History of the Jews in France  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France. There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages. France was a center of Jewish learning in the Middle Ages, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on, including multiple expulsions and returns. During the late 18th century French Revolution, France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population. Antisemitism has persisted despite legal equality, as expressed in the Dreyfus affair of the late 19th century.

During World War II, the Vichy government collaborated with Nazi occupiers to deport numerous French and foreign Jewish refugees to concentration camps. 75% of the Jewish population in France survived the Holocaust.

In the 21st century, France has the largest Jewish population in Europe and the third-largest Jewish population in the world (after Israel and the United States). The Jewish community in France is estimated to be 480,000-500,000 but depends on the adopted definition. French Jewish communities are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Paris, which has the largest population; Marseille, with the second-largest population of 70,000; Lyon, Nice, Strasbourg, and Toulouse.Template:Citation needed

The majority of French Jews in the 21st century are Sephardi and Mizrahi, many of whom (or their parents) emigrated since the late 20th century from former French colonies of North Africa and the Mediterranean region after those countries became independent. They migrated to France beginning in the late 20th century. They span a range of religious affiliations, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large segment of Jews who are entirely secular and who commonly marry outside the Jewish community

Approximately 200,000 French Jews live in Israel. Since 2010 or so, more have been making aliyah there because of attacks on Jewish institutions and individuals in France.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "History of the Jews in France" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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