Islamic state  

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"On 29 June 2014, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and the group formally changed its name to the "Islamic State"." --Sholem Stein

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

An Islamic state is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law (sharia). From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as "Islamic", beginning most notably with the caliphate established by Muhammad himself and including subsequent governments ruled under the direction of a caliph (meaning "successor" to the Islamic prophet Muhammad).

However, the term "Islamic state" has taken on a more specific modern connotation since the 18th century. The concept of the modern Islamic state has been articulated and promoted by ideologues such as Abul A'la Maududi, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Israr Ahmed, and Sayyid Qutb. Like the earlier notion of the caliphate, the modern Islamic state is rooted in Islamic law. It is modeled after the rule of Muhammad. However, unlike caliph-led governments which were imperial despotisms or monarchies (Arabic: malik), a modern Islamic state can incorporate modern political institutions such as elections, parliamentary rule, judicial review, and popular sovereignty.

Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law, wholly or in part, into their legal systems. Certain Muslim states have declared Islam to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law in their courts. Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics.


See also

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Islamic state" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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