Intersectionality  

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"Because the intersectional experience is greater than the sum of racism and sexism, any analysis that does not take intersectionality into account cannot sufficiently address the particular manner in which Black women are subordinated."--"Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex" (1989) by Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw


"To what extent has it become necessary to modify the notion of class struggle, in order to be able to deal with the new political subjects — women, national, racial and sexual minorities, anti-nuclear and anti-institutional movements etc — of a clearly anti-capitalist character, but whose identity is not constructed around specific 'class interests'? "-- "Socialist Strategy: Where Next?" (Marxism Today, January 1981) by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe


"I argue for a focal analysis that defines race and gender, ... I embrace the feminist slogan that gender is the social meaning of sex and extend this by arguing that race is the social meaning of "color." To avoid confusion, I use the terms 'woman' and 'man' to refer to genders and 'male' and 'female' to sexes, 'Black' and 'White' (upper case) to refer to races and 'black' and 'white' (lower case) to refer to “colors."--Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique (2012) by Sally Haslanger

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Intersectionality is a feminist sociological theory first highlighted by Kimberlé Crenshaw in her essay "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex" (1989). Intersectionality is a methodology of studying "the relationships among multiple dimensions and modalities of social relationships and subject formations" (McCall 2005). The theory suggests—and seeks to examine how—various biological, social and cultural categories such as gender, race, class, ability, sexual orientation, and other axes of identity interact on multiple and often simultaneous levels, contributing to systematic social inequality. Intersectionality holds that the classical conceptualizations of oppression within society, such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and religion-based bigotry, do not act independently of one another; instead, these forms of oppression interrelate, creating a system of oppression that reflects the "intersection" of multiple forms of discrimination.

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