Henri de Boulainvilliers  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Henri de Boulainvilliers (October 21, 1658, St. Saire, Normandy - January 23, 1722, Paris) was a French writer and historian, noted for his theories on race.


Educated at the college of Juilly, he served in the army until 1697. He translated into French Spinoza's Ethics and wrote an analysis of his Theologico-Political Treatise, (mis)identifying Spinoza's conatus with the right of conquest and the "right of the strongest" of which he made large use in what has been considered as one of the first "theory of races," although it was very distinct from 19th century "scientific racism". The name is often rendered as de Boulainvilliers though he himself insisted on the autograph Boulainviller. (R.Simon, s.d.)

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