. Vasari records that the Fuggers, some of whom were established in Venice, persuaded Bordone to come to Augsburg, their native city, and that he remained there for some time in the employment of that family. He further relates that in 1538 Francis I. of France sent for the master and commanded him to paint likenesses of the most beautiful women at his court. These portraits, however, have not been preserved, and Bordone's works are extremely

2 See also the Anonimo, p. 4 It is curious that the same 145, second edition, annotated by subject was treated almost contem- Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni, Bologna, poraneously by Correggio, Lotto and 1884. Bordone.

3 Among them a Holy Family in s This fine picture represents the the gallery (No. 53), there ascribed Holy Family with a bishop and the to Palma Vecchio. donor.


292 THE D0RIA-PA3IFILI GALLERY.

rare in France, where I am not acquainted with any in private collections. Of the three ascribed to him in the Louvre, the portrait of Hieronymus Crofft of Augsburg (No. 1179) was only bought in the reign of Louis XIV., and the decor- ative picture of Yertumnus and Pomona (No. 1178) came to France as late as the beginning of this century. As to the third work, representing a " Man and a Child " (No. 1180), it is not by Bordone at all, but by a Flemish painter, (f)


BONIFAZIO VEKONESE.

The first Bonifazio G was a contemporary of Paris Bordone and akin to him in the nature of his art. In this gallery we find a most attractive painting by him (No. 336) — the Holy Family with two female martyrs — unfortu- nately ruined by some ignorant picture cleaner. Portraits by the hand of this cheerful and splendid colourist are rare, but I think I have been fortunate enough to dis- cover one in the Doria gallery (No. 109) . It is ascribed to Giorgione and represents a young man, wearing a black cap. (f)

The same barbarian who repainted Bonifazio's other work is probably responsible for having entirely destroyed the surface of this portrait ; but it is still of great charm both for its graceful treatment and the simplicity of the compo- sition. A beautiful Madonna with SS. Jerome and Lucy, by this brilliant artist, in the Colonna gallery 7 (Ptoom I.)

6 It appears from a document di S. Alvise,' and ' Io Bonifazio di

published by the late Signor Cec- Pittati da Verona pitor, fo (fu) diSer

chetti, that the Bonifazio family Marzio' (the son of the late Ser

also bore the name of ' de Pittatis ' : Marzio) (see Archivio Vcneto, tome

' 1553, 20 luglio, De Pittatis Boni- 34, p. 207).

facio, abitante nella contra di San 7 In the Doria gallery, Bonifazio

Marcuola, in le case dele monache is confounded with Giorgione, in


PALMA VECCHIO. 293

is ascribed to Titian. In this work Bonifazio's distinctive form of hand and ear may be studied. A small picture by him, of glowing colour, belongs to Prince Mario Chigi. It is surpassed by one of a still more brilliant and delicate colour in the Pitti (Sala di Saturno, No. 161), representing the "Finding of Moses," which is there ascribed to Giorgione. Masterpieces by this great painter are to be seen in the galleries of Venice and Milan.

JACOPO PALMA, called PALMA VECCHIO.

Palma 8 is another great colourist of the school of Giovanni Bellini and of Giorgione, whose works are often ascribed to the latter, as also to Titian. We have already •described two of his paintings in the Borghese gallery, but in the Doria Palace he is wholly unrepresented, either by genuine or spurious works. The Sciarra-Colonna gallery contains a fine picture by him, known as the "Bella di Tiziano." The portrait of this celebrated Venetian beauty, whose features so often recur in the works of Palma, Titian , and other contemporary Venetian masters, has only recently been ascribed to Titian. In the seventeenth century it was at Brussels in the collection of the Archduke Leopold William. David Teniers the painter, and the custodian of that collection, was commissioned by his master and patron, as is well known, to reproduce the more impor- tant paintings in it on a small scale. These copies were then engraved by Vorsterman, J. Van Kessel, and others for a large publication entitled "Theatre des peintures <de David Teniers, dedie au Prince Leopold-Guillaume,

the Colonna with Titian and Paris biografiche su Palma Vecchio, Ber-

Bordone, and in the Pitti with Palma gamo, 1886), maintains that Palma's

Vecchio and Giorgione. surname was Nigreti, a question

8 Signor Elia Fornoni of Ber which need not detain us here, gamo, in a recent publication (Notizie


294 THE DOIilA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

archiduc, etc.," which appeared at Brussels m 1660. Many of these Flemish reproductions of Italian paintings were subsequently sent as a present to the Duke of Marlborough, and some years ago I saw them in one of the upper rooms at Blenheim. Among these copies was this " Bella di Tiziano," with its rightful name inscribed on the back, i.e. " Copie d'apres Palma Vecchio."

In her youth this beautiful woman was undoubtedly one of those notorious Venetians, the muses of Pietro Aretino, who so often sat as models to the painters. Many a head in Titian's pictures recalls this portrait, but even a super- ficial connoisseur of the school can hardly fail to recognise in it the hand of Palma. It dates from that period when he was closely connected with his fellow-pupil Lotto. 9 The gay colouring, the light green shadows, and the modelling of the hand recall that master. A similar portrait by Palma is in the Poldi-Pezzoli museum at Milan, though it has been so modernised by the restorer as to look almost like a copy. The charming female portrait by Palma in the Berlin museum (No. 197a) is, to my mind, far more attrac- tive than this celebrated " Bella " of the Sciarra gallery. A very characteristic work by Palma is in the Palazzo Colonna agli Apostoli. It represents the Madonna and Child, to whom St. Peter presents the donor. In this picture we may study Palma's peculiar form of hand and ear ; the landscape, with the red horizon, is also character- istic of the master. Another work by Palma, ascribed to Titian, the "Woman taken in Adultery," is in the Capitoline

9 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle in other respects for the history of

(ii. 478) also mention it as the work Italian art, they have not shown

of Palma. Vasari's Florentine com- much judgment in their attributions

mentators, on the other hand, con- of pictures, more especially those of

tinue to regard it as a Titian (xiii. the Venetian school. Hence their

45). I must observe that although notes to Vasari are not only feeble

these latter writers have done much but often full of errors.


PALMA VECCHIO. 295

gallery. The " Anonimo " mentions it as being in the col- lection of Francesco Zio (Giglio) at Venice in 1528. l These four pictures are the only works by Palma that I know of in Koine. The so-called " Schiava cli Tiziano " in the Barberini gallery, which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle attribute to Palma (ii. 478), is probably one of the many imitations produced by Pietro Vecchia in the seventeenth century, for the admirers of Giorgione. One of Palma' s most beautiful easel pictures, a "Santa Conversazione," is in the Naples museum, and is worthy to rank with his picture in the Louvre.

Of the four works ascribed to the master in the Pitti, not one is genuine, and the Uffizi has not fared much better, for, of the five works bearing his name in that gallery, the only authentic one appears to be the coarse- looking Judith (619) formerly attributed to Pordenone. The Holy Family with the Magdalen (No. 623) would probably, on closer inspection, prove to be only an old copy after Palma. The portrait of a " Geometrician " so-called (No. 650) is a copy, and not even after Palma Vecchio. 2 The small Madonna (No. 1019) can only be regarded as the production of some mediocre imitator of Titian. The " Supper at Emmaus " (No. 1037) is evidently of the school of Bonifazio. As to the much damaged female portrait (No. 1087), it would be no loss, I think, were it permanently banished from the collection. The galleries of Bologna, Ferrara, and Padua contain no works by Palma.


1 See the Anonimo second tolommeo Veneto. (|) It is evidently edition, with notes by Dr. Frizzoni, a portrait, and represents a man p. 180). resting his right hand upon his

2 The original of this " Geo- sword-hilt, and holding a compass metrician " so-called is in the col- in his left. A copy of the picture lection of Sir Francis Cook at Eich- in the Uffizi, dated 1555, is in the mond, where it passes for a Gior- Correr museum at Venice, (f ) gione. I believe it to be by Bar-


296 THE DOEIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

In the latter collection we certainly find a Madonna inscribed Iacomo Palma, but the signature is a forgery, and the picture as unworthy of the name as is its counterpart in the Berlin museum (No. 31), (-f-) which was provided with a similar inscription, probably for the purpose of ensnar- ing future generations of art-critics and gallery-directors. In the gallery at Eovigo is a work of Palma's best period — a Madonna with SS. Jerome and Helena (No. 39) — though the restoration to which it has been subjected has almost destroyed the master's personality. Hence Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle discreetly avoid aU mention of it ; they, however, bring forward a male portrait (No. 123) in the same gallery, in which they would fain recognise the hand of Palma (ii. 484). I can only regard this work as a copy, (+)

Two other copies after Palma are in the gallery at Modena — one (No. 129) ascribed to the master himself, the other (No. 123) to Giorgione. (f) The galleries of Parma and Turin are without works by Palma Vecchio. In the Brera we find a Triptych (No. 290), with SS. Helena, Constantine, Roch, and Sebastian, and a large altar-piece, "The Adoration of the Magi." The latter I believe to be the last work of the master, who at that date, 1526, was already suffering from the illness of which he died. The execution of the picture was consequently left almost entirely to one of his assistants. At Bergamo itself there is only a single work by this Bergamasque artist, 3 and that was not painted for the place. In his native valley of the Brembo, we find some beautiful examples of his art — the large altar-pieces in numerous compartments at Peghera, Dossena, and Serinalta. 4 But the finest of all his large

3 Now in the gallery. in nine compartments. In the

4 The altar-piece in the church centre the " Resurrection," above it at Serinalta (Palma's birthplace) is the " Presentation in the Temple;"


LORENZO LOTTO. 297

works is the altar-piece in S. Stefano at Vicenza, and that in S. Maria Formosa at Venice. To these I should have added the large picture in the Venice Academy (Eoom IX., No. 8), were it not entirely spoilt by repainting. Palma appears to have painted few portraits. Two, almost ruined by restoration, are in the Querini-Stampalia collection (the Querini were Palma' s patrons). Palma leads us to his fellow-pupil Lorenzo Lotto, who was a few years his senior, and influenced him at a certain period of his career (1510-1515). 5

LOKENZO LOTTO.

Lotto was the pupil of Giovanni Bellini, and was gifted with a rich imagination. I believe that he was born at Venice earlier than is usually supposed, namely, about 1475, and not in 1480. In the first years of the sixteenth century he appears to have settled at Treviso, and soon after to have acquired the right of citizenship there. From that period he nearly always signs himself ' de Tarvisio.' 6 Two pictures by him are in the Doria gallery. One, No. 159,

at the sides SS. Joseph, Francis, Palma's picture in the Louvre, and

John, James, Albert, Apollonia, and in the charming female portrait in

another saint. In addition to this the Berlin gallery (No. 197a). altar-piece, Serinalta contains two 6 See Gustavo Bampo, Sjngo-

other pictures of saints by the master, lature dalV archivio notarile di

St. Peter Martyr and St. Adalbert. Treviso. ' 1504, 24 Febr. Tarvisii

The altar-piece in the church at in domo habitationis Mag. Laurentii

Peghera (Val Taleggio) is in seven Loti de Venetiis pictoris Tarvisii,

compartments ; in the centre SS. &c.' ' 1504, 25 Novb. Tarvisii —

James, Roch, and Sebastian ; above presentibus . . . et M. Laurentio

the Pieta — an angel lamenting over Loto de Venetiis q. S. Thome, pic-

the Dead Body of Christ ; on the tore habitatore Tarvisii.' ' 1505, 7

right St. Anthony, and on the left Aprilis. Tarvisii in domo habita-

St. Ambrose. In the upper part of tionis M. Laurentii Loti de Venetiis,

the picture is the Almighty. The q. S.Thome, pictoris celeberrimi,'&c.

altar-piece in the church at Dossena From which we gather that as early

is similar in character. as 1505 Lotto was a celebrated

5 This is very apparent in painter.


298 THE DOKIA-PAMFILI GALLEKY.

represents St. Jerome in a magnificently painted landscape, and is ascribed in the catalogue to Caracci (!). The passionate gesture of the old penitent, who is scourging himself, is wholly characteristic of Lotto. Another similar painting, of larger dimensions, is in the Madrid Museum, there ascribed to Titian. Mr. Mundler (op. cit. p. 58) recog- nised both these pictures as the work of Lotto, and in this verdict he was followed by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalca- selle. Years ago, in. Paris, I saw another painting of the same subject belonging to this gentleman ; it was signed in gold letters, and dated 1515. This picture is very likely the one mentioned by the " Anonimo " in the house of Domenico dal Cornello 7 (or Tassi) at Bergamo, as ' el quadretto de S. Gieronimo.' The other work by Lotto in the Doria gallery is described in the catalogue as ' the portrait of a Judge ' (!) by L. Lotto. What this por- trait has to do with a 'judge' I leave to others to explain ; it is a question of no importance. The man represented is in the prime of life, but appears cast down by sorrow. His face is pale, and he presses his hand to his heart as if the source of his grief were there. His eye seems seeking one who is no more in this world. The figure is not elegant in our modern sense of the word, but the whole pose is in keeping with the grief expressed by the features. He is not more than thirty-seven, yet sorrow and care have already left their indelible traces on his countenance. Near him, on a small column, is a bas-relief representing Cupid looking heaven- wards, standing upon scales and keeping them in equal poise — thus symbolising, perhaps, that as the scales were no longer set in motion by the god of love, so the heart of this sorrow-stricken man would never again vibrate beneath

7 The Tassi owned a castle in hence they were often called ' dal the Brembo valley called Cornello, Cornello.'


LOEENZO LOTTO. 299

his touch. This representation of Cupid standing on the scales, with the inscription Nosce te ipsum, recurs in the beautiful intarsia work by Capodiferro, in the church of S. Maria Maggiore at Bergamo, for which Lotto made the designs in 1523. 8 The late Mr. Miindler wrote in terms of the warmest admiration of this fine portrait, but I think he was mistaken in regarding it as that of the painter himself. Lotto was certainly born before 1480 ; if it were his own portrait therefore, it must have been executed about 1512. The technic of the painting, however, by no means coincides with his manner in other works of that" period ; neither does the signature, L. Lotto, for in all his works at Bergamo, from the year 1515 to 1524, his signature is in Latin, Lav. Lotvs, and it is only at a later period that he adopts the Italian form.

We have already discussed Lotto's works in the Bor- ghese gallery, but there are several by this interesting fore- runner of Correggio in other Boman collections. In the Colonna gallery, for instance, we find the portrait of Car- dinal Pompeo Colonna, though in its present condition it appears more like a copy than an original. In the Casino Bospigliosi, which contains Guido's Aurora, there is a little painting by Lotto, giving us an example of the manner in which this religiously-minded man and devoted friend of the Dominicans treated mythological subjects. Mr. Miindler showed his appreciation of this finely conceived and care- fully executed painting, and called it " The Victory of Chastity." It might with equal fitness be named Juno taking righteous vengeance on Venus. Juno wrapped in a green mantle, with a white drapery about her head, brand- ishes aloft Cupid's broken bow, and seems about to pour forth the vials of her wrath upon Venus. The goddess of

8 See Vite dei pittori, scultori e architetti Bergamaschi, scritte dal Conte Fr. Maria Tassi (i. 64).

x 2


300 THE DOKIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

love — a violet mantle about her, pearls in her fair hair, a brilliant star glowing on her brow, and gold chains round her neck — seeks to shield Cupid from the fury of the Queen of Heaven. The little god, with his many-coloured wings, cowers behind her with tearful face. The name Laurentius Lotus is still legible on a ' Cartellino.' From the technic of the painting the work would seem to belong to his Bergamasque epoch, 1515-1524. A fine picture, splendid in colour, dating from the same period of Lotto's career, 1524, was in the Quirinal previous to 1870. It represented the Madonna and Child with SS. Anthony, Catherine, John the Baptist and Jerome, and a Bishop. Considering the incredible indifference to art which prevails in every department of constitutional government in Italy, I should never be surprised to hear that this painting had disappeared altogether. The Capitoline gallery contains a work by Lotto (-f-), though not recognised as such — a life-size portrait in Boom II., No. 74, representing a young and refined-looking man, wearing a black doublet and cap, and holding a musket ; his left elbow rests lightly on a table which is covered by a greyish-blue carpet. It must once have been a brilliant portrait, but is now a mere wreck. Here again the peculiar pose is finely conceived and skilfully represented. The drawing of the hands is charac- teristic of this painter, and the ornamentation of the musket is executed with minute care. The portrait is catalogued as the work of Giorgione, and described as " Ritratto di un Monaco " (portrait of a monk) !

In the Spada gallery there is a copy of Lotto's paint- ing in the Louvre — " The Woman taken in Adultery ; " a Flemish copy of the same picture is in the Dresden gallery. The Naples Museum contains a most interesting early " Madonna " (of 1507) by the master, and the Uffizi one of 1534— by no means a favourable specimen of his art.


POEDENONE. 301

Baron Bumohr formed, to my mind, an entirely false estimate of Lotto. In order to understand and appreciate this refined, versatile, and highly-gifted painter, he should be studied at Eecanati (works of 1508), Jesi (of 1512), Bergamo (of 1515-1524), Milan and Venice. At Alzano, at Trescorre, and more especially at Bergamo — in the gallery, and in the churches of S. Bartolommeo, S. Spirito and S. Bernardino — he is admirably represented. In the pre- sence of these masterpieces we cannot but marvel that so few art-historians should hitherto have recognised his great merits, though it is not surprising that young students, and a certain class of connoisseurs who admire nothing but the austerity and simplicity characteristic of the quattro-centisti should not have done so. They would naturally be repelled rather than attracted by Lotto's works.

All reserved and sensitive natures should be met by sympathy and treated with consideration, if we would gain their confidence ; and we must deal in a like manner with Lotto's works, making allowance for his occasional failings. To narrow-minded pedants, who would judge him by rigid academical rules, the charm of his art will ever remain a sealed book. Lorenzo Lotto was a man of a melancholy temperament, and a vein of sadness, the expression of his own feelings, pervades most of his portraits. When not much over thirty, he exchanged the world for the solitude and retirement of monastic life. We must also bear in mind that as Titian eclipsed Giorgione, so Correggio even- tually threw his forerunner Lotto into the shade.

GIOVAN ANTONIO DA POEDENONE.

This painter was a j^ounger contemporary of Lotto. Worldly, aristocratic, imperious, he was the direct opposite of the latter both in the sentiment of his art and in his


302 THE DOFJA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

manner of representation. He was born at Pordenone in 1483, and died at Ferrara in 1539. Miindler com- pared this Friulian artist with Eubens for the vivacious energy of his temperament and his predilection for co- lossal and well- developed forms. The simile is not inap- propriate on the whole, but the nature of the Flemish painter was that of a pliant, politic, and calculating man of the world, while the organism of the Italian was passionate, excitable, ill-regulated, and swayed by pride and ambition. This it was, perhaps, which debarred him from ever attain- ing to a position of ease and luxury, such as that which Eubens won for himself in his artistic career, and continued to enjoy to the end of his life ; but this very instability also pre- served Pordenone from ever degenerating into convention- ality. Original, highly gifted, at times even strikingly grand, he at one period sought, not unsuccessfully, to rival Titian. The changeableness of his nature is exemplified, even in his signature, which is sometimes Sacchiense, at others de Cuticellis, Co?-ticellis, and Regillo. His great strength lay in fresco-painting, yet he has also left a considerable number of oil-pictures which may be classed among the finest examples of Venetian art ; for instance, his works at Pordenone ; two large altar-pieces hi the Venice Academy (Eoom VII., Nos. 22 and 25) 9 ; the Madonna in S. Giovanni Elemosinario, and the " St. Martin on Horseback "in S. Eocco, both in Venice ; the splendid altar-piece in the parish church of Sussignana ; the fine " Adoration of the Shepherds " in S. Maria de' Miracoli, at La Motta near Treviso, and the richly-coloured Madonna in the cathedral at Cremona, over the first altar on the right.

9 The portraits contained in this estimation to rank with the best

picture of some of the Ottoboni of portraits of all times. The picture

Pordenone, the family for whom is unfortunately in a damaged con-

Giovan Antonio executed this fine dition. work in 1526, are worthy in my


POKDENONE. 303

There is a good work by this rare master in the Doria gallery — a male portrait, No. 447. The catalogue de- scribes it as " Eitratto di un Giudice;" this portrait, therefore, is supposed to be that of a judge, like that by Lotto, presumably because the young man, who wears a red robe and a black cape, holds a roll of papers. It is just as likely, however, that these may refer to love as to law ; but this is of little moment. An art-critic of my acquaint- ance thought this painting should be ascribed to Dosso and not to Pordenone. The peculiar brilliancy of the carna- tions recalls the so-called portrait of " Catarina Vanozza " (No. 549) in a measure, but Pordenone's flesh-tints are always lighter than those of Dosso, and the draw- ing is more decided, as we may see by comparing these two portraits. This time, therefore, I fully agree with the compiler of the catalogue, who ascribes the portrait to Pordenone. In the vestibule of the Quirinal there was formerly an important work by this most eminent of all the Friulian artists, representing St. George on his white horse attacking the dragon with his sword. In a charming landscape the princess was seen kneeling beneath some trees, clad in an orange robe and returning thanks to Heaven for her preservation. The latest victim of the monster — a young knight — lay dead on the ground, and the bones of many animals were scattered around. The painting was full of fancy and had the qualities of the purest and best Venetian art, though its brilliancy was some- what dimmed by restoration. It bore the following in- scription : I . A . Beg . Poed . F. (Joannes Antonius Eegillus Pordenonensis fecit.) l

It is incredible that works by Moretto, an artist so totally dissimilar to this Giorgionesque painter, to use a

1 The picture is said to be now private apartments of Pope Leo in the anteroom leading to the XIII.


304 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

stereotyped term, should so long have been ascribed to Pordenone. But to judge by the names recently bestowed upon pictures, it would seem that we must be prepared for still more astonishing mistakes. Not content with attribut- ing to Pordenone Moretto's large altar-piece, formerly in the collection of Cardinal Fesch in Eome and now one of the gems of the. Stadel Institute at Frankfort, some writers have recently even seen fit to ascribe another yet finer altar-piece by Moretto in the public gallery at Vienna, the 1 S. Justina,' to Pordenone ; 2 and an Italian art-critic, who, in other respects, has proved himself worthy of consideration, pronounces the Saint to be the portrait of Signora Laura Eustocchia of Ferrara, and the kneeling donor to be the like- ness of her lover, Duke Alfonso d' Este. 3 Another writer, M. Viardot, supposing both pictures to be by Pordenone, proceeds to point out the ' great analogy ' between Porde- none 's genuine work in the Venice Academy (Pioom VII., No. 25) and Moretto's picture at Vienna — a remarkable instance of the force of imagination.

Pordenone's most interesting frescoes are those in the chapel of the castle of S. Salvadore near Conegliano, be- longing to Count Collalto ; those in S. Maria di Campagna near Piacenza ; and those in the cathedral at Treviso. To these I should have added the frescoes in the court- yard of S. Stefano in Venice, had they not been almost entirely destroyed.

Pordenone not being represented in any of the great


2 The type of this saint recurs in 3 Even Count Pompeo Litta, a several other pictures by Moretto, for most careful and conscientious instance in two altar-pieces in S. writer, thought the donor in this pic- Clemente at Brescia, which renders ture was Alfonso d' Este, and as such the hypothesis that it represents reproduced this figure in his well- some special character still more known book, Le famiglie illustri unlikely. At Vienna the picture d'ltalia. formerly passed for a Titian.


MORONI. 305

galleries out of Italy, I shall enumerate a few of his drawings, for by means of photographs of them, students may gain at least some superficial idea of his art. 1. In the Venice Academy there is a drawing washed with colour, the " Pre- sentation in the Temple " (photographed by Perini, No. 155). 2. In the British Museum, an excellent black chalk drawing of St. Christopher with the Infant Saviour on his shoulder (Braun, No. 103). 3. A good red chalk drawing of the Madonna and Child by Pordenone (-f-) was sold in Paris some years ago. It was formerly in the possession of the Marquis de Chennevieres, and was photographed by Braun as a Palma Vecchio (Braun, "Beaux Arts," No. 212). 4. A characteristic indian ink drawing of the master's early period was photographed by Braun under the name of Bellini, (-f-) It represents St. Mark (?) seated in a niche and preaching to a company of the faithful (Braun, " Beaux Arts," No. 144). 5. In the fine collection of drawings at Chatsworth there is a genuine work by Pordenone, (f) a red chalk sketch of St. Peter Martyr, ascribed to Gior- gione.

GIOVAN BATTISTA MOEONI.

Near this fine portrait by Pordenone we see the likeness of a man, with a cast in his eye, holding a book. The compiler of the catalogue, as we have had occasion to observe, values the name of Titian above all others, and bestows it upon this picture, as upon so many in the col- lection. The error is a pardonable one, for in many galleries of greater renown portraits by Moroni are ascribed to Titian. There is only one other work by this Berga- masque painter in Borne — in the Colonna gallery (Boom I.) The master is scarcely met with at all in South Italy, but Florence has several good specimens of his art. Two genuine portraits are in the Pitti (Nos. 121 and 128),


306 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

there ascribed, with extraordinary want of intelligence, to the great Veronese painter Domenico Morone. Five male portraits by him are in the Uffizi. No. 360, considered to be of Moroni himself, was bought in Venice in 1684 for the Florentine gallery, by Matteo del Teglia, the Duke of Tuscany's agent. 4 It, however, bears no resemblance to his portrait in Bergamo. We must, therefore, accept one or other of the two, as the authentic likeness of Moroni, though perhaps it would be wiser to reject both. We may seek vainly for works by Moroni in the galleries of Bologna, Modena, Ferrara, Padua, Vicenza, and Verona, and even hi Venice, 5 but he is well represented in Bergamo and its neighbourhood, and there we may follow him through all the phases of his artistic development. Several of his finest portraits are in the English National Gallery.

TITIAN.

In no other collection in the world do we find such liberal use made of the names of Titian and Giorgione as in the Doria gallery. If we are to trust the catalogue, we shall meet these two great masters at almost every step. We must not, however, be too credulous, but bear in mind that the worthy compilers of these catalogues, though eminently respectable as a class, are often highly impres- sionable. As soon as they have settled down to their position and to the duties of their office, they gradually devote themselves to the cultus of some one great master, whose name is more or less familiar to them. One selects Raphael as the object of his especial veneration, a second Michael Angelo, a third Leonardo da Vinci, or Verrocchio ;

4 See Nuova Raccolta di Lcttere 5 The two portraits ascribed to

sulla Pittura, Scultura e Archi- Moroni in the Academy have no

tettura, by Michelangelo Gualandi. connection with him whatever. v. iii. 192. Bologna, 1836.


TITIAN. 307

others Giorgione or Titian. Carried away by their enthu- siasm they end by recognising in almost every painting or statue confided to their care, the characteristics of the artist of their choice. This probably was the case with the compilers of the Doria catalogue with regard to Titian and Giorgione. I think I need hardly fear much opposition if I assert that Giorgione cannot lay claim to any of the pictures ascribed to him, and that to Titian only one of the numerous paintings attributed to him can be given with complete certainty ; this, however, may be accounted one of the master's most attractive early works. It was formerly regarded as the work of Giorgione and has recently been ascribed to Pordenone. I consider it to be one of Titian's most charming creations, fully compensating for the spurious works, about sixteen in number, so arbitrarily attributed to him here. It represents the " Daughter of Herodias," and bears the No. 517. (f) It is extraordinary that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Titian's biographers, should have attributed this beautiful woman of indescribable charm, and of a distinctly Titianesque type, to that much coarser painter Pordenone. Dr. Bode, on the other hand, refuses to accept their verdict and agrees with me (ii. 758). The type of Salome, as I have already observed, is wholly that of Titian : the ear of her attendant is round in form and characteristic, very different from the long ear peculiar to Pordenone. The sharp angular fold in the drapery on Salome's shoulder constantly recurs in Titian's works, and the chords of colour are also characteristic of this master. The same spirit and the same hand which conceived and executed the "Three Ages" 6 in the Bridgewater gallery undoubtedly produced this picture also. There is an old and good copy of it in Lord Northbrook's collection — so good, indeed, that Dr. Waagen pronounced it to be by

6 See Vasari, xiii. 25.


308 THE DORIA-PAMEILI GALLEEY.

Giorgione — and in the Doria gallery (No. 313) there is an old copy of the " Three Ages." 7 There is another work in this collection which always passes for a Titian (No. 361). It represents an old white-bearded man, clad in black, whose features are expressive of deep emotion ; his right hand rests on a table, on which lie a white rose and some jewels — accessories probably referring to the death of his young daughter. It is an interesting picture, full of life and thoughtfully conceived. I am quite willing to admit that the portrait is not unworthy, as far as merit goes, to be classed in the long category of Titian's portraits, yet, at the same time, I cannot altogether recognise in it the hand of the master. 8 In order to invest it with greater interest, the name of Marco Polo was bestowed upon the subject, in the same way that another portrait (No. 131), certainly not a work by Titian, is said to be that of Jansenius. Portraits only received these absurd names in the seventeenth century when these collections were brought together, in order to give them more importance ; the public, as a rule, taking more interest in the subject represented than in the artist's treat" ment of it. Thus, one was called Marco Polo, another Vanozza, a third Jansenius, a fourth " Titian and his Wife." So the study of a handsome female model in the Barberini gallery (whether by Guido or Guercino) would certainly never have been invested with such a halo of interest, were it not for the name of the unfortunate Beatrice Cenci by which it is known. Mtmdus vult clecijn. Another large picture (No. 343) has received the name of Titian, though it is impossible to say why.

In Titian's "Three Ages" we period of the master's career,

see the same round form of ear and, 8 It certainly recalls in some

in the young shepherd, the same degree the so-called portrait of the

type of head as in his "Baptism of physician Parma, in the gallery at

Christ," in the Capitol. Both pic- Vienna, which is an indisputable

tures probably belong to the same work of Titian.


TITIAN. 309

It is well known that it is the work of Jan Livens, by whom there is a similar painting in the collection at Bruns- wick.

The following, therefore, are the only authentic works by Titian in Eome : the three pictures in the Borghese gallery, the " Baptism of Christ " in the Capitol, the two well- known paintings in the Vatican, the exquisite " Daughter of Herodias " in this gallery, and the splendid portrait of Pietro Aretino in advancing years, belonging to Prince Mario Chigi, which is of the greatest simplicity both in conception and representation. In the Corsini and Barberini galleries there are several works ascribed to Titian, but the evidence of the paintings themselves in each case belies the name. The two attributed to him in the badly lighted rooms of the Barberini gallery are, the unpleasing painting known as the " Schiava di Tiziano," of which we have already spoken, and the portrait of Cardinal Pietro Bembo, No. 38. It is known that Titian was twice com- missioned to paint that vain prelate before he received the Cardinal's hat. At the close of the last century one of these portraits was still in the palace once inhabited by Pietro Gradenigo, who had married Bembo's daughter Helena. Another portrait of smaller dimensions belonged to Paolo Kamusio at Venice.

According to the " Anonimo " Kaphael also portrayed Bembo in his youth : ' el retratto piccolo de esso M. Pietro Bembo, allorche giovine stava in corte del duca d' Urbino, inmatita ' (' the small portrait in chalk of Messer P. Bembo in his youth, when he lived at the court of the Duke of Urbino '). In Bembo's own house at Padua there was also a profile portrait of him by the Venetian Jacometto : ' el retratto dell' istesso allora che l'era d' anni undici fu de mano de Jacometto in profilo ' 9 (' the profile portrait of the

9 See Notizia d' opere di disegno, &c, edited by Dr. Frizzoni, p. 46.


310 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

same Benibo, at the age of eleven, by the hand of Jaco- metto ')• Later, Valerio de' Belli and Benvenuto Cellini were commissioned to immortalise the prelate in silver and in bronze. We may, therefore, infer that Bembo took delight in bequeathing his features to posterity. The portrait hi the Barberini gallery appears to me to be only a feeble copy l (-f-) ; the drawing is hard and the whole treatment wanting in character. Another copy of one of Titian's portraits of Bembo was left to the town of Bergamo, in 1673, by Marc- antonio Foppa. It is now in the gallery of that city. Of the paintings ascribed to Titian in the Corsini gallery, one in Boom VIII. (No. 30)—" The Woman taken in Adul- tery " — is evidently the work of Bocco Marconi, of Treviso. (-(-) The subject was often treated by this painter, an imitator of Bordone, who, though lacking in imagination, was a fine colourist. The other is the life-size full-length portrait of Philip II. This can only be regarded as a work of his school. Titian painted his royal Spanish patron several times. The finest, and undoubtedly one of the most splendid portraits in the world, is in the gallery of the Prado at Madrid (No. 454). I consider it even finer than the large equestrian portrait of Charles V. in the same collection, which is somewhat damaged. It is astonishing that Titian was able to treat the feeble, insignificant, and even repul- sive figure of Philip II. in such a manner as to render the portrait one of irresistible power and charm. We never tire of admiring the noble drawing, and the delicate and harmonious colouring. Life pulsates in every part ; the refined hands alone seem to tell the whole history of the man. The pale taciturn face, the gloomy reticent expres- sion, the magnificent armour, the life-like drawing of the lower limbs, the whole picture, in a word, is a very triumph

1 Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle Bode is of the same opinion (ii. regard this as an original. Dr. 761).


A FLEMISH IMITATION. 311

of art. Such portraits as these of Charles V. and Philip II., like Shakespeare's dramas, completely enthral our imagina- tion, and render us forgetful of all else. For it is not the individual alone which they depict ; they bring before us an epoch of history — the whole moral atmosphere of his age.

Leaving the Venetians, I turn for a moment to some other works in this gallery which are ascribed to the greatest Italian masters. Among them there is a portrait (No. 358) of a young and refined woman in red velvet, which, according to the catalogue, is by Leonardo da Vinci. At a distance, the fine oval of the face recalls Raphael's portrait of Joanna of Aragon, the wife of Ascanio Colonna, in the Louvre ; the scale of colour in the dress points not so much to the school of Raphael, as to that of Leo- nardo da Vinci at Milan, and more especially to that of Gianpietrino. But the moment we approach the picture, we see at once its origin. The lifeless, academic drawing of the hands ; the weak, mechanical treatment and the leaden tone of the white drapery ; the stiff curtain (recall- ing the curtain in the so-called Leonardo in the Dresden gallery), the smooth, ivory-like flesh-tones, the hook-shaped folds, all go to prove that the painting is one of the many so-called ' pasticci,' which were produced, more especially at Milan, in the third and fourth decades of the sixteenth century — paintings which have deceived so many art-connoisseurs. This picture was formerly as greatly extolled as are the many so-called Leonardos in these days, which are in reality the work of Flemish painters. Mr. Mimdler (op. cit. p. 41) was, I believe, the first who pronounced it to be a feeble Flemish imitation. Passavant, on the other hand, though not ascribing it to Leonardo himself, considered it to be the work of one of his scholars. In these days even a Eoman cicerone would scarcely


312 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

venture to describe it as the work of Leonardo da Vinci. 2 Perhaps the day is not far distant when more enlightened critics will admit that these Flemish ' pasticci ' and imita- tions of Italian originals are much more numerous in the public galleries of Europe than has hitherto been sup- posed.

Another painting, equally renowned as the work of a great Italian master, must detain us for a moment (No. 265) ; the catalogue describes it as " Virtue crowned by Fame : a sketch by Correggio." As I approached the picture one day, accompanied by some young friends, a smooth-shaven gentleman was just taking a last look at it. ' A charming picture, is it not ? ' observed his companion, an elderly lady who was standing near, and looking out of a window. 'Admirable,' he replied, removing his eye-glass; 'after the "Moulin" by Claude,' he added, as he offered his arm to the lady — ' this is my favourite picture in the gallery ; here we see Correggio as the forerunner of Prudhon.'

When this French couple had departed I placed the picture in a better light, and we began to examine it criti- cally. It is in tempera and unfinished in parts ; the canvas has rather a modern look. We were struck by the want of transparency hi the colouring, by the coarse clumsy folds of the drapery, and by the heavy lifeless treatment of the hair, especially that of the unpleasing boy in the foreground on the right, though Correggio' s delicacy and lightness of touch in treating hair is particularly extolled by Vasari. 3

2 Even chronologically it is im- vedere ' (' and moreover hair of such possible that Leonardo da Vinci, a lovely colour, and arranged and who left Italy in 1515, could have executed with so much care, that painted the wife of Ascanio Colonna. nothing more beautiful could be

3 Vasari, vii. 99. ' E oltra di cio, imagined ') ; and again, p. 103 : capegli si leggiadri di colore e con ' perche mostrandoci i suoi capegli infinita pulitezza sfilati e condotti, fatti con tanta facilita nelle difficolta che meglio di quegli non si puo del fargli, ha insegnato come e' si




A SPUEIOUS COKKEGGIO. 313

' Just look at the girl in the foreground on the left,' I said to my companions, ' does she not vividly recall the shep- herdesses on fans and porcelain cups of the time of Louis XIV. ? Yet,' I continued, ' in the eyes of the most cele- brated critics of the last century and of our own time, this sketch has been looked upon as a masterpiece. Mengs, who in his day passed for the greatest connoisseur of Correggio's works, was struck by the fact that, " in this mere sketch, the grace of the master and his great technical endowments are no less perceptible than in his most highly finished works ; the effect of nature being fully attained" even in the parts which are only slightly laid in. Many paintings of Correggio," he adds, " are more beautiful than this one, but no other reveals the greatness of the master so strikingly." '

Even Miindler considered that this sketch surpassed the finished painting in the Louvre, in the inspiration of the heads, and in freedom of treatment. Dr. Julius Meyer, the former director of the Berlin gallery, in his well-known Life of Correggio, mentions it as a somewhat altered replica of the tempera painting in the Louvre, unfinished but undoubtedly genuine. Where so many distinguished art-critics have extolled a painting as a ' masterpiece ' and ' undoubtedly genuine,' it is a dangerous venture to pronounce it to be merely a copy. Of course, however, I may be mistaken in this as in other instances. It is well known that the two originals (now in the Louvre) were painted by Correggio for the Duchess Isabella Gonzaga. Later, with Correggio's " Jupiter and Antiope " and Mantegna's " Triumph of Csesar" (now at Hampton Court), they passed into the collection of Charles I. through the instrumentality of a

abbino a fare ' (' for he ' — that is Cor- a matter, has thus taught us how it reggio — ' showing us with what ease should be done '). he painted hair, which is so difficult


314 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

Belgian agent. When that unfortunate monarch's works of art were sold by auction in 1650, these paintings were bought in Paris by the banker Jabach, of Cologne. Later he sold the two pictures by Correggio, consequently including the original of this so-called sketch in the Doria gallery, to Louis XIV. Mariette, whom I consider the most astute and intelligent art-critic the French have ever had, relates in his " Abecedario " 4 (vol. iii. p. 2) that Jabach had several painters in his house, among them the brothers Jean Baptiste and Michel Corneille, Pesne, Masse, and Kousseau ; and in the article devoted to Michel Corneille, in vol. ii. p. 7, he relates that Jabach commissioned the young painter and his brother Jean Baptiste, as well as other young artists, to make copies of the original drawings of the great masters represented in his collection. These copies Corneille was wont to sell as originals. ' This decep- tion,' adds honest Mariette, ' was most reprehensible, but Corneille found it decidedly profitable.' 5 It is surely within the range of possibility that this ' sketch by Correggio ' may have been one of the copies produced in this way in Jabach's house. If my supposition prove correct, the Correggio in the Doria gallery has passed through vicissitudes very similar to those of the celebrated Holbein in Dresden. The originals of both these works fell into the hands of speculators in the middle of the

4 Abecedario de P. J. Mariette, premiere jeunesse le sieur Jabach, ouvrage public par Ph. de Chenne- qui avait la plus belle collection de viires et A. de Montaiglon (Paris, dessins qui fut alors, et qui em- 1854-5G). ployait le jeune Corneille et son

5 'Mais une des choses qui frere Jean-Baptiste, ainsi que aiderent davantage a lui ' (Michel plusieurs autres jeunes gens, a en Corneille) ' former le gout, et a lui faire des copies, que souvent il faire accorder la preference aux vendait pour des originaux. Cette ouvrages des meilleurs maitres supercherie etait veritablement d'ltalie et surtout a ceux des blamable et honteuse ; maisle jeune Carraches et de leurs eleves, fut Corneille y trouvait son profit.'

1 'occupation que lui fournit dans sa


EAPHAEL'S "ST. CECILIA." 315

seventeenth century. Holbein's Madonna came into the possession of Cromhart Loskart, the banker at Amsterdam — Correggio's painting into that of Jabach at Paris. Under their auspices both were probably reproduced, and the copies found their way later to Italy : the one after Holbein came to Venice, to the Casa Dolfin — the one after Correggio to Eome, to the Palazzo Pamfili, and both were then pro- claimed 'wonderfully fine originals,' and were universally extolled as such. Since the Dresden Holbein, however, has been pronounced by the most competent German authorities to be a copy, a glance now suffices for every connoisseur t© recognise in it a modern work, by the hand, moreover, of a Fleming. I am, therefore, not without hope that, in the course of twenty years or so, no one, having any pretensions to call himself a connoisseur, will regard this so-called Correggio as anything but the production of some French painter of the second half of the seventeenth century. To me the picture always calls up visions of Watteau or Lancret, and seems to betray the hand of a forerunner of these painters.

It is quite in accordance with experience, that both these copies, in Eome and Dresden, should prove more attractive to the public than the originals themselves, for it is in the nature of things that the more modern the copy of an old picture, and the more therefore it approaches to the taste and feeling of the spectator, the greater will be its attractions for him. We are told by Herr A. Teichlein, of Munich, the friend and companion of Wilhelm von Kaulbach, in his article on that painter ("Zur Char akteristikWilhelms von Kaulbach," 1876), that the renowned artist, on seeing Eaphael's " St. Cecilia " in the gallery at Bologna, criticised it severely and could find nothing to praise in it except the colouring. On the other hand, he was enthusiastic about Overbeck's frescoes in S. Maria degli Angeli, near Assisi. It is a well-known fact

T 2


316 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

that at the time of Napoleon L, Raphael's " St. Cecilia," then in Paris, was first transferred from panel to canvas, and then entirely repainted, i.e. ' restored,' in consequence of which much of the charm of this splendid work has been irrepar- ably destroyed. The only parts, therefore, remaining by Raphael's hand — the composition and the drawing — were underrated by Kaulbach, while the work of the modern restorer met with his unqualified admiration. This confirms the truth of what I have just observed, and proves also that the most celebrated modern painters are no exception to the rule.

As we turned away from this enigmatical ■ sketch of Correggio,' we again encountered the French couple. They were evidently as much dissatisfied with the work of Raphael they had just been examining, as we were with the Correggio, and were coming back to have a last look at their favourite ' pour la bonne bouche.' We on our part proceeded to the double portrait by Raphael. We were not able at first to examine it closely, as two German gentlemen were standing before it engaged in a lively dis- cussion.

' I tell you,' said the one, a Viennese to judge by his accent — ' I tell you the painting is Venetian.'

' And I can assure you,' returned the other, apparently a North German, ' that this copy can only be the work of Polidoro da Caravaggio.'

At that moment a Roman cicerone rushed past, fol- lowed by four fair Americans. At a little distance from the picture he stopped and, waving his hand toward it, shouted : 1 C'est Bartolo et Baldo, chef-d'oeuvre de Raffaello d'Urbin, peintre de Pape Leon dei Medici.' The Americans all nodded and passed on, preceded by their guide.

1 These wretched ignorant Italian cicerones !. ' remarked




POLLDOKO DA CABAVAGGIO. 317

the North German ; ' they seem to be here for the sole purpose of disseminating these silly traditions among the unlearned.'

' And are non-Italian cicerones any better ? ' inquired the Austrian. ' They, too, are wont to proclaim all the nonsense others have taught them with imperturbable assurance.'

' You think so ? ' returned the other in a piqued tone. ' Art-criticism, as practised now in Berlin, is apparently unknown in Vienna. The Austrians, as a nation, are far too superficial, or, if you will, too pleasure-loving, to take any real interest in the inner organic development of an artist.'

' What do I care for your inner organic development ? ' replied the Austrian. ' I can only tell you that Passavant, the greatest Eaphael connoisseur the world has ever seen, who studied that master's works thoroughly for more than twelve years, and who must therefore have been more intimately acquainted with his manner than anyone else, pronounced this picture to be a Venetian copy.'

' Passavant's opinions are quite obsolete in Berlin now,' replied the North German drily. ' No educated Prussian in these days could possibly connect this picture with Venetian art. Just look at the dark-brown flesh-tints in the head of Navagero, look at the glazes of varnish over the glazes of oil about the eye, and at the broad touches about the mouth. The whole treatment is that of Polidoro da Cara- vaggio.'

' What can you have to say about Caravaggio's manner of painting, my dear sir ? ' said the Austrian ; ' we know abso- lutely nothing about it. The few very unattractive speci- mens of his art in the Museo Borbonico prove him to have been a coarse painter with little feeling for beauty, and his frescoes on the facades of certain houses in Piome have


818 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

little interest for us in their present damaged condition, though they show that he had a certain amount of inven- tive genius. Vasari much overrated the merits of this unrefined Lombard painter, probably because in his later years Polidoro followed in the steps of Michael Angelo, who was the idol of Vasari.'

' You may think what you please about Caravaggio in Vienna,' replied the other testily, ' but in Berlin we shall continue for all that to follow the view of modern critics, and to look upon Polidoro as an artist who was inspired by the spirit of Raphael. '

1 1 tell you,' reiterated the Austrian, ' that to my mind Polidoro is nothing but a second-rate decorative painter.'

' You must allow me to observe,' rejoined the gentleman from Berlin, ' that art -critics on the banks of the Danube appear to have formed very vague ideas of the true cha- racter of historical art.'

1 What ! ' exclaimed the Viennese, ' do you think because you have an official position at Berlin that you are qualified to instruct the remainder of the universe ? '

1 My dear Baron,' said the other, smiling, and in a con- descending tone of voice, 'you must allow that you are only an amateur and absolutely unprofessional.'

' Professional or not,' replied the other warmly, ' I hold that amateurs who have a real love for art, and who, like myself, have a collection of their own, are quite as much enti led to express an opinion as — nay, even better entitled than — so-called professionals, who really care no more about the pictures than the anatomist cares about the dead body he dissects — people, in short, whose only object in taking up the study of art is to re-name every picture and statue.'

' My dear Baron,' said the North German, drawing himself up, ' allow me to remind you that in every depart-


EAPHAEL'S POKTEAITS. 819

ment of science, hence, of course, in the science of art, there are critics and critics.'

With these words he buttoned up his overcoat and departed.

The Baron, who moved off in another direction, called after him : ' Undoubtedly, hi the same way that some folk are clever and others unmitigated bores.'

As soon as they were gone, a fair-haired young lady, with a very intelligent expression, who had been listening attentively to this learned discussion, approached the picture with visible interest, and turning to me, smiling, observed : ' Excuse me if I venture to ask you a question. Do you agree with those gentlemen that this splendid head ' (point- ing to Navagero) ' was not painted by Eaphael ? If it is not by him,' she proceeded, without waiting for an answer, ' it can only be by one of the greatest painters in the world I Or have I made a serious mistake ? '

' I fully share your opinion,' I answered, much delighted. 1 The picture is a masterpiece — you will hardly find its equal the world over, and it is positive profanation to regard it, even for a moment, as a copy. The conception of these two heads is so noble, the execution so masterly, that I can name scarcely another portrait, whether by Titian, Velasquez, or any other renowned painter, which would be worthy to rank with it, save perhaps that unique portrait — Leonardo's " Gioconda " in the Louvre. I agree with you, that only a master like Eaphael was capable of producing, thus alia prima, two human forms of such extraordinary vitality and truth.' (-J-)

' Indeed, yes,' she replied ; ' the longer one looks at these heads, the more marvellously life-like do they appear.'

'And see,' I continued, 'how delicately the mouth is modelled ; look at the wonderful play of light in the eye ; see how naturally the ear — the form of which is so charac-


320 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

teristic of Eaphael — is placed, and with what freedom and lightness of touch the beard is treated.'

' I am indeed delighted,' pursued the young lady, ' that you appear to approve, and even to confirm, my opinion, which is of course only the result of my own individual impressions, while you appear to be studying art as a connoisseur. Women, as a rule, I think, only measure works of art from the standpoint of their own feelings.'

' And for this very reason,' I rejoined, ' the opinion of a cultivated woman often approaches the truth more nearly than that of a pedantic art-critic'

' Perhaps you are right,' she said, with a slight expres- sion of satisfaction. ' Too much learning often destroys real enjoyment of art, as too much salt spoils the best cooking. In my country, and more especially in Berlin, people con- fine then studies far too much to books.'

' Berlin is undoubtedly the most learned city in the world,' I replied, ' and I am doubly gratified that my opinion of this portrait should be shared by a lady from Berlin of such cultivated tastes.'

At these words she glanced at me with some mis- trust.

' This is not the first time,' I continued, ' that I have had occasion to observe that gifted and cultivated women, if they devote themselves to the study of art with zeal and assiduity, display a far keener perception than men. Women have one immense advantage over us, they come to this study unbiased by prejudice or preconceived theories.'

' Would you tell me,' said the young lady after a pause, ' the name of the critic who first pronounced this master- piece a copy ? '

' I believe it was Raphael's celebrated biographer from Frankfort,' I replied.


EAPHAEL'S POETEAITS. 321

' Passavant ? ' she inquired.

' Yes, and nearly all his professional colleagues followed him. This is usually the way of the world, for most persons are glad to be spared the trouble of thinking for themselves. Passavant, who had rendered considerable services in his branch of research, discovered in an old Italian book, which is well known under the title of " Notizie di un Anonimo," that these portraits of Beazzano and Navagero were painted on panel. With this in his mind, he came to study the picture. Instead, however, of examining the painting itself, he first turned it round to make quite sure it was on woocl.^ Finding to his horror that it was on canvas, he at once concluded it must be a copy, and, what was more, a Venetian copy.'

'Why Venetian and not Bolognese, as is usually assumed in such cases ? ' she inquired.

' Because the picture formerly belonged to Pietro Bembo at Padua, who, in 1538, gave it to Beazzano himself. Passavant' s theory was, that a picture which had been for so long in Venetian territory could only have been copied by a painter of Venice.'

■ But,' resumed the lady, ' was it not possible that the anonymous writer whom you have just mentioned might have made a wrong memorandum, and have mistaken canvas for panel ? '

' Undoubtedly,' I replied, ' and I could tell you of many similar mistakes. Vasari even states that the " Madonna di S. Sisto " was on panel, but it is evident that this celebrated picture was painted on canvas.'

' Such mistakes, the result of a hurried exammation, are pardonable enough,' said the young lady.

' Certainly,' said I; 'but the unpardonable part is, that such a masterpiece as this double portrait should have


322 THE DORIA-PAMFILI GALLERY.

been taken for a copy, and accepted as such ever since. What are we to think of an art-critic who studied the works of one master for twelve years, and finally came to such a conclusion ? '

' It seems to me,' said the young lady, smiling, ' that art-critics are rather apt to make such mistakes. May I venture to ask you one more question ? Is it true, as people say, that Eaphael always painted his portraits on panel ? '

1 In his early period he undoubtedly did,' I replied. ' His portrait of his friend and master Pintoricchio in the Borghese gallery is on panel, so are the portraits of the "Doni" and the so-called "Donna Gravida" in the Pitti, his own portrait, that of Leo X., and the splendid portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena at Madrid. From 1516, however, Eaphael appears to have preferred canvas to panel, and he employed this not only for the " Madonna di S. Sisto " in Dresden, but also for the portraits he painted in the last four years of his life — for those of the so-called " Donna Velata " in the Pitti, and of Count Baldassare Castiglione and Joanna II., both in the Louvre, and for this double portrait of Beazzano and Navagero, which he must have painted in April 1516.'

1 How is that known ? ' she asked.

' From a letter,' I answered, ' written by Bembo to his friend Cardinal Divizio da Bibbiena, referring to the presence of these two Venetians in Kome.'

She thanked me and turned to study the picture again ; then presently she resumed, ' How uninteresting the Berlin portrait of Navagero appears to me now, compared with this magnificent head ! The piercing eyes seem to read our very thoughts and to inquire whether we are indeed worthy to contemplate such a masterpiece. What would


EAPHAEL'S PORTRAITS. 328

these wise Venetians think,' she added with a smile, as she prepared to depart, ' if they could hear all the different opinions and learned remarks which are passed upon them every week ! '

And with a slight bow she disappeared.


GENEBAL INDEX.


Agassiz, Louis, his connection with Morelli, p. [5] ; his method of teaching, 74

Agnolo, Andrea d', see Sarto, Del, 127

Agnolo, Baccio d\ carved 'Cassoni' for the Florentines, 110

Alba, Macrjno d', see Maceino, 173, note 3

Albani, Francesco, his works in Borghese gallery, 229

Albektinelli, Mariotto, 122-127 ; his first master, Cosimo Boselli, 124 ; works with Fra Bartolom- meo, 122-125 ; their joint signa- ture, 122, 124 ; influenced by P. di Cosimo, 119, 124 ; by Fra Bar- tolommeo, 124, 125 ; by work of H. van der Goes, 125 ; finishes a picture by Filippino (Louvre), 126 his works: Borne, 122, 125 Florence, 122, 126 ; Volterra 126 ; Vienna, 122 ; Geneva, 124 Milan, 124, 125; Venice, 125 Siena, id. ; Bergamo, 125, and note 3 ; Paris, 126 ; confounded with Fra Bartolommeo, 122-125 ; Fra Paolino, 123, 125, note 9 ; Baphael, 125, note 2

Alehania, Justus de, not to be con- founded with Justus of Ghent, 251 ; his works at Genoa, id. note.

Alemanni, Pietro, of the school of Crivelli, 276 ; his works at Ascoli, id.

Alfani, Domenico, his works at Borne, 139 ; Perugia, id.

Alfani, Paris, picture by Francia- bigio ascribed to, 96

Allegri, see Correggio, 223, 312

Allori, Alessandro, imitator of Bronzino, 131


ANTONELLO

Amatrice, Cola dell', works by, in Lateran collection attributed to Signorelli, 92

Amboise, Charles d', portrait of, in Louvre, by Solario, 174

Amboise, Georges d', employed Solario in his castle at Gaillon, 174

Amoretti, his work on Leonardo, 89, note

Angelico, Fra, influence on Fra Filippo, 79, note 5

Anguissola, Anna Maria, picture by, at Cremona, 199

Anguissola, Lucia, sister and pupil of Sofonisba, 199 ; her works at Madrid, id. ; Brescia, id. ; Eome,zVZ.

Anguissola, Sofonisba, of Cremona, 197-200; her birth, 198; sum- moned to Spain by Philip II., 197, 199 ; marriage, 199 ; friendship with Van Dyck, 197, 199; por- traits by her attributed to other painters, 199 ; earliest work, Lord Yarborough's collection, 197 ; others in England, 198 ; at Berlin, id. ; St. Petersburg, id. ; Naples, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; Ferrara, id. note 2 ; portraits of herself at Vienna, 197 ; Siena, id. ; Milan, 198 ; Florence, id.

" Anonimo," the, mentions a draw- ing attributed to Baphael, 147 ; Bonifazio, 242 ; a picture by Bordone, 291, note 2 ; by Palma, 295, and note 1 ; by Lotto, 298 ; portraits of Bembo, 309

Antonello da Messina, his works : in Borne, 244 ; Naples, 244, note 5 ; Milan, 245 ; confounded with Bellini, 244, note 5 ; character- istics, 244, note 5, and 245


326


GENERAL INDEX.


Appiani Nicola, his works at Milan 165 ; no signed pictures by him 165, and note 6

Abagon, Joanna of, her portrait, 311 not by Leonardo, 312, note 2

Abiosto, his praise of Dosso, 214 does not mention Garofalo, id.

Aexim, Bettina von, her friendship with Morelli, [5]

Aspebtlni, Amico, pupil of Ercole Eoberti, 222, note 6 ; portrait by, in the Capitol attributed to Bellini, 263

Aumale. Due d', pictures in his col- lection, 88, 242, note 1

Avalos, Don Febdinando, of Aquino, portrait of, in Venice, 134


Bacchiacca, Francesco Ubertini, called, 101-113 ; his portrait by Bronzino, 102 ; his characteristics, 104, 113 ; made use of German engravings, 104, 107, 108 ; tapes- tries from his cartoons, 103 ; his works : at Oxford, 105 ; Carpene- do, id. ; Lausanne, id. ; Milan, 106; Paris, id.; Florence, 107, 109 ; Dresden, 107 ; Berlin, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; English National Gallery, id. ; Venice, 108, and note 1; Rome, 108; Cassel, 109; Richmond, id. ; his ' Cassoni,' 110-112 ; his drawings : Louvre, 107, note 9 ; Oxford, id. ; Florence, 108 (as Michael Angelo), 113 (as Leonardo) ; Lille (as Michael Angelo), 108 ; Milan, 109 ; confounded with Raphael, 105, 106 ; with Durer, 108

Bagnacavallo, Bartolohmeo Ramen- ghi, called, confounded with Giulio Romano, Louvre, 145, note ; works by, attributed to Garofalo, Colonna gallery, 204, note 9 ; to an unknown Venetian, Borghese gallery, 243 ; influenced by Dosso and Garofalo, 222

Baillt, his inventory of pictures in the Louvre, 107

Baldini, his connection with Garo- falo, 141, note 2, 203

Baldinucci, on Franciabigio, 99

Bampo, Gustavo, Dr., published documents relating to Lotto, 297, note 6


BELLINI

Barbarelli, see Giobgione, 248

Barbebxni galleby, pictures in, from Castle of Urbino, 250

Babbufaldi, on Ferrarese painters, 202, 214, note 2

Bartolommeo, Fra, joint-works with Albertinelli at Florence, 122 ; Geneva, 124 ; works by him : in Paris (as Albertinelli), 125, and note 1 ; Florence, 126 ; Lucca, id.; Rome, id. ; Milan, id. ; drawings : at Weimar, 125, note 1 ; Florence, 124, 126, note 5 ; in British Museum, id. ; Brescianino con- founded with him, Uffizi and Turin, 127

Basaiti, Marco, 281-283; pupil of Alvise Vivarini, 281 ; his works at Rome (as Perugino, Garofalo), 281; Berlin, 282; Venice, id.; Padua, 282, and note 8 ; Verona, 282 ; Milan, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; confounded with : Bellini, 22, 260, 281 ; Cima, 281, note 7 ; Bissolo, 282 ; school of Boccaccino, 281 ; Carotto, 282

Bassano, Francesco, confounded with Giacomo in Borghese gallery, 238

Bazzi, Giovan Antonio, see Sodoma, 151

Beazzano and Navagebo, portraits in the Doria gallery, by Raphael, 316-323

Beccafuslt of Siena, work by, at Venice attributed to Peruzzi, 137, note 5

Beccabuzzi, Fbancesco, pupil of Licinio, 244 ; portrait by him in Sciarra-Colonna gallery under name of Carlo Caliari, id.

Belltni, Gentile, sent to Constan- tinople, 266 ; his works at Venice, 260, 266, note 9 ; Buda-Pesth, id.

Bellini, Giovanni, 259-263 ; his characteristics, 270 ; his genuine signature, 269, note 3 ; his works : in Venice, 262, 269 ; Florence (as Basaiti), 260; Turin, id.; Milan, 261 ; Bergamo, id. ; Verona, id. ; Rimini, 260, note 4 ; Vicenza,

260, 261 ; Pesaro, 260 ; Rovigo, 262; Murano, 263; Naples, 266, 271 ; London, 268 ; Alnwick, 260, note 4 ; his drawings : Brescia,

261, 271; Venice, 271; Paris,


GENERAL INDEX.


32 _


•271 ; Chatsworth (as Perino), id. ; confounded with Mantegna, id.,; with Basaiti, 260; works _ by- other painters attributed to him, 264 Bellini, Jacopo, his works at Ve- rona, 267, note 1 ; Venice, id. ; Lovere, id. ; Brescia (?) (as Fra Angelico), id. ; Bergamo (?) (as Gentile da Fabriano), id. ; notices of his works, id. ; his drawings in Paris, 267 Behbo, Cardinal, 309 ; his portraits by Titian, id. ; Raphael, id. ; Ja- cometto, 310 ; Valerio de' Belli, id. ; Benvenuto Cellini, id. Benvexuti, see Ortolano, 212 Bebnasconi, Dr., his history of the

Veronese School, 241 Berxazzano, landscape painter, teaches Sodoma, 154, note 6; Gian pietrino, id. ; Cesare da Sesto, id. and 166 ; mentioned by Vasari, id. Biancht, Francesco, may have been Correggio's first master, 201, note 6, 223, 226 ; his real name, 220, note 2 Bissolo, Francesco, in Borghese gal- lery with forged signature of Bel- lini, 240; his ' Cartellini,' 264; his work at Murano, 282 Blanc, M. Charles, wrongly ascribes a " St. Sebastian " to Leonardo, 69 Boccaccino, Boccaccio, 278-280 ; studied at Ferrara and Venice, 279 ; his signature, 280, and note 5 ; his works : at Florence, 278 ; Venice, 279 (as Cordelgliaghi, Palma Vecchio, Bellini, Leonardo Perugino) ; Murano, id. (as Palma Vecchio) ; Cremona, 2S0 ; Padua, id. ; Milan, id. ; his letter to the father of Garofalo, 202 Boccaccino, Camtllo, influenced by Pordenone, 280 ; his works : at Milan and Cremona, id. Bode, Dr., attack on Signor Morelli [1, 3, 7, 30, 31, 46, 47] ; his views as to the "Fornarina " and a por- trait at Berlin by Sebastiano del Piombo, 44, note 7 ; confounds Masolino with Masaccio, 72, note 7 ; attributes to Fra Filippo a work of his school, 80, note 7 ; paintings wrongly ascribed by


him to : Botticelli, 83, note 9, 87, note 5 ; Verrocchio. 85, note 4 ; L. di Credi, 91 ; Signorelli, 94, note 3 ; Pier di Cosimo, 96, note

6 ; R. Ghirlandaio, 97, note 7 ; portraits by Perugino to Francia- bigio, 98, note 1 ; to L. di Credi, 101, note 5 ; confounds Granacci with Peruzzi, 100 ; ascribes copy after Botticelli to Filippino, 116, note 8 ; considers that Albertinelli imitated Memling, 125 ; ascribes to Fra Paolino works by Albertinelli, 124 ; works by Sodoma to Peruzzi, 136, note 3 ; to Melozzo da Forli, 154. note

7 ; and Scorel, 159. note 4 ; a por- trait of school of Parma to Bol- traffio, 163, note 4 ; Madonna by Boltraffio (?) to B. de' Conti, 164 ; work of the Lombard School to Cesare da Sesto, 166, note 8 ; sees Roman (?) influences in " Ecce Homo" by Solario, 175, note 4; works wrongly ascribed by him to Leonardo, 179 ; confuses the Ca- labrian M. Preti with the Lombard Ambrogio de Predis, 182 ; wrongly attributes portraits in the Arnbro- siana to Leonardo, id. ; concurs in giving " Goldsmith " in the Pitti to R, Ghhiandaio, 182, note 6 ; his views on the use of oil as a vehicle in Tuscany, 185 ; dis- covers a portrait by de Predis at Berlin, 189, note 7 ; wrongly as- cribes to him one in London, id. ; gives a poor copy in Florence to Costa, id. ; his estimate of Mr. Miindler, id. ; underrates B. de' Conti, 191 ; regards a copy after Garofalo at Naples as an original, 204, note 9 ; attributes a picture by Bagnacavallo to Garofalo, id. ; early works by this painter to an anonymous master, 212 ; a Flem- ish painting to Dosso, 218 ; con- curs in ascribing a picture to early period of Francia, 221, note 5 ; his remarks on Venturi and the Ferrarese school, 222, note 8 ; recognises the "Daughter of Herodias." Doria gallery, as a Titian, 239, note 6 ; attributes to Franz Francken the copy at Dres- den of Holbein Madonna, 246 ; a


328


GENERAL INDEX.


BOLTRAFFIO

picture by Cosimo Eoselli to Pe- sello, 254 ; his theory about " Firnismalerei," 85, note 4, 254, note 4 ; on Pesellino's pictures in Torrigiani collection, 257, note 9 ; concurs in giving to Baldovinetti an Annunciation, Uffizi, 257, note 1 ; attributes to Basaiti picture by Bellini, 260 ; an early work by Bellini to Pennacchi, 262 ; views about Bondinelli, 266 ; attributes portrait by Bonsignori to Man- tegna, 274, note 1 ; sees influence of many painters in works of Crivelli, 276 ; ascribes to Basaiti pictures by Cima, 281, note 7 ; and Bissolo, 282 ; erroneous views as to Moretto, 285 ; ascribes an early work by Titian to Bordone, 289 ; a copy after Bordone to Licinio, 290, note 1 ; to Titian a copy of his portrait of Bembo, 310, note 1

Boltraffio, 163 ; fresco in Rome, id. ; works at Milan, id. ; Ber- gamo, id. ; on the Isola Bella, id. ; at Buda-Pesth, id. ; London, id. ; drawings at Milan and Paris, 163, note 4

Bonasone, engraved from Perino's designs, 147, 229

Bonifazio Veneziano, 241, 242

Bonifazio Veronese, the elder, 242 ; documents referring to, 292, note 6 ; his colouring, 292, 293 ; works at Rome, 292; Florence, 293; Venice, id. ; Milan, id. ; his works ascribed to Titian, Giorgione, Palma, Bordone, 292, and note 7

Bonifazio Veronese, the younger, in Borghese gallery, 241

Bonvicino, Alessandro, see Moretto, 285

Bordone, Paris, 289-292 ; autograph in Venice archives, 289 ; follower of Titian, id. ; influenced by Lotto, 291 ; said to have been at Augsburg and in France, id. ; his works: Rome, 289, 290; Florence, 290 ; Genoa, id.; Venice, 291 ; Lovere, id. ; Treviso, id. ; Milan, id. ; Padua, id. ; Paris, 292 ; confounded with Titian, 289, 290 ; Bonifazio Veneziano, 290; Palma, 291, note 3; his characteristics, 290


BUGIARDINI

Borgherini, Maroherita, Vasari' anecdote of, 111, 112

Borghese gallery, founded by Car- dinal Scipione Borghese, 66

Borgia, Cesare (?), portrait of, for- merly in Borghese gallery, 131 ; ascribed to Raphael, to Parmeggia- nino, to George Pencz, id. ; sold to Baron A. de Rothschild, id., note 4 ; shows all the characteristics of Bronzino, 133 ; other portraits of Borgia, so-called, at Forll by Pal- mezzano (as Giorgione), 134; Venice (as Leonardo), id. ; Bergamo by G. Francia (as Giorgione), 134, and note 2 ; Milan by Solario (as Raphael), 134 ; portrait of him by P. di Cosimo, 133, note 9

Botticelli, 82-88 ; picture by, as- cribed to Fra Filippo, 35 ; charac- teristics, id. ; form of hand and ear, 77, 78, 80, 82; landscapes, 81 ; authentic works : Rome, 83 ; Florence, 35, 83 ; Milan, 87 ; Ber- gamo, 87, note 6 ; drawings : Florence, 88 ; London, id. ; works wrongly ascribed to him : Rome, 83; Florence, 84-86; Turin, 86, Genoa, 87, note 5 ; Milan, 87 ; London, 87, note 5 ; Chantilly, 88

Braccesi, Alessandro, portrait of, by Perugino, 101

Bramantino, Bartolommeo Scardi, called, his forms, 77, 78 ; influence on Solario, 172, note 2

Breschnino, A. del, imitator of Fra Bartolommeo, his drawings as- cribed to him at Florence, 126, note 5 ; confounded with del Pac- chia at Turin, 95, note 4

Bronzino, Angelo, his manner, like Parmeggianino, 130; his imitators, 131 ; his works in Rome, id. ; Florence, id. ; Paris, id. ; portrait of Cesare Borgia attributed to Raphael, by him, 133

Brdnelleschi, architect of Pitti Palace, 1

Bugiardini, Giuliano, in Corsini gallery with monogram of A. del Sarto, 97 ; in Borghese gallery, called ' School of Raphael,' id. ; at Bologna, id. ; Milan, id. ; Turin, id. ; Florence (from a sketch by Michael Angelo), 97, note 8 ; cha- racteristics, 97 ; influenced by


GENEEAL INDEX.


329


BUONCONSIGLI

Albertinelli, id. ; confounded with

Franciabigio, 96 Buonconskjli, Giovanni, pupil of

Giovanni Bellini, 272 ; imitator of

Montagna, id. ; confounded with

Mantegna at Borne and Paris, id. ;

his works at Vicenza and Venice,

id. Buonarotti, see Michael Angelo,

44 Burckhardt, Jacob, ascribes portrait

of Cesare Borgia (?) to George

Pencz, 131 ; works by Dosso to

Giorgione, 216, note 6 Busi, Giovanni de', see Cariani, 243


Caliari, Carletto, portrait in Borne

under his name, by Beccaruzzi,

244 Calisto da Lodi, see Piazza, 287 Calvi, confuses Solario with Cesare

da Sesto, 176 Campagnola, Giulio, copied pictures

of Bellini, 240, note 8 Campana, Pedro, in London ; copy

after him by a pupil of Paul

Veronese in Borghese gallery,

244 Campi, Bernardino, portrait of (?),

by Sofonisba Anguissola, 197 ;

restores Solario's altar-piece at

Pavia, 175 Campi, Giulio, portrait by, in the

Uffizi, ascribed to Moretto, 285 Campori, Marchese, his discoveries

in archives, 29 ; relating to de

Predis, 185 Capodiferro, his intarsia work from

Lotto's designs, 299 Capponi, Gino, his friendship with

Morelli [9] Caraglio, engraved from Perino's

drawings, 147, 229 Caravaggio, Michael Angelo da,

work in Borghese gallery, 229 Caravaggio, Polidoro da, see Poli-

doro, 317 Cariani, Giovanni Busi, called, pupil

of Palma, 243 ; at Borne, id. ;

Milan, 243, note 3 ; Vicenza, id. ;

Bergamo, id. Carpi, Giovan Maria da, picture by,

at Bergamo, 277

  • Cartellini ' with forged signatures,

27, 240, note 7, 264


CITTADELLA

CaRucci, Jacopo da, see Pontormo, 128

Caselli, Cristoeoro, of Parma, imi- tator of Cima, 278

Castagno, Andrea del, did not murder Domenico Veneziano, 17

Cavalcaselle, Signor, frescoes ' re- stored ' under his auspices, 82, 273, note 9 ; see also Crowe and Cavalcaselle

Cavenaghi, Luigi, the picture re- storer, 186

Cecchetti, Signor, discovers docu- ments, 29 ; relating to Bellini, 269, note 2 ; Buonconsigli, 272, note 5 ; Paris Bordone, 289 ; Bonifazio, 292, note 6

Cenci, Beatrice, portrait in Bar- berini gallery not of her, 18, 308

Cesare da Sesto, 165-169 ; birth,

166 ; connection with Bernazzano, id. ; employed at Ostia, id. ; identical with Cesare Milanese,

167 ; imitator of Leonardo, id. ; intimacy with Baphael, id. ; pic- ture with forged signature ascribed to him, 165 ; characteristics, 166, note 1 ; his works at Milan, 166, 167, note 3 ; Naples, 168, note 5 ; Vienna, 167 ; Buda-Pesth, id. ; St. Petersburg (as Leonardo), id.; London, 168 ; Eichmond, 167 ; Paris, id. ; drawings : Paris (as Leonardo), id. ; Windsor, 168, note 5 (as Leonardo) ; British Museum, id. (as Leonardo) ; Turin, id. ; Venice, id.

Charles V., portrait of, by Titian, at

Madrid, 310 Chigi, Agostino, summons Sebas-

tiano del Piombo to Borne, 43 ;

Eaphael's designs for him, 148 ;

Sodoma's frescoes in his villa, the

Farnesina, 152 Chiodarolo, pupil of Costa, 221 Cima da Conegliano, pupil of Bellini,

277 ; character of his art, 277,

278 ; his imitators, id. ; his works at Bologna, 277 ; Modena, id. ; Parma, id. ; Vicenza, id. ; Cone- gliano, id. ; Venice, id. ; Olera, id. ; Milan, id., 281, note ; London, 282, note

Civerchio, master of Bernardino de'

Conti, 191 Cittadella, Signor, on Ortolano,

Z


330


GENERAL INDEX.


213 ; on Dosso, 219 ; on the year of Cosinio Tura's death, 221, note 3

Codde, Pieter, picture by, in Bor- ghese gallery, 247

Conti, Bernardino de', 190-194; only mentioned by Lomazzo and Orlandi, 191 ; attention drawn to him by author, 194 ; confounded with Leonardo, 191 ; influenced by Foppa, id. ; Leonardo, id. ; A. de Predis, id. ; popular portrait painter at Milan beginning of 16th century, 194 ; characteristics, 191, 192 ; pictures at Berlin, 192 ; Milan, id. ; Turin, id. ; London, id. ; St. Petersburg (as Leonardo), 193 ; drawings : Milan, id. ; London (as Leonardo), 193, 194 ; Louvre (as Leonardo), 194 ; Oxford (as Leonardo), id.

Copper, painting on, introduced into Italy by the Flemings, 228, note 2

Correggio, Antonio Allegri, called, 223-228 ; erroneous views on his early training, 223 ; belonged to school of Ferrara, 226 ; early works attributed to Titian, 22, 225 ; to Francia, 22 ; others showing in- fluence of Ferrara at Dresden, 224 ; in London, id. ; Florence, 225 ; Milan, id. ; was at Venice before settling at Parma, id. ; his later works, Dresden, 224 ; Parma, id.; the "Danae,"Borghese gallery, 226-228; sketch attri- buted to him, Doria gallery, 312- 316 ; probably a copy by a French painter, 315

Cortona, Pietro da, in. the Doria gallery, 252

Cosimo, Pier di, 118-122 ; pupil and assistant of Cosimo Boselli, 119, 124 ; influenced by Filippino Lippi, 119, 121 ; by Leonardo, 120, note 5 ; his influence over Bartolommeo and Albertinelli, 119, 124 ; his characteristics, 119, 122 ; his landscapes, 120 ; works at Eome, 119-121 ; Florence, 119, 120, and note 5, 121, 122 ; Paris, 120, 133, note 9 ; Hague, 133, note 9 ; London, 121 ; Dres- den, id.; Berlin, id.; drawing in the Uffizi, 124 ; confounded with


Raphael, 119; Mantegna, 120 ; Franciabigio, 121 ; with an un- known painter, 120

Cossa, Francesco, character of his art, 28, 220; left Ferrara for Bologna, 220 ; died there, 221 ; his works confounded with Costa, 28 ; with Mantegna and Marco Zoppo, 220, note 1

Costa, Lorenzo, works wrongly at- tributed to him, 28 ; founded the early school of Bologna, 221 ; in- fluence of Ercole Roberti seen in his works, id. ; relations with Francia, 196, 204, 221 ; works : at Bologna, 221 ; at Florence, 190, note ; influence on Garofalo, 204, 208 ; on Correggio, 224

Cranach, Lucas, picture by, in Bor- ghese gallery, 246

Credi, Lorenzo di, 88-91 ; his con nection with Verrocchio, 89; his characteristics, 89-91 ; Tom- maso confounded with him, 89, 90 ; his works at Pistoia, 123, note 8 ; at Rome, 89 ; Florence, 91 ; Turin, id. ; Paris, id. ; Paler- mo (as Raphael), id. ; works wrongly attributed to him : at Dresden, id. ; Florence, id. ; Rome, id. ; his drawings : at Florence, 91, note 1 ; Paris, id. ; British Museum, id. ; Chatsworth (portrait of Mino da Fiesole), id.

Cristofano dell' Altissimo, imita- tor of Bronzino, 131

Crivelli, Carlo, of the school of Squarcione, 276 ; connection with Schiavone, id. ; erroneous views about his early training, id. painters influenced by him, id. his works at Rome, 275, note 3 Milan, 275 ; London, id. ; Ancona, id. ; Massa, 276 ; Penna di San Martino, id. ; Ascoli, id. ; Verona, id.

Crowe and Cavalcaselle, confound Bellini, Rondinelli, and others, 27 ; wrongly attribute a fresco to Gerino da Pistoia, 30 ; an inferior drawing to Fra Filippo, 36, note 9 ; confound Titian with Schiavone, 47, note 9 ; confound Masolino with Masaccio, 72, note 7; pictures wrongly attributed by them to Botticelli, 83, note 9, 84-88; to the


GENERAL INDEX.


331


Pollajuoli, 85, note 4 ; to Marco Zoppo, 83, note 2 ; rightly attri- bute a picture in the Borghese gallery to a pupil of L. cli Credi, 90 ; attribute " St. Sebastian" by Genga, to D. and 0. Alfani, 94 ; regard a " Holy Family " by Granacci as a Siennese work, 100, note 4 ; attri- bute a portrait by Perugino to L. di Credi, 101 ; pictures in Borghese gallery to school of Pintoricchio, 114 ; pictures at Florence to Pier di Cosimo, 120, note 6 ; fail to recognise him at Dresden and Berlin, id. ; ascribe a work by Albertinelli to Baphael, 125, note 2; others to FraPaolino, 123-125; one by Fra Bartolommeo to Al- bertinelli (Louvre), 125, note 1 ; ascribe portrait by G. Francia to Calisto da Lodi or Bomanino, 134 ; portrait by Alfani to Ridolfo Ghir- landaio, 139; the " Colombina " by Gianpietrino to Solario, 162 ; views about Solario, 172 ; attribute portrait by de Predis to Borgo- gnone, 180 ; to B. de' Conti in- ferior pictures at Munich and Bergamo, 191 ; work by Francesco Francia to Giacomo, 195, note 9 ; a picture by Dosso to Pietro della Vecchia, 216, note 6 ; a copy after Lotto to Cariani, 238 ; to Bellini works of the school, 240, note 7 ; a picture by B. Licinio in Borne to his school, 244, note 4 ; works by Justus of Ghent to Genga, 251 ; a picture by Cosimo Boselli to Giuli- ano Pesello, 254 ; confound Pesel- lino with Benozzo Gozzoli, 258 ; rightly ascribe to Rondinelli a picture in the Brera, 265 ; wrongly ascribe pictures to Parentino, 272 ; to Bonsignori, 272, note 4 ; regard a portrait in Florence as that of Isabella d' Este, 273, note 7 ; on Crivelli, 276 ; on a picture by Boccaccino, 279, note 4 ; wrongly ascribe a picture by Basaiti to Carotto, 282 ; see many influences in works of Basaiti, 281, note 6 ; erroneous views on Moretto, 286 ; wrongly ascribe a picture by Titian to Paris Bordone, 289 ; to Titian a copy by Pietro Vecchia, 295 ; rightly attribute to Palma


the "Bella di Tiziano," 294, note 9 ; do not recognise his work at Rovigo, 296 ; rightly ascribe to Lotto pictures at Borne and Madrid, 298 ; attribute Titian's " Daughter of Herodias " to Pordenone, 307 ; regard the portrait of Bembo, Barberini gallery, as an original by Titian, 310, note 1 Cuylenbokch, picture by, in the Bor- ghese gallery, 248


Delakoff, M., owns a picture by Calisto da Lodi, 287, note 7

Diamante, Fra, document referring to, 31

Dollingek, Dr., his friendship with Morelli, [4]

Domenichino, in the Borghese gal- lery, 228

Dokia, Andrea, his portrait, 78, note ; his pictures brought from Genoa, 252

Dosso, Battista, influenced Garo- falo, 203, note 8 ; in the Borghese gallery, 216, note 7, 219 ; in the Doria collection, 252

Dosso, Dossi, 214-219 ; ranked by Ariosto among the greatest painters, 214 ; underrated by Vasari, 218 ; his works attributed to others, id. ; the year of his death, 219 ; his works in Borghese gallery, 215, 216 (as Giorgione) ; Doria gallery, 216, 217 ; Capitol, 217 (as Giorgione) ; Palazzo Chigi, id. ; Modena, 215 ; Florence (as Giorgione and Titian), 217 ; Bovigo (as Garofalo), id. ; Milan, 216, note 6, 218 ; Bergamo, 218 ; Ferrara, id. ; works wrongly as- cribed to him in the Capitol, 217 ; the Ambrosiana, 218 ; his influ- ence on the school of Bologna, 222 Durer, Albert, his compositions made use of by Italian painters, 107 ; picture recalling his style in Doria gallery attributed to Andrea del Sarto, 127, note 6; St. Ono- phrius by Lotto shows affinity with Diirer's types, 236, note, and 237 Dyck, Antony van, painted the portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola, 199 ; works wrongly attributed to him in Borghese gallery, 248


332


GENERAL INDEX.


Ear, characteristic types of, 77,

note 4, 78 Este, Isabella d', portrait of, in

Louvre (drawing), by Leonardo,

273, note 7


Fattore, II, see Penni, 141

Ferrarese school, Morelli's dis- coveries relating to, 222, note 8

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, never in Rome, 179 ; works there wrongly ascribed to him, id.

Feti, Domenico, pictures by, in Rome, 235

Filipepi, see Botticelli, 82

Filippino, see Lippi

Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, his charac- teristics, 114, note 4, 136, note 4 ; influence on Pintoricchio, 114 ; on Giovanni Santi, 250, note 1

Flemish painters, their character- istics, 38, 83 ; imitate Raphael, 58 ; L. di Credi, 91 ; Gianpietrino, 162, 311; Solario, 171, note 8; Verrocchio, 177, note 8 ; Leon- ardo, 178, note 1 ; Mantegna (?), 272; Bordone, 292; copy Lotto, 300 ; and Holbein, 315

Fornoni, Signor, on Palma, 293, note 8

Foppa, the master of Bernardino de' Conti, 191 ; portrait wrongly as- signed to, 188

Franciabigio, 98-101 ; his right name, 99 ; characteristics, 98, 99, note 2 ; confounded in the Uffizi with Raphael, 38, 39; R. Ghir- landaio, 98 ; R. del Garbo, id. ; Pontormo, 99, note 2 ; at Bologna with Pontormo, 99 ; in the Bor- ghese gallery with P. Alfani, 96 ; at Lille (drawing) with Raphael, 99, note 3 ; his pictures at Turin, 98; Dresden, 99; Florence, 98-100; Berlin, 99; Rome, 98; Windsor, 99; drawings : Florence, 99, note 2 ; Paris, id., note 3

Francia, Francesco, 194-197 ; pupil of Costa, 221 ; character of his art, 196, 221 ; works by, in Rome, earliest in Corsini gallery, 196 ; latest in Capitol, 195 ; others at Rome, 194, 195 ; Bologna, 195, 196; Munich, 196; Berlin, id.;


GAROFALO

Florence, id. ; works falsely as- cribed to him at Rome, 195

Francia, Giacomo, portrait by, at Bergamo, 134 ; his work in the Brera, 134, note 2 ; influenced by Dosso and Garofalo, 222

Francia, Giulio, influenced by Dosso and Garofalo, 222

Franco, Battista, employed by Medici, 109

Franken, Franz, picture by, in Bor- ghese gallery, 246

Frizzoni, Dr. G., his selection from Morelli's drawings, 109, 142 ; at- tributes Madonna to P. di Cosimo, Louvre, 120 ; discovers portraits by him at the Hague, 133, note 9 ; London and Paris, id. ; ascribes Venus in Borghese gallery to Peruzzi, 135 ; to Sodoma, drawing attributed to Peruzzi (Uffizi), 136, note 4 ; a Pieta in Borghese gallery to Sodoma, 151 ; fresco attributed to Leonardo, to Boltraffio, 163 ; to painter approaching Liberale, pic- tures in Doria gallery ascribed to Mantegna, 272 ; his edition of the ' Anonimo,' 291


Garbo, Raffaellino del, his land- scape, 81 ; confounded with his master Filippino, 116 ; his draw- ings : Florence, 117 ; Oxford, id. ; London, id. ; Lille, id.

Garofalo, Benvenuto, 200-214; pupil of Panetti, 201 ; of Boccaccino, id.; his journey to Rome, 203 ; at Fer- rara with the brothers Dossi, id. ; influenced by Battista Dosso, id., and note 8 ; by Giovanni, 204 ; later by Costa, id., 208, and note 2 ; and Raphael, 204, 211, note 7 ; second journey to Rome, 209, 211, note 7 ; settled at Ferrara, 211 ; confounded with Ortolano, 206, 208, 212 ; his characteristics, 205, 206, 208, notes 2, 3 ; his signa- tures, 208, note 3, 211, note 8 ; his works in Rome : Borghese gallery, 204-213 ; Doria (as Orto- lano, Basaiti, Costa), 206-211 ; Capitol (as Bellini), 206 ; London (as Ortolano), 207, 208, note 2; Bergamo, 207 ; Naples, id. ; Dres- den, 208, note 2; Ferrara (as Orto-


GENERAL INDEX.


333


lano), 208 ; frescoes, 211, note 7 ; Modena, 214 ; Milan, 207, note 1, 214 ; Garofalo not mentioned by Ariosto, 214 ; his influence on the school of Bologna, 222

Gaye, " Carteggio d'Artisti," refer- ences to, 29, 174, 259, note 3

Genelli, his friendship with Morelli,

Genga, Girolamo, 93-97 ; influenced by Signorelli, 93, 94 ; works by him at Florence, 94, 95 ; Siena, 94, 95 ; Lille, 95 ; Milan, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; drawings : at Lille (attributed to G. Francia and Giulio Bomano), 94; Florence (to Baphael), 95 ; Paris, id. ; London, Heseltine collection, id. ; con- founded with Signorelli, 94 ; del Pacchia, 95 ; Sodoma, id. ; early Italian school, id.

Ghirlandaio, Bidolfo, his work in the Pitti attributed to Leonardo, 182, note 6 ; in the Uffizi to Pietro Roselli, 121, note

Gianpieteino, pupil of Leonardo, 159-162 ; characteristics, 161 ; works by : in Borne attributed to school of Leonardo, 159 ; to Salaino, 161 ; at Milan, 161, 162 ; Venice, 161, note 8 ; Pavia, 162 ; Turin, 161, note 8 ; St. Petersburg (as Luini), 162 ; London, id. ; Bichmond, Sir F. Cook's collec- tion (as Leonardo), id. ; draw- ings : at Oxford, 160 ; Paris, 162, note 2 ; works of his school under his name, Munich, 161 ; Turin, id., note 7 ; Flemish imitations : Borne, Genoa, Munich, 162

Giorgione, Giorgio Barbarelli, called, his " Venus " at Dresden, [24] ; the " Fornarina " in Uffizi, once ascribed to him, 39 ; portrait by, in Borghese gallery, 248 ; the " Knight of Malta," 249 ; charac- teristics, 77, note 4, 248, 249; confounded with Dosso, 216, note 6, 217 ; Licinio, 244 ; Bonifazio, 292 ; Lotto, 300

Giovanni da Udine, his work in the Vatican, 142

Goethe, quotation from, 18, 77, note 4

" Gonzaga Family," a fresco by Mantegna at Mantua, 273, note 9


LEONARDO

Gonzaga, Isabella, letter to, relat- ing to Perino del Vaga, 150

Granacci, Francesco, at Florence, 100 ; confounded with Peruzzi, id. ; with B. Ghirlandaio, 117 ; characteristics, 118, note 9

Grasselli, history of Cremonese artists, 280. note 5

Gualandi, writer on art, 29, 287, note 5, 306, note 4

Guldobaldo of Urbino, portrait of, by Justus of Ghent, 251, note


Hand, typical forms of, 77 Hirt, Dr. Aloysius, attributed Ma- donna di San Sisto to Fattore, 71-


Inghirami, Cardinal, portrait of, by Baphael, still in family, 59 ; copy in Pitti by a Fleming, 58

Innocent X., Pope, portrait of, by Velasquez, 252


Jabach buys Charles I.'s pictures, 314 Jesi engraves fresco at Florence by

Manni as Baphael, 30 Julius II., Pope, summons Baphael

to Borne, 50 ; his portrait by, 56 Justi, Professor, his remarks on

Francesco Napoletano, 160, note 6 ;

on Velasquez, 252, 253 Justus, of Ghent, not the same as

Justus de Alemania, 251, note ;

his works, id.


Kaulbach, his estimate of Baphael's " St. Cecilia," 315 ; of Overbeck's frescoes, id.


Lanzi, references to, 254, 256, note 7, 265, note 7

Leonardo da Vinci, his death, 17 ; a " St. Sebastian " wrongly ascribed to him, 69, 70 ; picture attributed to him by Vasari, 88, note 7 ; one by Pier di Cosimo said to have been drawn by him, 120, note 5 ; in service of Cesare Borgia, 133 ; character of his art, 158 ; his pupils, 160, 164, 167; those influenced bv him, 151, 160, 191 ;


384


GENERAL INDEX.


LEONARDO

drew with his left hand, 177 ; authentic works : Rome, id. ; Florence, id. ; Paris, 179 ; genu- ine drawings: Louvre, 155, note 8 ; (as Raphael) 178, note 1, 273, note 7 ; London, 162 ; Florence,

177, note 8 ; Turin, 177 ; Venice, id. ; Milan, id. ; Vienna, 115, note 6, 178, note 1 ; confounded with : Perugino, 98, 101 ; Bacchiacca, 113 ; Filippino Lippi, 116 ; Sodo- ma, 152-159, 230, note 6 ; M. d' Oggionno, 164 ; Cesare da Sesto, 167, 168, note 5 ; Boltraffio, 163, note 4 ; Gianpietrino, [26], 162 ; R. Ghirlandaio, 182, note 6 ; A. de Predis, [26], 177, note 8,

178, 181-187 ; B. de' Conti, [26], 178, 179, 184, 185, 193, 194; Luini, 169 ; his writings quoted, 21, 24, 72, 74, 75, notes 9, 2, 152, note 5

Leonardo l-a Vinci, unknown imi- tator of, his works in Florence, Milan, Weimar, London, 183, note 8

Lepel, Count, attributed Madonna di S. Sisto to Timoteo Viti, 71, note 6

Licinio, Bernardino, his works in Rome, 244 (as Giorgione) ; charac- teristic colouring, id. ; picture by Titian (Genoa) attributed to him, 244, note 4 ; not the brother of Pordenone, 244 ; his works in Borghese gallery, 243, 244

Lippi, Filippino, his characteristics, 77, 78, 81 ; his landscapes, 81 ; his works in the Sciarra-Colonna gallery, id. ; S. Maria sopra Mi- nerva, 82, 115 ; characteristic pic- ture in Pitti, 115 ; others at Flo- rence, id. ; Lucca, id. ; Rome, id. ; Prato, 116 ; Bologna, id. ; Venice, id. ; drawings : in the Uffizi, id. ; Ambrosiana (as Leo- nardo), id. ; Lille (as Masaccio), id. ; Dresden (as Roselli), 117; Louvre (as Filippo Lippi), id. ; his work (Louvre) finished by Albertinelli, 126 ; pictures wrongly attributed to him in Borghese gallery, 115 ; confounded with Andrea del Castagno, and Masac- cio at Florence, 73 ; his portrait of Pandolfini, with characteristic form of hand and ear, 77, note 4


Lippi, Fra Filippo, characteristic forms, 77, 79 ; picture in the Uffizi by, 36 ; his landscape, 81 ; influence on Pesellino, 254, 256 ; his portrait in Florence Academy, 77, note 4 ; his works in the Lateran and Doria galleries, 80 ; at Florence, 36, 80; Munich, 80 ; Prato, id. ; Spoleto, id. ; Turin, id.

Lomazzo, his " Trattato della Pit- tura," 153; on a "Leda " by Leon- ardo, id. ; on Gianpietrino, 160; on B. de' Conti, 191 ; on Correggio's "Danae," 226

Longhi, Luca, follower of Rondi- nelli, 265

Longoni, Cristoforo, portrait of, by Solario, 174

Lorenzo da Sanseverino (the youn- ger), influenced by Crivelli, 276 ; his work in London, id.

Lotto, Lorenzo, born at Venice, 297 ; settled at Treviso, id. ; docu- ment referring to this, id., note 6 ; his signature, 299 ; designs for intarsia work, id. ; the character of his art, "235-238, 301 ; fore- runner of Correggio, 301 ; his works at Rome, 235 ; (as Caracei), 298 ; (as Giorgione), 300 ; at Madrid (as Titian), 298 ; Paris, id. ; Naples, 300 ; Florence, 237, 300 ; Recanati, 301 ; Jesi, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; Milan, 237, 301 ; Venice, 301 ; Asolo, 237 ; Alzano, 301 ; Tres- corre, id. ; Munich, 237 ; London, id.

Lucas van Leyden, his compositions made use of by Italian painters, 104, 107, 108 ; so-called portrait of himself in Florence, a copy after B. de' Conti, 193

Luciani, see Sebastlano del PiombO, 40

Luini, Bernardino, 169 ; second manner under influence of Leo- nardo, id. ; characteristics, 170 works at Rome (one as Leonardo) 169 ; Naples, 170 ; Florence, id. Milan, id. ; Legnano, id. ; Saronno id. ; Lugano, id. ; Como, id. drawings at : Milan, 170, note 7 Venice, id. ; Florence, id.; Paris, id

Lenders, Gerhit, in Borghese gal- lery, 247


GENEKAL INDEX.


385


Xuteeo, Giovanni di, see Dosso, 214 Lutzow, Professor von, rightly ascribes to Eaphael portrait in Borghese gallery, 139, note 8


Macbino d' Alba, picture by him at Turin, 173, note 3

Maddalena Steozzi, portrait by Kaphael (Pitti), 118; as St. Catherine, Borghese gallery, id.

Manni, Giannicola, his fresco at Florence, 30

Mantegna, Andrea, works by Bellini attributed to, 261, 271 ; compared with Bellini, 267 ; characteristic forms, 78, 270 ; landscapes, 270 ; pictures wrongly ascribed to him in Borne, 271, 272 ; his works at Florence, 273 ; Padua, id. ; Mantua, id. ; Milan, 273, 274 ; Verona, 274 ; Venice, id. ; Ber- gamo, id. ; La Motta, id. ; con- founded with Signorelli, 273 ; portrait ascribed to him in the Uffizi by Carotto, id.

Marcantonio, his pupils, 230 ; forges Diirer's monogram, 264 ; his en- graving from a drawing by Sig- norelli, 273

Maechese, Gieolamo, of Cotignola, scholar of Bondinelli, 265

Marconi, Bocco, a copy by him after Bellini, 240, note 8

Maeiette mistook a copy of a draw- ing by Perino for Parmeggianino, 230, note ; one by Sodoma for Eaphael, 231, note 7 ; on French painters who sold copies for originals, 314, and notes

Masaccio, confounded with Masohno, 72, note 7 ; the prototype of Fra Filippo, 72

Masolino, in the Brancacci chapel, 72, note 7

Mazzolino, Lodovico, his fine colour- ing, 219 ; his works in Borne, id.

Medici, Giuliano de', his portrait by Botticelli at Bergamo, 87

Medici, Giulio de', Cardinal,portrait of, by Eaphael, 55

Meloni, Altobello, pupil of Eoman- ino, 202 ; frescoes at Cremona, id.

Mengs, on the sketch attributed to Correggio, Doria gallery, 313


Meyee, Dr. Julius, on Sebastiano del Piombo, 45, note ; on a Madonna by Basaiti at Berlin, 282 ; his ' Life of Correggio,' 313

Michael Angelo, influence over Sebastiano del Piombo, 44; and others, 93, 158 ; drawings wrongly ascribed to, 108, 130, 229

Mllanesi, Signor, his discoveries in Florentine archives, 29

Minaedi, Professor, estimate of Gianpietrino, 161, note 9 ; of Leo- nardo, id. ; of Gaudenzio Ferrari, 180

Minghetti, Maeco, friendship with Signor Morelli [9] ; concurs in ascribing a portrait in Borghese gallery to Eaphael, 139, note 8

Mino da Fiesole, portrait of, at Chatsworth, by L. di Credi, 91, note 1

Mieandola, Pico della, his portrait in the Uffizi by Botticelli, 77, note 4

Molmenti, Professor, on Jacopo Bellini, 268, note

Montagna, Baetolommeo, 38, 272

Monza, Antonio da, miniaturist in- fluenced by Leonardo, 160

Moeelli, Signor, his early life and education, [3-5] ; represented Italian Provisional Government at Frankfort, [6] ; his address to the Germans, [6, 7] ; his opinion of German art-critics and Italian con- noisseurs, [7, 8J ; political views, [9, 10] ; took active part in war against Austria (1865), id. ; takes to the study of art, [10] ; friend- ship with Eastlake and Miindler, [11] ; deputy to the Italian Parliament, [12] ; proposes law for conservation of works of art, [13] ; president of a commission for this object, [14] ; efforts to reform administration of Italian galleries, [14-17] ; raised to the Senate, [17] ; his publications on art, [18, 19] ; his acquaintance with Eu- ropean collections, [20, 21] ; im- portance attached by him to study of drawings, id. ; the ' Eaphael sketch-book,' [22, 23] ; his dis- coveries, [22-25] ; vindicates Pin- toricchio, [27] ; exposes errors of Vasari, id. ; proves Timoteo Viti


336


GENERAL INDEX.


to have been Raphael's first master, [27] ; recommends study of form, [32, 44, 45] ; founds a school of criticism, [35, 36] ; his last illness and death, [37] ; bequeaths his pictures to Bergamo, and drawings to Dr. Frizzoni, [38] ; portraits of him, id.

Moketto, Alessandeo, pupil of Ferramola, 286 ; studied the manner of Romanino, id. ; erro- neous views regarding him, id. ; a picture by him at Rome, 285 ; others at Brescia, id. ; Naples, id. ; London, id. ; province of Brescia, 286, note 4 ; Frankfort and Vienna, 304 (as Pordenone)

Moeiggia, mentions pictures at Milan by Cesare da Sesto, 166, 167, notes

Moeone, Gieolamo, portrait of, by Solario, 176, note 7

Moboni, Giovanni Battista, pupil of Moretto, 234, 305 ; pictures wrongly attributed to him in Borghese gallery, 235, 245 ; his works in Rome, 305 ; Florence, 305, 306 ; Bergamo, 306 ; London, id.

Moeeis Mooee, his so-called Raphael in the Louvre, 106 ; gives a drawing to the Louvre attributed to Signorelli, 93

Mundleb, on the Madonna del Pozzo,39; on the " Donna Velata," 54, note 1 ; pronounces a Flemish picture to be by L. di Credi, 91 ; attributes pictures by Franciabigio to Bugiardini, 96 ; the portrait of Cesare Borgia to Parmeggianino, 131 ; considers a portrait by Raphael to be Perugino's of him- self, 139 ; on Solario, 172 ; mis- taken in giving the " Madonnone " at Vaprio, the " Vierge aus rochers," London, and portrait in Ambrosiana to Leonardo, 190, note; his opinion of Correggio's " Danae," 227 ; on the Bonifazios, 241 ; attributes portrait in Bor- ghese gallery to Antonello da Messina, 245 ; regards feeble pictures in Doria gallery as by Pisanello, 255 ; attributes to Lotto pictures in Doria gallery, 298 ; regards one as portrait of


the painter, 299 ; on a picture by Lotto in the Rospigliosi collection, id. ; compares Pordenone to Rubens, 302 ; attributes so-called portrait by Leonardo in the Doria gallery to a Fleming, 311

Napoletano, Feancesco, pupil (?) of Leonardo, 160 ; settled in Spain, id., note 6 ; his works at Milan, Valencia, Murcia (?), id. ; connec- tion with Paolo of Arezzo, id.

Neei di Bicci, document relating to, 30

Oggionno, Marco d', characteristics, 164 ; confounded with Leonardo, id. ; his works in Rome, id. ; Milan, 165

Oetolano, Giovanni Battista Ben- venuti, called dell', 212 ; imitator of Garofalo, 213; his works at Ferrara, id., note 1 ; his sketch- book at Bologna a forgery, 214, note 2 ; pictures in Doria and English National Gallery not by him, 206, 207, 213 ; work by, at- tributed to G. da Carpi, 213, note 1

Ottoeoni, their portraits by Por- denone at Venice, 302, note 9

Pacchia, Del, of Siena, influenced by Genga, 95, note 4 ; Albertinelli, id. ; and Sodoma, id. ; pictures by Genga and Brescianino attributed to him, id.

Palma Vecchio, 240, 293-297; con- founded with other Venetian mas- ters, 293, 294 ; influenced at one time by Lotto, 297; his works in Rome, 240, 242, 293, 294 ; Milan, 294, 296; Berlin, id.; Naples, 295 ; Paris, id. ; Florence, 241 ; Rovigo, 296 ; Bergamo, id. ; Pe- ghera, id., note 4 ; Dossena, id. ; Serinalta, id. ; Vicenza, 297 ; Venice, id. ; Due d'Aumale's col- lection with forged signature, 242, note 1 ; Vienna, 241

Pamfili, Donna OLiairiA, founds Doria gallery, 251

Panetti, pupil of Cosimo Tura, 201, note 6

Paolino, Fea, works wrongly attri-


GENERAL INDEX.


337


buted to him by Crowe and Caval- caselle, 123, 12 4 ; his works at Siena, 123, note 9 ; Florence, 123 ; Pistoia, 123, note 9

Paolo d' Aeezzo, works at Valencia with F. Napoletano, 160, note 6

Parmeggianino, influenced by Perino del Vaga, 150

Pascal, quotation from, 67

Passavant, attributes a fresco in S. Onofrio at Florence to Giovanni Spagna, 30 ; Madonna del Pozzo to Franciabigio, 39 ; opinion of female portrait ascribed to Eaphael in Uffizi, 46 ; rightly attributes female portrait hi Pitti to Eaphael, 49 ; on the portrait of Cardinals Inghirami, 58, and Bibbiena, 59 ; as to the early training of Bacchiacca, 102 ; on Granacci's " St. Catherine," 118, note 2 ; recognises, as by Albertin- elli, a picture ascribed to Eaphael, 125, note 2 ; attributes portrait of a Cardinal, Borghese gallery, to Eaphael, 128, note 1 ; drawings by Perino del Vaga to Eaphael, in the Louvre, 147 ; at Windsor (doubtfully), 146 ; at Oxford, id. ; Vienna, 147 ; Florence, id. ; Dresden, 148 ; ascribes a Madonna by Cesare da Sesto (Louvre) to Salaino, 167 ; frescoes formerly in the Villa Lante to Giulio Eomano, 229 ; others to Perino del Vaga, id. ; on a red chalk drawing (by Sodoma) attributed to Eaphael at Vienna, 231, note 7 ; on drawings recalling Perino in Louvre, 232, note 8 ; ascribes a drawing by Signorelli to Mantegna, 273, note 6 ; a picture by Antonio Vivarini to Foppa, 275, note 2 ; the por- trait of Joanna of Aragon, Doria gallery, to a pupil of Leonardo, 311 ; on the portraits of Beazzano and Navagero in the Doria gallery, 321

Penni, Francesco, 141 ; drawings as- cribed to Eaphael perhaps by him, 143, 144, note

Perino del Vaga, 139-151, 229- 232 ; confounded with Eaphael, 146-148; birth, 140; goes to Eome, copies Michael Angelo's frescoes, 141 ; connection with


Eaphael, 142, 143 ; characteristics, 145 ; makes drawings for en- gravers, 147, 232 ; copies a draw- ing by Sodoma, 232 ; letter refer- ring to him, 149 ; influence on Parmeggianino, 150 ; paintings at Genoa, 140, note 9 ; London, id. ; Eome, 140, 142, 143 ; drawings : Vienna (as Luca Penni), 140, (as Eaphael), 145-147 ; Paris (as Eaphael), 146, 147; Milan, 142, note 4 ; Florence (as Eaphael) , 147, note 8 ; Windsor, 146 ; Oxford (as Eaphael), 146, 148; Chats- worth (as Eaphael and Leo- nardo), 148 ; Dresden (as Ea- phael), id.

Perugino, one of Eaphael's masters, 48 ; teaches Bacchiacca, 102 ; his characteristic drapery, 118, note 9 ; fresco in Sistine chapel, 31 ; his portraits of two monks at Flor- ence, 77, note 4 ; of Alessandro Braccesi in Uffizi, 101 ; of a nun (?) ascribed to Leonardo in the Pitti, 98, note 1, 101 ; Apollo and Marsyas in the Louvre ascribed to Eaphael, 106 ; drawing for it, Venice, id. ; picture by Basaiti ascribed to him, 280

Peruzzi, Baldassare, architect and painter, 135 ; influenced by Pin- toricchio, Sodoma, Eaphael, id. ; his study of the antique, 136 ; his works in Eome, 135, 136 ; Madrid, 136 ; drawings : Paris, London, 136, notes 3, 4 ; confounded with Bonfigli (Capitol), 135 ; with So- doma (Louvre, Uffizi, London), 136, notes 3 and 4 ; with Beccafumi, Venice, 137, note 5 ; his portrait by Eaphael, 152, note 3 ; of him- self, id.

Pesellino, Francesco, his first master, Giuliano Pesello, 254 ; then Fra Filippo Lippi, id. ; in- fluenced by Masaccio's frescoes, id. ; his characteristics, 258 ; his works : Florence (as Benozzo Gozzoli), 254-257; Eome, 255; Bergamo, 255-257 ; Paris, 256

Pesello, Giuliano, no works by, known, 254 ; one by Cosimo Eoselli attributed to him, 254, and note 5 ; one at Bergamo, perhaps by him, 254, note 4


338


GENERAL INDEX.


Peters, Wenceslaus, his work in

Borghese gallery, 246 Philip II., portrait of, by Titian, at

Madrid, 310 Piazza, Calisto, called also Calisto

da Lodi, one of a family of artists,

287 ; his works at Brescia, id. ;

Milan, 287, 288; in the Val

Camonica, id. ; at Breno, Esine,

Cividate, 287 ; Padua, id. ; St.

Petersburg, id., note 7 ; at Co-

dogno, 288 Piazza, Scipione, brother and

assistant of Calisto ; picture at

Bergamo, 287, note 6

PlCO DELIA MlEANDOLA, See MlRAN-

dola, 77, note 4

Pieei, Stefano, imitator of Bronzino, 131

Pieteo da Messina, imitator of Cima, 277 ; his works at Florence (as Cima), Venice (as Bellini), 277 ; Padua (as Jacopo da Valenza), id.

Plxtoricchio, Bernardino Betti, called, influenced by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, 114, and note 4 ; charac- teristics, id.; of his drapery, 118, note 9 ; one of Raphael's first masters, 48 ; court painter to Alexander VI., 133 ; his portraits in Castle of S. Angelo, 133, note 9 ; confounded with Crivelli and Giovanni Spagna in Borghese gallery, 114 ; drawing for his frescoes at Siena wrongly ascribed to Raphael, 234 ; those in ' Ra- phael's Sketch-book ' at Venice by him, [22, 23]

Pisanello, Vittore Pisano, called, his importance, 267 ; fresco at Verona, id.

Pisani, Niccolo, work at Bologna, 222, note 7 ; in the Brera, show- ing influence of Garofalo, id.

Polidoro da Caravaggio, portraits by Raphael attributed to him by some, 316 ; frescoes in Rome, 317 ; over- rated by Vasari, 318

Pollajuolo, Antonio del, his influ- ence over Signorelli, 93 ; his drawings in Uffizi attributed to Signorelli, id.

Ponte da, see Bassano, 238

Pontormo, Jaoopo Carucci, called, Andrea del Sarto his master, 129


PULIGO

note 3 ; his characteristics, 129 ; in Borghese gallery, as Bronzino and Raphael, 128-130 ; in Bar- berini as Peruzzi, 130 ; his works at Florence, 129, note 3, 130 ; Bergamo, 129, note 3 ; drawings : at Florence (one as Raphael), 130 ; Rome, id. ; Chatsworth (as Michael Angelo), id.

PORDENONE, GlOVAN ANTONIO ReGILLO

da, 301-305 ; compared with Rubens by Miindler, 302 ; his character, id. ; his signature, id., and 303 ; his portraits, 302, note 9 ; confounded with Moretto, 304 ; his works at Pordenone, 302 ; Venice, id., note 9, and 304 ; La Motta, 302 ; Sussignana, id. ; Cremona, id. ; Rome, 303 ; S. Sal- vadore, near Conegliano, 304 ; Pia- cenza, id. ; Treviso, id. ; drawings at Venice, 305; London, id. ; Paris (as Palma), id. ; Chatsworth (as Giorgione), id.

Porta, Baccio della, see Fra Barto- lommeo, 126

Potter, Paul, picture attributed to, in Borghese gallery, 247

Poussin, Gaspar Dughet, called, his pictures in Doria gallery, 252

Pratese, Piero di Lorenzo, the author probably of altar-piece in London ascribed to Pesellino, 257

Predis, Ambrogio de, discovered by the author, 181 ; signed portrait at Vienna, 180 ; mentioned in a document of 1482, 185 ; portrait- painter of Lodovico Sforza, id. ; accompanies him to Innsbruck, 187 ; his first master, Christo- phorus de Predis, 188 ; influenced by school of Foppa, 189 ; by Leo- nardo, id. ; his characteristics, 180, note 3, 189, note 7 ; his pictures : Vienna, 180 ; Milan, 186-189 ; Ber- gamo, 187, 188; Florence, 188; London, 186 ; Berlin, 189, note 7 ; drawings : Venice, 187, note 4; Florence (as Leonardo), 177, note 8

Predis, Christophords de, miniatu- rist, 188; work at Turin, id., note 6

Preti, Matteo, confounded by Dr. Bode with A. de Predis, 182

Puligo, DoiiENico.his works in Rome and Florence, 128, and note 7


GENERAL INDEX.


339


Pulsky, Herr von, on a drawing by

Sodoma at Pesth, attributed by

him to Raphael, 231 Puppini, Biagio, a Bolognese painter,

influenced by Dosso and Garofalo,

222


Ratbolini, Francesco, see Fbancia,

194 Ramenghi, Babtolommeo, see Bagna-

OAVALLO, 242

Raphael, his first master, 48 ; con- nection with Leonardo, 49 ; with Fra Bartolommeo, 50 ; influence on Sebastiano del Piombo, 42 ; his portrait by Sebastiano at La Motta, 43, note 5 ; his form of ear, 37, 77, note 4 ; of hand, 48, 51 ; other characteristics, 37, 38, 48-59, 79 ; his genuine pictures : " Madonna del Cardellino," 37 ; "Marriage of the Virgin," id.; " Madonna de' Tempi," id. ; Lord Cowper's Madonna, id. ; "Madonna di Foligno," 41 ; " del Granduca," 48; " Maddalena Doni," 49; the "Donna gravida," 48; Dei altar- piece, 50 ; " Madonna della Seg- giola," 51; "EcceHomo," Brescia, id. ; " St. Sebastian," Bergamo, id. ; Madonna in Bridgewater gallery, id. ; " Donna Velata," 51- 54, 77, note 4 ; " Madonna di San Sisto," 52, 322 ; " St. Cecilia," 54, 315 ; portraits : of Leo X., 55, 77, note 4, 129 ; Julius II., 56, and note 2 ; others at Volterra, 59 ; Rome, 77, note 4, 138, 319-323 ; Madrid, 322; Paris, 311, 322; earlier ones on wood, later on canvas, 322 ; fresco portraits of Sodoma and Peruzzi, 152, note 8 ; the " Vision of Ezekiel," only composed by him, 57 ; " Galatea," 79 ; " Coronation of the Virgin," 139 ; his frescoes in the Vatican, 143, 144, note ; the " Farnesina," 143, note 6 ; drawings : in the Louvre, 118, note 1, and 137 ; Uffizi, 137, 233; Oxford, 137; British Museum, 51, 137; Due d'Aumale's collection, 137 ; Vien- na, id. ; Mr. Malcolm's collection, id. ; Cassel, id., note 6 ; Milan, 79, 144, note ; Cologne, 143, note


ROMANO

6 ; pictures wrongly ascribed to him, 38, 39, 40, 44, 46, 58, 91, 105, 106, 131, 134, 139, 176; drawings wrongly ascribed to him, 38, note 1, 95, 99, note 3, 106, 130, 137, note 6, 143, note 6, 146-148, 155, note 8, 159, 230-232, 234

Regillo, see Pordenone, 301

Reiset, his catalogue of the Louvre, 107, note 9, 136, note 4, 145, 146, 158, note 3, 178, note 1

Richter, Dr. J. P., his work on Leonardo, 21, 152, note 5, 178 ; on the "Leda," in the Borghese gal- lery, 154 ; his knowledge of the Veronese school, 238, note 4

Ridolfi, confounds Dosso with Giorgione, 216, note 6 ; on pic- tures by Titian, 238, 239

Rio, M., attributes picture in Vatican to Cesare da Sesto, 165

Robbia, Luca della, introduced the " Tondo," 88

Roberti, Ercole, assistant of Cossa at Bologna, 221 ; his picture in the Brera, 222, note 8

Robinson, Sir J. C, ascribes drawing by Peruzzi to Sodoma, 136, note 3 ; his catalogue of the Malcolm collection, id., 137, note 6 ; of the Oxford drawings, 106, 146, 148, 156,231

Robusti, Marietta, portraits by, Madrid, 200

Romanino, Girolamo, his colouring, 283 ; characteristic portrait by, at Brescia, 77, note 4 ; his relation to Moretto, 284 ; his works : at Rome, 283 ; Brescia, id., 284 ; Padua, id. ; Verona, id. ; Cremona, id. ; London, 283 ; in the province of Brescia, id., note 1 ; his draw- ings : in the Uffizi, 284, note 2 ; Ambrosiana, id. ; at Chats- worth, id. (as Giulio Romano)

Romano, Giulio, characteristics, 143, note 6 ; Raphael's " Vision of Ezekiel ' ' probably executed by him, 57 ; his paintings at Rome and Naples, 143, note 6 ; others attributed to Raphael at Florence, id. ; Rome, id. ; Naples, id. ; Paris, id. ; Madrid, id. ; to Bagnaca- vallo, at Paris, 145, note ; draw- ings to Raphael, at Paris, 144, note ; Windsor, id. ; Milan, id. ;


340


GENERAL INDEX.


RONDINELLI

Florence, 144, note ; Vienna, id. ; Chatsworth (under right name), 145, note

Rondinelli, Niccolo, characteristics, 264 ; works by him with signature of Bellini, Rome, 264 ; Paris, 27, 264 ; Florence, 264 ; others by him in Rome, 265 ; Venice, id. ; Ravenna, id. ; Forli, id. ; Milan, id.

Roselli, Cosimo, master of P. di Cosimo, 119, 124 ; his work in the Uffizi, 254, note 5 ; others attri- buted to him in Florence. 120, note 6

Rosso, Fiorentino, manner of draw- ing, 142

Rost, a Fleming, wove tapestry from Bacchiacca's cartoons, 103

Ruckert, his friendship with Morelli, [4]

Rumohr, Baron, on portraits as- cribed to Leonardo at Milan, 183, 185 ; and on Madonna at St. Petersburg, 184 ; on the use of oil as a vehicle, 185 ; his false estimate of Lotto, 301


Sabbatlni, Andrea, pupil of Cesare da Sesto, 168, note 6 ; his works at Naples, id.

Salaino, pupil of Leonardo, 160 ; no works by him known, 164 ; con- founded by some with Solario, 172 ; pictures wrongly ascribed to him, 161, 167

Salerno, Andrea da, 176

Salviati, Francesco, in his portraits resembles Bronzino, 133, note 1

Sanseverino, Lorenzo da, sec Lorenzo, 276

Santa Crock, Girolamo da, imitator of Cima, 277 ; Ins works at Venice and Bergamo with forged signa- ture of Cima, 278

Santi, Giovanni, father of Raphael, 250, note 1 ; pupil of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, id. ; works of his school ascribed to Timoteo Viti, id. ; drawing by him at Windsor, as Botticelli, id.

Sanzio, see Raphael, 137

Sarto, Andrea del, his works in Florence, 111 ; bis monogram, 127, note 6 ; works wrongly as- cribed to, in Borghese and Doria


SIGNORELLI

galleries, id. ; confounded with a German painter, id. ; with Puligo, 128

Savoldo, Girolamo, works in Rome, 245, 246; Milan, 246; Brescia, id., note 7 ; Verona, id. ; Venice, id. ; Florence, 246 ; Turin, id.

Savonarola, portrait of, at Florence, 115 ; in Vienna, not of him, id. t note 6

Scarsellino, in Borghese gallery, 220 ; in the Doria, 252 ; in the Pitti, 240

Schiavone, Gregorio, influence on Crivelli, 276

Sciorina, Lorenzo dello, imitator of Bronzino, 131

Scipione, da Gaeta, portrait by, as- cribed to Tintoretto, 289

Scoeel, Jan, picture by Sodoma at Frankfort ascribed to, by Dr. Bode, 159, note 4

Sebastlano del Piojibo, his character- istics, 41,42, note 4,43-45 ; author of the " Fornarina." Uffizi gallery, 41-45 ; Violin Player, 41, 42 ; his works : at Florence, 41 ; Rome,

41, 44, note 7, 77, note 4 ; Venice (early picture in the collection of Sir H. Layard), 42, 277; others at Venice, 40-42 ; La Motta, 43, and note 5 (as Raphael) ; Berlin, 43, 44, note 7 ; Paris (as Raphael), 44 ; drawings : at Lille (as Titian),

42, note 4 ; Chatsworth (as Titian and Giorgione), 44, note 6 ; Paris, id. ; influenced by Cima, 42 ; Giorgione, id.; Raphael, id.; Michael Angelo, id., and 44

Sforza, Bianca Maria, her portrait (?) by de Predis in the Ambrosiana, 182, note 4 ; at Berlin, 189, note 7

Sforza, Giovanni Galeazzo, sup- posed portrait in the Ambrosiana ascribed to Leonardo, 182, note 5 ; his portrait belonging to Count Porro, Milan, 186, note 1

Sforza, Lodovico, portrait by A. de Predis, Milan, 186

Beobza, Massimiliano, miniature of, at Milan, by A. de Predis, L86j portrait, Bergamo, 188 ; in Brera and Ambrosiana by B. de' Conti, 77, note 4, 193

SlONOBSLLl, Luca, his works at Rome, 92; Orvieto, id. ; Berlin, id.;


GENEKAL INDEX.


341


Mont' Oliveto, id. ; Perugia, id. ; Borgo S. Sepolcro, id. ; Cortona, id. ; Urbino, id. ; Volterra, id. ; Milan, id. ; Florence, 93 ; his characteristics, id. ; his form of ear, 77 ; his drawings in Louvre, 93 ; British Museum, id. ; Windsor (under name of Masaccio), id. ; one wrongly attributed to him in Louvre, id. ; drawings by Polla- juolo (Ufnzi) ascribed to him, id. ; his design for Marcantonio's en- graving ascribed to Mantegna, 273

Sodoma,Giovan Antonio Bazzi, called, 151-159, 230-232 ; works by, attri- buted to other painters, 159 ; sum- moned to Borne, 151 ; portrait by Baphael, Vatican, 152, and note 3 ; his importance as an artist, 157 ; characteristics, 155, note 9, 230, note 6 ; his landscapes, 154, note 6 ; his paintings : Borne, 136, note 3, 151, 154, note 7, 155, 156; Siena, 151, 153, 157, 158; Florence, 157 ; Vaprio (as Leo- nardo), id. ; Turin, id., and 159, note 5 ; Bergamo, 157 ; Milan, id. ; La Motta (as Cesare da Sesto), id. ; Frankfort (as Sebastiano del Pi- ombo), 159 ; " Leda," in Borghese gallery, copy after Sodoma, 154 ; drawings: (for "Leda ") Weimar (as Leonardo), 155, 230, note 6; Chatsworth (as Leonardo), id. ; Windsor (as Baphael), 155 ; (as Leonardo), 156 ; Milan, id. ; (for Eoxana) : Buda-Pesth, 156, 231 ; Oxford, id. ; Vienna, id. ; Florence, 231 ; all his drawings for the " Marriage of Alexander and Box- ana " attributed to Baphael, 230- 232 ; other drawings : Florence (as Leonardo), 177, note 8, 158, note 3 ; Turin, 158, note 3 ; Milan, id. ; Paris, id. ; British Museum, 159

Solaeio, Andeea, influenced by his brother the sculptor, 172 ; by Antonello da Messina, 173 ; ap- proached Leonardo in treatment of heads, 172 ; connection with Bra- mantino, id. ; journey to Venice, 172, 173 ; to France, 174 ; to Flanders (?), 175 ; return to Italy, id. ; his signature, 171 ; latest date on works, 175 ; pictures by


TITIAN

Flemings attributed to him, 171, and note 8 ; his works : at Brescia, 171; Milan, 171-176; Gaillon, 175; Paris, 174, 175; London, 172, 174; Pavia, 175; drawing by, at Venice, 176

Solaeio, Ceistofoeo, called II Gobbo, 171 ; sculptor, id. ; confounded with Andrea Solario in Louvre, id., note 9 ; portraits recall those of Andrea, 172, note 2 ; his draw- ings at Milan, 176

Solaeio, Pieteo, sculptor, 172 ; work at Milan, id., note 1

Spagna, Lo, fresco attributed to him by Passavant, 30 ; picture by Pin- toricchio in Borghese gallery ascribed to, 114

Speingee, Professor, first to ascribe "Fornarina" to Sebastian del Piombo, 41

Squaecione, 276

Stefano da Febeaba, 222, note 8

Suaedi, see Beamantino, 172


Tamaeozzo, Cesaee, pupil of Costa, 221 ; his works at Bologna (some as Giacomo Francia), id., note 4 ; at Milan, id.

Tassi, his history of the Berga- masque artists, 299, note 8

Tauzia, Vicomte Both de, attributed picture by Pier di Cosimo to Sig- norelli, 120 ; his catalogue of the Louvre, 136

Teniees, his copy of Palma Vecchio's "Bella di Tiziano," 293, 294

Thausing, Dr., biography of Diirer, 237

Tintoeetto, his works : in the Colonna gallery, Borne, 289, note 8 ; others wrongly attributed to him in Doria Palace, 289

Tisi, Benvenuto, see Gaeofalo, 200

Titian, Tiziano Vecellio, called, works by : Florence, 47 ; Bridge- water Gallery (as Palma), 47, 239, 307 ; Madrid (as Giorgione), 47 ; 310 ; Borne : Doria Gallery (as Pordenone), 239, 307; Capitol (as Bordone), 289, 308, note 7 ; Dresden (as Schiavone), 47; his characteristics, 47, 239, 290, note 9, 307, 308, note 7 ; commissioned to paint Cardinal Bembo, 309 ; the


342


GENEEAL INDEX.


power of Titian's portraits, 310; other authentic works : Padua, 82 ; Kome, 235, 239, 309; Vienna, 308, note 8 ; Madrid, 310 ; works wrongly ascribed to him, 283, note 1, 293, 298, 305-307, 310

Tommaso, often confounded with Lorenzo di Credi, 90 ; his charac- teristics, 89, 90 ; his works : under the name of Credi, 90 ; Florence, id. ; under that of Lippo Fioren- tino at Modena, id. ; his works at Milan, id. ; and at Bergamo, id.

Tura, Cosmo, " St. Sebastian" by, at- tributed to Costa, 28 ; his charac- teristics, 220 ; year of his death, 221, note 3


Ubertini, Francesco, see Bacchiacca, 101


Vaoa, see Perino del, 139

Vallardi album (Louvre), with drawings by Cesare da Sesto (as Leonardo), 167, 168, note 5, and Pisanello, 267

Vanozza, Catarina, her supposed portrait by Dosso, 217

Vasari, confounds Cossa with Costa, 28 ; rightly ascribes to Perugino a fresco in the Sistine chapel, 31 ; states that Fra Filippo painted a St. Augustine, 36 ; mentions the portrait of the For- narina by Raphael, 53 ; of Julius

II. at Urbino, 56, note 2 ; " Vision of Ezekiel," 57 ; on Fra Filippo Lippi, 79, note 6 ; on pictures by Botticelli (?), 85; on Botticelli's " Death of Virginia," 87, note 6 ; a picture by Leonardo, 88, note 7 ; relates that Michael Angelo made the drawing for a picture by Bugiardini, 97, note 8 ; his account of Franciabigio's training, 98 ; on Bacchiacca, 101-103, 109; states that Italian artists made use of Durer's engravings, 107 ; his anecdote of MargheritaBorgherini,

III, 112 ; on Pier di Cosimo, 119, 120, note 5 ; on Fra Paolino, 123 ; on Pontormo, 129, note 3 ; on Bronzino, 130 ; on portraits by Pintoricchio in the Castle of S.


VIGEI

i Angelo, 133, note 9 ; on Perino del Vaga, 140, 141-143, 146, 149, note 9 ; on Garofalo and others, 141, note 2 ; on the painters of the Loggie, 142, note 3 ; on Raphael's frescoes in the Stanze, 143, note 6 ; his inaccurate state- ment that Giulio Romano's por- trait was painted by Raphael in the Loggie, 152, note 3 ; on Sodoma, 154, note 6, and 158 ; on Cesare da Sesto and Baldassare Peruzzi at Ostia, 167 ; on Bernaz- zano, 166 ; attributes to Leonardo an inferior drawing in his own collection, 178, note 1 ; mentions a"Lucretia" byFrancia, 195, note 8 ; on Sofonisba and Europa Anguissola, 198, 199 ; on Garofalo, 200, 202, 203, 209, note 4, 210. 212 ; his standard of excellence in painting, 209, note 5 ; on Dosso, 214, note 3, 218, 219 ; wrongly calls Guido Aspertini the pupil of Ercole Roberti, .222, note 6 ; on Correggio's "Danae," 227 ; states that engravers worked from Raphael's drawings, 230 ; ascribes picture by Pesellino to Pesello, 254 ; mentions others by Pesellino now at Bergamo, 255, 256 ; his incorrect account of the Bellini, 266 ; on Basaiti, 281 ; states that Bordone worked at Augsburg for the Fuggers, 291 ; on Correggio's manner of painting hair, 312 ; states that the " Madonna di San Sisto " was painted on wood, 321

Vecchia, Pietro della, copies Dosso, 216, note 6

Velasquez, portrait of Innocent X. by, 252 ; portrait attributed to him in the Capitol, 253

Veneziano, Domenico, not murdered by Andrea del Castagno, 17

Venturi, Signor, discovers import- ant documents, 222, note 8

Vermiglioli, biographer of Pintor- icchio, 114, note 5

Vbrrocchio, pictures wrongly as- cribed to him, 85, note 4 ; L. di Credi finishes his statue of Col- leoni, 89

Viardot, his mistaken views as to Moretto and Pordenone, 304

Vigri, Catarina, work at Venice, 200


GENERAL INDEX.


848


Villot, on Solario, 171, note 9

Visconti-Venosta, his friendship with Morelli, [3, 35] ; his views as to A. de Predis, 186 ; pictures in his collection, 126, 207, note 1

Visconti-Venosta, Donna Lauba, pic- ture by Gianpietrino in her posses- sion, 161

Vistaeini, his portrait by Calisto da Lodi, 288

Viti, Timoteo, picture with forged signature ascribed to him at Turin, 28 ; first master of Eaphael, 48, 51 ; his two pictures in the Corsini gallery, Florence, 250, note 1

Vivarini, Alvise, his altar-piece at Venice finished by Basaiti, 281 ; restores frescoes by Fabriano and Pisanello in Ducal Palace, Venice, 266

Vivakini, Antonio, his master, 275 ;


his works : at Eome, 274 ; Pausola, 275 ; Venice, id. ; Bologna, id. ; Bergamo, id. ; Milan, id. ; Brescia (as Foppa),, id.


Winckelmann, on Raphael's " En- tombment," 138

Woeemann, Dr., director of Dresden gallery, accepts attributions of Signor Morelli, [19]

Wornum, Mr., first pronounced Hol- bein Madonna in Dresden a copy, 65


Zaganelli, of the school of Rondi- nelli, 265

Zelotti, Battista, confounded with Paul Veronese in Rome, 238, note 4 ; Florence, id. ; Verona, id.


344


INDEX OF PLACES.


Note. — The numbers printed in italics indicate that the works referred to are not accepted as genuine by the Author.


ALBINO

Albino :

Moroni, 260, note 4 Alnwick Castle :

Bellini, Giovanni, 260, note 4; 268 Althorp :

Anguissola, 198 Alzano :

Lotto, 301 Ancona :

Crivelli, 276 Ascoli :

Crivelli, 275 Asolo :

Lotto, 237 Aumale, Due d' (Chantilly) :

Botticelli (?), 88

Palrna Vecchio, 242, note 1

Pier di Cosimo, 133, note 9

Raphael (Drawing), 137


Bergamo — S. Bartolommco :

Lotto, 301 S. Bernardino :

Lotto, 301 Cathedral :

Bellini, Giovanni, 261 S. Maria Maggiorc :

Capodiferro (Intarsia from Lotto's designs), 299 S. Spirito :

Lotto, 301

Piazza, Scipione, 287, note 6 Public Gallery :

Basaiti, 282, 283

Bellini, Giovanni, J40, note 7 5 261


Bellini, Jacopo (?), 267, note 1

Boltraffio, 163

Bonsignori, 274, note 1

Conti, B. de' (School of), 191

Dosso Dossi, 218

Francia, Giacomo, 134

Garofalo, 207

Genga, 95

Gentile da Fabriano (?), 267,

note 1 Giorgione (?), 134 Leonardo (?), 157 Lotto, 301 Mantegna, 274 Moroni, 306 Palma Vecchio, 296 Raphael, 51

Santa Croce, Girolamo da, 278 Sodoma, 157 Titian (Copy after), 310 Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Morelli Collection : Albertinelli, 125 Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Bacchiacca, 107 Basaiti, 282 Bellini, Giovanni, 260, note 4 ;

261 Boltraffio, 164 Botticelli, 87, note Cariani, 243, note 3 Pesellino, 255-257 Pesello, Giuliano, 254, note 4 Pontormo, 129, note Predis, A. de, 181, note; 187,

188 Sodoma, 157 Tommaso, 90


INDEX OF PLACES.


345


jigliardi, Signor :

Basaiti, 283

Moroni, 260, note 4 F. Frizzoni, Signor :

Boltraffio, 163 A. Picinelli, Signor :

Basaiti, 283

Giovan Maria da Carpi, 277

Berlin — Public Gallery :

Bacchiacca, 107

Basaiti, 282

Botticelli (?), 87

Conti, B. de\ 191, 192

Franeia, 196

Franciabigio, 99

Leonardo (?), 179, 185

Palma Vecchio, 294, 296

Pier di Cosimo, 121

Kaphael, 138

Sebastiano del Pionibo, 43, 44

Signorelli, 92 National Museum :

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Dr. Lippmann's Collection :

Predis, A. de, 189, note 7 Bologna— S. Cecilia :

Franeia, 196

Tamarozzo, 221, note 4 S. Domenico :

Filippino, 116 S. Giovanni in Monte :

Cossa, 28, 220, note 1 S. Jacopo Maggiore:

Franeia, 196 S. Martino :

Franeia, 196 Misericordia :

Tamarozzo, 221, note 4 S. Petronio :

Cossa, 220, note 1 S. Stefano:

Franeia, 195 S- Vitale :

Franeia, 196 Public Gallery :

Bugiardini, 97, note 9

Cima, 277

Franeia, 196, 221

Franciabigio, 99

Pisani, Niccolo, 222, note 7

Pontormo (?), 99

Raphael, 54 Archiginnasio :

Franeia, 196, 22 1


CARPENEDO

Bokgo S. Sepolceo — Palazzo Muni- cipale :

Signorelli, 92 Bbembo Valley :

Palma Vecchio, 296, note 4 Brescia — S. Alessandro :

Angelico, Fra (?), 267, note 1

Bellini, Jacopo, 267, note 1 S. Clemente :

Moretto, 304, note 2 S. Francesco :

Rornanino, 283 S. Giovanni Evangelista :

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 261

Civerchio, 261 S. Giulia :

Rornanino, 284 S. Maria Calchera :

Calisto da Lodi, 288

Rornanino, 284 Public Galleries :

Anguissola, Lucia, 199

Bellini (Drawing), 261, 271

Calisto da Lodi, 288

Moretto, 285

Raphael, 51

Rornanino, 78, note ; 284

Savoldo, 246, note 7

Solar io, 171 Seminario :

Foppa (?), 275

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Fenaroli Collection :

Rornanino, 284 Martinengo Collection :

Moretto (?), 285 Province of :

Rornanino, 283, note 1

Moretto, 286, note 4 Buda-Pesth — Esterhazy Gallery

Bellini, Gentile, 266, note 9

Boltraffio, 164

Cesare da Sesto, 167

Correggio, 228, note 1

Raphael, 233

Raphael? (Drawings), 156, 159,

231 Sodoma (Drawings), 156, 159, 231


Camonica (Valley of) : Calisto da Lodi, 287 Rornanino, 284

Carpenedo (near Mestre) : Bacchiacca, 104, 105


A A


34G


INDEX OF PLACES.


CASSEii — Habich Collection :

Bacchiacca, 109

Raphael, 137, note 6 Chatswoeth (Drawings) :

Bellini, Giovanni, 148, 271

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, note 1

Giorgione (?), 44, note 6 ; 305

Leonardo (?), 148, 155, 230, note 6

Michael Angelo (?), 130

Parmeggianino (?), 38, note 1

Perino del Vaga, 148

Pontormo, 130

Pordenone, 305

Raphael (?), 148

Eomanino, 284, note 2

Bomano, Giulio, 145, note; 284, note 2

Sebastiano del Piombo, 44, note 6

Kodoma, 155, 230, note G

Titian (?), 44, note 6 Codogno :

Calisto da Lodi, 288 Cologne (Drawing) :

Raphael, 143, note Como :

Luini, 170

CONEGLIANO :

Cima, 277

Pordenone, 304 Cortona :

Signorelli, 92 Cremona — Cathedral :

Boccaccino, Boccaccio, 202, 280

Boccaccino, Camillo, 280

Meloni, Altobello, 202

Pordenone, 302

Eomanino, 202, 284 S. Pietro :

Anguissola, Anna Maria, 199 S- Sigismondo :

Boccaccino, Camillo, 280


Dresden- Public Gallery: Bacchiacca, 107 Correggio, 223, 224, 228 Flemish, 91, 311 Franciabigio, 99 Garofalo, 208

Holbein (Copy after), 65, 66 Leonardo (?), 91, 311 Lotto (Copy after), 300 Lunders, 247 Pier di Cosimo, 121 Raphael, 52, 53, 71, 322


FLORENCE

Drawings : Filippino, 117 Perino del Vaga, 148 Raphael (?), 148 Roselli, Cosimo (?), 117

Ferrara — Cathedral :

Ortolano, 213 Ptiblic Gallery :

Dosso Dossi, 218

Garofalo, 208, 211

Ortolano, 208, 213, note 1 Palazzo Crispi :

Girolamo da Carpi (?), 213, note 1

Ortolano, 213, note 1 Ducal Palace :

Dosso Dossi (?), 218 Palazzo Massari :

Ortolano, 213, note 1 Signor Santini :

Ortolano, 213, note 1 Seminario :

Garofalo, 211, note 7 Count Varano :

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198, note 2 Florence — SS. Annunziata :

Franciabigio, 99

Pontormo, 129, note 3 Badia :

Filippino, 77, note 4 ; 115, 119 La Calza :

Franciabigio, 99 Carmine (Brancacci Chapel) :

Filippino, 115

Masaccio, 72, note 7 ; 254

Masolino, 72, note 7 S. Fclicitd :

Pontormo, 130 S. Felice :

Botticelli (?), 86 Fiesolc (S. Ansano) :

Botticelli (?), 86 S. Jacopo di Ri/poli (now at La Quiete) :

Botticelli (?), 85 S. Lorenzo :

Fra Filippo, 80

Perino del Vaga, 146 S. Maria Novella :

Bugiardini, 97, note 8

Filippino, 115 S. Michelino :

Pontormo, 130 S. Onofrio :

Giannicola Manni, 30




INDEX OF PLACES.


347


FLORENCE

Oli Scalzi :

Franciabigio, 99 S. Spirito :

Cosirno Eoselli, School of, 121,

note Filippino, 115 Academy :

Albertinelli, 123, 126

Bartolommeo,Fra,125,notel; 126

Botticelli (?), 85

Castagno, Andrea del (?), 73

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, note 1

Filippino, 73

Fra Filippo, 77, note 4

Granacci, 100

Paolino, Fra, 123

Perugino, 78, note

Pesellino, 256

Signorelli, 92, 94, note 3

Verrocchio, 85, note 4 ; 254,

note 5 S. Maria Nuova Gallery : Albertinelli, 125 Fra Filippo (?), 80, note 7 Goes, H. van der, 125 Pitti Palace : Albertinelli, 126 Bartolommeo, Fra, 126 Boccaccino, 214, 278 Bonifazio, 290, 293 Bordone, Paris, 290 Botticelli (?), 84 Costa, Lorenzo, 190, note Credi, Lorenzo di (?), 90 Dosso Dossi, 214, 217 Filippino, 115 Flemish, 58, 128, note 1 Franciabigio, 98, 99 Garofaio (?), 214 Genga, 95, note 5 Gianpietrino (School of), 161 Giorgione (?), 293 Granacci, 100 Leonardo (?), 98, note 1 ; 101,

182, note 6 Luini, Aurelio (?), 161, note 7 Morone, Domenico (?), 305, 306 Moroni, Giovanni Battista, 305,

306 Palma Vecchio (?), 295 Perugino, 98, note 1 ; 101 Peruzzi (?), 100 Pontormo, 129, note 3 ; 130 Baphael, 46, 48, 49-59, 77,

note 4 ; 12$, note 1 ; 129, 322 Bomano, Giulio, 57, 143, note 6


FLORENCE

Sarto, A. del, 111 Scarsellino, 240 Sebastiano del Piombo, 41 Signorelli, 93 Sodoma (?), 95 Titian, 56, 217 Tommaso, 90 TJffizi Gallery : Albertinelli, 123, 125 Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Bacchiacca, 107 Bartolommeo, Fra, 126 Basaiti (?), 260 Bellini, Giovanni, 260, 268 Bordone, Paris, 290 Botticelli, 35, 36, 77, note 4?-

83, $4 Bronzino, 102, 131, 134 Brusasorci, Felice, 285 Campi, Giulio, 285 Carotto, 273 Cima (?), 277 Conti, B. de' (?), 193 Correggio, 22, 225 Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, 101 Fra Filippo, 35, 36 Francia, 196 Franciabigio, 38, 39, 96, 98-100,

106 Garbo, Eaffaellino del (?), 98 Genga, 94 Ghirlandaio, Eidolfo, 9$, 121,.

note Giorgione, 78, note ; 248 Leonardo, 177, 179, 183, note 7 Lotto, 237

Lucas van Leyden (?), 193 Luini, 119, note 4 ; 166, 179 Mantegna, 273 Moretto (?), 285 Moroni, 306

Palma Vecchio, 241, 295 Pier di Cosimo, 120, note 5 ;

121, 122 Pietro da Messina, 277 Pollajuolo (?), 188 Pontormo, 98, 99, note 2 ; 130 Predis, A. de, 188 Baphael, 37-46, 56, note 2 ;

322 Eoselli, Cosimo, 254 Savoldo, 246 Sebastiano del Piombo, 41-45,

285 Signorelli, 93 Sodoma, 157


a a 2


348


INDEX OF PLACES.


FLORENCE

Titian, 22, 46, 47

Verrocchio (?), 85, note 4

Zelotti, 238, note 4 Drawings :

Albertinelli, 124

Bacchiacca. 108, 113

Bartolommeo, Fra, 124, 126, note 5

Bonsignori, 274

Botticelli, 88

Brescianino, A. del, 126, note 5

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, note 1

Filippino, 116

Flemish, 177, note 8

Fra Filippo (?) 36, note 9

Franciabigio, 99, note 2

Garbo, Baffaellino del, 117

Genga, 95

Leonardo, 1 13, 15$, tiote 3; 177, note 8

Leonardo (Imitator of), 183, note 8

Luini, 170, note 7

Michael Angelo (?), 108

Paolino, Fra, 123, note 7

Perino del Vaga, 147, 234

Perugino (School of), 234

Peruzzi, 136, note 4 ', 152, note 3

Pier di Cosimo, 124

Pintoricchio, 234

Pollajuolo, 93

Pontormo, 130

Predis, A. de,177, note 8

Baphael, 95, 137, 233, 234

Bomanino, 284, note 2

Bomano, Giulio, 144, note ; 234

Signorelli, 93

Sodoma, 136, note 4 ; 158, note 3 ; 177, note 8 ; 231

Viti, Timoteo, 234 Corsini Gallery :

Albertinelli, 122

Botticelli, 77, note 4 ; §6

Filippino, 115

Santi, Giovanni (School of), 250, note 1

Signorelli, 93

Viti, Timoteo, 250, note 1 Museo dcgli Arazzi :

Bacchiacca, 103 Museo Buonarotti :

Pesellino, 254 Innocenti :

Pier di Cosimo, 119 Alcssandri, Palazzo : Pesellino, 256


Bacciocchi, Marchese :

Bacchiacca, 109 Bartolommei, Marchese :

Albertinelli, 122 Corsini, Palazzo (Via del Prato) :

Franciabigio, 99 Covoni, Marchese :

Granacci, 100

Puligo, 128, note 7 Farinola, Marchese :

Pontormo, 130 Ginori, Marchese :

Signorelli, 93

Botticelli, 116, note 8 Giuntini, Palazzo :

Credi, Lorenzo di (?), 90

Tommaso, 90 Bubieri, Signor :

Bartolommeo, Fra, 115 Torrigiani, Marchese :

Gozzoli, Benozzo (?), 257

Pesellino, 257

Signorelli, 93 Palazzo Vecchio :

Verrocchio, 89 Poggio a Caiano :

Franciabigio, 99

Pontormo, 130 Fokli — Cathedral :

Bondinelli, 265 Public Gallery :

Giorgione (?), 134

Palmezzano, 134 Frankfort :

Moretto, 304

Sebastiano del Piombo (?), 159

Sodoma, 159


Geneva :

Albertinelli, 124 Genoa — S. Maria di Castello :

Justus de Alemania, 251 Adorno, Marchese :

Botticelli (?), 87, note 5 Balbi, Palace :

Botticelli (?), 116

Flemish, 162 Balbi-Piovcra Palace :

Titian, 244, note 4 Brignole-Sale Palace :

Bordone, Paris, 290

Moretto (?), 285 Doria Palace :

Perino del Vaga, 140, note 9


INDEX OF PLACES.


349


the hague

The Hague :

Pier di Cosimo, 133, note 9 Hampton Couet :

Lotto, 78, note


Isola Bella :

Boltraffio, 163


Jesi:


Lotto, 301


La Motta — S. Maria de' Miracoli:

Pordenone, 302 Scarpa Collection :

Mantegna, 274

Sebastiano del Piombo, 43, note 5

Sodoma, 157 Lausanne — Professor Nicole :

Bacchiacca, 105 Legnano :

Luini, 170 Lille — Picture Gallery :

Genga, 95 Drawings :

Bacchiacca, 108

Filippino, 116

Francia, Jacopo (?), 94

Franciabigio, 99

Garbo, Raffaellino del, 117

Genga, 94

Ghirlandaio (?), 117

Masaccio (?), 116

Michael Angelo (?), 108

Raphael (?), 99

Romano, Giulio (?), 94

Sebastiano del Piombo, 42

Sodoma (?), 158, note 3 Lodi — S. Maria Incoronata :

Calisto da Lodi, 288

Piazza, Cesare, 288

Piazza, Scipione, 288 Loveke — Tadini Collection :

Bellini, Jacopo, 267, note 1

Bordone, Paris, 291 Lucca :

Bartolommeo, Fra, 126

Filippino, 115 Lugano :

Luini, 170 London — National Gallery :

Bacchiacca, 107, 111

Bellini, Giovanni, 268, 271


Boltraffio, 163

Botticelli, 23, 57, note 5

Bronzino, 134

Campana, 244

Cima, 281, 282, note

Crivelli, 275

Filippino (?), 23

Garofalo, 207, 208, note 2 ; 213

Leonardo (?), 183, 190, note

Lorenzo da Sanseverino (the younger), 276

Moretto, 285

Moroni, 306

Ortolano (?), 207, 208, note 2

Pesellino (?), 257, 258

Pier di Cosimo, 121, 133, note 9

Piero di Lorenzo Pratese, 257,

258 Pontormo, 111, 134 Romanino, 283

Solario, 172, 174 British Museum (Drawings) : Bartolommeo, Fra, 126, note 5 Cesare da Sesto, 168, note 5

Conti, B. de', 193, 194 Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, note 1 Filippino, 73 Flemish, 178, note 1 Garbo, Raffaellino del, 117 Leonardo (?), 168, note 5 ; 178,

note 1 ; 193, 194 Pordenone, 305 Raphael, 51, 137 Signorelli, 93 Sodoma, 159 Lord Ashburtori 's Collection :

Correggio, 224, 225 Bridcjewater Gallery : Lotto, 237

Palma Vecchio (?), 47 Raphael, 51

Titian, 47, 239, 307, 308 Lord Dudley's Collection :

Perino del Vaga, 140, note 9 Mr. Fuller Maitland's Collec- tion : Predis, A. de, 186, 189 Mr. Heseltine's Collection :

Genga (Drawing), 95 Malcolm Collection (Drawings) : Botticelli, 88 Conti, B. de', 194 Leonardo (?), 194 Peruzzi, 136, note 3 Raphael, 137 Sodoma (?), 136, note 3


350


INDEX OF PLACES.


MADRID

Lord Monson's Collection :

Cesare da Sesto, 168 Mr. Morrison's Collection :

Conti, B. de\ 192, 193 Mr. Murray's Collection :

Gianpietrino, 162 Lord Northbrook's Collection :

Francia (Copy after), 195, note

Titian (Copy after), 307 Mr. Salting's Collection:

Predis, A. de, 190, note Lord Yarborough's Collection:

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 197


Madrid — Gallery :

Anguissola, Lucia, 199

Lotto, 298

Peruzzi, 136

Raphael, 322

Robusti, Marietta, 200, note 5

Romano, Giulio, 143, note 6

Titian, 310 Mantua :

Dosso Dossi, 219

Mantegna, 78, note ; 82, 273, notes 8, 9 Maxwell, Sir W. Stirling— Collec- tion :

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Milan — S. Angelo : .

Solario, Pietro, 172, note 1 S. Celso :

Bordone, Paris, 291 S. Eiifcmia :

Oggionno, Marco d', 165 S. Georgio in Palazzo :

Luini, 170 S. Maria dellc Grazie :

Appiani, 165

Bugiardini, 97

Leonardo, 177 S. Maurizio :

Calisto da Lodi, 288

Boltraffio, 163

Luini, 170 La Passione :

Luini, 170 S. Scpolcro :

Gianpietrino, 162 Ambrosiana :

Basaiti, 282

Botticelli, 87

Cariani, 243, note 3

Dosso Dossi (?), 218

Luini, 170


Oggionno, Marco d', 165

Predis A. de, 181, note ; 182- 186 Drawings :

Boltraffio, 163, note 4

Conti, B. de', 193

Filippino, 116

Leonardo, 116, 16;1, 177

Leonardo (Imitator of), 183, note 8

Luini, 170, note 7

Penni, 144, note

Raphael, 79

Romanino, 284, note 2

Romano, Giulio, 144, note

Sodoma, 159, note

Solario, Cristoforo, 176 Brera :

Appiani, 165

Bellini, Giovanni, 260, 261

Boccaccino, Camillo, 280

Bordone, Paris, 291

Calisto da Lodi, 288

Cariani, 243, note 3

Cima, 281, note 7

Conti, B. de', 78, note ; 191, 192

Dosso Dossi, 216, note 6 ; 218

Francia, G., 134, note 2

Garofalo, 214

Genga, 95

Gianpietrino, 161

Lotto, 78, note ; 237

Luini, 170

Mantegna, 273, 274

Napoletano, F., 160, note 6

Oggionno, Marco d\ 165

Palma Yecchio, 296

Pisani, Niccolo, 222, note 7

Raphael, 37

Roberti, Ercole, 222, note 8

Rondinelli, 265

Savoldo, 246

Signorelli, 92

Sodoma, [25, 26]

Solario, 172, 173

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Musco Civico :

Cariani, 243, note 3

Gianpietrino, 161

Sodoma, 156 Musco 1 '<>/<//- / 'irzoli :

Albertinelli, 124

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 240, note 7

Boltraffio, 163

Botticelli, 87


INDEX OF PLACES.


351


Calisto da Lodi, 287

Cesare da Sesto (?), 161

Conti, B. de', 191, 193

Foppa (?), 188

Gianpietrino, 161

Luini, 170

Mantegna, 274

Palma Vecchio, 294

Predis, A. de, 181, note ; 188

Signorelli (?), 94, note 3

Solario, 171-173, 175

Tarnarozzo, 221, note 4 Adda, Marchese d' :

Predis, Christophorus de, 189, note

Solario, 174 Andreossi, Signor :

Licinio, B., 41 Archbishojr 's Palace :

Bordone, Paris, 291 Belgiojoso, Count :

Codde, 247, note Bonomi-Cereda Collection :

Cariani, 243, note 3

Codde, 247, note

Napoletano, Francesco, 160, note

Oggionno, M. d', 165

Sodonia, 157 Borromeo, Count :

Cesare da Sesto, 119, note 4 ; 166

Gianpietrino, 161

Luini, 170

Sodoma, 157 Brivio, Marchese :

Gianpietrino, 161 Castelbarco, Count :

Solario, 134, 176 Crespi, Signor :

Solario, 176 O. Frizzoni, Signor :

Bacchiacca, 106

Bellini, Giovanni, 261

Boltraffio, 163

Correggio, 225, 226

Predis, A. de, 187-189

Sodoma, 157

Tommaso, 90 Drawings :

Bacchiacca, 105, 109

Perino del Vaga, 142

Baphael, 144, note

Sodoma, 158, note Oinoulhiac, Signora :

Sodoma, 157


Maggi, Signor :

Predis, A. de, 187 Maino, General del :

Boltraffio, 163 Melzi, Giov., Duke :

Leonardo (Imitator of), 183 Melzi, Lodovico, Duke :

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198

Cesare da Sesto, 119, note 4 ; 166 Porro, Count:

Predis, A. de, 186 Prinetti-Esengrini, Signor :

Tommaso, 90 Prinetti, Giulio, Signor :

Boccaccino, 280 Scotti, Duke :

Cesare da Sesto, 166, note 9 -

Solario, 176 Sola, Count:

Boltraffio, 163 Trivulzio, Prince :

Antonello da Messina, 245

Codde, 247, note 8

Mantegna, 274

Predis, A. de, 181, note ; 186

Solario, Cristoforo, 172, note 2 Visconti-Venosta, Marchese:

Bartolommeo, Fra, 126

Garofalo, 207, note Visconti-Venosta, Donna Laura:

Gianpietrino, 161 Modena — Gallery :

Cima, 277

Dosso Dossi, 215, 218

Garofalo, 214

Lippo Fiorentino (?), 90

Palma Vecchio (?), 296 ■

Tommaso, 90 Mont' Oliveto (near Florence) :

Sodoma, 157 Mont' Oliveto (near Siena) :

Signorelli, 92

Sodoma, 151, 157, 230 Munich — Gallery :

Conti, B. de' (?), 191

Flemish, 162

Fra Filippo, 80

Francia, 196

Gianpietrino (?), 161, 162

Lotto, 237

Baphael, 37 Mubano (near Venice) — S. Pietro Martire :

Bellini, Giovanni, 263

Bissolo, 282


352


INDEX OF PLACES.


Boccaccino, 279 Palma Vecchio ('?), 279 Murcia :

Napoletano, F., 160


Naples — Pziblic Gallery :

Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Antonello da Messina, 244,

note 5 Bellini, Giovanni, 244* note 5 ;

266, 271 Brueghel, 89, note ; 230 Cesare da Sesto, 167, 168, note 5 Garofalo, 204, note 9, 207 Lotto, 237, 300 Luini, 169 Moretto, 285 Palma Vecchio, 295 Baphael (School of), 59 Bomano, Giulio, 143, note 6 ;

145, note


Olera (near Bergamo) :

Cima, 277 Orvieto :

Signorelli, 92 Oxford :

Bacchiacca, 105 Drawings :

Bacchiacca, 107, note 9

Conti, B. de\ 194

Garbo, Eamiellino del, 117

Gianpietrino, 160

Leonardo (?), 194

Perino del Vaga, 146, 148

Perugino, 106

Raphael, 88, note 1 ; 137, 146,

Sodoma, 156, 231


Padua — Eremitani : Mantegna, 273 Public Gallery : Basaiti, 282 Bellini, Giovanni (?), 27, 240,

note 7, 264 Boccaccino, 280 Bordone, Paris, 291 Calisto da Lodi, 287 Jacopo da Valenza (?), 277 Palma Vecchio (?), 296 Pietro da Messina, 277 Pietro della Vecchia, 216, note


Bomanino, 284, 26 )

Eondinelli, 264 Scnola del Santo :

Titian, 82 Palermo— Church dell' Olivella :

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91

Baphael (?), 91 Panshanger — Lord Coivyer :

Baphael, 37, 79, 138 Paris — Louvre :

Albertinelli, 23, 125, 126

Bacchiacca, 106, 108, note 1 ; 109, 113

Bagnacavallo (?), 23, 145, note

Bartolommeo, Era, 23, 125

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 27, 264

Bordone, Paris, 292

Bronzino, 131

Cesare da Sesto, 167

Correggio, 313

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91

Filippino, 126, note 4

Flemish, 171, note 8

Justus of Ghent, 251, note

Leonardo, 162, 179

Lotto, 300

Palma Vecchio, 295

Perugino, 106

Pesellino, 256, 258

Pier di Cosimo, 120, 122

Baphael, 44, 106, 322

Bomano, Giulio, 23, 143, 145, note

Eondinelli, 27, 264

Sebastiano del Piombo, 44

Solario, 171, note S ; 174, 175 Drawings :

Bacchiacca, 107, note 9

Bellini, Giovanni, 271

Bellini, Jacopo, 267

Boltraffio, 163, note 4

Buonconsigli, 272

Cesare da Sesto, 167, 168, note 5

Conti, B. de', 194

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91, note 1

Filippino, 117

Fra Filippo (?), 117

Franciabigio, 99, note 3

Genga, 95

Gianpietrino, 162, note 2

Leonardo, /•/, note 5 ; 155, note 8; 163, note 4; 16S, note 5; 178, note 1 ; 273, note 7

Luini, 170, note 7

Mantegna (?), 272

Penni, 144, note


INDEX OF PLACES.


353


Perino del Vaga, 145-148, 150, note 2; 230, note; 232, note 9 Peruzzi, 136 Pisanello, 267 Baphael, 118, 137, 147, 155,

note § Eomano, Giulio, 144, note Sebastiano del Piombo, 44,

note 6 Signorelli, 93 Sodoma, 136, 158, note 3 Verrocchio, 89 Pabma — Gallery : Cima, 277' Correggio, 224 Pausola (March of Ancona) :

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Pavia — S. Marino : Gianpietrino, 162 alaino (?), 162 Ga}lery :

Cesare da Sesto (?), 168,

note 5 Correggio, 22 Francia (?), 22 Certosa : Solario, 175 Penna di S. Maetino :

Crivelli, 276 Perugia — Cathedral : Signorelli, 92 Gallery :

Alfani, Domenico, 139 S. Severo : Baphael, 82 Pesaeo :

Bellini, Giovanni, 260, note 4 Petersburg (St.) — Hermitage : Anguissola, Sofonisba, 198 Cesare da Sesto, 167 Conti, B. de\ 193 Gianpietrino, 162 Leonardo (?), 167, 193 Luini (?), 162 M. Delaroff's Collection : Calisto da Lodi, 287, note 7 Piacenza — S. Maria di Campagna :

Pordenone, 304 Pistoia — S. Domenico : Paolino, Fra, 123 S. Paolo :

Paolino, Fra, 123 Hospital :

Credi, Lorenzo di, 123, note 8 Paolino, Fra, 123, note 8


Pordenone :

Pordenone, 302

Prato :

Fra Filippo, 80 Filippino, 116


Eavenna — S. Croce : Bondinelli, 265 Be can ati :

Lotto, 237, 301 Bichmond — Sir F. Cook's Collection r Bacchiacca, 109 Bartolommeo, Veneto, 295,

note 2 Cesare da Sesto, 167 Fra Filippo, 79, note 5 Gianpietrino, 162 Giorgione (?), 295, note 2 Leonardo (?), 162 Bimini :

Bellini, Giovanni, 259, 260, note 4 Bohe — S. Maria dell' Anima : Eomano, Giulio, 145, note S. Maria delta Pace :

Peruzzi, 135, 136 S. Maria sopra Minerva : Filippino, 115 Garbo, Baffaellino del, 115 S. Onofrio : Boltraffio, 163 Peruzzi, 135 S. Pietro in Montorio :

Sebastiano del Piombo, 44, note 6 Albani Villa : Gianpietrino, 161 Salaino (?), 161 Baron Giovanni Barracco Cosimo, Pier di, 120 Bondinelli, 265 Barberini Palace Gallery : Botticelli (?), 83 Guercino (?), 308 Guido (?), 308 Palma Vecchio (?), 295 Peruzzi (?), 130 Pietro della Vecchia, 295 Pontormo, 130 Eomano, Giulio, 55, 143,.

note 6 Sodoma (?), 156 Titian (?), 295, 309 Private Apartments :

Justus of Ghent, 251, note


354


INDEX OF PLACES.


Borghese Villa : Albani, 229 Albertinelli, 122 Alfani (?), 96

Anguissola, Lucia, 197, 199 Antonello da Messina, 245 Bacchiacca, 101, 104, 108, 109 Bagnacavallo, 243 Bartolommeo, Fra (?), 122 Bassano, 238, 240 Bellini, Giovanni (?), 240 Bissolo, 240 Bonifazio, 241 Botticelli, 82 Bronzino, 130, 131-134 Bugiardini, 97 Caravaggio, 229 Cariani, 243 Codde, P., 247 Conti, B. de' (?), 177 Correggio, 222, 226-228 Cosinio, Pier di, 118, 121 Cranach, Lucas, 246 Credi, Lorenzo di, 88, 89 Crivelli (?), 114 Cuylenborch, 248 Domenichino, 228, 229 Dosso, Battista, 216, note 7 ; 219 Dosso Dossi, 215, 216 Feti, D., 235 Filippino (?), 115 Francia, 194, 195 Franciabigio, 96, 98 Franken, F., 246 Garofalo, 204, 205, 207, 211, 213 Ghirlandaio, E. (?), 117 Gianpietrino, 159 Giorgione, 248, 249 Granacci, 118 Leonardo (?), 88, note 7 Leonardo (School of), 168, 169 Licinio, 243, 244 Lotto, 235, 236, 237 Luini (?), 169 Lunders, 247 Mazzolino, 219 Moroni (?), 234 Oggionno, Marco d\ 164 Palrna Vecchio, 240-242 Perino del Vaga, 140, 999 Peruzzi, 135 Pintoricchio, 114 Pontormo, 128-130 Puligo, 128

Raphael, 128-180, 137, 138,

  • 29


Barto, A. del (?), 127

Savoldo, 245

Scarsellino, 220

Sodoma, 151, 152-154, 156

Solario, 169-171

Spagna (?), 114

Titian, 235, 238, 239

Titian (School of), 241

Tommaso, 90

Van Dyck (?), 248

Venetian School (?), 242

Veronese, Paolo (?), 235. 238. 240

Zelotti, 238 Capitol :

Aspertini, Amico, 263

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 207. 263, 264

Credi, Lorenzo di, 90

Dosso Dossi, 217

Ferrari, Gaudenzio (?), 179

Francia, 195

Garofalo, 180, 207, 263

Giorgione (?), 217, 300

Lotto, 300

Palma Vecchio, 295

Peruzzi, 135

Savoldo, 246

Titian, 289, 290, note 9, 309 Chigi Palace :

Bonifazio, 293

Botticelli, 83

Dosso Dossi, 217

Peruzzi, 135, 136, note 3

Sodoma, 136, note 3 ; 156

Titian, 309 Colonna, Palazzo arjli Ajwstoli :

Bagnacavallo, 204, note 9

Bonifazio, 292

Bordone, Paris, 290

Botticelli (?), 83

Bugiardini, 97

Flemish, 83, note 1 ; 91

Ghirlandaio (School of), 96, note 6

Lotto, 299

Luini, 169

Melozzo da Forli (?), 8:?, note 1

Moretto (?), 285

Moroni, 305

Palma Vecchio, 242, 294

Puligo, 128

Tintoretto, 289

Titian (?), 293

Veronese, Paul, 253


INDEX OF PLACES.


355


Gorsini Palace :

Bartolommeo, Fra, 126

Bugiardini, 97

Francia, 196

Luini (?), 169

Marconi, Bocco, 310

Michael Angelo (Drawing), 97, note 8

Pontormo (Drawings), 130

Sarto, A. del (?), 97

Titian (?), 310 Doria Palace :

Bartolo di Maestro Fredi, 255

Basaiti, 207, 278, 280, 28 1

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 263, 264

Boccaccino (?), 278

Bonifazio, 292

Bordone, Paris, 289, 290

Bronzino, 131

Caracci (?), 298

Cima (?), 277

Correggio (?), 312

Cortona, P. da, 252

Costa (?), 208

Dosso, B., 219, 252

Dosso Dossi, 216, 217, 303

Flemish, 311

Fra Filippo, 253

Francia (?), 195

Garofalo, 206-208, 211, 213, 281

Giorgione (?), 292

Holbein (?), 289

Innocenzo da Imola (?), 156, note 1 ; 286

Leonardo (?), 311

Liberale da Verona, 272

Livens, Jan, 308

Lodi (?), 156, note 1 ; 286

Lotto, 297, 298

Mantegna (?), 271, 272

Moroni, 305

Ortolano (?), 206, 213

Perugino (?), 280, 281

Pesellino, 255

Pisanello (?), 255

Pordenone, 303

Poussin, 252

Kaphael, 78, note ; 316-323

Bomanino, 283

Bondinelli, 263, 264

Sarto, A. del (?), 27, 127, note 6

Scarsellino, 252

Scipione da Gaeta. 289

Sebastiano del Piombo, 78, note


Tintoretto (?), 289

Titian, 290, 305, 307-309

Velasquez, 252 Famese Palace :

Caracci, 228 Farnesina :

Peruzzi, 136

Baphael, 79, 144, note

Sebastiano del Piombo, 41

Sodoma, 148, 152, 154, 156, 231 Guerrini-Aniinori Collection :

Albertinelli, 122 Collection of Miss Hertz :

Bomano, Giulio, [25, 26] Lateran Gallery :

Cola dell' Amatrice, 92

Crivelli, 275

Fra Filippo, 80

Signorelli (?), 92

Vivarini, Antonio, 274 Lante, Villa :

Baphael (School of), 229 Ludovisi, Casino :

Guercino, 229 Quirinal :

Lotto, 300 Eosjngliosi, Casino :

Gianpietrino (Copy after), 161

Lotto, 299

Beni, Guido, 228, 299

Signorelli, 92 Sciarra-Colonna Gallery :

Albertinelli, 123

Bartolommeo, Fra (?), 123

Beccaruzzi, 244

Caliari, Carletto (?), 244

Ferrari, Gaudenzio (?), 179

Feti, 235

Filippino, 81

Giorgione (?), 244

Licinio, 244

Luini, 169

Palma Vecchio, 293, 294

Baphael (?), 40

Sebastiano del Piombo, 40

Titian (?), 293 Spada Palace :

Lotto (Copy after), 300

Sodoma, 156 Torlonia Museum :

Bellini, Giovanni, 266

Correggio (Copy after), 228, note 1

Fra Filippo (Copy after), 80, note 7


356


INDEX OF PLACES.


Vatican Gallery :

Buonconsigli, 272

Cesare da Sesto ('?), 165

Correggio (?), 228

Crivelli, 275

Leonardo, 177, 179, 183, note 7

Mantegna (?), 272

Moretto, 285

Raphael, 139, 167

Titian, 309 Loggie :

Giovanni da Udine, 142

Perino del Vaga, 142 Stanze :

Bramantino, 152

Perino del Vaga, 142, 143

Peruzzi, 152, note 3

Kaphael, 143, note 6 ; 152, 209

Romano, Giulio, 145, note

Sodoma, 152, 154, note 7 Private Apartments :

Pordenone, 303 Sistine Chapel :

Botticelli, 83

Diamante, Fra (?), 31

Michael Angelo, 44

Perugino, 31

Signorelli, 92 Bovigo — Public Gallery :

Belli, Marco, 2(33, note

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Dosso Dossi, 217

Palma Vecchio, 296 Sanfiore (near Conegliano) :

Unknown Master, 278


Saronno :

Luini, 170 Siena — S. Bernardino :

Sodoma, 157 <S. Domenico :

Sodoma, 157, 158 Duomo, Opera del :

Genga, 95 Libreria :

Pintoricchio, 138 S. Spirito :

Paolino, Fra, 123

Sodoma, 157 Public Gallery :

Anguissola, 197

Albertinelli, 125

Flemish, 171, note 8

Genga, 95


VAPRIO

Pacchia, G. del (?), 95

Sodoma, 151, 153, 157 Palazzo Pubblico :

Sodoma, 157 Spoleto :

Fra Filippo, 80 Sussignana :

Pordenone, 302


Trescorre :

Lotto, 301 Treviso :

Bordone, Paris, 291

Pordenone, 304 Turin — Academy :

Brescianino, 127, note

Fra Filippo, 80

Gianpietrino (?), 161, note 7 Public Gallery :

Appiani, 165

Bellini, Giovanni, 260

Botticelli (?), 86, 87

Brescianino, 95, note 4

Bugiardini, 97

Credi, Lorenzo di, 91

Flemish, 171, note 8

Franciabigio, 96, 98

Gianpietrino, 161, note 8

Macrino d'Alba, 173, note 3

Mantegna, 274

Oggionno, Marco d' (?), 165

Perugia (School of), 28

Savoldo, 246

Sodoma, 157, 159, note 5

Viti, Timoteo (?), 28 Library (Drawings) :

Cesare da Sesto, 168, note 5

Leonardo, 177

Predis, Christophorus de, 188, note 6

Sodoma, 158, note 3 Collection of Countess d'Atir- grogna :

Conti, B. de', 192, 193

Urbino :

Signorelli, 92

Valencia :

Napoletano, F., 160, note 6

Paolo d'Arezzo, 160, note 6 Vaprio :

Leonardo (?), 157, 159, 190, note

Sodoma, 157


INDEX OF PLACES.


357


Vaeese — Madonna del Monte :

Predis, Christophorus de, 189, note Venice — S. Bartolommeo di Rialto :

Sebastiano del Piombo, 42 Carmine :

Cima, 277 S. Francesco delta Vigna :

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 S. Giacomo cletV Orio :

Buonconsigli, 272 S. Giobbe :

Savoldo, 246, note 7 S. Giovanni in Bragora :

Cima, 277 S. Giovanni Crisostomo :

Bellini, Giovanni, 262, 268

Sebastiano del Piombo, 42 S. Giovanni Elemosinario :

Pordenone, 302 S. Giuliano :

Boccaccino, 279 S. Maria Formosa :

Palma Vecchio, 297 S. Maria dei Frari :

Basaiti, 281

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Vivarini, Alvise, 281 S. Maria deW Orto :

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Cima, 277 S. Pantaleone :

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 S. Pietro in Castello :

Basaiti, 282 S. Bocco :

Pordenone, 302 S. Maria delta Salute :

Basaiti, 282 Scalzi :

Pietro da Messina, 277 S. Spirito :

Buonconsigli, 272 S. Stefano :

Boccaccino, 279

Pordenone, 304 S. Zaccaria :

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Academy :

Basaiti, 282

Bellini, Gentile, 266

Bellini, Giovanni, 262

Bellini, Jacopo, 267, note 1

Boccaccino, 279


VERONA

Bonifazio, 293

Bordone, Paris, 291

Buonconsigli, 272

Cima, 278

Mantegna, 274

Moroni (?), 306, note 5

Palma Vecchio, 297

Pordenone, 302, 304

Vigri, Catarina, 200, note 4

Vivarini, Antonio, 275 Drawings :

Bellini, Giovanni, 271

Cesare da Sesto, 168, note 5

Leonardo, 177, -/S7, note 4

Luini, 170, note 7

Perugino, 106

Pintoricchio, [22]

Pordenone, 305

Predis, A. de, 187, note 4

Raphael [22, 23, note 5], 106

Signorelli (?), [23]

Solario, 176 Correr Museum, or Museo Civico :

Basaiti, 282

Bellini, Giovanni, 262, 269, 271

Boccaccino, 280, note 5

Leonardo (?), 134

Mantegna (?), 271 Ducal Palace :

Bellini, Giovanni (?), 279

Boccaccino, 279 Giovanelli Palace :

Baechiacea, 103, 108

Rondinelli, 265 Sir Henry Layard's Collection :

Bellini, Gentile, 260

Buonconsigli, 272

Garbo, Baffaellino del, 77, note 4

Gianpietrino, 161, note 8

Moretto, 287, note 7

Sebastiano del Piombo, 42, 277 Querini Stampalia Collection :

Palma Vecchio, 297 Seminario :

Albertinelli, 125

Beccafumi, 137, note 5

Crespi (?), 116

Filippino, 116

Peruzzi (?), 137, note 5 Sernagiotto, Signor :

Boccaccino, 279

Leonardo (?), 279 Veeona — S. Anastasia :

Pisano, 267


358


INDEX OF PLACES.


S. Giorgio : Ronianino, 284 Moretto, 284 S. Maria in Organo : Savoldo, 246, note 7 <S. Zeno :

Mantegna, 274 Gallery : Basaiti, 282 Bellini, Giovanni, 261 Bellini, Jacopo, 267, note 1 Crivelli, 276 Mantegna, 274 Zelotti, 238, note 4 Vicenza — S. Corona :

Bellini, 260, note 4 ; 261 S. Stefano .

Palnia Vecchio, 297 Gallery : Cariani, 243 Cima, 277 Vienna — Public Gallery : Albertinelli, 122 Anguissola, Sofonisba, 197 Bissolo, 264 Cesare da Sesto, 167 Lotto, 77, note 4 Moretto, 304 Palma Vecchio, 241 Pietro della Vecchia, 216, note 6 Titian, 308, note 8 Albertina (Drawings) : Leonardo, 115, note 6 ; 178, note 1


Penni, 144, note Perino del Vaga, 145, 146, 147 Bomano, Giulio, 144. note Sodoma, 23, 148, 154, note 7 156, 159, 231, 232 Ambras Collection :

Predis, Ambrogio de, 180 Volterra :

Albertinelli, 126 Raphael, 59 Signorelli, 92


Weimar — Palace (Drawings) :

Bartolommeo, Fra, 125, note 1

Leonardo (?), 155

Leonardo (Imitator of), 183,

note 8 Pier di Cosimo (?), 121, note Sodoma, 155, 230, note 6

Windsor Castle : Franciabigio, 99 Library (Drawings) : Botticelli (?), 250, note 1 Cesare da Sesto, 168, note 5 Leonardo (?), 156, 168, note 5 Masaccio (?), 93 Michael Angelo (?), 229 Perino del Vaga, 146, 149, 232 Raphael (?), 144 note ; 155 Romano, Giulio, 144, note Santi, Giovanni, 250, note 1 Signorelli, 93 Sodoma, 155, 156




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