List of time periods
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
The categorization of time into discrete named blocks is called periodization. This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (concerning the various time periods in the origin and evolution of our universe), geological (concerning time periods in the origin and evolution of earth ) and historical (concerning time periods in the origin and evolution of mankind).
Human time periods
These can be divided broadly into prehistorical (before history began to be recorded) and historical periods (when written records began to be kept).
In archaeology and anthropology, human prehistory is subdivided around the three-age system. This list includes the use of the three-age system as well as a number of various designation used in reference to sub-ages within the traditional three.
The Lists of Time Periods going back as far as man can research:
- The Stone Age
- The Copper Age. Note: The Copper Age was not part of the original three-age system.
- The Bronze Age
- The Iron Age
The dates for each age can vary by region. On the geologic time scale, the Holocene epoch starts at the end of the most recent Ice age (around 10000 BC) and continues to the present. The beginning of Mesolithic is usually considered to correspond to the beginning of the Holocene epoch.
- Ancient history
- Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC)
- Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC - 1300 BC)
- Old Kingdom (Egypt, 3000 BC - 2000 BC)
- Middle Kingdom (Egypt, 2000 BC - 1300 BC)
- Shang Dynasty (China 1600 BC - 1046 BC)
- Vedic period (India 1500 BC - 500 BC)
- New Kingdom (Egypt, 1550 BC - 1070 BC)
- Zhou Dynasty (China 1200 BC - 500 BC)
- Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, c. 3300 BC- 31 BC, (However had settlements as far back as 9000BC, see Timeline of Ancient Greece)
- Jomon period (Japan 800 BC-400 BC)
- Ancient Rome (509 BC-AD 476)
- Yayoi period (Japan 400 BC — AD 300)
- Kofun period (Japan 300 - 600)
- Migration period (Europe 200 - 700)
- Coptic period (Egypt 300 - 900)
- Middle Ages (Europe, 4th century - 15th century)
- Early Middle Ages European (AD 500–1000)
- Asuka period, Nara period, Heian period, Kamakura period, Muromachi period, and Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
- Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (China, 420 - 960), Liao Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), Western Xia Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, and Ming Dynasty (China, 220 - 1644)
- Classic and Postclassic eras, Central America (200 - 1519)
- Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta, Hoysala Empire, and Kakatiya Empire (India, 280 – 1323)
- Islamic Golden Age (Islam, 700 - 1300)
- High Middle Ages (Feudalism) European military expansion (1000–1450)
- Srivijaya (Indonesia, 3rd century to 14th century), Tarumanagara (358-723), Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries), Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579), Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045), Kediri (1045–1221), Singhasari (1222–1292), Majapahit (1293–1500)
- Chenla (Cambodia, 630-802) and Khmer Empire (Cambodia, 802–1432)
- Anterior Lý Dynasty and Triệu Việt Vương, Third Chinese domination, Khúc Family, Dương Đình Nghệ, Kiều Công Tiễn, Ngô Dynasty, The 12 Lords Rebellion, Đinh Dynasty, Prior Lê Dynasty, Lý Dynasty, Trần Dynasty, Hồ Dynasty, Fourth Chinese domination (Vietnam, 544 - 1427)
- Early Intermediate, Middle Horizon, Late Intermediate, Late Horizon (Peru, 200 - 1534)
- Late Middle Ages European (1300–1500)
- Early modern period (Europe, 16th century - 18th century)
- Age of Discovery (or Exploration) (Europe, 15th century - 17th century)
- Elizabethan period (United Kingdom, 1558 - 1603)
- The Protestant Reformation (Europe, 16th century)
- Jacobean Era (United Kingdom, 1603-1625)
- The Age of Enlightenment (or Reason) (Europe,18th century)
- Tokugawa shogunate (Japan, 1603 - 1868)
- Mughal Empire (India, 1526 - 1857)
- Ottoman Empire (Islam, 1299–1923)
- Qing dynasty (China, 1644 - 1912)
- Spanish hegemony (Americas, 16th century - 1820s; Europe, 16th and 17th century, Philippines, 1525 - 1898)
- Modern era (Europe, 18th century - 20th century)
- Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)
- Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States, elsewhere 18th and 19th centuries)
- (along with early modern era) Age of European colonialism and imperialism
- Napoleonic Era (1799 - 1815)
- Georgian Era (United Kingdom, 1714 - 1830)
- Victorian era (United Kingdom, 1837 - 1901); British hegemony, much of world, around the same time period.
- Romantic Era (1850 - 1920)
- Gilded Age (United States, late 19th century)
- Edwardian period (United Kingdom, 1901 - 1910)
- Meiji period (Japan, 1868 - 1912)
- Progressive era (United States, from the 1880s to the 1920s)
- Machine Age (1900 - 1945)
- Age of Oil (after 1901)
- World War I (Much of Earth, 1914 - 1918)
- Interwar period (Earth, 1918 - 1939 or 1937)
- World War II (Earth, 1937 or 1939 - 1945)
- Atomic Age (after 1945)
- Post-war era (1946-1962)
- The Sixties (1960-1969)
- Cold War (Soviet Union and United States, and their allies, 1945 - 1989 or 1991)
- Space Age (after 1957)
- Post-Modern (Soviet Union and United States, 1973 - Present)
Various societies in the past have created calendars to record events, such as religious observances and agricultural tasks. A common characteristic of most known calendars is that they measure time in relation to a particular point in history, known as the epoch date. A period between epoch dates is known as a calendar era.
Mythological and astrological time periods
- Greek mythology
- Aztec mythology
Geologic time periods
The geologic time scale covers the extent of the existence of Earth, from about 4600 million years ago to the present day. It is marked by Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points. Geologic time units are (in order of descending specificity) eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages; and the corresponding chronostratigraphic units, which measure "rock-time", are eonothems, erathems, systems, series, and stages.
The second and third timelines are each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks. The Cenozoic is sometimes divided into the Quaternary and Tertiary periods, although their use is no longer official.
Cosmological time periods
13.7 billion years ago: The Big Bang
Because of the scales involved (both very large and very small), cosmological time periods are usually described in seconds. In this table, each row is defined in seconds after the Big Bang, with earliest at the top of the chart.
Formation of Population I stars
Population I stars are also known as metal-rich stars. Our own sun is a Population I star and was formed about 5 billion years ago.
- Exponential timeline shows all history on one page in ten lines.
- Periodization for a discussion of the tendency to try to fit history into non-overlapping periods.
- List of fossil sites with link directory
- List of timelines