H. P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

H. P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life (1991, H. P. Lovecraft : Contre le monde, contre la vie) is a work of literary criticism by French author Michel Houellebecq regarding the works of H. P. Lovecraft. The English-language edition features an introduction by American novelist Stephen King.

In some editions the book also includes two of Lovecraft's best known short stories: "The Call of Cthulhu" and "The Whisperer in Darkness."

The study focuses on Lovecraft's xenophobia and masochism.

In this early published work (which he calls his "first novel"), Houellebecq reports having discovered Lovecraft as a teenager and being struck by how each story was, as he describes, "an open slice of howling fear". He reports a fascination with Lovecraft's anti-modernity, what he supposes is Lovecraft's profound hatred of life and philosophical denial of the real world; Houellebecq notes that his works include "not a single allusion to two of the realities to which we generally ascribe great importance: sex and money." He posits Lovecraft as an American existentialist for whom both life and death are meaningless. He also praises what he sees as Lovecraft's rejection of democracy and progressivism.

Also noted is Houellebecq's exegesis of Lovecraft's racial preoccupations, which he traces to a 24-month period Lovecraft lived in the comparatively racially mixed New York City of the 1920s, where, Houellebecq says, Lovecraft learned to take "racism back to its essential and most profound core: fear." He notes the recurring image in Lovecraft's fiction of a mammoth, hideous city teeming with terrifying beings.

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