Il re pastore  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Il re pastore (The Shepherd King) is an opera, K. 208, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Metastasio, edited by Gianbattista Varesco. It is an opera seria. The opera was first performed on April 23 1775 in Salzburg, at the Palace of the Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo.

In 1775 the opera was commissioned for a visit by the Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa, to Salzburg. Mozart spent six weeks working on the opera. It consists of two acts and runs for approximately 107 minutes.

Metastasio wrote the libretto in 1751, basing it on a work by Torquato Tasso called Aminta. The libretto was picked up when Mozart (just 19 at the time) and his father saw a performance of it set to music composed by Felice Giardini — Mozart's version, however was two acts rather than Giardini's three, and has a few substantial changes. Each act lasts for around an hour in performance. The Salzburg court chaplain Varesco was largely responsibly for this editing of Metastasio's libretto.

It is often referred to not as an opera, but as a serenata, a type of dramatic cantata. The appearance of a quartet of lovers (Aminta and Elisa, Agenore and Tamiri) of somewhat dubious fidelity automatically puts a modern audience in mind of Così fan tutte. The principal psychological theme of the opera is, however, the demands of love against the demands of Kingship, as Aminta, the Shepherd-king, tussles with his conscience, and in this Il re pastore is closer in theme to Idomeneo than any other of Mozart's operas. Indeed, Idomeneo was the next completed opera that Mozart wrote after Il re pastore, after his six-year-long break from the stage.



Role Voice type Premiere Cast, April 23, 1775
(Conductor: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart )
Aminta, a shepherd, rightful heir to Sidon soprano (castrato) Tommaso Consoli<ref>{{
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}}</ref> |- |Elisa, Phoenician shepherdess |soprano |Maria Anna Fesemayr |- |Tamiri, daughter of the deposed tyrant, Stratone |soprano |Maria Magdalena Lipp<ref group=R>Maria Magdalena Lipp was married to Michael Haydn. She had also created the role of Barmherzigkeit (Divine Mercy) in Mozart's first musical play, Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebotes to which her husband had contributed the second part (now lost).</ref>/Maria Anna Braunhofer |- |Agenore, Sidonian aristocrat |tenor |Felix Hofstätter |- |Alessandro, King of Macedonia |tenor |Franz Anton Spitzeder |} <references group=R />


The king of Macedonia, Alessandro, has overthrown Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, but aims to find the rightful king.

Act 1

In a meadow. The city of Sidon can be seen from a distance.

Elisa is with her lover Aminta, the shepherd. She assures him that the war between King Alessandro and Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, will not affect their love for each other. Having deposed Stratone, Alessandro searches for the rightful heir to Sidon. He thinks that Aminta is the rightful heir. He comes to Aminta in disguise and offers him to take him to Alessandro. Aminta wants to remain a shepherd. Meantime, Agenore encounters his beloved Tamiri, daughter of Stratone. Tamiri is comforted to learn that Agenore still loves her.

Elisa gets permission from her father to marry Aminta. Agenore tells Aminta that he is the rightful heir to the throne and that his father was driven out by Stratone when he was a baby. Aminta promises to return to Elisa after claming his throne. Aminta loves Elisa but Alessandro suggests that when Aminta is hailed king, royal duties take precedence over love. Alessandro suggests that Tamiri marry Aminta in order to ascend her father's throne. Aminta disagrees.

Act 2

Macedonian Camp.

Elisa is prevented by Agenore from seeing Aminta. He also discourages Aminta from pursuing her. Alessandro tells Aminta to dress like a king so he can be presented to his subjects. He also decides that Tamiri marry Aminta. Aminta is distraught. Agenore is upset. He breaks the news to Elisa. Tamiri does not want to marry Aminta. Agenore, too, is tormented by the planned marriage. Tamiri tells Alessandro that she and Agenore are in love. The women threw themselves in Alessandro's mercy. Elisa begs him to give her back Aminta who declares his love for Elisa ("L'amerò, sarò costante"). Realizing the potential injustice he was about to inflict, Alessandro tells Aminta to marry Elisa and Tamiri to marry Agenore. Aminta is crowned king of Sidon.

Noted arias

  • "Intendo, amico rio" — Aminta in Act 1
  • "Alla selva, al prato" — Elisa in Act 1
  • "Aer tranquillo e di sereni" — Aminta in Act 1
  • "Si spande al sole in faccia" — Alessandro in Act 1
  • "Per me rispondete" — Agenore in Act 1
  • "Di tante sue procelle" — Tamiri in Act 1
  • "Barbaro! oh Dio mi vedi" — Elisa in Act 2
  • "Se vincendo vi rendo felici" — Alessandro in Act 2
  • "L'amerò, sarò costante" — Aminta in Act 2
  • "Se tu di me fai dono" — Tamiri in Act 2
  • "Sol può dir come si trova" — Agenore in Act 2
  • "Voi che fausti ognor donati" — Alessandro in Act 2


Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Il re pastore" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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