Heinrich Heine  

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Some of the contents and many symbols and metaphors portrayed in On the Genealogy of Morality, together with its tripartite structure, seem to be based on and influenced by Heinrich Heine's On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany.[1]

Related e



Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. He is remembered chiefly for selections of his lyric poetry, many of which were set to music in the form of lieder (art songs) by German composers.


Travel and the Platen affair

The first volume of travel writings was such a success that Campe pressed Heine for another. Reisebilder II appeared in April 1827. It contains the second cycle of North Sea poems, a prose essay on the North Sea as well as a new work, Ideen: Das Buch Le Grand, which contains the following satire on German censorship:

The German Censors  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——
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——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——
——  ——  ——  ——  ——    idiots    ——  ——
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Heine went to England to avoid what he predicted would be controversy over the publication of this work. In London he cashed a cheque from his uncle for £200 (equal to £{{formatnum:Template:Inflation}} today), much to Salomon's chagrin. Heine was unimpressed by the English: he found them commercial and prosaic and still blamed them for the defeat of Napoleon.

On his return to Germany, Cotta, the liberal publisher of Goethe and Schiller, offered Heine a job co-editing a magazine, Politische Annalen, in Munich. Heine did not find work on the newspaper congenial, and instead tried to obtain a professorship at Munich University, with no success. After a few months he took a trip to northern Italy, visiting Lucca, Florence and Venice, but was forced to return when he received news that his father had died. This Italian journey resulted in a series of new works: Die Reise von München nach Genua ("Journey from Munich to Genoa"), Die Bäder von Lucca ("The Baths of Lucca") and Die Stadt Lucca ("The Town of Lucca"). Die Bäder von Lucca embroiled Heine in controversy. The aristocratic poet August von Platen had been annoyed by some epigrams by Immermann which Heine had included in the second volume of Reisebilder. He counter-attacked by writing a play, Die romantische Ödipus, which included anti-Semitic jibes about Heine. Heine was stung and responded by mocking Platen's homosexuality in Die Bäder von Lucca.


A list of Heine's major publications in German. All dates are taken from Jeffrey L. Sammons: Heinrich Heine: A Modern Biography (Princeton University Press, 1979).

  • 1820 (August): Die Romantik ("Romanticism", short critical essay)
  • 1821 (20 December ): Gedichte ("Poems")
  • 1822 (February to July): Briefe aus Berlin ("Letters from Berlin")
  • 1823 (January): Über Polen ("On Poland", prose essay)
  • 1823 (April): Tragödien nebst einem lyrischen Intermezzo ("Tragedies with a Lyrical Intermezzo") includes:
    • Almansor (play, written 1821-1822)
    • William Ratcliff (play, written January 1822)
    • Lyrisches Intermezzo (cycle of poems)
  • 1826 (May): Reisebilder. Erster Teil ("Travel Pictures I"), contains:
    • Die Harzreise ("The Harz Journey", prose travel work)
    • Die Heimkehr ("The Homecoming", poems)
    • Die Nordsee. Erste Abteilung ("North Sea I", cycle of poems)
  • 1827 (April): Reisebilder. Zweiter Teil ("Travel Pictures II"), contains:
    • Die Nordsee. Zweite Abteilung ("The North Sea II", cycle of poems)
    • Die Nordsee. Dritte Abteilung ("The North Sea III", prose essay)
    • Ideen: das Buch le Grand ("Ideas: The Book of Le Grand")
    • Briefe aus Berlin ("Letters from Berlin", a much shortened and revised version of the 1822 work)
  • 1827 (October): Buch der Lieder ("Book of Songs"); collection of poems containing the following sections:
    • Junge Leiden ("Youthful Sorrows")
    • Die Heimkehr ("The Homecoming", originally published 1826)
    • Lyrisches Intermezzo" ("Lyrical Intermezzo", originally published 1823)
    • "Aus der Harzreise" (poems from Die Harzreise, originally published 1826)
    • Die Nordsee ("The North Sea: Cycles I and II", originally published 1826/1827)
  • 1829 (December): Reisebilder. Dritter Teil ("Travel Pictures III"), contains:
    • Die Reise von München nach Genua ("Journey from Munich to Genoa", prose travel work)
    • Die Bäder von Lucca ("The Baths of Lucca", prose travel work)
  • 1831 (January): Nachträge zu den Reisebildern ("Supplements to the Travel Pictures"), the second edition of 1833 was retitled as Reisebilder. Vierter Teil ("Travel Pictures IV"), contains:
    • Die Stadt Lucca ("The Town of Lucca", prose travel work)
    • Englische Fragmente ("English Fragments", travel writings)
  • 1831 (April): Zu "Kahldorf über den Adel" (introduction to the book "Kahldorf on the Nobility", uncensored version not published until 1890)
  • 1833: Französische Zustände ("Conditions in France", collected journalism)
  • 1833 (December): Der Salon. Erster Teil ("The Salon I"), contains:
    • Französische Maler ("French Painters", criticism)
    • Aus den Memoiren des Herren von Schnabelewopski ("From the Memoirs of Herr Schnabelewopski", unfinished novel)
  • 1835 (January): Der Salon. Zweiter Teil ("The Salon II"), contains:
    • Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland ("On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany")
    • Neuer Frühling ("New Spring", cycle of poems)
  • 1835 (November): Die romantische Schule ("The Romantic School", criticism)
  • 1837 (July): Der Salon. Dritter Teil ("The Salon III"), contains:
    • Florentinische Nächte ("Florentine Nights", unfinished novel)
    • Elemantargeister ("Elemental Spirits", essay on folklore)
  • 1837 (July): Über den Denunzianten. Eine Vorrede zum dritten Teil des Salons. ("On the Denouncer. A Preface to Salon III", pamphlet)
  • 1837 (November): Einleitung zum "Don Quixote" ("Introduction to Don Quixote", preface to a new German translation of Don Quixote)
  • 1838 (November): Der Schwabenspiegel ("The Mirror of Swabia", prose work attacking poets of the Swabian School)
  • 1838 (October): Shakespeares Mädchen und Frauen ("Shakespeare's Girls and Women", essays on the female characters Shakespeare's tragedies and histories)
  • 1840 (August): Ludwig Börne. Eine Denkschrift ("Ludwig Börne: A Memorial", long prose work about the writer Ludwig Börne)
  • 1840 (November): Der Salon. Vierter Teil ("The Salon IV"), contains:
    • Der Rabbi von Bacherach ("The Rabbi of Bacharach", unfinished historical novel)
    • Über die französische Bühne ("On the French Stage", prose criticism)
  • 1844 (September): Neue Gedichte ("New Poems"); contains the following sections:
    • Neuer Frühling ("New Spring", originally published in 1834)
    • Verschiedene ("Sundry Women")
    • Romanzen ("Ballads")
    • Zur Ollea ("Olio")
    • Zeitgedichte ("Poems for the Times")
    • it also includes Deutschland: Ein Wintermärchen ("Germany: A Winter's Tale", long poem)
  • 1847 (January): Atta Troll: Ein Sommernachtstraum ("Atta Troll: A Midsummer Night's Dream", long poem, written 1841-46)
  • 1851 (September): Romanzero; collection of poems divided into three books:
    • Erstes Buch: Historien ("First Book: Histories")
    • Zweites Buch: Lamentationen ("Second Book: Lamentations")
    • Drittes Buch: Hebräische Melodien ("Third Book: Hebrew Melodies")
  • 1851 (October): Der Doktor Faust. Tanzpoem ("Doctor Faust. Dance Poem", ballet libretto, written 1846)
  • 1854 (October): Vermischte Schriften ("Miscellaneous Writings") in three volumes, contains:
    • Volume One:
      • Geständnisse ("Confessions", autobiographical work)
      • Die Götter im Exil ("The Gods in Exile", prose essay)
      • Die Göttin Diana ("The Goddess Diana", ballet scenario, written 1846)
      • Ludwig Marcus: Denkworte ("Ludwig Marcus: Recollections", prose essay)
      • Gedichte. 1853 und 1854 ("Poems. 1854 and 1854")
    • Volume Two:
      • Lutezia. Erster Teil ("Lutetia I", collected journalism about France)
    • Volume Three:
      • Lutezia. Zweiter Teil ("Lutetia II", collected journalism about France)

Posthumous publications

  • Memoiren ("Memoirs", first published in 1884 in the magazine Die Gartenlaube)

Editions in English

  • The Complete Poems of Heinrich Heine: A Modern English Version by Hal Draper, Suhrkamp/Insel Publishers Boston, 1982. ISBN 3-518-03048-5

See also

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